ICC user note:
About this chapter: Chapter 40 addresses the "trim-out" (final) stage of construction in which devices and fixtures are installed and connected to the installed wiring system.
This chapter covers receptacle ratings and installation, lighting fixture installation, construction and location, and grounding of devices and fixtures.
Switches shall be listed and used within their ratings and shall control only the following loads:
- Resistive and inductive loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage involved.
- Tungsten-filament lamp loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at 120 volts.
- Motor loads not exceeding 80 percent of the ampere rating of the switch at its rated voltage.
- Electric discharge lamp loads not exceeding the marked ampere and voltage rating of the switch.
- Electronic ballasts, self-ballasted lamps, compact fluorescent lamps, and LED lamp loads with their associated drivers, not exceeding 20 amperes and not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage applied. [404.14(A)]
Snap switches rated 20 amperes or less directly connected to aluminum conductors shall be marked CO/ALR. [404.14(C)]
General-use and motor-circuit switches and circuit breakers shall clearly indicate in a location that is visible when accessing the external operating means whether they are in the open OFF or closed ON position. Where single-throw switches or circuit breaker handles are operated vertically rather than rotationally or horizontally, the up position of the handle shall be the closed (on) position. [404.7]
Time switches and similar devices shall be of the enclosed type or shall be mounted in cabinets or boxes or equipment enclosures. A barrier shall be used around energized parts to prevent operator exposure when making manual adjustments or switching. (404.5)
Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor. Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers used as service equipment shall comply with the provisions of Section E3609.4. Where nonmetallic enclosures are used with metal raceways or metal-armored cables, provisions shall be made for connecting the equipment grounding conductor.
Nonmetallic boxes for switches shall be installed with a wiring method that provides or includes an equipment grounding conductor. (404.12)
Switches and circuit breakers used as switches shall be located to allow operation from a readily accessible location. Such devices shall be installed so that the center of the grip of the operating handle of the switch or circuit breaker, when in its highest position, will not be more than 6 feet 7 inches (2007 mm) above the floor or working platform. [404.8(A)]
Exception: This section shall not apply to switches and circuit breakers that are accessible by portable means and are installed adjacent to the motors, appliances and other equipment that they supply. [404.8(A) Exception]
A surface mounted switch or circuit breaker located in a damp or wet location or outside of a building shall be enclosed in a weatherproof enclosure or cabinet. A flush-mounted switch or circuit breaker in a damp or wet location shall be equipped with a weatherproof cover. Switches shall not be installed within wet locations in tub or shower spaces unless installed as part of a listed tub or shower assembly. [404.4(A), (B), and (C)]
Switches or circuit breakers shall not disconnect the grounded conductor of a circuit except where the switch or circuit breaker simultaneously disconnects all conductors of the circuit. [404.2(B)]
Three- and four-way switches shall be wired so that all switching occurs only in the ungrounded circuit conductor. Color coding of switch connection conductors shall comply with Section E3407.3. Where in metal raceways or metal-jacketed cables, wiring between switches and outlets shall be in accordance with Section E3406.7. [404.2(A)]
Exception: Switch loops do not require a grounded conductor. [404.2(A) Exception]
General-use snap switches, dimmers and control switches mounted in boxes that are recessed from the finished wall surfaces as covered in Section E3906.5 shall be installed so that the extension plaster ears are seated against the surface of the wall. Flush-type devices mounted in boxes that are flush with the finished wall surface or project therefrom shall be installed so that the mounting yoke or strap of the device is seated against the box.
Screws used for the purpose of attaching a device to a box shall be of the type provided with a listed device, or shall be machine screws having 32 threads per inch or part of listed assemblies or systems, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. [404.10(B)]
Faceplates provided for snap switches, dimmers and control devices mounted in boxes and other enclosures shall be installed so as to completely cover the opening and, where the switch is flush mounted, seat against the finished surface. [404.9(A)]
Snap switches, including dimmer and similar control switches, shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor and shall provide a means to connect metal faceplates to the equipment grounding conductor, whether or not a metal faceplate is installed. Metal faceplates shall be bonded to the equipment grounding conductor. Snap switches, dimmers, control switches and metal faceplates shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor using either of the following methods:
- The switch is mounted with metal screws to a metal box or metal cover that is connected to an equipment grounding conductor or to a nonmetallic box with integral means for connecting to an equipment grounding conductor.
