About this code: Because fixture design and quality are paramount to ensure that plumbing fixtures operate properly, Chapter 27 specifies numerous product and material standards for plumbing fixtures. Regulations for locating plumbing fixtures and constructing field-built shower receptors are provided.
Code development reminder: Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IRC—Mechanical/Plumbing Code Development Committee during the 2021 (Group A) Code Development Cycle.
Plumbing fixtures, faucets and fixture fittings shall have smooth impervious surfaces, shall be free from defects, shall not have concealed fouling surfaces, and shall conform to the standards indicated in Table P2701.1 and elsewhere in this code.
TABLE P2701.1PLUMBING FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS
|Air gap fittings for use with plumbing fixtures, appliances and appurtenances||ASME A112.1.3|
|Bathtub/whirlpool pressure-sealed doors||ASME A112.19.15|
|Diverters for faucets with hose spray, anti-syphon type, residential application||ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1|
|Enameled cast-iron plumbing fixtures||ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2|
|Floor drains||ASME A112.6.3|
|Framing-affixed supports for off-the-floor water closets with concealed tanks||ASME A112.6.2|
|Hose connection vacuum breaker||ASSE 1052|
|Hot water dispensers, household storage type, electrical||ASSE 1023|
|Household disposers||ASSE 1008|
|Hydraulic performance for water closets and urinals||ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1|
|Individual automatic compensating valves for individual fixture fittings||ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1|
|Individual shower control valves anti-scald||ASSE 1016/ASME A112.1016/CSA B125.16|
|Macerating toilet systems and related components||ASME A112.3.4/CSA B45.9|
|Nonvitreous ceramic plumbing fixtures||ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1|
|Plastic bathtub units||CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124; ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1|
|Plastic lavatories||CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124|
|Plastic shower receptors and shower stalls||CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124|
|Plastic sinks||CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124|
|Plastic water closet bowls and tanks||CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124|
|Plumbing fixture fittings||ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1|
|Plumbing fixture waste fittings||ASME A112.18.2/CSA B125.2; ASTM F409|
|Porcelain-enameled formed steel plumbing fixtures||ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2|
|Pressurized flushing devices for plumbing fixtures||ASSE 1016/ASME 112.1016/CSA B125.16; CSA B125.3|
|Specification for copper sheet and strip for building construction||ASTM B370|
|Stainless steel plumbing fixtures||ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4|
|Suction fittings for use in whirlpool bathtub appliances||ASME A112.19.7/CSA B45.10|
|Temperature-actuated, flow reduction valves to individual fixture fittings||ASSE 1062|
|Thermoplastic accessible and replaceable plastic tube and tubular fittings||ASTM F409|
|Trench drains||ASME A112.6.3|
|Trim for water closet bowls, tanks and urinals||ASME A112.19.5/CSA B45.15|
|Vacuum breaker wall hydrant-frost-resistant, automatic-draining type||ASSE 1019|
|Vitreous china plumbing fixtures||ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1|
|Wall-mounted and pedestal-mounted, adjustable and pivoting lavatory and sink carrier systems||ASME A112.19.12|
|Water closet flush tank fill valves||ASSE 1002/ASME A112.1002/CSA B125.12; CSA B125.3|
|Whirlpool bathtub appliances||ASME A112.19.7/CSA B45.10|
Plumbing fixtures, other than water closets, shall be provided with approved strainers.
Waste fittings shall conform to ASME A112.18.2/CSA B125.2, ASTM F409 or shall be made from pipe and pipe fittings complying with any of the standards indicated in Tables P3002.1(1) and P3002.3.
Plastic tubular fittings shall conform to ASTM F409 as indicated in Table P2701.1.
Carriers for wall-hung water closets shall conform to ASME A112.6.2.
Slip-joint connections shall be installed only for tubular waste piping and only between the trap outlet of a fixture and the connection to the drainage piping. Slip-joint connections shall be made with an approved elastomeric sealing gasket. Slip-joint connections shall be accessible. Such access shall provide an opening that is not less than 12 inches (305 mm) in its smallest dimension.
The installation of fixtures shall conform to the following:
- Floor-outlet or floor-mounted fixtures shall be secured to the drainage connection and to the floor, where so designed, by screws, bolts, washers, nuts and similar fasteners of copper, copper alloy or other corrosion-resistant material.
