About this chapter: Plumbing fixtures are required to be installed for nearly every building as toilet facilities (water closets and lavatories) are needed by the occupants of a building. Additional fixtures for washing, bathing and culinary purposes are also necessary where occupants dwell in buildings. Chapter 4 specifies the minimum number and type of plumbing fixtures for buildings based on the description of use of the building. Because fixture design and quality are paramount to ensure that plumbing fixtures operate properly, this chapter also specifies numerous product and material standards for plumbing fixtures.
Plumbing fixtures shall be provided in the minimum number as shown in Table 403.1, based on the actual use of the building or space. Uses not shown in Table 403.1 shall be considered individually by the code official. The number of occupants shall be determined by the International Building Code.
(URINALS: SEE SECTION 424.2)
|1||Assembly||Theaters and other buildings for the performing arts and motion picturesd||1 per 125||1 per 65||1 per 200||—||1 per 500||1 service sink|
|Nightclubs, bars, taverns, dance halls and buildings for similar purposesd||1 per 40||1 per 40||1 per 75||—||1 per 500||1 service sink|
|Restaurants, banquet halls and food courtsd||1 per 75||1 per 75||1 per 200||—||1 per 500||1 service sink|
|Casino gaming areas||1 per 100 for the first 400 and 1 per 250 for the remainder exceeding 400||1 per 50 for the first 400 and 1 per 150 for the remainder exceeding 400||1 per 250 for the first 750 and 1 per 500 for the remainder exceeding 750||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
|Auditoriums without permanent seating, art galleries, exhibition halls, museums, lecture halls, libraries, arcades and gymnasiumsd||1 per 125||1 per 65||1 per 200||—||1 per 500||1 service sink|
|Passenger terminals and transportation facilitiesd||1 per 500||1 per 500||1 per 750||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
|Places of worship and other religious servicesd||1 per 150||1 per 75||1 per 200||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
|Coliseums, arenas, skating rinks, pools and tennis courts for indoor sporting events and activities||1 per 75 for the first 1,500 and 1 per 120 for the remainder exceeding 1,500||1 per 40 for the first 1,520 and 1 per 60 for the remainder exceeding 1,520||1 per 200||1 per 150||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
|Stadiums, amusement parks, bleachers and grandstands for outdoor sporting events and activitiesf||1 per 75 for the first 1,500 and 1 per 120 for the remainder exceeding 1,500||1 per 40 for the first 1,520 and 1 per 60 for the remainder exceeding 1,520||1 per 200||1 per 150||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
|2||Business||Buildings for the transaction of business, professional services, other services involving merchandise, office buildings, banks, ambulatory care, light industrial and similar uses||1 per 25 for the first 50 and 1 per 50 for the remainder exceeding 50||1 per 40 for the first 80 and 1 per 80 for the remainder exceeding 80||—||1 per 100||1 service sinke|
|3||Educational||Educational facilities||1 per 50||1 per 50||—||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|4||Factory and industrial||Structures in which occupants are engaged in work fabricating, assembly or processing of products or materials||1 per 100||1 per 100||—||1 per 400||1 service sink|
|5||Institutional||Custodial care facilities||1 per 10||1 per 10||1 per 8||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|Medical care recipients in hospitals and nursing homes||1 per roomc||1 per roomc||1 per 15||1 per 100||1 service sink per floor|
|Employees in hospitals and nursing homesb||1 per 25||1 per 35||—||1 per 100||—|
|Visitors in hospitals and nursing homes||1 per 75||1 per 100||—||1 per 500||—|
|Prisonsb||1 per cell||1 per cell||1 per 15||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|Reformitories, detention centers, and correctional centersb||1 per 15||1 per 15||1 per 15||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|Employees in reformitories, detention centers and correctional centersb||1 per 25||1 per 35||—||1 per 100||—|
|Adult day care and child day care||1 per 15||1 per 15||1||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|6||Mercantile||Retail stores, service stations, shops, salesrooms, markets and shopping centers||1 per 500||1 per 750||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sinke|
|7||Residential||Hotels, motels, boarding houses (transient)||1 per sleeping unit||1 per sleeping unit||1 per sleeping unit||—||1 service sink|
|Dormitories, fraternities, sororities and boarding houses (not transient)||1 per 10||1 per 10||1 per 8||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|Apartment house||1 per dwelling unit||1 per dwelling unit||1 per dwelling unit||—||1 kitchen sink per dwelling unit; 1 automatic clothes washer connection per 20 dwelling units|
|Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer persons||1 per 10||1 per 10||1 per 8||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|One- and two-family dwellings and lodging houses with five or fewer guestrooms||1 per dwelling unit||1 per dwelling unit||1 per dwelling unit||—||1 kitchen sink per dwelling unit; 1 automatic clothes washer connection per dwelling unit|
|8||Storage||Structures for the storage of goods, warehouses, storehouse and freight depots. Low and Moderate Hazard.||1 per 100||1 per 100||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
- The fixtures shown are based on one fixture being the minimum required for the number of persons indicated or any fraction of the number of persons indicated. The number of occupants shall be determined by the International Building Code.
