Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The requirements of Chapter 12 shall apply unless modified by this chapter.
Where fireproofing is not provided, steel columns shall be protected as follows:
  1. Storage exceeding 15 ft through 20 ft (4.6 m through 6 m) in height — one sidewall sprinkler directed to one side of the column at a 15 ft (4.6 m) level
  2. Storage exceeding 20 ft (6.1 m) in height — two sidewall sprinklers, one at the top of the column and the other at a 15 ft (4.6 m) level, both directed to the side of the column
The flow from a column sprinkler(s) shall be permitted to be omitted from the sprinkler system hydraulic calculations.
The protection specified in 18.2.1(1) and 18.2.1(2) shall not be required where storage in fixed racks is protected by in-rack sprinklers.
The protection specified in 18.2.1 shall not be required where ESFR or CMSA sprinkler systems that are approved for rubber tire storage are installed.
The rate of water supply shall be sufficient to provide the required sprinkler discharge density over the required area of application plus provision for generation of high-expansion foam and in-rack sprinklers where used.
Total water supplies shall be in accordance with the following options:
  1. A minimum of not less than 750 gpm (2835 L/min) for hose streams in addition to that required for automatic sprinklers and foam systems. Water supplies shall be capable of supplying the demand for sprinkler systems and hose streams for not less than 3 hours.
  2. For on-floor storage up to and including 5 ft (1.5 m) in height, hose stream requirements shall be permitted to be 250 gpm (946 L/min) with a water supply duration of not less than 2 hours.
  3. For ESFR and CMSA sprinkler systems approved for rubber tire storage, duration and hose allowance shall be in accordance with Table 18.4(c) and Table 18.4(d).
Sprinkler discharge and area of application shall be in accordance with one of the following:
  1. Table 18.4(a) or Table 18.4(b) for standard spray sprinklers
  2. Table 18.4(c) for CMSA sprinklers
  3. Table 18.4(d) for ESFR sprinklers

Table 18.4(a) Protection Criteria for Rubber Tire Storage Using Control Mode Density/Area Sprinklers

Piling Method Pile Height (ft) Sprinkler Discharge Density
(gpm/ft2 over ft2)
(see Note 1)
Areas of Application (ft2)
(see Note 1)
Ordinary Temperature High Temperature
(see Note 1)
(1) On-floor storage Up to 5 0.19 2000 2000
(a) Pyramid piles, on-side Over 5 to 12 0.30 2500 2500
(b) Other arrangements such that no horizontal channels are formed (see Note 2) Over 12 to 18 0.60 Not allowed 2500
(2) On-floor storage
Tires, on-tread
Up to 5 0.19 2000 2000
Over 5 to 12 0.30 2500 2500
(3) Palletized portable rack storage
On-side or on-tread
Up to 5 0.19 2000 2000
Over 5 to 20 See Table 18.4(b)
Over 20 to 30 0.30 plus high-expansion foam 3000 3000
(4) Palletized portable rack storage, on-side Up to 5 0.19 2000 2000
Over 5 to 20 See Table 18.4(b)
Over 20 to 25 0.60 and Not allowed 5000
  0.90 (see Note 3) or Not allowed 3000
  0.75 with 1-hour fire-resistive rating of roof and ceiling assembly Not allowed 4000
(5) Open portable rack storage, on-side or on-tread Up to 5 0.19 2000 2000
Over 5 to 12 0.60 5000 3000
Over 12 to 20 0.60 and Not allowed 5000
  0.90 (see Note 3) or Not allowed 3000
  0.30 plus high-expansion foam 3000 3000
(6) Open portable rack storage, laced Over 12 to 20 0.60 and Not allowed 5000
  0.90 (see notes 3 and 3) Not allowed 3000
(7) Single-, double-, and multiple-row fixed rack Up to 5 0.19 2000 2000
Over 5 to 20 See Table 18.4(b) or 3000 3000
  0.40 plus one level in-rack sprinklers or    
  0.30 plus high-expansion foam 3000 3000
Over 20 to 30 0.30 plus high-expansion foam Not allowed 3000
(8) Single-, double-, and multiple-row fixed rack storage without pallets or shelves, on-side or on-tread Up to 5 0.19 2000 2000
Over 5 to 12 0.60 5000 3000
  0.40 plus one level in-rack sprinklers 3000 3000
Over 12 to 20 0.60 and Not allowed 5000
  0.90 (see Note 3) or Not allowed 3000
  0.40 plus one level in-rack sprinklers or 3000 3000
  0.30 plus high-expansion foam 3000 3000
Over 20 to 30 0.30 plus high-expansion foam Not allowed 3000
For SI units, 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2; 1 gpm/ft2 = 40.746 mm/min.
Notes:
(1) Sprinkler discharge densities and areas of application are based on a maximum clearance to ceiling of 10 ft (3.1 m) with the maximum height of storage anticipated.
(2) Laced tires on-floor, vertical stacking on-side (typical truck tires), and off-road tires. Laced tires are not stored to a significant height by this method due to the damage inflicted on the tire (i.e., bead).
(3) Water supply shall fulfill both requirements.
(4) Shelf storage of rubber tires shall be protected as solid rack shelving.
(5) This protection scheme is for use with K-16.8 (240) or larger control mode sprinklers only. Maximum clearance to ceiling can be increased to 14 ft (4.25 m) with this scheme.

