ADOPTS WITHOUT AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2021 (IRC 2021)

Part I Administrative

Part II Definitions

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

User note:

About this chapter: Chapter 6 contains prescriptive provisions for the design and construction of walls. The wall construction covered in Chapter 6 consists of five different types: wood framed, cold-formed steel framed, masonry, concrete and structural insulated panel (SIP). The primary concern of this chapter is the structural integrity of wall construction and transfer of all imposed loads to the supporting structure.

The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of walls and partitions for buildings.
Wall construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads imposed in accordance with Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.
Compressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are greater than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) in thickness in the uncompressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or columns, which are fastened to the floor.
Wood and wood-based products used for load-supporting purposes shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.
Sawn lumber shall be identified by a grade mark of an accredited lumber grading or inspection agency and have design values certified by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.
Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R602.1 shall be permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lumber used in an assembly required elsewhere in this code to have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation "Heat Resistant Adhesive" or "HRA" included in its grade mark.
Glued-laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI A190.1, ANSI 117 and ASTM D3737.
Structural log members shall comply with the provisions of ICC 400.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D5456.
Cross-laminated timber shall be manufactured and identified as required by ANSI/APA PRG 320.
Engineered wood rim boards shall conform to ANSI/APA PRR 410 or shall be evaluated in accordance with ASTM D7672. Structural capacities shall be in accordance with either ANSI/APA PRR 410 or established in accordance with ASTM D7672. Rim boards conforming to ANSI/APA PRR 410 shall be marked in accordance with that standard.
Wood structural panel sheathing shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, CSA O325 or CSA O437. Panels shall be identified for grade, bond classification, and performance category by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1. Particleboard shall be identified by the grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Fiberboard shall conform to ASTM C208. Fiberboard sheathing, where used structurally, shall be identified by an approved agency as conforming to ASTM C208.
Structural insulated panels shall be manufactured and identified in accordance with ANSI/APA PRS 610.1.

Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or stud grade lumber.

Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and nonbearing studs shall be permitted to be utility grade lumber, provided that the studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5).

Exterior walls of wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R602.3(1) and R602.3(2), or in accordance with AWC NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables R602.3(1) through R602.3(4). Wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to framing members and, where placed on the exterior side of an exterior wall, shall be capable of resisting the wind pressures listed in Table R301.2.1(1) adjusted for height and exposure using Table R301.2.1(2) and shall conform to the requirements of Table R602.3(3). Wall sheathing used only for exterior wall covering purposes shall comply with Section R703.

Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Tables R602.7(1) and R602.7(2).


TABLE R602.3(1)

FASTENING SCHEDULE

ITEM

DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS NUMBER AND TYPE OF FASTENERa, b, c SPACING AND LOCATION

 

Roof

1

Blocking between ceiling joists, rafters or trusses to top plate or other framing below 4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Toe nail
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
Blocking between rafters or truss not at the wall top plates, to rafter or truss 2-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or Each end toe nail
2-3" × 0.131" nails
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or End nail
3-3" × 0.131" nails
Flat blocking to truss and web filler

16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or 6" o.c. face nail
(3" × 0.131" nails

2

Ceiling joists to top plate 4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Per joist, toe nail
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails

3

Ceiling joist not attached to parallel rafter, laps over partitions [see Section R802.5.2 and Table R802.5.2(1)] 4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or Face nail
3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails

4

Ceiling joist attached to parallel rafter (heel joint) [see Section R802.5.2 and Table R802.5.2(1)] Table R802.5.2(1) Face nail

5

Collar tie to rafter, face nail 4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or Face nail each rafter
3-10d common (3" × 0.148"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails

6

Rafter or roof truss to plate 3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or 2 toe nails on one side and 1 toe nail on opposite side of each rafter or trussi
3-10d common (3" × 0.148"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails

7

Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters or roof rafter to minimum 2" ridge beam 4-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or Toe nail
3-10d common (3" × 0.148"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or End nail
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails

 

Wall

8

Stud to stud (not at braced wall panels) 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 24" o.c. face nail
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 16" o.c. face nail
3" × 0.131" nails

9

Stud to stud and abutting studs at intersecting wall corners (at braced wall panels) 16d box (31/2" × 0.135");  12" o.c. face nail
3" × 0.131" nails
16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 16" o.c. face nail

10

Built-up header (2" to 2" header with 1/2" spacer) 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 16" o.c. each edge face nail
16d box (31/2" × 0.135") 12" o.c. each edge face nail

11

Continuous header to stud 5-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Toe nail
4-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128")

12

Adjacent full-height stud to end of header 4-16d box (31/2"× 0.135"); or End nail
3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails

13

Top plate to top plate 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 16" o.c. face nail
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 12" o.c. face nail
3" × 0.131" nails

14

Double top plate splice 8-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or Face nail on each side of end joint (minimum 24" lap splice length each side of end joint)
12-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
12-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
12-3" × 0.131" nails

15

Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or blocking (not at braced wall panels) 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 16" o.c. face nail
16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or 12" o.c. face nail
3" × 0.131" nails

Roof

16

Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or blocking (at braced wall panel) 3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
16" o.c. face nail
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails

17

Top or bottom plate to stud 4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Toe nail
3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
4-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or 
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 
4-3" × 0.131" nails
3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or End nail
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 
3-3" × 0.131" nails

18

Top plates, laps at corners and intersections 3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or Face nail

2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or

3-3" × 0.131" nails

19

1" brace to each stud and plate

3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or

Face nail

2-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or

2-(3" x 0.131"): or 

2-10d box (3" × 0.128")

20

1" × 6" sheathing to each bearing

3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or

Face nail

2-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or

2-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 

2 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long

21

1" × 8" and wider sheathing to each bearing

3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or

Face nail

3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 

3 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long

Wider than 1" × 8"

4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or

3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or 

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 

4 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long

Floor

22

Joist to sill, top plate or girder

4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or

Toe nail

3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 

3-3" × 0.131" nails

23

Rim joist, band joist or blocking to sill or top plate (roof applications also) 8d box (21/2" × 0.113") 4" o.c. toe nail

8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or

6" o.c. toe nail

10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3" × 0.131" nails

24

1" × 6" subfloor or less to each joist

3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or

Face nail

2-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 

2 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long

25

2" subfloor to joist or girder 3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or Blind and face nail

2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162")

26

2" planks (plank & beam—floor & roof) 3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or At each bearing, face nail
2-1 6d common (3" × 0.162")

27

Band or rim joist to joist 3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or End nail

4-10 box (3" × 0.128"); or

4-3" × 0.131" nails; or 

4-3" × 14 ga. staples, 7/16" crown

28

Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber layers 20d common (4" × 0.192"); or Nail each layer as follows: 32" o.c. at top and bottom and staggered.
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 24" o.c. face nail at top and bottom staggered on opposite sides
 3" × 0.131" nails
And: Face nail at ends and at each splice

2-20d common (4" × 0.192"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 

3-3" × 0.131" nails

29

Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters 4-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or At each joist or rafter, face nail

3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or

4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 

4-3" × 0.131" nails

30

Bridging or blocking to joist, rafter or truss

2-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

Each end, toe nail

2-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or

2-3" × 0.131" nails

ITEM

DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS NUMBER AND TYPE OF FASTENERa, b, c SPACING OF FASTENERS
Edgesh (inches) Intermediate
supportsc, e
(inches)
Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and
particleboard wall sheathing to framing [see Table R602.3(3) for wood structural panel
exterior wall sheathing to wall framing]

31

3/8" — 1/2" 6d common or deformed 6 6f
 (2" × 0.113" × 0.266" head); or
23/8" × 0.113" × 0.266" head nail
(subfloor, wall)i
8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail (roof); or 6 6f

RSRS-01 (23/8" × 0.113") nail (roof)b

32

19/32" — 3/4"

8d common (2-21/2" × 0.131") nail
(subfloor, wall)

6 12
8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail (roof); or 6 6f
RSRS-01; (23/8" × 0.113") nail (roof)b    
Deformed 23/8" × 0.113" × 0.266" head
(wall or subfloor)
6 12

33

7/8" — 11/4" 10d common (3" × 0.148") nail; or

6

12

(21/2" × 0.131 × 0.281" head) deformed nail

Other wall sheathingg

34

1/2" structural cellulosic fiberboard sheathing 11/2" × 0.120" galvanized roofing nail, 3 6
7/16" head diameter, or

11/4" long 16 ga. staple with 7/16" or 1" crown

35

25/32" structural cellulosic fiberboard sheathing 13/4" × 0.120" galvanized roofing nail, 3 6
7/16" head diameter, or

11/4" long 16 ga. staple with 7/16" or 1" crown

36

1/2" gypsum sheathingd 11/2" × 0.120" galvanized roofing nail, 7 7

7/16" head diameter, or 11/4" long 16 ga.;

staple galvanized, 11/2" long; 7/16" or

 1" crown or 11/4" screws, Type W or S

37

5/8" gypsum sheathingd 13/4" × 0.120" galvanized roofing nail, 7 7

7/16" head diameter, or 11/4" long 16 ga.;

staple galvanized, 11/2" long; 7/16" or

1" crown or 11/4" screws, Type W or S

Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing

38

3/4" and less Deformed (2" × 0.113") or 6 12

Deformed (2" × 0.120") nail; or

8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail

39

7/8" — 1" 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail; or 6 12

Deformed (21/2" × 0.131"); or

Deformed (21/2" × 0.120") nail

40

11/8" — 11/4" 10d common (3" × 0.148" ) nail; or 6 12

Deformed (21/2" × 0.131"); or

Deformed (21/2" × 0.120") nail

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections are carbon steel and shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0.192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch but not larger than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less. Connections using nails and staples of other materials, such as stainless steel, shall be designed by accepted engineering practice or approved under Section R104.11.
  2. RSRS-01 is a Roof Sheathing Ring Shank nail meeting the specifications in ASTM F1667.
  3. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater.
  4. Four-foot by 8-foot or 4-foot by 9-foot panels shall be applied vertically.
  5. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2).
  6. For wood structural panel roof sheathing attached to gable end roof framing and to intermediate supports within 48 inches of roof edges and ridges, nails shall be spaced at 4 inches on center where the ultimate design wind speed is greater than 130 mph in Exposure B or greater than 110 mph in Exposure C.
  7. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C1396 and shall be installed in accordance with ASTM C1280 or GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C208.
  8. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at floor perimeters only. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheathing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported by framing members or solid blocking.
  9. Where a rafter is fastened to an adjacent parallel ceiling joist in accordance with this schedule, provide two toe nails on one side of the rafter and toe nails from the ceiling joist to top plate in accordance with this schedule. The toe nail on the opposite side of the rafter shall not be required.

TABLE R602.3(2)

ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS TO TABLE R602.3(1)
NOMINAL
MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Intermediate
supports
(inches)
Wood structural panels subfloor, roofg and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framingf
Up to 1/2 Staple 15 ga. 13/4 4 8
0.097—0.099 Nail 21/4 3 6
Staple 16 ga. 13/4 3 6
19/32 and 5/8 0.113 Nail 2 3 6
Staple 15 and 16 ga. 2 4 8
0.097—0.099 Nail 21/4 4 8
23/32 and 3/4 Staple 14 ga. 2 4 8
Staple 15 ga. 13/4 3 6
0.097—0.099 Nail 21/4 4 8
Staple 16 ga. 2 4 8
1 Staple 14 ga. 21/4 4 8
0.113 Nail 21/4 3 6
Staple 15 ga. 21/4 4 8
0.097—0.099 Nail 21/2 4 8
NOMINAL
MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Body of paneld
(inches)
Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboardf-fiber-cementh
Fiber-cement
1/4 11/4 long × 0.099" corrosion-resistant, ring shank nails
(finished flooring other than tile)
3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 1/4 crown (finished flooring other than tile) 3 6
11/4 long × .121 shank × .375 head diameter corrosion-resistant
(galvanized or stainless steel) roofing nails (for tile finish)
8 8
11/4 long, No. 8 × .375 head diameter, ribbed wafer-head screws (for tile finish) 8 8
Plywood
1/4 and 5/16 11/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum 121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter 3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8, 3/16 crown width 2 5
11/32, 3/8, 15/32 and 1/2 11/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum 121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter 6 8e
19/32, 5/8, 23/32 and 3/4 11/2 ring or screw shank nail-minimum 121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter 6 8
Staple 16 ga. 11/2 6 8
Hardboardf
0.200 11/2 long × 0.080" ring-grooved shank underlayment nail 6 6
13/8 long × 0.080" polymer cement-coated sinker nail 6 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long (plastic coated) 3 6
Particleboard
1/4 11/2 long × 0.099" ring-grooved shank underlayment nail 3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 3/16 crown 3 6
3/8 2 long × 0.120" ring-grooved shank underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 11/8 long, 3/8 crown 3 6
1/2, 5/8 2 long × 0.120" ring-grooved shank underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 15/8 long, 3/8 crown 3 6

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Nail is a general description and shall be permitted to be T-head, modified round head or round head.
  2. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16-inch except as noted.
  3. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors.
  4. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel.
  5. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way.
  6. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to CPA/ANSI A135.4.
  7. Alternate fastening is only permitted for roof sheathing where the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 110 mph, and where fasteners are installed 3 inches on center at all supports.
  8. Fiber-cement underlayment shall conform to ASTM C1288 or ISO 8336, Category C.