- Toilet facilities for employees shall be separate from facilities for inmates or care recipients.
- A single-occupant toilet room with one water closet and one lavatory serving not more than two adjacent patient sleeping units shall be permitted provided that each patient sleeping unit has direct access to the toilet room and provision for privacy for the toilet room user is provided.
- The occupant load for seasonal outdoor seating and entertainment areas shall be included when determining the minimum number of facilities required.
- For business and mercantile classifications with an occupant load of 15 or fewer, service sinks shall not be required.
- The required number and type of plumbing fixtures for outdoor public swimming pools shall be in accordance with Section 609 of the International Swimming Pool and Spa Code.
To determine the occupant load of each sex, the total occupant load shall be divided in half. To determine the required number of fixtures, the fixture ratio or ratios for each fixture type shall be applied to the occupant load of each sex in accordance with Table 403.1. Fractional numbers resulting from applying the fixture ratios of Table 403.1 shall be rounded up to the next whole number. For calculations involving multiple occupancies, such fractional numbers for each occupancy shall first be summed and then rounded up to the next whole number.
Exception: The total occupant load shall not be required to be divided in half where approved statistical data indicates a distribution of the sexes of other than 50 percent of each sex.
Where plumbing fixtures are required, separate facilities shall be provided for each sex.
- Separate facilities shall not be required for dwelling units and sleeping units.
- Separate facilities shall not be required in structures or tenant spaces with a total occupant load, including both employees and customers, of 15 or fewer.
- Separate facilities shall not be required in mercantile occupancies in which the maximum occupant load is 100 or fewer.
- Separate facilities shall not be required in business occupancies in which the maximum occupant load is 25 or fewer.
For structures and tenant spaces intended for public utilization, customers, patrons and visitors shall be provided with public toilet facilities. Employees associated with structures and tenant spaces shall be provided with toilet facilities. The number of plumbing fixtures located within the required toilet facilities shall be provided in accordance with Section 403 for all users. Employee toilet facilities shall be either separate or combined employee and public toilet facilities.
In occupancies other than covered and open mall buildings, the required public and employee toilet facilities shall be located not more than one story above or below the space required to be provided with toilet facilities, and the path of travel to such facilities shall not exceed a distance of 500 feet (152 m).
Exception: The location and maximum distances of travel to required employee facilities in factory and industrial occupancies are permitted to exceed that required by this section, provided that the location and maximum distance of travel are approved.
A water closet, urinal, lavatory or bidet shall not be set closer than 15 inches (381 mm) from its center to any side wall, partition, vanity or other obstruction. Where partitions or other obstructions do not separate adjacent fixtures, fixtures shall not be set closer than 30 inches (762 mm) center to center between adjacent fixtures. There shall be not less than a 21-inch (533 mm) clearance in front of a water closet, urinal, lavatory or bidet to any wall, fixture or door. Water closet compartments shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width and not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) in depth for floor-mounted water closets and not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width and 56 inches (1422 mm) in depth for wall-hung water closets.