- Wall-hung fixtures shall be rigidly supported so that strain is not transmitted to the plumbing system.
- Where fixtures come in contact with walls and floors, the contact area shall be watertight.
- Plumbing fixtures shall be usable.
- Water closets, lavatories and bidets. A water closet, lavatory or bidet shall not be set closer than 15 inches (381 mm) from its center to any side wall, partition or vanity or closer than 30 inches (762 mm) center-to-center between adjacent fixtures. There shall be a clearance of not less than 21 inches (533 mm) in front of a water closet, lavatory or bidet to any wall, fixture or door.
- The location of piping, fixtures or equipment shall not interfere with the operation of windows or doors.
- In flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2, plumbing fixtures shall be located or installed in accordance with Section R322.1.6.
- Integral fixture-fitting mounting surfaces on manufactured plumbing fixtures or plumbing fixtures constructed on site, shall meet the design requirements of ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1 or ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4.
For other than hub drains that receive only clear-water waste and standpipes, a removable strainer or basket shall cover the waste outlet of waste receptors. Waste receptors shall not be installed in concealed spaces. Waste receptors shall not be installed in plenums, attics, crawl spaces or interstitial spaces above ceilings and below floors. Waste receptors shall be readily accessible.
Hub drains shall be in the form of a hub or a pipe that extends not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above a water-impervious floor.
Standpipes shall extend not less than 18 inches (457 mm) and not greater than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the trap weir.
Where a laundry tray waste line connects into a standpipe for an automatic clothes washer drain, the standpipe shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the standpipe trap weir and shall extend above the flood level rim of the laundry tray. The outlet of the laundry tray shall not be greater than 30 inches (762 mm) horizontally from the standpipe trap.
Shower compartments shall have not less than 900 square inches (0.6 m2) of interior cross-sectional area. Shower compartments shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in minimum dimension measured from the finished interior dimension of the shower compartment, exclusive of fixture valves, shower heads, soap dishes, and safety grab bars or rails. The minimum required area and dimension shall be measured from the finished interior dimension at a height equal to the top of the threshold and at a point tangent to its centerline and shall be continued to a height of not less than 70 inches (1778 mm) above the shower drain outlet. Hinged shower doors shall open outward. The wall area above built-in tubs having installed shower heads and in shower compartments shall be constructed in accordance with Section R702.4. Such walls shall form a watertight joint with each other and with either the tub, receptor or shower floor.
- Fold-down seats shall be permitted in the shower, provided that the required 900-square-inch (0.6 m2) dimension is maintained when the seat is in the folded-up position.
- Shower compartments having not less than 25 inches (635 mm) in minimum dimension measured from the finished interior dimension of the compartment provided that the shower compartment has a cross-sectional area of not less than 1,300 square inches (0.838 m2).
The shower compartment access and egress opening shall have a clear and unobstructed finished width of not less than 22 inches (559 mm).
Waste fittings shall conform to ASME A112.18.2/CSA B125.2.
Water supply risers from the shower valve to the shower head outlet, whether exposed or concealed, shall be attached to the structure using support devices designed for use with the specific piping material or fittings anchored with screws.
Individual shower and tub/shower combination valves shall be balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combination balanced-pressure/thermostatic valves that conform to the requirements of ASSE 1016/ASME 112.1016/CSA B125.16 or ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1. Shower control valves shall be rated for the flow rate of the installed shower head. Such valves shall be installed at the point of use. Shower and tub/shower combination valves required by this section shall be equipped with a means to limit the maximum setting of the valve to 120°F (49°C), which shall be field adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions to provide water at a temperature not to exceed 120°F (49°C). In-line thermostatic valves shall not be utilized for compliance with this section.
Hand-held showers shall conform to ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1. Hand-held showers shall provide backflow protection in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1 or shall be protected against backflow by a device complying with ASME A112.18.3.
Where a shower receptor has a finished curb threshold, it shall be not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) below the sides and back of the receptor. The curb shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) and not more than 9 inches (229 mm) deep when measured from the top of the curb to the top of the drain. The finished floor shall slope uniformly toward the drain not less than 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) nor more than 1/2 unit vertical per 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope) and floor drains shall be flanged to provide a watertight joint in the floor.