TABLE R602.3(3)

REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa, b, c
MINIMUM NAIL MINIMUM WOOD
STRUCTURAL
PANEL SPAN
RATING
MINIMUM
NOMINAL PANEL
THICKNESS
(inches)
MAXIMUM
WALL STUD
SPACING
(inches)
PANEL NAIL SPACING ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED Vult
(mph)
Size Penetration
(inches)
Edges
(inches o.c.)
Field
(inches o.c.)
Wind exposure category
B C D

6d Common
(2.0" × 0.113")

1.5 24/0 3/8 16 6 12 140 115 110

8d Common
(2.5" × 0.131")

1.75 24/16 7/16 16 6 12 170 140 135
24 6 12 140 115 110

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

  1. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.
  2. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces in accordance with Section R301.2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.
  3. Wood structural panels with span ratings of Wall-16 or Wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 o.c. or 24 o.c. shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and Plywood siding 16 o.c. shall be used with studs spaced not more than 16 inches on center.

TABLE R602.3(4)

ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHINGa
THICKNESS (inch) GRADE STUD SPACING (inches)
Where siding is nailed to studs Where siding is nailed to sheathing
3/8 M-1 Exterior glue 16
1/2 M-2 Exterior glue 16 16

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the end joints of the panel shall be offset so that four panel corners will not meet. Panel edges must be supported. Leave a 1/16-inch gap between panels and nail not less than 3/8 inch from panel edges.

TABLE R602.3(5)

SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDSa
STUD SIZE (inches) BEARING WALLS NONBEARING WALLS
Laterally unsupported stud heighta (feet) Maximum spacing where supporting a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly, only (inches) Maximum spacing where supporting one floor, plus a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly (inches) Maximum spacing where supporting two floors, plus a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly (inches) Maximum spacing where supporting one floor heighta (inches) Laterally unsupported stud heighta (feet) Maximum spacing (inches)
       
2 × 3b 10 16
2 × 4 10 24c 16c 24 14 24
3 × 4 10 24 24 16 24 14 24
2 × 5 10 24 24 24 16 24
2 × 6 10 24 24 16 24 20 24

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Bearing walls shall be sheathed on not less than one side or bridging shall be installed not greater than 4 feet apart measured vertically from either end of the stud. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where in compliance with Exception 2 of Section R602.3.1 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
  2. Shall not be used in exterior walls.
  3. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2 × 4 studs is limited to a roof span of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased to 2 × 6 or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

TABLE R602.3(6)

ALTERNATE WOOD BEARING WALL STUD SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING
STUD HEIGHT SUPPORTING STUD SPACINGa ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED
115 mph 130 mphb 140 mphb
Maximum roof/floor spanc Maximum roof/floor spanc Maximum roof/floor spanc
12 ft 24 ft 12 ft 24 ft 12 ft 24 ft
11 ft Roof only 12 in 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4
16 in 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 4 2 × 6
24 in 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
Roof and one floor 12 in 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 4 2 × 6
16 in 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
24 in 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
12 ft Roof only 12 in 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 4 2 × 6
16 in 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
24 in 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
Roof and one floor 12 in 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
16 in 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
24 in 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 DR

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mph = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound = 4.448 N.
DR = Design Required.

  1. Wall studs not exceeding 16 inches on center shall be sheathed with minimum 1/2-inch gypsum board on the interior and 3/8-inch wood structural panel sheathing on the exterior. Wood structural panel sheathing shall be attached with 8d (2.5" × 0.131") nails not greater than 6 inches on center along panel edges and 12 inches on center at intermediate supports, and all panel joints shall occur over studs or blocking.
  2. Where the ultimate design wind speed exceeds 115 mph, studs shall be attached to top and bottom plates with connectors having a minimum 300-pound lateral capacity.
  3. The maximum span is applicable to both single- and multiple-span roof and floor conditions. The roof assembly shall not contain a habitable attic.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R602.3(1)

TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


FIGURE R602.3(2)

FRAMING DETAILS

The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(5).

Exceptions:

  1. Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls.
  2. Where ground snow loads are less than or equal to 25 pounds per square foot (1.2 kPa), and the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58.1 m/s), 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) studs supporting a roof load with not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) of tributary length shall have a maximum height of 18 feet (5486 mm) where spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center, or 20 feet (6096 mm) where spaced at 12 inches (305 mm) on center. Studs shall be No. 2 grade lumber or better.
  3. Exterior load-bearing studs not exceeding 12 feet (3658 mm) in height provided in accordance with Table R602.3(6). The minimum number of full-height studs adjacent to openings shall be in accordance with Section R602.7.5. The building shall be located in Exposure B, the roof live load shall not exceed 20 psf (0.96 kPa), and the ground snow load shall not exceed 30 psf (1.4 kPa). Studs and plates shall be No. 2 grade lumber or better.

Wood stud walls shall be capped with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top plates shall be offset not less than 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width not less than the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate used as an alternative to a double top plate shall comply with the following:

  1. The single top plate shall be tied at corners, intersecting walls, and at in-line splices in straight wall lines in accordance with Table R602.3.2.
  2. The rafters or joists shall be centered over the studs with a tolerance of not more than 1 inch (25 mm).
  3. Omission of the top plate is permitted over headers where the headers are adequately tied to adjacent wall sections in accordance with Table R602.3.2.

TABLE R602.3.2

SINGLE TOP-PLATE SPLICE CONNECTION DETAILS
CONDITION TOP-PLATE SPLICE LOCATION
Corners and intersecting walls Butt joints in straight walls
Splice plate size Minimum nails each side of joint Splice plate size Minimum nails each side of joint
Structures in SDC A-C; and in SDC D0, D1 and D2 with braced wall line spacing less than 25 feet 3" × 6" × 0.036" galvanized steel plate or equivalent (6) 8d box (21/2" × 0.113") nails 3"× 12" × 0.036" galvanized steel plate or equivalent (12) 8d box (21/2" × 0.113") nails
Structures in SDC D0, D1 and D2, with braced wall line spacing greater than or equal to 25 feet 3" × 8" × 0.036" galvanized steel plate or equivalent (9) 8d box (21/2" × 0.113") nails 3" × 16" × 0.036" galvanized steel plate or equivalent (18) 8dbox (21/2" × 0.113") nails

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Where joists, trusses or rafters are spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath.


Exceptions:

  1. The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 mm) members.
  2. A third top plate is installed.
  3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed to reinforce the double top plate.
Studs shall have full bearing on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width not less than to the width of the studs.

Braced wall panels located at exterior walls that support roof rafters or trusses (including stories below top story) shall have the framing members connected in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Fastening in accordance with Table R602.3(1) where:

    1.1. The ultimate design wind speed does not exceed 115 mph (51 m/s), the wind exposure category is B, the roof pitch is 5:12 or greater, and the roof span is 32 feet (9754 mm) or less.

    1.2. The net uplift value at the top of a wall does not exceed 100 plf (146 N/mm). The net uplift value shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.11 and shall be permitted to be reduced by 60 plf (86 N/mm) for each full wall above.

  2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous load path from the top of the wall to the foundation or to a point where the uplift force is 100 plf (146 N/mm) or less. The net uplift value shall be as determined in Item 1.2.
  3. Wall sheathing and fasteners designed to resist combined uplift and shear forces in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
Interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified for exterior walls.
Interior nonbearing walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 2-inch by 3- inch (51 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, where not part of a braced wall line, 2-inch by 4- inch (51 mm by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with not less than a single top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section R602.8.

Drilling and notching of studs shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. Notching. A stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition shall not be cut or notched to a depth exceeding 25 percent of its depth. Studs in nonbearing partitions shall not be notched to a depth exceeding 40 percent of a single stud depth.
  2. Boring. The diameter of bored holes in studs shall not exceed 60 percent of the stud depth, the edge of the hole shall not be less than 5/8 inch (16 mm) from the edge of the stud, and the hole shall not be located in the same section as a cut or notch. Where the diameter of a bored hole in a stud located in exterior walls or bearing partitions is over 40 percent, such stud shall be doubled and not more than two successive doubled studs shall be so bored. See Figures R602.6(1) and R602.6(2).

    Exception: Where approved, stud shoes are installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Note: Condition for exterior and bearing walls.


FIGURE R602.6(1)

NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R602.6(2)

NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS

Where piping or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or interior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick (1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened across and to the plate at each side of the opening with not less than eight 10d (0.148 inch diameter) nails having a minimum length of 11/2 inches (38 mm) at each side or equivalent. The metal tie must extend not less than 6 inches past the opening. See Figure R602.6.1.

Exception: Where the entire side of the wall with the notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6.1

TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING
For header spans, see Tables R602.7(1), R602.7(2) and R602.7(3).


TABLE R602.7(1)

GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS
(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, Southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number of jack studs)
GIRDERS AND HEADERS SUPPORTING SIZE GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e
30 50 70
Building widthc (feet)
12 24 36 12 24 36 12 24 36
Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd
Roof and ceiling

1-2 × 6 4-0 1 3-1 2 2-7 2 3-5 1 2-8 2 2-3 2 3-0 2 2-4 2 2-0 2
1-2 × 8 5-1 2 3-11 2 3-3 2 4-4 2 3-4 2 2-10 2 3-10 2 3-0 2 2-6 3
1-2 × 10 6-0 2 4-8 2 3-11 2 5-2 2 4-0 2 3-4 3 4-7 2 3-6 3 3-0 3
1-2 × 12 7-1 2 5-5 2 4-7 3 6-1 2 4-8 3 3-11 3 5-5 2 4-2 3 3-6 3
2-2 × 4 4-0 1 3-1 1 2-7 1 3-5 1 2-7 1 2-2 1 3-0 1 2-4 1 2-0 1
2-2 × 6 6-0 1 4-7 1 3-10 1 5-1 1 3-11 1 3-3 2 4-6 1 3-6 2 2-11 2
2-2 × 8 7-7 1 5-9 1 4-10 2 6-5 1 5-0 2 4-2 2 5-9 1 4-5 2 3-9 2
2-2 × 10 9-0 1 6-10 2 5-9 2 7-8 2 5-11 2 4-11 2 6-9 2 5-3 2 4-5 2
2-2 × 12 10-7 2 8-1 2 6-10 2 9-0 2 6-11 2 5-10 2 8-0 2 6-2 2 5-2 3
3-2 × 8 9-5 1 7-3 1 6-1 1 8-1 1 6-3 1 5-3 2 7-2 1 5-6 2 4-8 2
3-2 × 10 11-3 1 8-7 1 7-3 2 9-7 1 7-4 2 6-2 2 8-6 1 6-7 2 5-6 2
3-2 × 12 13-2 1 10-1 2 8-6 2 11-3 2 8-8 2 7-4 2 10-0 2 7-9 2 6-6 2
4-2 × 8 10-11 1 8-4 1 7-0 1 9-4 1 7-2 1 6-0 1 8-3 1 6-4 1 5-4 2
4-2 × 10 12-11 1 9-11 1 8-4 1 11-1 1 8-6 1 7-2 2 9-10 1 7-7 2 6-4 2
4-2 × 12 15-3 1 11-8 1 9-10 2 13-0 1 10-0 2 8-5 2 11-7 1 8-11 2 7-6 2
Roof, ceiling and one center-bearing floor