Table 18.4(b) Control Mode Density/Area Sprinklers System Density (gpm/ft2 over ft2) for Palletized Portable Rack Storage and Fixed Rack Storage of Rubber Tires with Pallets Over 5 ft to 20 ft in Height

Storage Height
(ft)
Sprinkler Temperature
High Temperature Ordinary Temperature
>5 to 10 0.32/2000 0.32/2000
>10 to 12 0.39/2000 0.39/2600
>12 to 14 0.45/2000 0.45/3200
>14 to 16 0.5/2300 0.5/3700
>16 to 18 0.55/2600 0.55/4400
>18 to 20 0.6/3000 0.6/5000

Table 18.4(c) Control Mode Specific Application (CMSA) Protection for Rubber Tires

Piling Method Maximum Storage Height Maximum Ceiling/Roof Height K-Factor Type of System Number of Sprinklers Operating Pressure Hose Stream Allowance Water Supply Duration (hours)
ft m ft m
Rubber tire storage, on-side or on-tread, in palletized portable racks, or open portable racks, or fixed racks without solid shelves 25 7.6 32 9.8 11.2 (160) Wet 15 75 psi (5.2 bar) 500 gpm (1900 L/min) 3
25 7.6 32 9.8 16.8 (240) Wet 15 35 psi (2.4 bar) 500 gpm (1900 L/min) 3

Table 18.4(d) Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers for Protection of Rubber Tires (see Note 1)

Piling Method Pile Height Maximum Building Height Nominal K-factor Orientation Number of Sprinklers Minimum Operating Pressure
(see Note 2)
Duration (hours) Hose Allowance
ft m psi bar gpm L/min
Rubber tire storage, on-side or on-tread, in palletized portable racks, open portable racks, or fixed racks without solid shelves Up to 25 ft (7.6 m) 30 9.1 14.0
(200)
Upright/pendent 12
(see Note 2)
50 3.5 1 250 946
16.8
(240)
Upright/pendent 12
(see Note 2)
35 2.4 1 250 946
22.4
(320)
Pendent 12
(see Note 2)
25 1.7 1 250 946
25.2
(360)
Pendent 12
(see Note 2)
15 1.0 1 250 946
Rubber tire storage, on-side, in palletized portable racks, open portable racks, or fixed racks without solid shelves Up to 25 ft
(7.6 m)
35 10.7 14.0
(200)
Upright/pendent 12
(see Note 2)
75 5.2 1 250 946
16.8
(240)
Pendent 12
(see Note 2)
52 3.6 1 250 946
22.4
(320)
Pendent 12
(see Note 2)
35 2.4 1 250 946
25.2
(360)
Pendent 12
(see Note 2)
25 1.7 1 250 946
On-tread, on-side, and laced tires in open portable steel racks or palletized portable racks Up to 25 ft
(7.6 m)
30 9.1 14.0
(200)
Pendent 20
(see Notes 3 and 4)
75 5.2 3 500 1900
16.8
(240)
Pendent 20
(see Notes 3 and 4)
52 3.6
Rubber tire storage, on-side, in palletized portable racks Up to 25 ft
(7.6 m)
40 12.2   Pendent 12 75 5.2 1 250 946
16.8
(240)
Pendent 12 52 3.6
Rubber tire storage, on-tread, or laced in open portable steel racks Up to 25 ft
(7.6 m)
40 12.2 25.2
(360)
Pendent 12 40 2.8 1 250 946
On-tread, on-side, and laced tires in open portable steel racks or palletized portable racks Up to 30 ft
(9.1 m)
40 12.2 25.2
(360)
Pendent 12 75 5.2 1 250 946
Notes:
(1) Wet systems only.
(2) The shape of the design area shall be in accordance with 14.4.3 and 14.4.4.
(3) Where used in this application, ESFR protection is expected to control rather than to suppress the fire.
(4) The design area shall consist of the most hydraulically demanding area of 20 sprinklers, consisting of five sprinklers on each of four branch lines. The design shall include a minimum operating area of 1600 ft2 (149 m2).
In-rack sprinklers, where provided, shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 17, except as modified by 18.5.2 through 18.5.4.
The maximum horizontal spacing of sprinklers in racks shall be 8 ft (2.4 m).
Water demand for sprinklers installed in racks shall be based on simultaneous operation of the most hydraulically remote 12 sprinklers where only one level is installed in racks.
Sprinklers in racks shall discharge at not less than 30 psi (2.1 bar).
Where high-expansion foam systems are installed in accordance with NFPA 11, a reduction in sprinkler discharge density to one-half the density specified in Table 18.4(a) or 0.24 gpm/ft2 (9.78 mm/min), whichever is higher, shall be permitted.
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