- An equipment grounding conductor or equipment bonding jumper is connected to an equipment grounding termination of the snap switch. [404.9(B)]
- Where a means to connect to an equipment grounding conductor does not exist within the snap-switch enclosure or where the wiring method does not include or provide an equipment grounding conductor, a snap switch without a grounding connection to an equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted for replacement purposes only. A snap switch wired under the provisions of this exception and located within 8 feet (2438 mm) vertically or 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally of ground or exposed grounded metal objects, shall be provided with a faceplate of nonconducting noncombustible material with nonmetallic attachment screws, except where the switch-mounting strap or yoke is nonmetallic or the circuit is protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter. [404.9(B) Exception No. 1]
- Listed kits or listed assemblies shall not be required to be connected to an equipment grounding conductor if all of the following conditions apply:
- The device is provided with a nonmetallic faceplate and the device is designed such that no metallic faceplate replaces the one provided.
- The device does not have mounting means to accept other configurations of faceplates.
- The device is equipped with a nonmetallic yoke.
- All parts of the device that are accessible after installation of the faceplate are manufactured of nonmetallic materials. [404.9(B) Exception No. 2]
- Connection to an equipment grounding conductor shall not be required for snap switches that have an integral nonmetallic enclosure complying with Section E3905.1.3. [404.9(B) Exception No. 3]
General-use dimmer switches shall be used only to control permanently installed incandescent luminaires (lighting fixtures) except where listed for the control of other loads and installed accordingly. Other electronic control switches, such as timing switches and occupancy sensors, shall be used to control permanently connected loads. They shall be marked by their manufacturer with their current and voltage ratings at the voltage approved. [404.14(E)]
A multipole, general-use snap switch shall not be fed from more than a single circuit unless it is listed and marked as a two-circuit or three-circuit switch. [404.8(C)]
Where snap switches are used to control cord-and-plug-connected equipment on a general-purpose branch circuit, each snap switch controlling receptacle outlets or cord connectors that are supplied by permanently connected cord pendants shall be rated at not less than the rating of the maximum permitted ampere rating or setting of the overcurrent device protecting the receptacles or cord connectors, as provided in Sections E4002.1.1 and E4002.1.2. [404.14(F)]
The grounded circuit conductor for the controlled lighting circuit shall be installed at the location where switches control lighting loads that are supplied by a grounded general-purpose branch circuit serving bathrooms, hallways, stairways, and habitable rooms or occupiable spaces as defined in the code. Where multiple switch locations control the same lighting load such that the entire floor area of the room or space is visible from the single or combined switch locations, the grounded conductor shall be required only at one location. A grounded conductor shall not be required to be installed at lighting switch locations under any of the following conditions:
- Where conductors enter the box enclosing the switch through a raceway, provided that the raceway is large enough for all contained conductors, including a grounded conductor.
- Where the box enclosing the switch is accessible for the installation of an additional or replacement cable without removing finish materials.
- Where snap switches with integral enclosures comply with Section E3905.1.3.
- Where lighting in the area is controlled by automatic means.
- Where a switch controls a receptacle load. [404.2(C)]
Effective January 1, 2020, the grounded conductor shall be extended to any switch location as necessary and shall be connected to switching devices that require line-to-neutral voltage to operate the electronics of the switch in the standby mode.
The requirement for connection to switching devices shall not apply to replacement or retrofit switches installed in locations prior to the adoption of Section E4001.15 and where the grounded conductor cannot be extended without removing finish materials. The number of electronic lighting control switches on a branch circuit shall not exceed five, and the number connected to any feeder on the load side of a system or main bonding jumper shall not exceed 25.