1-2 × 6 3-3 1 2-7 2 2-2 2 3-0 2 2-4 2 2-0 2 2-9 2 2-2 2 1-10 2
1-2 × 8 4-1 2 3-3 2 2-9 2 3-9 2 3-0 2 2-6 3 3-6 2 2-9 2 2-4 3
1-2 × 10 4-11 2 3-10 2 3-3 3 4-6 2 3-6 3 3-0 3 4-1 2 3-3 3 2-9 3
1-2 × 12 5-9 2 4-6 3 3-10 3 5-3 2 4-2 3 3-6 3 4-10 3 3-10 3 3-3 4
2-2 × 4 3-3 1 2-6 1 2-2 1 3-0 1 2-4 1 2-0 1 2-8 1 2-2 1 1-10 1
2-2 × 6 4-10 1 3-9 1 3-3 2 4-5 1 3-6 2 3-0 2 4-1 1 3-3 2 2-9 2
2-2 × 8 6-1 1 4-10 2 4-1 2 5-7 2 4-5 2 3-9 2 5-2 2 4-1 2 3-6 2
2-2 × 10 7-3 2 5-8 2 4-10 2 6-8 2 5-3 2 4-5 2 6-1 2 4-10 2 4-1 2
2-2 × 12 8-6 2 6-8 2 5-8 2 7-10 2 6-2 2 5-3 3 7-2 2 5-8 2 4-10 3
3-2 × 8 7-8 1 6-0 1 5-1 2 7-0 1 5-6 2 4-8 2 6-5 1 5-1 2 4-4 2
3-2 × 10 9-1 1 7-2 2 6-1 2 8-4 1 6-7 2 5-7 2 7-8 2 6-1 2 5-2 2
3-2 × 12 10-8 2 8-5 2 7-2 2 9-10 2 7-8 2 6-7 2 9-0 2 7-1 2 6-1 2
4-2 × 8 8-10 1 6-11 1 5-11 1 8-1 1 6-4 1 5-5 2 7-5 1 5-11 1 5-0 2
4-2 × 10 10-6 1 8-3 2 7-0 2 9-8 1 7-7 2 6-5 2 8-10 1 7-0 2 6-0 2
4-2 × 12 12-4 1 9-8 2 8-3 2 11-4 2 8-11 2 7-7 2 10-4 2 8-3 2 7-0 2
Roof, ceiling and one clear- span floor

1-2 × 6 2-11 2 2-3 2 1-11 2 2-9 2 2-1 2 1-9 2 2-7 2 2-0 2 1-8 2
1-2 × 8 3-9 2 2-10 2 2-5 3 3-6 2 2-8 2 2-3 3 3-3 2 2-6 3 2 -2 3
1-2 × 10 4-5 2 3-5 3 2-10 3 4-2 2 3-2 3 2-8 3 3-11 2 3-0 3 2-6 3
1-2 × 12 5-2 2 4-0 3 3-4 3 4-10 3 3-9 3 3-2 4 4-7 3 3-6 3 3-0 4
2-2 × 4 2-11 1 2-3 1 1-10 1 2-9 1 2-1 1 1-9 1 2-7 1 2-0 1 1-8 1
2-2 × 6 4-4 1 3-4 2 2-10 2 4-1 1 3-2 2 2-8 2 3-10 1 3-0 2 2-6 2
2-2 × 8 5-6 2 4-3 2 3-7 2 5-2 2 4-0 2 3-4 2 4-10 2 3-9 2 3-2 2
2-2 × 10 6-7 2 5-0 2 4-2 2 6-1 2 4-9 2 4-0 2 5-9 2 4-5 2 3-9 3
2-2 × 12 7-9 2 5-11 2 4-11 3 7-2 2 5-7 2 4-8 3 6-9 2 5-3 3 4-5 3
3-2 × 8 6-11 1 5-3 2 4-5 2 6-5 1 5-0 2 4-2 2 6-1 1 4-8 2 4-0 2
3-2 × 10 8-3 2 6-3 2 5-3 2 7-8 2 5-11 2 5-0 2 7-3 2 5-7 2 4-8 2
3-2 × 12 9-8 2 7-5 2 6-2 2 9-0 2 7-0 2 5-10 2 8-6 2 6-7 2 5-6 3
4-2 × 8 8-0 1 6-1 1 5-1 2 7-5 1 5-9 2 4-10 2 7-0 1 5-5 2 4-7 2
4-2 × 10 9-6 1 7-3 2 6-1 2 8-10 1 6-10 2 5-9 2 8-4 1 6-5 2 5-5 2
4-2 × 12 11-2 2 8-6 2 7-2 2 10-5 2 8-0 2 6-9 2 9-10 2 7-7 2 6-5 2
Roof, ceiling and two center-bearing floors

1-2 × 6 2-8 2 2-1 2 1-10 2 2-7 2 2-0 2 1-9 2 2-5 2 1-11 2 1-8 2
1-2 × 8 3-5 2 2-8 2 2-4 3 3-3 2 2-7 2 2-2 3 3-1 2 2-5 3 2-1 3
1-2 × 10 4-0 2 3-2 3 2-9 3 3-10 2 3-1 3 2-7 3 3-8 2 2-11 3 2-5 3
1-2 × 12 4-9 3 3-9 3 3-2 4 4-6 3 3-7 3 3-1 4 4-3 3 3-5 3 2-11 4
2-2 × 4 2-8 1 2-1 1 1-9 1 2-6 1 2-0 1 1-8 1 2-5 1 1-11 1 1-7 1
2-2 × 6 4-0 1 3-2 2 2-8 2 3-9 1 3-0 2 2-7 2 3-7 1 2-10 2 2-5 2
2-2 × 8 5-0 2 4-0 2 3-5 2 4-10 2 3-10 2 3-3 2 4-7 2 3-7 2 3-1 2
2-2 × 10 6-0 2 4-9 2 4-0 2 5-8 2 4-6 2 3-10 3 5-5 2 4-3 2 3-8 3
2-2 × 12 7-0 2 5-7 2 4-9 3 6-8 2 5-4 3 4-6 3 6-4 2 5-0 3 4-3 3
3-2 × 8 6-4 1 5-0 2 4-3 2 6-0 1 4-9 2 4-1 2 5-8 2 4-6 2 3-10 2
3-2 × 10 7-6 2 5-11 2 5-1 2 7-1 2 5-8 2 4-10 2 6-9 2 5-4 2 4-7 2
3-2 × 12 8-10 2 7-0 2 5-11 2 8-5 2 6-8 2 5-8 3 8-0 2 6-4 2 5-4 3
4-2 × 8 7-3 1 5-9 1 4-11 2 6-11 1 5-6 2 4-8 2 6-7 1 5-2 2 4-5 2
4-2 × 10 8-8 1 6-10 2 5-10 2 8-3 2 6-6 2 5-7 2 7-10 2 6-2 2 5-3 2
4-2 × 12 10-2 2 8-1 2 6-10 2 9-8 2 7-8 2 6-7 2 9-2 2 7-3 2 6-2 2
Roof, ceiling, and two clear- span floors

1-2 × 6 2-3 2 1-9 2 1-5 2 2-3 2 1-9 2 1-5 3 2-2 2 1-8 2 1-5 3
1-2 × 8 2-10 2 2-2 3 1-10 3 2-10 2 2-2 3 1-10 3 2-9 2 2-1 3 1-10 3
1-2 × 10 3-4 2 2-7 3 2-2 3 3-4 3 2-7 3 2-2 4 3-3 3 2-6 3 2-2 4
1-2 × 12 4-0 3 3-0 3 2-7 4 4-0 3 3-0 4 2-7 4 3-10 3 3-0 4 2-6 4
2-2 × 4 2-3 1 1-8 1 1-4 1 2-3 1 1-8 1 1-4 1 2-2 1 1-8 1 1-4 2
2-2 × 6 3-4 1 2-6 2 2-2 2 3-4 2 2-6 2 2-2 2 3-3 2 2-6 2 2-1 2
2-2 × 8 4-3 2 3-3 2 2-8 2 4-3 2 3-3 2 2-8 2 4-1 2 3-2 2 2-8 3
2-2 × 10 5-0 2 3-10 2 3-2 3 5-0 2 3-10 2 3-2 3 4-10 2 3-9 3 3-2 3
2-2 × 12 5-11 2 4-6 3 3-9 3 5-11 2 4-6 3 3-9 3 5-8 2 4-5 3 3-9 3
3-2 × 8 5-3 1 4-0 2 3-5 2 5-3 2 4-0 2 3-5 2 5-1 2 3-11 2 3-4 2
3-2 × 10 6-3 2 4-9 2 4-0 2 6-3 2 4-9 2 4-0 2 6-1 2 4-8 2 4-0 3
3-2 × 12 7-5 2 5-8 2 4-9 3 7-5 2 5-8 2 4-9 3 7-2 2 5-6 3 4-8 3
4-2 × 8 6-1 1 4-8 2 3-11 2 6-1 1 4-8 2 3-11 2 5-11 1 4-7 2 3-10 2
4-2 × 10 7-3 2 5-6 2 4-8 2 7-3 2 5-6 2 4-8 2 7-0 2 5-5 2 4-7 2
4-2 × 12 8-6 2 6-6 2 5-6 2 8-6 2 6-6 2 5-6 2 8-3 2 6-4 2 5-4 3

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Spans are based on minimum design properties for No. 2 grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, Southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
  5. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
  6. Spans are calculated assuming the top of the header or girder is laterally braced by perpendicular framing. Where the top of the header or girder is not laterally braced (for example, cripple studs bearing on the header), tabulated spans for headers consisting of 2 × 8, 2 × 10, or 2 × 12 sizes shall be multiplied by 0.70 or the header or girder shall be designed.

TABLE R602.7(2)

GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS
(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number of jack studs)
HEADERS AND GIRDERS SUPPORTING SIZE BUILDING Widthc (feet)
12 24 36
Spane NJd Spane NJd Spane NJd

One floor only

2-2 × 4 4-1 1 2-10 1 2-4 1
2-2 × 6 6-1 1 4-4 1 3-6 1
2-2 × 8 7-9 1 5-5 1 4-5 2
2-2 × 10 9-2 1 6-6 2 5-3 2
2-2 × 12 10-9 1 7-7 2 6-3 2
3-2 × 8 9-8 1 6-10 1 5-7 1
3-2 × 10 11-5 1 8-1 1 6-7 2
3-2 × 12 13-6 1 9-6 2 7-9 2
4-2 × 8 11-2 1 7-11 1 6-5 1
4-2 × 10 13-3 1 9-4 1 7-8 1
4-2 × 12 15-7 1 11-0 1 9-0 2

Two floors

2-2 × 4 2-7 1 1-11 1 1-7 1
2-2 × 6 3-11 1 2-11 2 2-5 2
2-2 × 8 5-0 1 3-8 2 3-1 2
2-2 × 10 5-11 2 4-4 2 3-7 2
2-2 × 12 6-11 2 5-2 2 4-3 3
3-2 × 8 6-3 1 4-7 2 3-10 2
3-2 × 10 7-5 1 5-6 2 4-6 2
3-2 × 12 8-8 2 6-5 2 5-4 2
4-2 × 8 7-2 1 5-4 1 4-5 2
4-2 × 10 8-6 1 6-4 2 5-3 2
4-2 × 12 10-1 1 7-5 2 6-2 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Spans are based on minimum design properties for No. 2 grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, Southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
  5. Spans are calculated assuming the top of the header or girder is laterally braced by perpendicular framing. Where the top of the header or girder is not laterally braced (for example, cripple studs bearing on the header), tabulated spans for headers consisting of 2 × 8, 2 × 10, or 2 × 12 sizes shall be multiplied by 0.70 or the header or girder shall be designed.