The adjoining walls and floor framing enclosing on-site built-up shower receptors shall be lined with one of the following materials:
- Sheet lead.
- Sheet copper.
- Plastic liner material that complies with ASTM D4068 or ASTM D4551.
- Hot mopping in accordance with Section P2709.2.3.
- Sheet-applied load-bearing, bonded waterproof membranes that comply with ANSI A118.10.
The lining material shall extend not less than 2 inches (51 mm) beyond or around the rough jambs and not less than 2 inches (51 mm) above finished thresholds. Sheet-applied load bearing, bonded waterproof membranes shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet shall meet the requirements of ASTM D4551. Sheets shall be joined by solvent welding in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Nonplasticized chlorinated polyethylene sheet shall meet the requirements of ASTM D4068. The liner shall be joined in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Shower receptors lined by hot mopping shall be built-up with not less than three layers of standard grade Type 15 asphalt-impregnated roofing felt. The bottom layer shall be fitted to the formed subbase and each succeeding layer thoroughly hot-mopped to that below. Corners shall be carefully fitted and shall be made strong and watertight by folding or lapping, and each corner shall be reinforced with suitable webbing hot-mopped in place. Folds, laps and reinforcing webbing shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in all directions from the corner and webbing shall be of approved type and mesh, producing a tensile strength of not less than 50 pounds per inch (893 kg/m) in either direction.
Liquid-type, trowel-applied, load-bearing, bonded waterproof materials shall meet the requirements of ANSI A118.10 and shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Lining materials shall be sloped 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) to weep holes in the subdrain by means of a smooth, solidly formed subbase, shall be properly recessed and fastened to approved backing so as not to occupy the space required for the wall covering, and shall not be nailed or perforated at any point less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the finished threshold.
Lead and copper linings shall be insulated from conducting substances other than the connecting drain by 15-pound (6.80 kg) asphalt felt or its equivalent. Sheet lead liners shall weigh not less than 4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m2). Sheet copper liners shall weigh not less than 12 ounces per square foot (3.7 kg/m2). Joints in lead and copper pans or liners shall be burned or silver brazed, respectively. Joints in plastic liner materials shall be joined in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Flanged drains shall conform to ASME A112.18.2/CSA B125.2.
Walls in shower compartments and walls above bathtubs that have a wall-mounted showerhead shall be finished in accordance with Section R307.2.
Lavatories shall conform to ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2, ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124.
Cultured marble vanity tops with an integral lavatory shall conform to CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124.
Movable lavatory systems shall comply with ASME A112.19.12.
Water closets shall conform to the water consumption requirements of Section P2903.2 and shall conform to ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124. Water closets shall conform to the hydraulic performance requirements of ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1. Water closet tanks shall conform to ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124. Water closets that have an invisible seal and unventilated space or walls that are not thoroughly washed at each discharge shall be prohibited. Water closets that allow backflow of the contents of the bowl into the flush tank shall be prohibited. Water closets equipped with a dual flushing device shall comply with ASME A112.19.14.
Water closets shall be provided with a flush tank, flushometer tank or flushometer valve designed and installed to supply water in sufficient quantity and flow to flush the contents of the fixture, to cleanse the fixture and refill the fixture trap in accordance with ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1.
An adequate quantity of water shall be provided to flush and clean the fixture served. The water supply to flushing devices equipped for manual flushing shall be controlled by a float valve or other automatic device designed to refill the tank after each discharge and to completely shut off the water flow to the tank when the tank is filled to operational capacity. Provision shall be made to automatically supply water to the fixture so as to refill the trap after each flushing.
Flush valve seats in tanks for flushing water closets shall be not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the flood-level rim of the bowl connected thereto, except an approved water closet and flush tank combination designed so that when the tank is flushed and the fixture is clogged or partially clogged, the flush valve will close tightly so that water will not spill continuously over the rim of the bowl or backflow from the bowl to the tank.
Flush tanks shall be provided with overflows discharging to the water closet connected thereto and such overflow shall be of sufficient size to prevent flooding the tank at the maximum rate at which the tanks are supplied with water according to the manufacturer's design conditions.
Parts in a flush tank shall be accessible for repair and replacement.
Sheet copper used for flush tank linings shall have a weight of not less than 10 ounces per square foot (3 kg/m2).