Receptacles and cord connectors shall be rated at not less than 15 amperes, 125 volts, or 15 amperes, 250 volts, and shall not be a lampholder type. Receptacles shall be rated in accordance with this section. [406.3(B)]
Where connected to a branch circuit supplying two or more receptacles or outlets, receptacles shall conform to the values listed in Table E4002.1.2. [210.21(B)(3)]
TABLE E4002.1.2 [Table 210.21(B)(3)]RECEPTACLE RATINGS FOR VARIOUS SIZE MULTIOUTLET CIRCUITS
|CIRCUIT RATING (amperes)||RECEPTACLE RATING (amperes)|
|20||15 or 20|
|40||40 or 50|
Receptacles installed on 15- and 20-ampere-rated branch circuits shall be of the grounding type. [406.4(A)]
Receptacles rated at 20 amperes or less and directly connected to aluminum conductors shall be marked CO/ALR. [406.3(C)]
Metal face plates shall be grounded. [406.6(B)]
After installation, receptacle faces shall be flush with or project from face plates of insulating material and shall project a minimum of 0.015 inch (0.381 mm) from metal face plates. Faceplates shall be installed so as to completely cover the opening and seat against the mounting surface.
Receptacle faceplates mounted inside of a box having a recess-mounted receptacle shall effectively close the opening and seat against the mounting surface. [406.5(D), 406.6]
Exception: Listed kits or assemblies encompassing receptacles and nonmetallic faceplates that cover the receptacle face, where the plate cannot be installed on any other receptacle, shall be permitted. [406.5(D) Exception]
Receptacles mounted in boxes that are set back from the finished wall surface as permitted by Section E3906.5 shall be installed so that the mounting yoke or strap of the receptacle is held rigidly at the finished surface of the wall. Screws used for the purpose of attaching receptacles to a box shall be of the type provided with a listed receptacle, or shall be machine screws having 32 threads per inch or part of listed assemblies or systems, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Receptacles mounted in boxes that are flush with the wall surface or project therefrom shall be so installed that the mounting yoke or strap is seated against the box or raised cover. [406.5(A) and (B)]
Receptacles mounted to and supported by a cover shall be held rigidly against the cover by more than one screw or shall be a device assembly or box cover listed and identified for securing by a single screw. [406.5(C)]
A receptacle installed outdoors in a location protected from the weather or in other damp locations shall have an enclosure for the receptacle that is weatherproof when the receptacle cover(s) is closed and an attachment plug cap is not inserted. An installation suitable for wet locations shall also be considered suitable for damp locations. A receptacle shall be considered to be in a location protected from the weather where located under roofed open porches, canopies and similar structures and not subject to rain or water runoff. Fifteen- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking receptacles installed in damp locations shall be listed a weather-resistant type. [406.9(A)]
Where installed in a wet location, 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt receptacles shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof whether or not the attachment plug cap is inserted. An outlet box hood installed for this purpose shall be listed and identified as "extra-duty."
Exception: 15- and 20-ampere, 125- through 250-volt receptacles installed in a wet location and subject to routine high-pressure spray washing need not have an enclosure that is weatherproof when the attachment plug is inserted.
Fifteen- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking receptacles installed in wet locations shall be listed and so identified as the weather-resistant type. [406.9(B)(1)]
Where a receptacle other than a 15- or 20-amp, 125- or 250-volt receptacle is installed in a wet location and where the product intended to be plugged into it is not attended while in use, the receptacle shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof both when the attachment plug cap is inserted and when it is removed. Where such receptacle is installed in a wet location and where the product intended to be plugged into it will be attended while in use, the receptacle shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof when the attachment plug cap is removed. [406.9(B)(2)]
Receptacles shall not be installed within a zone measured 3 feet (90 mm) horizontally and 8 feet (2438 mm) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower stall threshold. The identified zone is all-encompassing and shall include the space directly over the tub or shower stall.