TABLE R602.7(3)

GIRDER AND HEADER SPANSa FOR OPEN PORCHES
(Maximum span for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, Southern pine and spruce-pine-firb)
SIZE SUPPORTING ROOF SUPPORTING FLOOR
Ground Snow Load (psf)
30 50 70
Depth of Porchc (feet)
8 14 8 14 8 14 8 14
2-2 × 6 7-6 5-8 6-2 4-8 5-4 4-0 6-4 4-9
2-2 × 8 10-1 7-7 8-3 6-2 7-1 5-4 8-5 6-4
2-2 × 10 12-4 9-4 10-1 7-7 8-9 6-7 10-4 7-9
2-2 × 12 14-4 10-10 11-8 8-10 10-1 7-8 11-11 9-0

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Tabulated values assume No. 2 grade lumber, wet service and incising for refractory species. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
  3. Porch depth is measured horizontally from building face to centerline of the header. For depths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
Single headers shall be framed with a single flat 2-inch-nominal (51 mm) member or wall plate not less in width than the wall studs on the top and bottom of the header in accordance with Figures R602.7.1(1) and R602.7.1(2) and face nailed to the top and bottom of the header with 10d box nails (3 inches × 0.128 inches) spaced 12 inches on center.

FIGURE R602.7.1(1)

SINGLE-MEMBER HEADER IN EXTERIOR BEARING WALL


FIGURE R602.7.1(2)

ALTERNATIVE SINGLE-MEMBER HEADER WITHOUT CRIPPLE
Rim board header size, material and span shall be in accordance with Table R602.7(1). Rim board headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.2 and shall be supported at each end by full-height studs. The number of full-height studs at each end shall be not less than the number of studs displaced by half of the header span based on the maximum stud spacing in accordance with Table R602.3(5). Rim board headers supporting concentrated loads shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.




For SI: 25.4 mm = 1 inch.

FIGURE R602.7.2

RIM BOARD HEADER CONSTRUCTION
Wood structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.3 and Table R602.7.3.

TABLE R602.7.3

MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERSa
HEADER CONSTRUCTIONb HEADER DEPTH (inches) HOUSE DEPTH (feet)
24 26 28 30 32
Wood structural panel—one side 9 4 4 3 3

15

5

5

4

3

3

Wood structural panel—both sides 9 7 5 5 4 3

15

8

8

7

7

6

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls.
  2. See Figure R602.7.3 for construction details.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Notes:

  1. The top and bottom plates shall be continuous at header location.
  2. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet.
  3. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs.
  4. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of 15/32-inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of the header.
  5. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 1/2 inch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled.

FIGURE R602.7.3

TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION
Load-bearing headers are not required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single flat 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member shall be permitted to be used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, cripples or blocking are not required above the header.
Headers shall be supported on each end with one or more jack studs or with approved framing anchors in accordance with Table R602.7(1) or R602.7(2). The full-height stud adjacent to each end of the header shall be end nailed to each end of the header in accordance with Table R602.3(1). The minimum number of full-height studs at each end of a header shall be in accordance with Table R602.7.5.

TABLE R602.7.5

MINIMUM NUMBER OF FULL-HEIGHT STUDS
AT EACH END OF HEADERS IN EXTERIOR WALLSa
MAXIMUM HEADER SPAN (feet) ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED AND
EXPOSURE CATEGORY
< 140 mph, Exposure B or < 130 mph, Exposure C ≤ 115 mph, Exposure Bb
4 1 1
6 2 1
8 2 1
10 3 2
12 3 2
14 3 2
16 4 2
18 4 2

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

  1. For header spans between those given, use the minimum number of full-height studs associated with the larger header span.
  2. The tabulated minimum number of full-height studs is applicable where jack studs are provided to support the header at each end in accordance with Table R602.7(1). Where a framing anchor is used to support the header in lieu of a jack stud in accordance with Note d of Table R602.7(1), the minimum number of full-height studs at each end of a header shall be in accordance with requirements for wind speed < 140 mph, Exposure B.
Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.

Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. Where exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story.

Exterior cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 mm) shall be continuously sheathed on one side with wood structural panels fastened to both the top and bottom plates in accordance with Table R602.3(1), or the cripple walls shall be constructed of solid blocking.

Cripple walls shall be supported on continuous foundations.

Buildings shall be braced in accordance with this section or, when applicable, Section R602.12. Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with one or more of the bracing requirements in this section, those portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R301.1.
For the purpose of determining the amount and location of bracing required in each story level of a building, braced wall lines shall be designated as straight lines in the building plan placed in accordance with this section.
The length of a braced wall line shall be the distance between its ends. The end of a braced wall line shall be the intersection with a perpendicular braced wall line, an angled braced wall line as permitted in Section R602.10.1.4 or an exterior wall as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.1

BRACED WALL LINES

Each braced wall line shall be located such that no more than two-thirds of the required braced wall panel length is located to one side of the braced wall line. Braced wall panels shall be permitted to be offset up to 4 feet (1219 mm) from the designated braced wall line. Braced wall panels parallel to a braced wall line shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the designated braced wall line location as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1.

Exterior walls parallel to a braced wall line shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the designated braced wall line location as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1

Interior walls used as bracing shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from a braced wall line through the interior of the building as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1.

The spacing between parallel braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.1.3. Intermediate braced wall lines through the interior of the building shall be permitted.

TABLE R602.10.1.3

BRACED WALL LINE SPACING
APPLICATION CONDITION BUILDING TYPE BRACED WALL LINE SPACING CRITERIA
Maximum Spacing Exception to Maximum Spacing

Wind bracing

Ultimate design wind speed < 140 mph Detached, townhouse 60 feet None

Seismic bracing

SDC A — C Detached Use wind bracing
SDC A — B Townhouse Use wind bracing
SDC C Townhouse 35 feet Up to 50 feet when length of required bracing per Table R602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with Table R602.10.3(4).
SDC D0, D1, D2 Detached, townhouses, one- and two-story only 25 feet Up to 35 feet to allow for a single room not to exceed 900 square feet. Spacing of all other braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 feet.
SDC D0, D1, D2 Detached, townhouse 25 feet Up to 35 feet when length of required bracing per Table R602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with Table R602.10.3(4).

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

Any portion of a wall along a braced wall line shall be permitted to angle out of plane for a maximum diagonal length of 8 feet (2438 mm). Where the angled wall occurs at a corner, the length of the braced wall line shall be measured from the projected corner as shown in Figure R602.10.1.4. Where the diagonal length is greater than 8 feet (2438 mm), it shall be considered to be a separate braced wall line and shall be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.1.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.4

ANGLED WALLS
Braced wall panels shall be full-height sections of wall that shall not have vertical or horizontal offsets. Braced wall panels shall be constructed and placed along a braced wall line in accordance with this section and the bracing methods specified in Section R602.10.4.
The bracing lengths in Table R602.10.3(1) apply only when uplift loads are resisted in accordance with Section R602.3.5.

A braced wall panel shall begin within 10 feet (3810 mm) from each end of a braced wall line as determined in Section R602.10.1.1. The distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels along a braced wall line shall be not greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) as shown in Figure R602.10.2.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Braced wall panels in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall comply with Section R602.10.2.2.1.
  2. Braced wall panels with continuous sheathing in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C shall comply with Section R602.10.7.


For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


FIGURE R602.10.2.2

LOCATION OF BRACED WALL PANELS

Braced wall panels shall be located at each end of a braced wall line.


Exceptions:

  1. Braced wall panels constructed of Method WSP or BV-WSP and continuous sheathing methods as specified in Section R602.10.4 shall be permitted to begin not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from each end of a braced wall line provided that each end complies with one of the following:

    1.1. A minimum 24-inch-wide (610 mm) panel for Methods WSP, CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF is applied to each side of the building corner as shown in End Condition 4 of Figure R602.10.7.

    1.2. The end of each braced wall panel closest to the end of the braced wall line shall have an 1,800-pound (8 kN) hold-down device fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wall panel closest to the corner and to the foundation or framing below as shown in End Condition 5 of Figure R602.10.7.

  2. Braced wall panels constructed of Method PFH or ABW, or of Method BV-WSP where a hold-down is provided in accordance with Table R602.10.6.5.4, shall be permitted to begin not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from each end of a braced wall line.
Braced wall lines with a length of 16 feet (4877 mm) or less shall have not less than two braced wall panels of any length or one braced wall panel equal to 48 inches (1219 mm) or more. Braced wall lines greater than 16 feet (4877 mm) shall have not less than two braced wall panels.

The required length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be determined as follows:

  1. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories A and B shall use Table R602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2).
  2. Detached buildings in Seismic Design Category C shall use Table R602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2).
  3. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall use the greater value determined from Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively.
  4. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall use the greater value determined from Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively.

Only braced wall panels parallel to the braced wall line shall contribute toward the required length of bracing of that braced wall line. Braced wall panels along an angled wall meeting the minimum length requirements of Tables R602.10.5 and R602.10.5.2 shall be permitted to contribute its projected length toward the minimum required length of bracing for the braced wall line as shown in Figure R602.10.1.4. Any braced wall panel on an angled wall at the end of a braced wall line shall contribute its projected length for only one of the braced wall lines at the projected corner.

Exception: The length of wall bracing for dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 with stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.8 and exceeding the first-story height shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.6.5.



TABLE R602.10.3(1)

BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED
• EXPOSURE CATEGORY B MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa

• 30-FOOT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT

• 10-FOOT WALL HEIGHT

• 2 BRACED WALL LINES

Ultimate Design Wind Speed (mph) Story Location Braced Wall Line Spacingc (feet) Method LIBb Method GB Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, BV-WSP, ABW, PFH, PFC, CS-SFB Methods CS-WSP, CS-G, CS-PF
< 95 mph 10 2.5 2.5 1.5 1.5
20 4.5 4.5 2.5 2.5
30 6.5 6.5 4.0 3.5
40 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.0
50 10.5 10.5 6.0 5.0
60 12.5 12.5 7.0 6.0
10 5.0 5.0 3.0 2.5
20 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.5
30 12.5 12.5 7.0 6.0
40 16.0 16.0 9.5 8.0
50 20.0 20.0 11.5 10.0
60 23.5 23.5 13.5 11.5
10 NP 7.0 4.0 3.5
20 NP 13.0 7.5 6.5
30 NP 18.5 10.5 9.0
40 NP 24.0 13.5 11.5
50 NP 29.5 17.0 14.5
60 NP 35.0 20.0 17.0

≤ 110

10 3.5 3.5 2.0 1.5
20 6.0 6.0 3.5 3.0
30 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.5
40 11.5 11.5 6.5 5.5
50 14.0 14.0 8.0 7.0
60 16.5 16.5 9.5 8.0
10 6.5 6.5 3.5 3.0
20 11.5 11.5 6.5 5.5
30 16.5 16.5 9.5 8.0
40 21.5 21.5 12.5 10.5
50 26.5 26.5 15.5 13.0
60 31.5 31.5 18.0 15.5
10 NP 9.5 5.5 4.5
20 NP 17.0 10.0 8.5
30 NP 24.5 14.0 12.0
40 NP 32.0 18.5 15.5
50 NP 39.5 22.5 19.0
60 NP 46.5 26.5 23.0

≤ 115

10 3.5 3.5 2.0 2.0
20 6.5 6.5 3.5 3.5
30 9.5 9.5 5.5 4.5
40 12.5 12.5 7.0 6.0
50 15.0 15.0 9.0 7.5
60 18.0 18.0 10.5 9.0
10 7.0 7.0 4.0 3.5
20 12.5 12.5 7.5 6.5
30 18.0 18.0 10.5 9.0
40 23.5 23.5 13.5 11.5
50 29.0 29.0 16.5 14.0
60 34.5 34.5 20.0 17.0
10 NP 10.0 6.0 5.0
20 NP 18.5 11.0 9.0
30 NP 27.0 15.5 13.0
40 NP 35.0 20.0 17.0
50 NP 43.0 24.5 21.0
60 NP 51.0 29.0 25.0