Exception: An accessible children's water closet shall be set not closer than 12 inches (305 mm) from its center to the required partition or to the wall on one side.
Each water closet utilized by the public or employees shall occupy a separate compartment with walls or partitions and a door enclosing the fixtures to ensure privacy.
- Water closet compartments shall not be required in a single-occupant toilet room with a lockable door.
- Toilet rooms located in child day care facilities and containing two or more water closets shall be permitted to have one water closet without an enclosing compartment.
- This provision is not applicable to toilet areas located within Group I-3 housing areas.
Each urinal utilized by the public or employees shall occupy a separate area with walls or partitions to provide privacy. The horizontal dimension between walls or partitions at each urinal shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm). The walls or partitions shall begin at a height not greater than 12 inches (305 mm) from and extend not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the finished floor surface. The walls or partitions shall extend from the wall surface at each side of the urinal not less than 18 inches (457 mm) or to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the outermost front lip of the urinal measured from the finished backwall surface, whichever is greater.
- Urinal partitions shall not be required in a singleoccupant or family/assisted-use toilet room with a lockable door.
- Toilet rooms located in child day care facilities and containing two or more urinals shall be permitted to have one urinal without partitions.
Floor flanges for water closets or similar fixtures shall be not less than 0.125 inch (3.2 mm) thick for copper alloy, 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick for plastic and 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick and not less than a 2-inch (51 mm) caulking depth for cast iron or galvanized malleable iron.
Floor flanges of hard lead shall weigh not less than 1 pound, 9 ounces (0.7 kg) and shall be composed of lead alloy with not less than 7.75-percent antimony by weight. Closet screws and bolts shall be of copper alloy. Flanges shall be secured to the building structure with corrosion-resistant screws or bolts.
Where drinking fountains are required, not fewer than two drinking fountains shall be provided. One drinking fountain shall comply with the requirements for people who use a wheelchair and one drinking fountain shall comply with the requirements for standing persons.
- A single drinking fountain with two separate spouts that complies with the requirements for people who use a wheelchair and standing persons shall be permitted to be substituted for two separate drinking fountains.
- Where drinking fountains are primarily for children's use, the drinking fountains for people using wheelchairs shall be permitted to comply with the children's provisions in ICC A117.1 and drinking fountains for standing children shall be permitted to provide the spout at 30 inches (762 mm) minimum above the floor.
Floor drains shall have removable strainers. The floor drain shall be constructed so that the drain is capable of being cleaned. Access shall be provided to the drain inlet. Ready access shall be provided to floor drains.
Shower compartments shall be not less than 900 square inches (0.58 m2) in interior crosssectional area. Shower compartments shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in least dimension as measured from the finished interior dimension of the compartment, exclusive of fixture valves, showerheads, soap dishes and safety grab bars or rails. Except as required in Section 404, the minimum required area and dimension shall be measured from the finished interior dimension at a height equal to the top of the threshold and at a point tangent to its centerline and shall be continued to a height not less than 70 inches (1778 mm) above the shower drain outlet.
Exception: Shower compartments having not less than 25 inches (635 mm) in minimum dimension measured from the finished interior dimension of the compartment, provided that the shower compartment has not less than 1,300 square inches (0.838 m2) of cross-sectional area.
Floors under shower compartments, except where prefabricated receptors have been provided, shall be lined and made water tight utilizing material complying with Sections 4220.127.116.11 through 418.104.22.168. Such liners shall turn up on all sides not less than 2 inches (51 mm) above the finished threshold level. Liners shall be recessed and fastened to an approved backing so as not to occupy the space required for wall covering, and shall not be nailed or perforated at any point less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the finished threshold. Liners shall be pitched one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) and shall be sloped toward the fixture drains and be securely fastened to the waste outlet at the seepage entrance, making a water-tight joint between the liner and the outlet. The completed liner shall be tested in accordance with Section 312.9.
- Floor surfaces under shower heads provided for rinsing laid directly on the ground are not required to comply with this section.
- Where a sheet-applied, load-bearing, bonded, waterproof membrane is installed as the shower lining, the membrane shall not be required to be recessed.