Exception: In bathrooms with less than the required zone, the receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be installed opposite the bathtub rim or shower stall threshold on the farthest wall in the room. [406.9(C)]
In damp or wet locations, the enclosure for a receptacle installed in an outlet box flush-mounted in a finished surface shall be made weatherproof by means of a weatherproof faceplate assembly that provides a watertight connection between the plate and the finished surface. [406.9(E)]
Receptacles shall be enclosed so that live wiring terminals are not exposed to contact. [406.5(I)]
In areas specified in Section E3901.1, 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking-type receptacles shall be listed tamper-resistant receptacles. [406.12]
Exception: Receptacles in the following locations shall not be required to be tamper resistant:
- Receptacles located more than 5.5 feet (1676 mm) above the floor.
- Receptacles that are part of a luminaire or appliance.
- A single receptacle for a single appliance or a duplex receptacle for two appliances where such receptacles are located in spaces dedicated for the appliances served and, under conditions of normal use, the appliances are not easily moved from one place to another. The appliances shall be cord-and-plug-connected to such receptacles in accordance with Section E3909.4. [406.12 Exception]
Receptacle assemblies for installation in countertop surfaces shall be listed for countertop applications. Receptacle assemblies and GFCI receptacle assemblies installed in work surfaces shall be listed for work surface or countertop applications. [406.5 (E) and (F)]
Receptacles shall not be installed in a face-up position in or on countertops surfaces or work surfaces except where the receptacles are listed for countertop or work surface applications. [406.5 (G)]
Luminaires, lampholders, and lamps shall not have energized parts normally exposed to contact. (410.5)
Luminaires shall be installed or equipped with shades or guards so that combustible material will not be subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F). (410.11)
Exposed conductive parts that are accessible to unqualified persons a shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor or be separated from all live parts and other conducting surfaces by a listed system of double insulation. Small isolated parts, such as mounting screws, clips and decorative bands on glass spaced at least 11/2 inches (38 mm) from lamp terminals, shall not require connection to an equipment grounding conductor. Portable luminaires with a polarized attachment plug shall not require connection to an equipment grounding conductor. (410.42)
Lampholders of the screw-shell type shall be installed for use as lampholders only. Where supplied by a circuit having a grounded conductor, the grounded conductor shall be connected to the screw shell. (410.90)
Recessed incandescent luminaires shall have thermal protection and shall be listed as thermally protected. [410.115(B)]
- Thermal protection shall not be required in recessed luminaires listed for the purpose and installed in poured concrete. [410.115(B) Exception No. 1]
- Thermal protection shall not be required in recessed luminaires having design, construction, and thermal performance characteristics equivalent to that of thermally protected luminaires, and such luminaires are identified as inherently protected. [410.115(B) Exception No. 2]
The ballast of a fluorescent luminaire installed indoors shall have integral thermal protection. Replacement ballasts shall also have thermal protection integral with the ballast. A simple reactance ballast in a fluorescent luminaire with straight tubular lamps shall not be required to be thermally protected. [410.130(E)(1), (2)]
Recessed high-intensity luminaires designed to be installed in wall or ceiling cavities shall have thermal protection and be identified as thermally protected. Thermal protection shall not be required in recessed high-intensity luminaires having design, construction and thermal performance characteristics equivalent to that of thermally protected luminaires, and such luminaires are identified as inherently protected. Thermal protection shall not be required in recessed high-intensity discharge luminaires installed in and identified for use in poured concrete. A recessed remote ballast for a high-intensity discharge luminaire shall have thermal protection that is integral with the ballast and shall be identified as thermally protected. [410.130(F)(1), (2), (3), and (4)]
Luminaires that use a metal halide lamp other than a thick-glass parabolic reflector lamp (PAR) shall be provided with a containment barrier that encloses the lamp, or shall be provided with a physical means that allows the use of only a lamp that is Type O. [410.130(F)(5)]
Luminaires installed in wet or damp locations shall be installed so that water cannot enter or accumulate in wiring compartments, lampholders or other electrical parts. All luminaires installed in wet locations shall be marked "SUITABLE FOR WET LOCATIONS." All luminaires installed in damp locations shall be marked "SUITABLE FOR WET LOCATIONS" or "SUITABLE FOR DAMP LOCATIONS." (410.10)