≤ 120

10 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.0
20 7.0 7.0 4.0 3.5
30 10.5 10.5 6.0 5.0
40 13.5 13.5 8.0 6.5
50 16.5 16.5 9.5 8.0
60 19.5 19.5 11.5 9.5
10 7.5 7.5 4.5 3.5
20 14.0 14.0 8.0 7.0
30 20.0 20.0 11.5 9.5
40 25.5 25.5 15.0 12.5
50 31.5 31.5 18.0 15.5
60 37.5 37.5 21.5 18.5
10 NP 11.0 6.5 5.5
20 NP 20.5 11.5 10.0
30 NP 29.0 17.0 14.5
40 NP 38.0 22.0 18.5
50 NP 47.0 27.0 23.0
60 NP 55.5 32.0 27.0

≤ 130

10 4.5 4.5 2.5 2.5
20 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.0
30 12.0 12.0 7.0 6.0
40 15.5 15.5 9.0 7.5
50 19.5 19.5 11.0 9.5
60 23.0 23.0 13.0 11.0
10 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.5
20 16.0 16.0 9.5 8.0
30 23.0 23.0 13.5 11.5
40 30.0 30.0 17.5 15.0
50 37.0 37.0 21.5 18.0
60 44.0 44.0 25.0 21.5
10 NP 13.0 7.5 6.5
20 NP 24.0 13.5 11.5
30 NP 34.5 19.5 17.0
40 NP 44.5 25.5 22.0
50 NP 55.0 31.5 26.5
60 NP 65.0 37.5 31.5

< 140

10 5.5 5.5 3.0 2.5
20 10.0 10.0 5.5 5.0
30 14.0 14.0 8.0 7.0
40 18.0 18.0 10.5 9.0
50 22.5 22.5 13.0 11.0
60 26.5 26.5 15.0 13.0
10 10.0 10.0 6.0 5.0
20 18.5 18.5 11.0 9.0
30 27.0 27.0 15.5 13.0
40 35.0 35.0 20.0 17.0
50 43.0 43.0 24.5 21.0
60 51.0 51.0 29.0 25.0
10 NP 15.0 8.5 7.5
20 NP 27.5 16.0 13.5
30 NP 39.5 23.0 19.5
40 NP 51.5 29.5 25.0
50 NP 63.5 36.5 31.0
60 NP 75.5 43.0 36.5

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
NP = Not Permitted.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to not less than one side with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 8 inches.
  3. Where three or more parallel braced wall lines are present and the distances between adjacent braced wall lines are different, the average dimension shall be permitted to be used for braced wall line spacing.

TABLE R602.10.3(2)

WIND ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING
ITEM NUMBER ADJUSTMENT BASED ON STORY/SUPPORTING CONDITION ADJUSTMENT FACTORa, b
[multiply length from Table R602.10.3(1) by this factor]
APPLICABLE METHODS
1 Exposure categoryd One-story structure B 1.00 All methods
C 1.20
D 1.50
Two-story structure B 1.00
C 1.30
D 1.60
Three-story structure B 1.00
C 1.40
D 1.70
2 Roof eave-to-ridge height Roof only ≤ 5 feet 0.70
10 feet 1.00
15 feet 1.30
20 feet 1.60
Roof + 1 floor ≤ 5 feet 0.85
10 feet 1.00
15 feet 1.15
20 feet 1.30
Roof + 2 floors ≤ 5 feet 0.90
10 feet 1.00
15 feet 1.10
20 feet Not permitted
3 Story height (Section R301.3) Any story 8 feet 0.90
9 feet 0.95
10 feet 1.00
11 feet 1.05
12 feet 1.10
4 Number of braced wall lines (per plan direction)c Any story 2 1.00
3 1.30
4 1.45
≥ 5 1.60
5 Additional 800-pound hold-down device Top story only Fastened to the end studs of each braced wall panel and to the foundation or framing below 0.80 DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS
6 Interior gypsum board finish (or equivalent) Any story Omitted from inside face of braced wall panels 1.40 DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, CS-WSP, CS-G, CS-SFB
7 Gypsum board fastening Any story 4 inches o.c. at panel edges, including top and bottom plates, and all horizontal joints blocked 0.7 GB
8 Horizontal blocking Any story Horizontal block is omitted 2.0 WSP, PBS, CS-WSP

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.48 N.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. The total adjustment factor is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
  3. The adjustment factor is permitted to be 1.0 when determining bracing amounts for intermediate braced wall lines provided the bracing amounts on adjacent braced wall lines are based on a spacing and number that neglects the intermediate braced wall line.
  4. The same adjustment factor shall be applied to all braced wall lines on all floors of the structure, based on the worst-case exposure category.

TABLE R602.10.3(3)

BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY

• WALL HEIGHT = 10 FEET

MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa, g

• 10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD

• 15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD

BRACED WALL LINE SPACING ≤ 25 FEET

Seismic DesignCategoryb Story Location Braced Wall Line Length (feet)c Method LIBd Method GB Methods DWB, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, CS-SFBe Methods WSP, ABWf, PFHf and PFGe, f Methods CS-WSP, CS-G, CS-PF
C
(townhouses only)
10 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.6 1.4
20 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.2 2.7
30 7.5 7.5 7.5 4.8 4.1
40 10.0 10.0 10.0 6.4 5.4
50 12.5 12.5 12.5 8.0 6.8
10 NP 4.5 4.5 3.0 2.6
20 NP 9.0 9.0 6.0 5.1
30 NP 13.5 13.5 9.0 7.7
40 NP 18.0 18.0 12.0 10.2
50 NP 22.5 22.5 15.0 12.8
10 NP 6.0 6.0 4.5 3.8
20 NP 12.0 12.0 9.0 7.7
30 NP 18.0 18.0 13.5 11.5
40 NP 24.0 24.0 18.0 15.3
50 NP 30.0 30.0 22.5 19.1
D0 10 NP 2.8 2.8 1.8 1.6
20 NP 5.5 5.5 3.6 3.1
30 NP 8.3 8.3 5.4 4.6
40 NP 11.0 11.0 7.2 6.1
50 NP 13.8 13.8 9.0 7.7
10 NP 5.3 5.3 3.8 3.2
20 NP 10.5 10.5 7.5 6.4
30 NP 15.8 15.8 11.3 9.6
40 NP 21.0 21.0 15.0 12.8
50 NP 26.3 26.3 18.8 16.0
10 NP 7.3 7.3 5.3 4.5
20 NP 14.5 14.5 10.5 9.0
30 NP 21.8 21.8 15.8 13.4
40 NP 29.0 29.0 21.0 17.9
50 NP 36.3 36.3 26.3 22.3
D1 10 NP 3.0 3.0 2.0 1.7
20 NP 6.0 6.0 4.0 3.4
30 NP 9.0 9.0 6.0 5.1
40 NP 12.0 12.0 8.0 6.8
50 NP 15.0 15.0 10.0 8.5
10 NP 6.0 6.0 4.5 3.8
20 NP 12.0 12.0 9.0 7.7
30 NP 18.0 18.0 13.5 11.5
40 NP 24.0 24.0 18.0 15.3
50 NP 30.0 30.0 22.5 19.1
10 NP 8.5 8.5 6.0 5.1
20 NP 17.0 17.0 12.0 10.2
30 NP 25.5 25.5 18.0 15.3
40 NP 34.0 34.0 24.0 20.4
50 NP 42.5 42.5 30.0 25.5
D2h 10 NP 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.1
20 NP 8.0 8.0 5.0 4.3
30 NP 12.0 12.0 7.5 6.4
40 NP 16.0 16.0 10.0 8.5
50 NP 20.0 20.0 12.5 10.6
10 NP 7.5 7.5 5.5 4.7
20 NP 15.0 15.0 11.0 9.4
30 NP 22.5 22.5 16.5 14.0
40 NP 30.0 30.0 22.0 18.7
50 NP 37.5 37.5 27.5 23.4
Three-story dwelling 10 NP NP NP NP NP
20 NP NP NP NP NP
30 NP NP NP NP NP
40 NP NP NP NP NP
50 NP NP NP NP NP
Cripple wall below one- or two-story dwelling 10 NP NP NP 7.5 6.4
20 NP NP NP 15.0 12.8
30 NP NP NP 22.5 19.1
40 NP NP NP 30.0 25.5
50 NP NP NP 37.5 31.9

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
NP = Not Permitted.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. Interpolation of bracing length between the Sds values associated with the seismic design categories shall be permitted when a site-specific Sds value is determined in accordance with Section 1613.2 of the International Building Code.
  3. Where the braced wall line length is greater than 50 feet, braced wall lines shall be permitted to be divided into shorter segments having lengths of 50 feet or less, and the amount of bracing within each segment shall be in accordance with this table.
  4. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to not less than one side with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 8 inches.
  5. Methods PFG and CS-SFB do not apply in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.
  6. Methods PFH, PFG and ABW are only permitted on a single story or a first of two stories.
  7. Where more than one bracing method is used, mixing methods shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.4.1.
  8. One- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category D2 exceeding two stories shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

TABLE R602.10.3(4)

SEISMIC ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING
ITEM NUMBER ADJUSTMENT BASED ON STORYg CONDITION ADJUSTMENT FACTORa, b [Multiply length from Table R602.10.3(3) by this factor] APPLICABLE METHODS
1 Story height (Section 301.3) Any story ≤ 10 feet 1.0 All methods
> 10 feet and ≤ 12 feet 1.2
2 Braced wall line spacing, townhouses in SDC C Any story ≤ 35 feet 1.0
> 35 feet and ≤ 50 feet 1.43
3 Braced wall line spacing, in SDC D0, D1, D2c Any story > 25 feet and ≤ 30 feet 1.2
> 30 feet and ≤ 35 feet 1.4
4 Wall dead load Any story > 8 psf and < 15 psf 1.0
< 8psf 0.85
5 Roof/ceiling dead load for wall supporting 1-, 2- or 3-story building ≤15 psf 1.0
2- or 3-story building > 15 psf and ≤ 25 psf 1.1
1-story building or top story > 15 psf and ≤ 25 psf 1.2
6 Walls with stone or masonry veneer, townhouses in SDC Cd, e 1.0 All methods
1.5
1.5
7 Walls with stone or masonry veneer, detached one- and two-family dwellings in SDC D0 — D2d, f Any story See Section R602.10.6.5.4 BV-WSP
8 Walls with stone or masonry veneer, detached one- and two-family dwellings in SDC D0 — D2d, f First and second story of two-story dwelling Limited brick veneer on second story. See Section R602.10.6.5.3. 1.2 WSP, CS-WSP
9 Interior gypsum board finish (or equivalent) Any story Omitted from inside face of braced wall panels 1.5 DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, CS-WSP, CS-G, CS-SFB
10 Horizontal blocking Any story Horizontal blocking omitted 2.0 WSP, PBS, CS-WSP

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. The total length of bracing required for a given wall line is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
  3. The length-to-width ratio for the floor/roof diaphragm shall not exceed 3:1.
  4. Applies to stone or masonry veneer exceeding the first story height.
  5. The adjustment factor for stone or masonry veneer shall be applied to all exterior braced wall lines and all braced wall lines on the interior of the building, backing or perpendicular to and laterally supporting veneered walls.
  6. See Section R602.10.6.5 for requirements where stone or masonry veneer does not exceed the first-story height.
  7. One- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category D2 exceeding two stories shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
Intermittent and continuously sheathed braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with this section and the methods listed in Table R602.10.4.