Electro-hydraulic water closets shall conform to ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1.
Doors within a bathtub enclosure shall conform to ASME A112.19.15.
Bathtubs and whirlpool bathtub valves shall have or be supplied by a water-temperature-limiting device that conforms to ASSE 1070/ASME A112.1070/CSA B125.70, except where such valves are combination tub/shower valves in accordance with Section P2708.4. The water-temperature-limiting device required by this section shall be equipped with a means to limit the maximum setting of the device to 120°F (49°C), and, where adjustable, shall be field adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions to provide hot water at a temperature not to exceed 120°F (49°C). Access shall be provided to water-temperature-limiting devices that conform to ASSE 1070/ASME A112.1070/CSA B125.70.
Exception: Access is not required for nonadjustable water-temperature-limiting devices that conform to ASSE 1070/ASME A112.1070/CSA B125.70 and are integral with a fixture fitting, provided that the fixture fitting itself can be accessed for replacement.
Movable sink systems shall comply with ASME A112.19.12.
A sink equipped with a food-waste disposer shall be provided with a faucet.
The water supply to a dishwasher shall be protected against backflow by an air gap complying with ASME A112.1.3 or A112.1.2 that is installed integrally within the machine or a backflow preventer in accordance with Section P2902.
The combined discharge from a dishwasher and a one- or two-compartment sink, with or without a food-waste disposer, shall be served by a trap of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in outside diameter. The dishwasher discharge pipe or tubing shall rise to the underside of the counter and be fastened or otherwise held in that position before connecting to the head of the food-waste disposer or to a wye fitting in the sink tailpiece.
The discharge from a clothes washing machine shall be through an air break.
Floor drains shall have waste outlets not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter and a removable strainer. Floor drains shall be constructed so that the drain can be cleaned. Access shall be provided to the drain inlet. Floor drains shall not be located under or have their access restricted by permanently installed appliances.
Access shall be provided to circulation pumps in accordance with the fixture or pump manufacturer's installation instructions. Where the manufacturer's instructions do not specify the location and minimum size of field-fabricated access openings, an opening of not less than 12 inches by 12 inches (305 mm by 305 mm) shall be installed for access to the circulation pump. Where pumps are located more than 2 feet (610 mm) from the access opening, an opening of not less than 18 inches by 18 inches (457 mm by 457 mm) shall be installed. A door or panel shall be permitted to close the opening. The access opening shall be unobstructed and be of the size necessary to permit the removal and replacement of the circulation pump.
Leak testing and pump operation shall be performed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
The product shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
The bidet shall be equipped with either an air-gap-type or vacuum-breaker-type fixture supply fitting.
The discharge water temperature from a bidet fitting shall be limited to not greater than 110°F (43°C) by a water-temperature-limiting device conforming to ASSE 1070/ASME A112.1070/CSA B125.70.
Fixture supply valves and faucets shall comply with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1 as indicated in Table P2701.1. Faucets and fixture fittings that supply drinking water for human ingestion shall conform to the requirements of NSF 61, Section 9. Flexible water connectors shall conform to the requirements of Section P2906.7.
Fixture fittings supplied with both hot and cold water shall be installed and adjusted so that the left-hand side of the water temperature control represents the flow of hot water when facing the outlet.
Exception: Shower and tub/shower mixing valves conforming to ASSE 1016/ASME 112.1016/CSA B125.16, where the water temperature control corresponds to the markings on the device.
Faucets and fixture fittings with hose-connected outlets shall conform to ASME A112.18.3 or ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
Individual pressure-balancing in-line valves for individual fixture fittings shall comply with ASSE 1066. Such valves shall be installed in an accessible location and shall not be used as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermostatic or combination shower valves required in Section P2708.4.
Macerating toilet systems shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.
Temperature-actuated mixing valves, which are installed to reduce water temperatures to defined limits, shall comply with ASSE 1017. Such valves shall be installed at the hot water source.
Temperature-actuated, flow-reduction devices, where installed for individual fixture fittings, shall conform to ASSE 1062. Such valves shall not be used as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermostatic or combination shower valves required for showers in Section P2708.4.
Materials, design, construction and performance of nonliquid saturated treatment systems shall comply with NSF 41.