Lampholders installed in wet locations shall be listed for use in wet locations. Lampholders installed in damp locations shall be listed for damp locations or shall be listed for wet locations. (410.96)
Cord-connected luminaires, chain-, cable-, or cord-suspended-luminaires, lighting track, pendants, and ceiling-suspended (paddle) fans shall not have any parts located within a zone measured 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally and 8 feet (2438 mm) vertically from the top of a bathtub rim or shower stall threshold. This zone is all encompassing and includes the space directly over the tub or shower. Luminaires within the actual outside dimension of the bathtub or shower to a height of 8 feet (2438 mm) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower threshold shall be marked for damp locations and where subject to shower spray, shall be marked for wet locations. [410.10(D)]
For the purposes of this section, storage space shall be defined as a volume bounded by the sides and back closet walls and planes extending from the closet floor vertically to a height of 6 feet (1829 mm) or the highest clothes-hanging rod and parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 24 inches (610 mm) from the sides and back of the closet walls respectively, and continuing vertically to the closet ceiling parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 12 inches (305 mm) or the width of the shelf, whichever is greater. For a closet that permits access to both sides of a hanging rod, the storage space shall include the volume below the highest rod extending 12 inches (305 mm) on either side of the rod on a plane horizontal to the floor extending the entire length of the rod (see Figure E4003.12). (410.2)
The types of luminaires installed in clothes closets shall be limited to surface-mounted or recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with completely enclosed light sources, surface-mounted or recessed fluorescent luminaires, and surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires identified as suitable for installation within the closet storage area. Incandescent luminaires with open or partially enclosed lamps and pendant luminaires or lamp-holders shall be prohibited. The minimum clearance between luminaires installed in clothes closets and the nearest point of a closet storage area shall be as follows: [410.16(A) and (B)]
- Surface-mounted incandescent or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source shall be installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling, provided that there is a minimum clearance of 12 inches (305 mm) between the fixture and the nearest point of a storage space.
- Surface-mounted fluorescent luminaires shall be installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling, provided that there is a minimum clearance of 6 inches (152 mm).
- Recessed incandescent luminaires or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source shall be installed in the wall or the ceiling provided that there is a minimum clearance of 6 inches (152 mm).
- Recessed fluorescent luminaires shall be installed in the wall or on the ceiling provided that there is a minimum clearance of 6 inches (152 mm) between the fixture and the nearest point of a storage space.
- Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires shall be permitted to be installed within the closet storage space where identified for this use. [410.16(C)]
Wiring on or within luminaires shall be neatly arranged and shall not be exposed to physical damage. Excess wiring shall be avoided. Conductors shall be arranged so that they are not subjected to temperatures above those for which the conductors are rated. (410.48)
Luminaires shall be wired so that the screw shells of lampholders will be connected to the same luminaire or circuit conductor or terminal. The grounded conductor shall be connected to the screw shell. (410.50)
Luminaires shall not be used as raceways for circuit conductors except where such luminaires are listed and marked for use as a raceway or are identified for through-wiring.
Luminaires designed for end-to-end connection to form a continuous assembly, and luminaires connected together by recognized wiring methods, shall not be required to be listed as a raceway where they contain the conductors of one 2-wire branch circuit or one multiwire branch circuit and such conductors supply the connected luminaires. One additional 2-wire branch circuit that separately supplies one or more of the connected luminaires shall also be permitted. [410.64(A), (B), and (C)]
Luminaires, lampholders and retrofit kits shall not be permitted to be reconditioned. If a retrofit kit is installed in a luminaire in accordance with the installation instructions, the retrofitted luminaire shall not be considered reconditioned.