TABLE R602.10.4

BRACING METHODS
METHODS, MATERIAL MINIMUM THICKNESS FIGURE CONNECTION CRITERIAa
Fasteners Spacing
Intermittent Bracing Methods LIB

Let-in-bracing
1 × 4 wood or approved metal straps at 45° to 60° angles for maximum 16" stud spacing Wood: 2-8d common nails or 3-8d (21/2" long × 0.113" dia.) nails Wood: per stud and top and bottom plates
Metal strap: per manufacturer Metal: per manufacturer
DWB

Diagonal wood boards
3/4" (1" nominal) for maximum 24" stud spacing 2-8d (21/2" long × 0.113" dia.) nails or 2-13/4" long staples Per stud
WSP

Wood structural panel (See Section R604)
3/8" Exterior sheathing per Table R602.3(3) 6" edges 12" field
Interior sheathing per Table R602.3(1) or R602.3(2) Varies by fastener
BV-WSPe

Wood structural panels with stone or masonry veneer (See Section R602.10.6.5)
7/16" See Figure R602.10.6.5.2 8d common (21/2" × 0.131) nails 4" at panel edges 12" at intermediate supports 4" at braced wall panel end posts
SFB

Structural fiberboard sheathing
1/2" or 25/32" for maximum 16" stud spacing 11/2" long × 0.12" dia. (for 1/2" thick sheathing) 13/4" long × 0.12" dia. (for 25/32" thick sheathing) galvanized roofing nails 3" edges 6" field
GB

Gypsum board
1/2" Nails or screws per Table R602.3(1) for exterior locations For all braced wall panel locations: 7"edges (including top and bottom plates) 7" field
Nails or screws per Table R702.3.5 for interior locations
PBS

Particleboard sheathing (See Section R605)
3/8" or 1/2" formaximum 16"stud spacing For 3/8", 6d common (2" long × 0.113" dia.) nails; For 1/2", 8d common (21/2" long × 0.131" dia.) nails 3" edges 6" field
PCP

Portland cement plaster
See Section R703.6 for maximum 16" stud spacing 11/2" long, 11 gage, 0.120" dia., 7/16" dia. head nails or 7/8" long, 16 gage staples 6" o.c. on all framing members
HPS

Hardboard panel siding
7/16" for maximum 16" stud spacing 0.092" dia., 0.225" dia. head nails with length to accommodate 11/2" penetration into studs 4" edges 8" field
ABW

Alternate braced wall
3/8" See Section R602.10.6.1 See Section R602.10.6.1
PFH

Portal frame with hold-downs
3/8" See Section R602.10.6.2 See Section R602.10.6.2
PFG

Portal frame at garage
7/16" See Section R602.10.6.3 See Section R602.10.6.3
Continuous Sheathing Methods CS-WSP

Continuously sheathed wood structural panel
3/8" Exterior sheathing per Table R602.3(3) 6" edges 12" field
Interior sheathing per Table R602.3(1) or R602.3(2) Varies by fastener
CS-Gb, c

Continuously sheathed wood structural panel adjacent to garage openings
3/8" See Method CS-WSP See Method CS-WSP
CS-PF

Continuously sheathed portal frame
7/16" See Section R602.10.6.4 See Section R602.10.6.4
CS-SFBd

Continuously sheathed structural fiberboard
1/2" or 25/32" for maximum 16" stud spacing 11/2" long × 0.12" dia. (for 1/2" thick sheathing) 13/4" long × 0.12" dia. (for 25/32" thick sheathing) galvanized roofing nails 3" edges 6" field

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad, 1 pound per square foot = 47.8 N/m2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

  1. Adhesive attachment of wall sheathing, including Method GB, shall not be permitted in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2.
  2. Applies to panels next to garage door opening where supporting gable end wall or roof load only. Shall only be used on one wall of the garage. In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, roof covering dead load shall not exceed 3 psf.
  3. Garage openings adjacent to a Method CS-G panel shall be provided with a header in accordance with Table R602.7(1). A full-height clear opening shall not be permitted adjacent to a Method CS-G panel.
  4. Method CS-SFB does not apply in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.
  5. Method applies to detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0 through D2 only.

Mixing of bracing methods shall be permitted as follows:

  1. Mixing intermittent bracing and continuous sheathing methods from story to story shall be permitted.
  2. Mixing intermittent bracing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a story shall be permitted. In regions within Seismic Design Categories A, B and C where the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58m/s), mixing of intermittent bracing and continuous sheathing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a story shall be permitted.
  3. Mixing intermittent bracing methods along a braced wall line shall be permitted in Seismic Design Categories A and B, and detached dwellings in Seismic Design Category C, provided that the length of required bracing in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) is the highest value of all intermittent bracing methods used.
  4. Mixing of continuous sheathing methods CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF along a braced wall line shall be permitted. Intermittent methods ABW, PFH and PFG shall be permitted to be used along a braced wall line with continuous sheathed methods, provided that the length of required bracing for that braced wall line is determined in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) using the highest value of the bracing methods used.
  5. In Seismic Design Categories A and B, and for detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category C, mixing of intermittent bracing methods along the interior portion of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing methods CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF along the exterior portion of the same braced wall line shall be permitted. The length of required bracing shall be the highest value of all intermittent bracing methods used in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) as adjusted by Tables R602.10.3(2) and R602.10.3(4), respectively. The requirements of Section R602.10.7 shall apply to each end of the continuously sheathed portion of the braced wall line.
Continuous sheathing methods require structural panel sheathing to be used on all sheathable surfaces on one side of a braced wall line including areas above and below openings and gable end walls and shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.7.

Braced wall panels shall have gypsum wall board installed on the side of the wall opposite the bracing material. Gypsum wall board shall be not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and be fastened with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum wall board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges for gypsum wall board opposite Method LIB bracing shall not exceed 8 inches (203 mm). Interior finish material shall not be glued in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.


Exceptions:

  1. Interior finish material is not required opposite wall panels that are braced in accordance with Methods GB, BV-WSP, ABW, PFH, PFG and CS-PF, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.
  2. An approved interior finish material with an in-plane shear resistance equivalent to gypsum board shall be permitted to be substituted, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.
  3. Except for Method LIB, gypsum wall board is permitted to be omitted provided that the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3) is multiplied by the appropriate adjustment factor in Tables R602.10.3(2) and R602.10.3(4), respectively, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.

Vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over and be fastened to common studs. Horizontal joints of panel sheathing in braced wall panels shall occur over and be fastened to common blocking of a thickness of 11/2 inches (38 mm) or greater.


Exceptions:

  1. For methods WSP and CS-WSP, blocking of horizontal joints is permitted to be omitted when adjustment factor No. 8 of Table R602.10.3(2) or No. 9 of Table R602.10.3(4) is applied.
  2. Vertical joints of panel sheathing shall be permitted to occur over double studs, where adjoining panel edges are attached to separate studs with the required panel edge fastening schedule, and the adjacent studs are attached together with two rows of 10d box nails [3 inches by 0.128 inch (76.2 mm by 3.25 mm)] at 10 inches o.c. (254 mm).
  3. Blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in wall segments that are not counted as braced wall panels.
  4. Where Method GB panels are installed horizontally, blocking of horizontal joints is not required.
The minimum length of a braced wall panel shall comply with Table R602.10.5. For Methods CS-WSP and CS-SFB, the minimum panel length shall be based on the adjacent clear opening height in accordance with Table R602.10.5 and Figure R602.10.5. Where a panel has an opening on either side of differing heights, the taller opening height shall be used to determine the panel length.


TABLE R602.10.5

MINIMUM LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANELS
METHOD (See Table R602.10.4) MINIMUM LENGTHa (inches) CONTRIBUTING LENGTH
(inches)
Wall Height
8 feet 9 feet 10 feet 11 feet 12 feet
DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, BV-WSP 48 48 48 53 58 Actualb
GB 48 48 48 53 58 Double sided = Actual
Single sided = 0.5 × Actual
LIB 55 62 69 NP NP Actualb
ABW SDC A, B and C, ultimate
design wind speed < 140 mph
28 32 34 38 42 48
SDC D0, D1 and D2, ultimate
design wind speed < 140 mph
32 32 34 NP NP
CS-G 24 27 30 33 36 Actualb
CS-WSP, CS-SFB Adjacent clear opening height
(inches)
           
≤ 64 24 27 30 33 36 Actualb
68 26 27 30 33 36
72 27 27 30 33 36
76 30 29 30 33 36
80 32 30 30 33 36
84 35 32 32 33 36
88 38 35 33 33 36
92 43 37 35 35 36
96 48 41 38 36 36
100 44 40 38 38
104 49 43 40 39
108 54 46 43 41
112 50 45 43
116 55 48 45
120 60 52 48
124 56 51
128 61 54
132 66 58
136 62
140 66
144 72
METHOD (See Table R602.10.4) Portal header height  
8 feet 9 feet 10 feet 11 feet 12 feet
PFH Supporting roof only 16 16 16 Note c Note c 48
Supporting one story and roof 24 24 24 Note c Note c
PFG 24 27 30 Note d Note d 1.5 × Actualb
CS-PF SDC A, B and C 16 18 20 Note e Note e 1.5 × Actualb
SDC D0, D1 and D2 16 18 20 Note e Note e Actualb
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

NP = Not Permitted.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. Use the actual length where it is greater than or equal to the minimum length.
  3. Maximum header height for PFH is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2, but wall height shall be permitted to be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.
  4. Maximum header height for PFG is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.3, but wall height shall be permitted to be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.
  5. Maximum header height for CS-PF is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.4, but wall height shall be permitted to be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.


FIGURE R602.10.5

BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING
For purposes of computing the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), the contributing length of each braced wall panel shall be as specified in Table R602.10.5.
For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, panels between 36 inches and 48 inches (914 mm and 1219 mm) in length shall be considered a braced wall panel and shall be permitted to partially contribute toward the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), and the contributing length shall be determined from Table R602.10.5.2.

TABLE R602.10.5.2

PARTIAL CREDIT FOR BRACED WALL PANELS LESS THAN 48 INCHES IN ACTUAL LENGTH
ACTUAL LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL (inches) CONTRIBUTING LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL (inches)a
8-foot Wall Height 9-foot Wall Height
48 48 48
42 36 36
36 27 NA
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NA = Not Applicable.
  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
Methods ABW, PFH, PFG, CS-PF and BV-WSP shall be constructed as specified in Sections R602.10.6.1 through R602.10.6.5.
Method ABW braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.1. The hold-down force shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.6.1.

TABLE R602.10.6.1

MINIMUM HOLD-DOWN FORCES FOR METHOD ABW BRACED WALL PANELS
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY AND WIND SPEED SUPPORTING/STORY HOLD-DOWN FORCE (pounds)
Height of Braced Wall Panel
8 feet 9 feet 10 feet 11 feet 12 feet

SDC A, B and C

One story 1,800 1,800 1,800 2,000 2,200
Ultimate design wind speed < 140 mph First of two stories 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,300 3,600

SDC D0, D1 and D2

One story 1,800 1,800 1,800 NP NP
Ultimate design wind speed <140 mph First of two stories 3,000 3,000 3,000 NP NP

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
NP = Not Permitted.




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R602.10.6.1

METHOD ABW—ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL
Method PFH braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.2

METHOD PFH—PORTAL FRAME WITH HOLD-DOWNS
Where supporting a roof or one story and a roof, a Method PFG braced wall panel constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.3 shall be permitted on either side of garage door openings.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.3

METHOD PFG—PORTAL FRAME AT GARAGE DOOR OPENINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B AND C
Continuously sheathed portal frame braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.4 and Table R602.10.6.4.

TABLE R602.10.6.4

TENSION STRAP CAPACITY FOR RESISTING WIND PRESSURES PERPENDICULAR TO METHODS PFH, PFG AND CS-PF BRACED WALL PANELSa
MINIMUM WALL STUD FRAMING NOMINAL SIZE AND GRADE MAXIMUM PONY WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM TOTAL WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM OPENING WIDTH (feet) TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED (pounds)a
Ultimate Design Wind Speed Vult (mph)
≤ 110 115 130 ≤ 110 115 130
Exposure B Exposure C
2 × 4 No. 2 Grade 0 10 18 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,050
1 10 9 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,750
16 1,000 1,025 2,050 2,075 2,500 3,950
18 1,000 1,275 2,375 2,400 2,850 DR
2 10 9 1,000 1,000 1,475 1,500 1,875 3,125
16 1,775 2,175 3,525 3,550 4,125 DR
18 2,075 2,500 3,950 3,975 DR DR
2 12 9 1,150 1,500 2,650 2,675 3,175 DR
16 2,875 3,375 DR DR DR DR
18 3,425 3,975 DR DR DR DR
4 12 9 2,275 2,750 DR DR DR DR
12 3,225 3,775 DR DR DR DR
2 × 6 Stud Grade 2 12 9 1,000 1,000 1,700 1,700 2,025 3,050
16 1,825 2,150 3,225 3,225 3,675 DR
18 2,200 2,550 3,725 3,750 DR DR
4 12 9 1,450 1,750 2,700 2,725 3,125 DR
16 2,050 2,400 DR DR DR DR
18 3,350 3,800 DR DR DR DR

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
DR = Design Required.

  1. Straps shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


FIGURE R602.10.6.4

METHOD CS-PF—CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED PORTAL FRAME PANEL CONSTRUCTION

Townhouses in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 with stone or masonry veneer exceeding the first-story height shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

One- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category D2 exceeding two stories and having stone or masonry veneer shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Where stone and masonry veneer are installed in accordance with Section R703.8, wall bracing on exterior braced wall lines and braced wall lines on the interior of the building, backing or perpendicular to and laterally supporting veneered walls shall comply with this section.

Where dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 have stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.8 and the veneer does not exceed the first-story height, wall bracing shall be in accordance with Section R602.10, exclusive of Section R602.10.6.5.
Where detached one- or two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 have stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.8, and the veneer exceeds the first-story height, wall bracing at exterior braced wall lines and braced wall lines on the interior of the building shall be constructed using Method BV-WSP in accordance with this section and Figure R602.10.6.5.2. Cripple walls shall not be permitted, and required interior braced wall lines shall be supported on continuous foundations.


FIGURE R602.10.6.5.2

METHOD BV-WSP—WALL BRACING FOR DWELLINGS WITH STONE AND
MASONRY VENEER IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D0, D1 and D2
Where detached one- or two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 have exterior veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.8 and where brick veneer installed above the first-story height meets the following limitations, bracing in accordance with Method WSP or CS-WSP shall be permitted provided that the total length of braced wall panels specified by Table R602.10.3(3) is multiplied by 1.2 for each first- and second-story braced wall line.
  1. The dwelling does not extend more than two stories above grade plane.
  2. The veneer does not exceed 5 inches (127 mm) in thickness.
  3. The height of veneer on gable-end walls does not extend more than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the bearing wall top plate elevation.
  4. Where veneer is installed on multiple walls above the first story, the total area of the veneer on the second-story exterior walls shall not exceed 25 percent of the occupied second floor area.
  5. Where the veneer is installed on one entire second-story exterior wall, including walls on bay windows and similar appurtenances, brick veneer shall not be installed on any of the other walls on that floor.
The length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be the greater of that required by the ultimate design wind speed and braced wall line spacing in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) as adjusted by the factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or the seismic design category and braced wall line length in accordance either with Table R602.10.6.5.4 when using Method BV-WSP, or Table R602.10.3(3) as adjusted by the factors in Table R602.10.3(4) when using Method WSP or CS-WSP. Angled walls shall be permitted to be counted in accordance with Section R602.10.1.4, and braced wall panel location shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.2.2. Spacing between braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.1.3. The seismic adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(4) shall not be applied to the length of bracing determined using Table R602.10.6.5.4, except that the bracing amount increase for braced wall line spacing greater than 25 feet (7620 mm) in accordance with Table R602.10.1.3 shall be required. The minimum total length of bracing in a braced wall line, after all adjustments have been taken, shall be not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) total.

TABLE R602.10.6.5.4

METHOD BV-WSP WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTSd
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY STORY BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH (FEET) SINGLE-STORY HOLD-DOWN FORCE (pounds)b CUMULATIVE HOLD-DOWN FORCE (pounds)c
10 20 30 40 50
Minimum Total Length (feet) of Braced Wall Panels Required Along each Braced Wall Line
D0 4.0 7.0 10.5 14.0 17.5 NA
4.0 7.0 10.5 14.0 17.5 1,900
4.5 9.0 13.5 18.0 22.5 3,500 5,400
6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 3,500 8,900
D1 4.5 9.0 13.5 18.0 22.5 2,100
4.5 9.0 13.5 18.0 22.5 3,700 5,800
6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 3,700 9,500
D2 a 5.5 11.0 16.5 22.0 27.5 2,300
5.5 11.0 16.5 22.0 27.5 3,900 6,200
Three-story dwelling NP NP NP NP NP NA NA
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.479 kPa, 1 pound-force = 4.448 N.
NP = Not Permitted.
NA = Not Applicable.
  1. One- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category D2 exceeding two stories shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practices.
  2. Hold-down force is minimum allowable stress design load for connector providing uplift tie from wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the noted story to wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the story below, or to foundation or foundation wall. Use single-story hold-down force where edges of braced wall panels do not align; a continuous load path to the foundation shall be maintained.
  3. Where hold-down connectors from stories above align with stories below, use cumulative hold-down force to size middle- and bottom-story hold-down connectors.
  4. Interpolation between braced wall lengths is permitted.
Each end of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing shall have one of the conditions shown in Figure R602.10.7.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N.

FIGURE R602.10.7

END CONDITIONS FOR BRACED WALL LINES WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

Braced wall panels shall be connected to floor framing or foundations as follows:

  1. Where joists are perpendicular to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, band joist or blocking shall be provided along the entire length of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(1). Fastening of top and bottom wall plates to framing, rim joist, band joist or blocking shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
  2. Where joists are parallel to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, end joist or other parallel framing member shall be provided directly above and below the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(2). Where a parallel framing member cannot be located directly above and below the panel, full-depth blocking at 16-inch (406 mm) spacing shall be provided between the parallel framing members to each side of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(2). Fastening of blocking and wall plates shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and Figure R602.10.8(2).
  3. Connections of braced wall panels to concrete or masonry shall be in accordance with Section R403.1.6.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R602.10.8(1)

BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R602.10.8(2)

BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING
Braced wall panels shall be fastened to required foundations in accordance with Section R602.11.1, and top plate lap splices shall be face-nailed with not less than eight 16d nails on each side of the splice.

Top plates of exterior braced wall panels shall be attached to rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and this section. Where required by this section, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be attached to top plates of braced wall panels and to rafters and roof trusses in accordance with Table R602.3(1). A continuous band, rim or header joist or roof truss parallel to the braced wall panels shall be permitted to replace the blocking required by this section. Blocking shall not be required over openings in continuously sheathed braced wall lines. In addition to the requirements of this section, lateral support shall be provided for rafters and ceiling joists in accordance with Section R802.8 and for trusses in accordance with Section R802.10.3. Roof ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section R806.1.

  1. For Seismic Design Categories A, B and C where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is 91/4 inches (235 mm) or less, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall not be required. Where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is between 91/4 inches (235 mm) and 151/4 inches (387 mm), blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be provided above the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(1).

    Exception: Where the outside edge of truss vertical web members aligns with the outside face of the wall studs below, wood structural panel sheathing extending above the top plate as shown in Figure R602.10.8.2(3) shall be permitted to be fastened to each truss web with three-8d nails (21/2 inches × 0.131 inch) and blocking between the trusses shall not be required.

  2. For Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses is 151/4 inches (387 mm) or less, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be provided above the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(1).
  3. Where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of rafters or roof trusses exceeds 151/4 inches (387 mm), the top plates of the braced wall panel shall be connected to perpendicular rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with one or more of the following methods:

    3.1. Soffit blocking panels constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(2).

    3.2. Vertical blocking panels constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(3).

    3.3. Blocking panels provided by the roof truss manufacturer and designed in accordance with Section R802.

    3.4. Blocking, blocking panels or other methods of lateral load transfer designed in accordance with the AWC WFCM or accepted engineering practice.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R602.10.8.2(1)

BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section R602.10.4.

FIGURE R602.10.8.2(2)

BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot =304.8 mm
  1. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section R602.10.4.

FIGURE R602.10.8.2(3)

BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

Braced wall panel support shall be provided as follows:

  1. Cantilevered floor joists complying with Section R502.3.3 shall be permitted to support braced wall panels.
  2. Raised floor system post or pier foundations supporting braced wall panels shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
  3. Masonry stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting braced wall panels shall be reinforced in accordance with Figure R602.10.9. Masonry stem walls with a length greater than 48 inches (1219 mm) supporting braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Section R403.1 Methods ABW and PFH shall not be permitted to attach to masonry stem walls.
  4. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) tall and less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick shall have reinforcement sized and located in accordance with Figure R602.10.9.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R602.10.9

MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS
Cripple walls shall be constructed in accordance with Section R602.9 and braced in accordance with this section. Cripple walls shall be braced with the length and method of bracing used for the wall above in accordance with Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively, except that the length of cripple wall bracing shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.15. Where gypsum wall board is not used on the inside of the cripple wall bracing, the length adjustments for the elimination of the gypsum wallboard, or equivalent, shall be applied as directed in Tables R602.10.3(2) and R602.10.3(4) to the length of cripple wall bracing required. This adjustment shall be taken in addition to the 1.15 increase.

In addition to the requirements in Section R602.10.10, cripple wall bracing shall be limited to methods WSP and CS-WSP, and the distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels for cripple walls along a braced wall line shall be 14 feet (4267 mm) maximum.

Where braced wall lines at interior walls are not supported on a continuous foundation below, the adjacent parallel cripple walls, where provided, shall be braced with Method WSP or Method CS-WSP in accordance with Section R602.10.4. The length of bracing required in accordance with Table R602.10.3(3) for the cripple walls shall be multiplied by 1.5. Where the cripple walls do not have sufficient length to provide the required bracing, the spacing of panel edge fasteners shall be reduced to 4 inches (102 mm) on center and the required bracing length adjusted by 0.7. If the required length can still not be provided, the cripple wall shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Where all cripple wall segments along a braced wall line do not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) in height, the cripple walls shall be permitted to be redesignated as a first-story wall for purposes of determining wall bracing requirements. Where any cripple wall segment in a braced wall line exceeds 48 inches (1219 mm) in height, the entire cripple wall shall be counted as an additional story. If the cripple walls are redesignated, the stories above the redesignated story shall be counted as the second and third stories, respectively.
Braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations in accordance with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1.
Plate washers, not less than 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.8 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size, shall be provided between the foundation sill plate and the nut except where approved anchor straps are used. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a width of up to 3/16 inch (5 mm) larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed 13/4 inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut.

In all buildings located in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 or D2, where the height of a required braced wall line that extends from foundation to floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the braced wall line shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

  1. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to a foundation not less than 8 feet (2440 mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be considered as braced. The double plate of the cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing that extends to the lowest framed floor shall be spliced by extending the upper top plate not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) along the foundation. Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 1 foot and 3 feet (305 and 914 mm) from the step in the foundation. See Figure R602.11.2.
  2. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the foundation and the lowest floor framing, the bracing requirements of Sections R602.10.10, R602.10.10.1 and R602.10.10.2 shall apply.
  3. Where only the bottom of the foundation is stepped and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to the foundations, the requirements of Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1 shall apply.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Note: Where footing Section "A" is less than 8 feet long in a 25-foot-long wall, install bracing at cripple stud wall.

FIGURE R602.11.2

STEPPED FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION

Buildings meeting all of the following conditions shall be permitted to be braced in accordance with this section as an alternative to the requirements of Section R602.10. The entire building shall be braced in accordance with this section; the use of other bracing provisions of Section R602.10, except as specified herein, shall not be permitted.

  1. There shall be not more than three stories above the top of a concrete or masonry foundation or basement wall. Permanent wood foundations shall not be permitted.
  2. Floors shall not cantilever more than 24 inches (607 mm) beyond the foundation or bearing wall below.
  3. Wall height shall not be greater than 10 feet (3048 mm).
  4. The building shall have a roof eave-to-ridge height of 15 feet (4572 mm) or less.
  5. Exterior walls shall have gypsum board with a minimum thickness of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) installed on the interior side fastened in accordance with Table R702.3.5.
  6. The structure shall be located where the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58 m/s), and the exposure category is B or C.
  7. The structure shall be located in Seismic Design Category A, B or C for detached one- and two-family dwellings or Seismic Design Category A or B for townhouses.
  8. Cripple walls shall not be permitted in three-story buildings.
The bracing required for each building shall be determined by circumscribing a rectangle around the entire building on each floor as shown in Figure R602.12.1. The rectangle shall surround all enclosed offsets and projections such as sunrooms and attached garages. Open structures, such as carports and decks, shall be permitted to be excluded. The rectangle shall not have a side greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm), and the ratio between the long side and short side shall be not greater than 3:1.