In a completed installation, each outlet box shall be provided with a cover except where covered by means of a luminaire canopy, lampholder, receptacle that covers the box or is provided with a faceplate, or similar device.(410.22)
Combustible wall or ceiling finish exposed between the inside edge of a luminaire canopy or pan and the outlet box and having a surface area of 180 square inches (1160 mm2) or more shall be covered with a noncombustible material. (410.23)
Luminaires shall be installed so that the connections between the luminaire conductors and the circuit conductors can be accessed without requiring the disconnection of any part of the wiring. Luminaires that are connected by attachment plugs and receptacles meet the requirement of this section. (410.8)
Luminaires and lampholders shall be securely supported. A luminaire that weighs more than 6 pounds (2.72 kg) or exceeds 16 inches (406 mm) in any dimension shall not be supported by the screw shell of a lampholder. [410.30(A)]
Luminaires shall be permitted to be supported by outlet boxes or fittings installed as required by Sections E3905, and E3906. Outlet boxes complying with Section E3906.12 shall be considered lighting outlets as required by Section E3903. [410.36(A)]
Luminaires having exposed ballasts, transformers, LED drivers or power supplies shall be installed so that such ballasts, transformers, LED drivers or power supplies are not in contact with combustible material unless listed for such condition. [410.136(A)]
Where a surface-mounted luminaire containing a ballast, transformer, LED driver or power supply is installed on combustible low-density cellulose fiberboard, the luminaire shall be marked for this purpose or it shall be spaced not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) from the surface of the fiberboard. Where such luminaires are partially or wholly recessed, the provisions of Sections E4004.8 and E4004.9 shall apply. [410.136(B)]
A recessed luminaire that is not identified for contact with insulation shall have all recessed parts spaced at least 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) from combustible materials. The points of support and the finish trim parts at the opening in the ceiling, wall or other finished surface shall be permitted to be in contact with combustible materials. A recessed luminaire that is identified for contact with insulation, Type IC, shall be permitted to be in contact with combustible materials at recessed parts, points of support, and portions passing through the building structure and at finish trim parts at the opening in the ceiling or wall. [410.116(A)(1) and (A)(2)]
Thermal insulation shall not be installed above a recessed luminaire or within 3 inches (76 mm) of the recessed luminaire's enclosure, wiring compartment, ballast, transformer, LED driver or power supply except where such luminaire is identified for contact with insulation, Type IC. [410.116(B)]
Lighting track shall be permanently installed and permanently connected to a branch circuit having a rating not more than that of the track. [410.151(A) and (B)]
Fittings identified for use on lighting track shall be designed specifically for the track on which they are to be installed. Fittings shall be securely fastened to the track, shall maintain polarization and connection to the equipment grounding conductor, and shall be designed to be suspended directly from the track. Only lighting track fittings shall be installed on lighting track. Lighting track fittings shall not be equipped with general-purpose receptacles. [410.151(A) and (B)]
The connected load on lighting track shall not exceed the rating of the track. Lighting track shall be supplied by a branch circuit having a rating not greater than that of the track. [410.151(B)]
Lighting track shall not be installed in the following locations:
- Where likely to be subjected to physical damage.
- In wet or damp locations.
- Where subject to corrosive vapors.
- In storage battery rooms.
- In hazardous (classified) locations.
- Where concealed.
- Where extended through walls or partitions.
- Less than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the finished floor except where protected from physical damage or the track operates at less than 30 volts rms open-circuit voltage.
- Where prohibited by Section E4003.11. [410.151(C)]
Lighting track shall be securely mounted so that each fastening will be suitable for supporting the maximum weight of luminaires that can be installed. Except where identified for supports at greater intervals, a single section 4 feet (1219 mm) or shorter in length shall have two supports and, where installed in a continuous row, each individual section of not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) in length shall have one additional support. (410.154)
Lighting track shall be grounded in accordance with Chapter 39, and the track sections shall be securely coupled to maintain continuity of the circuitry, polarization and grounding throughout. [410.155(B)]