FIGURE R602.12.1

RECTANGLE CIRCUMSCRIBING AN ENCLOSED BUILDING

The following sheathing materials installed on the exterior side of exterior walls shall be used to construct a bracing unit as defined in Section R602.12.3. Mixing materials is prohibited.

  1. Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(3).
  2. Structural fiberboard sheathing with a minimum thickness of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

A bracing unit shall be a full-height sheathed segment of the exterior wall without openings or vertical or horizontal offsets and a minimum length as specified herein. Interior walls shall not contribute toward the amount of required bracing. Mixing of Items 1 and 2 is prohibited on the same story.

  1. Where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed in accordance with Section R602.12.2, including wall areas between bracing units, above and below openings and on gable end walls, the minimum length of a bracing unit shall be 3 feet (914 mm).
  2. Where the exterior walls are braced with sheathing panels in accordance with Section R602.12.2 and areas between bracing units are covered with other materials, the minimum length of a bracing unit shall be 4 feet (1219 mm).
Segments of wall compliant with Section R602.12.3 and longer than the minimum bracing unit length shall be considered as multiple bracing units. The number of bracing units shall be determined by dividing the wall segment length by the minimum bracing unit length. Full-height sheathed segments of wall narrower than the minimum bracing unit length shall not contribute toward a bracing unit except as specified in Section R602.12.6.
Each side of the circumscribed rectangle, as shown in Figure R602.12.1, shall have, at a minimum, the number of bracing units in accordance with Table R602.12.4 placed on the parallel exterior walls facing the side of the rectangle. Bracing units shall then be placed using the distribution requirements specified in Section R602.12.5.

TABLE R602.12.4

MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING UNITS ON EACH SIDE OF THE CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLE
ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph) STORY LEVEL EAVE-TO-RIDGE HEIGHT (feet) MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING UNITS ON EACH LONG SIDEa, b, d MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING UNITS ON EACH SHORT SIDEa, b, d
Length of short side (feet)c Length of long side (feet)c
10 20 30 40 50 60 10 20 30 40 50 60
115 10 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 3
2 3 3 4 5 6 2 3 3 4 5 6
2 3 4 6 7 8 2 3 4 6 7 8
15 1 2 3 3 4 4 1 2 3 3 4 4
2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 4 5 6 7 9 2 4 5 6 7 9
130 10 1 2 2 3 3 4 1 2 2 3 3 4
2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 4 5 7 8 10 2 4 5 7 8 10
15 2 3 3 4 4 6 2 3 3 4 4 6
3 4 6 7 8 10 3 4 6 7 8 10
3 6 7 10 11 13 3 6 7 10 11 13

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447m/s.

  1. Interpolation shall not be permitted.
  2. Cripple walls or wood-framed basement walls in a walk-out condition shall be designated as the first story and the stories above shall be redesignated as the second and third stories, respectively, and shall be prohibited in a three-story structure.
  3. Actual lengths of the sides of the circumscribed rectangle shall be rounded to the next highest unit of 10 when using this table.
  4. For Exposure Category C, multiply bracing units by a factor of 1.20 for a one-story building, 1.30 for a two-story building and 1.40 for a three-story building.

The placement of bracing units on exterior walls shall meet all of the following requirements as shown in Figure R602.12.5.

  1. A bracing unit shall begin not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) from any wall corner.
  2. The distance between adjacent edges of bracing units shall be not greater than 20 feet (6096 mm).
  3. Segments of wall greater than 8 feet (2438 mm) in length shall have not less than one bracing unit.


For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.12.5

BRACING UNIT DISTRIBUTION
The bracing methods referenced in Section R602.10 and specified in Sections R602.12.6.1 through R602.12.6.3 shall be permitted where using simplified wall bracing.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method CS-G in accordance with Tables R602.10.4 and R602.10.5 shall be permitted for one-story garages where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed with wood structural panels. Each CS-G panel shall be equivalent to 0.5 of a bracing unit. Segments of wall that include a Method CS-G panel shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.4.2.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method CS-PF in accordance with Section R602.10.6.4 shall be permitted where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed with wood structural panels. Each CS-PF panel shall equal 0.75 bracing units. Segments of wall that include a Method CS-PF panel shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.4.2.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method ABW, PFH and PFG shall be permitted where bracing units are constructed using wood structural panels applied either continuously or intermittently. Each ABW and PFH panel shall equal one bracing unit and each PFG panel shall be equal to 0.75 bracing unit.
For bracing units located along the eaves, the vertical distance from the outside edge of the top wall plate to the roof sheathing above shall not exceed 9.25 inches (235 mm) at the location of a bracing unit unless lateral support is provided in accordance with Section R602.10.8.2.
Masonry stem walls with a height and length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting a bracing unit or a Method CS-G, CS-PF or PFG braced wall panel shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.9. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) tall and less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick shall be reinforced sized and located in accordance with Figure R602.10.9.
Elements shall be straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect structural performance. Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall be in accordance with the requirements of this section.
The provisions of this section shall control the construction of exterior cold-formed steel wall framing and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing for buildings not more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long perpendicular to the joist or truss span, not more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) wide parallel to the joist or truss span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade plane. Exterior walls installed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be considered as load-bearing walls. Cold-formed steel walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites where the ultimate design wind speed is less than 140 miles per hour (63 m/s), Exposure Category B or C, and the ground snow load is less than or equal to 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa).
Cold-formed steel wall framing for buildings exceeding the applicability limits of Section R603.1.1 are permitted to be designed and constructed in accordance with AISI S230, subject to the limits therein.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel studs constructed in accordance with Section R603 shall be located in-line with joists, trusses and rafters in accordance with the tolerances specified in AISI S240, Section B1.2.3.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall be in accordance with this section.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be cold formed to shape from structural-quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of AISI 240, Section A3..
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall have a protective coating complying with AISI S240, Section A4.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with the dimensional and thickness requirements specified in AISI S230, Section A4.3 and material grade requirements as specified in AISI S230, Section A4.4.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall meet the product identification requirements of AISI S240, Section A5.5.
Screws for steel-to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance and center-to-center spacing of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm), shall be self-drilling tapping and shall conform to ASTM C1513. Structural sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel studs with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to ASTM C1513. Screws for attaching structural sheathing to cold-formed steel wall framing shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board shall be attached to cold-formed steel wall framing with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C954 or ASTM C1513 with a bugle-head style and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. For connections, screws shall extend through the steel not fewer than three exposed threads. Fasteners shall have rust-inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured from material not susceptible to corrosion.
Web holes in wall studs shall comply with the conditions as prescribed in AISI S230, Section A4.5. Web holes not in conformance to the conditions as prescribed in AISI S230, Section A4.5 shall be reinforced in accordance with the provisions of AISI S230, Section A4.6 or patched in accordance with the provisions of AISI S230, Section A4.7.
Exterior cold-formed steel framed walls and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel framed walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Cold-formed steel framed walls shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1 and Figure R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2), R603.3.1(3) or R603.3.1(4). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom tracks. Anchor bolts shall extend not less than 15 inches (381 mm) into masonry or 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete. Foundation anchor straps shall be permitted, in lieu of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.

TABLE R603.3.1

WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b
FRAMING CONDITION ULTIMATE WIND SPEED AND EXPOSURE CATEGORY (mph)
115 B 120 B 130 B or 115 C < 140 B or 120 C 130 C < 140 C
Wall bottom track to floor per Figure R603.3.1(1) 1-No. 8 screw at 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw at 8" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws at 8" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws at 6" o.c. 3-No. 8 screws at 8" o.c. 3-No. 8 screws at 6" o.c.
Wall bottom track to foundation per Figure R603.3.1(2)d 1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 6' o.c. 1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 6' o.c. 1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c. 1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c. 1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 3'-4" o.c. 1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 2'-8" o.c.
Wall bottom track to wood sill per Figure R603.3.1(3) Steel plate spaced at 4' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 4' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 3' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 3' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 2' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 1'-4" o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails

Wind uplift connector strength (lb)c, e

Stud Spacing (inches) Roof Span (feet)    
16 24 NR NR NR NR NR NR
28 NR NR NR NR NR 339
32 NR NR NR NR NR 382
36 NR NR NR NR 333 426
40 NR NR NR NR 368 470
24 24 NR NR NR NR 343 443
28 NR NR NR NR 395 508
32 NR NR NR 330 447 573
36 NR NR NR 371 500 639
40 NR NR 345 411 552 704

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N.

  1. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks, such as at door openings or corners. Bolts are to extend not less than 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete.
  2. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
  3. NR = Uplift connector not required.
  4. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.
  5. See Figure R603.3.1(4) for details.


FIGURE R603.3.1(1)

WALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.1(2)

WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.1(3)

WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R603.3.1(4)

WIND UPLIFT CONNECTOR
Gable endwalls with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1.1(1) or R603.3.1.1(2).

TABLE R603.3.1.1(1)

GABLE ENDWALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c
ULTIMATE WIND SPEED (mph) WALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FLOOR JOIST OR TRACK CONNECTION
Exposure Category Stud height, h (feet)
B C 10 < h ≤ 14 14 < h ≤ 18 18 < h ≤ 22
115 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.
120 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.
130 115 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c.
< 140 120 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c.
130 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 8" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 8" o.c.
< 140 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 8" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 8" o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(2) for gable endwall bottom track to foundation connections.
  2. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
  3. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.

TABLE R603.3.1.1(2)

GABLE ENDWALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c
ULTIMATE WIND SPEED (mph) MINIMUM SPACING FOR 1/2-INCH-DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTSd
Exposure Category Stud height, h (feet)
B C 10 < h ≤ 14 14 < h ≤ 18 18 < h ≤ 22
115 6'- 0" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
120 6'- 0" o.c. 5'- 7" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
130 115 5'- 0" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
< 140 120 6'- 0" o.c. 5'- 6" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
130 5'- 3" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
< 140 3'- 0" o.c. 3'- 0" o.c. 3'- 0" o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(1) for gable endwall bottom track to floor joist or track connection connections.
  2. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
  3. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.
  4. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.

Cold-formed steel walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2) or R603.3.1(3), as applicable. Exterior wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16). Interior load-bearing wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16) based on an ultimate design wind speed of 115 miles per hour (51 m/s), Exposure Category B, and the building width, stud spacing and ground snow load, as appropriate. Fastening requirements shall be in accordance with Section R603.2.5 and Table R603.3.2(1). Top and bottom tracks shall have the same minimum thickness as the wall studs.

Exterior wall studs shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where both of the following conditions exist:

  1. Minimum of 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened on the interior surface in accordance with Section R702.
  2. Wood structural sheathing panels of minimum 7/16-inch-thick (11.1 mm) oriented strand board or 15/32-inch-thick (12 mm) plywood are installed and fastened in accordance with Section R603.9.1 and Table R603.3.2(1) on the outside surface.

Interior load-bearing walls shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where not less than 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R702 on both sides of the wall. The tabulated stud thickness for load-bearing walls shall be used where the attic load is 10 pounds per square foot (480 Pa) or less. A limited attic storage load of 20 pounds per square foot (960 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16).

For two-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one floor, roof and ceiling shall be used where the second-floor live load is 30 pounds per square foot (1440 Pa). Second-floor live loads of 40 psf (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(11).

For three-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one or two floors, roof and ceiling shall be used where the third-floor live load is 30 pounds per square foot (1440 Pa). Third-floor live loads of 40 pounds per square foot (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(12) through R603.3.2(16).


TABLE R603.3.2(1)

WALL FASTENING SCHEDULEa
DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENT NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERSa SPACING OF FASTENERS
Wall stud to top or bottom track 2-No. 8 screws Each end of stud, one per flange
Structural sheathing to wall studs No. 8 screwsb 6" o.c. on edges and 12" o.c. at intermediate supports
1/2" gypsum board to framing No. 6 screws 12" o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
  2. Screws for attachment of structural sheathing panels are to be bugle-head, flat-head, or similar head styles with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch.

TABLE R603.3.2(2)

24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND SPEED AND EXPOSURE CATEGORY (mph) MEMBER SIZE STUD SPACING (inches) MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33