About this chapter: Codes, by their very nature, are technical documents. Every word, term and punctuation mark can add to or change the meaning of a technical requirement. It is necessary to maintain a consensus on the specific meaning of each term contained in the code. Chapter 2 performs this function by stating clearly what specific terms mean for the purpose of the code.
Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.
ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE. That which conforms to accepted principles, tests or standards of nationally recognized technical or scientific authorities.
[M] ACCESS (TO). That which enables a fixture, appliance or equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first requires the removal or movement of a panel, door or similar obstruction (see "Ready access").
AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. One-way valve designed to allow air to enter the plumbing drainage system when negative pressures develop in the piping system. The device shall close by gravity and seal the vent terminal at zero differential pressure (no-flow conditions) and under positive internal pressures. The purpose of an air admittance valve is to provide a method of allowing air to enter the plumbing drainage system without the use of a vent extended to open air and to prevent sewer gases from escaping into a building.
AIR BREAK (Drainage System). A piping arrangement in which a drain from a fixture, appliance or device discharges indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interceptor at a point below the flood level rim and above the trap seal.
AIR GAP (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of the waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which the waste pipe is discharging.
AIR GAP (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle.
ALTERNATE ON-SITE NONPOTABLE WATER. Nonpotable water from other than public utilities, on-site surface sources and subsurface natural freshwater sources. Examples of such water are graywater, on-site reclaimed water, collected rainwater, captured condensate and rejected water from reverse osmosis systems.
ALTERNATIVE ENGINEERED DESIGN. A plumbing system that performs in accordance with the intent of Chapters 3 through 14 and provides an equivalent level of performance for the protection of public health, safety and welfare. The system design is not specifically regulated by Chapters 3 through 14.
ANCHORS. See "Supports."
ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical devices that eliminate siphonage.
[A] APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency that is regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services, or furnishing product certification where such agency has been approved by the code official.
Backpressure, low head. A pressure less than or equal to 4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10-foot (3048 mm) column of water.
Backsiphonage. The backflow of potentially contaminated water into the potable water system as a result of the pressure in the potable water system falling below atmospheric pressure of the plumbing fixtures, pools, tanks or vats connected to the potable water distribution piping.
BACKWATER VALVE. A device or valve installed in the building drain or sewer pipe where a sewer is subject to backflow, and that prevents drainage or waste from backing up into a lower level or fixtures and causing a flooding condition.
[BS] BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. A reference point, determined in accordance with the building code, based on the depth or peak elevation of flooding, including wave height, which has a 1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of occurring in any given year.
BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures consisting of a water closet, lavatory, bathtub or shower, including or excluding a bidet, an emergency floor drain or both. Such fixtures are located together on the same floor level.
BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of distance, 8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, between the connections of horizontal branches to a drainage stack. Measurements are taken down the stack from the highest horizontal branch connection.
[A] BUILDING. Any structure utilized or intended for supporting or sheltering any occupancy.
BUILDING DRAIN. That part of the lowest piping of a drainage system that receives the discharge from soil, waste and other drainage pipes inside and that extends 30 inches (762 mm) in developed length of pipe beyond the exterior walls of the building and conveys the drainage to the building sewer.
BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that extends from the end of the building drain and conveys the discharge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage disposal system or other point of disposal.
CIRCULATING HOT WATER SYSTEM. A specifically designed water distribution system where one or more pumps are operated in the service hot water piping to circulate heated water from the water-heating equipment to fixture supply and back to the water-heating equipment.
CISTERN. A small covered tank for storing water for a home or farm. Generally, this tank stores rainwater to be utilized for purposes other than in the potable water supply, and such tank is placed underground in most cases.
[A] CODE. These regulations, subsequent amendments thereto or any emergency rule or regulation that the administrative authority having jurisdiction has lawfully adopted.
[A] CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.
COMBINATION FIXTURE. A fixture combining one sink and laundry tray or a two- or three-compartment sink or laundry tray in one unit.
COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A specially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more sinks, lavatories, drinking fountains or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain.
[A] CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENT. All of the written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a building permit. The construction drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale.
CRITICAL LEVEL (C-L). An elevation (height) reference point that determines the minimum height at which a backflow preventer or vacuum breaker is installed above the flood level rim of the fixture or receptor served by the device. The critical level is the elevation level below which there is a potential for backflow to occur. If the critical level marking is not indicated on the device, the bottom of the device shall constitute the critical level.
CROSS CONNECTION. Any physical connection or arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, one of which contains potable water and the other either water of unknown or questionable safety or steam, gas or chemical, whereby there exists the possibility for flow from one system to the other, with the direction of flow depending on the pressure differential between the two systems (see "Backflow").
[BS] DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the "design flood," including wave height, relative to the datum specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO, the design flood elevation shall be the elevation of the highest existing grade of the building's perimeter plus the depth number (in feet) specified on the flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO where a depth number is not specified on the map, the depth number shall be taken as being equal to 2 feet (610 mm).
DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured along the centerline of the pipe and fittings.
DIRECT SUPERVISION. Direct supervision means that the supervising licensed master plumber, journeyman plumber, or residential plumber is physically present at the same physical addresses listed on the permits and where the apprentice is working or no more than five minutes distance from the apprentice.
DRAINAGE FITTING. The type of fitting or fittings utilized in the drainage system. Drainage fittings are similar to cast-iron fittings, except that instead of having a bell and spigot, drainage fittings are recessed and tapped to eliminate ridges on the inside of the installed pipe.
Drainage (dfu). A measure of the probable discharge into the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures. The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time duration of a single drainage operation and on the average time between successive operations.
DRAINAGE SYSTEM. Piping within a public or private premise that conveys sewage, rainwater or other liquid waste to a point of disposal. A drainage system does not include the mains of a public sewer system or a private or public sewage treatment or disposal plant.
DRINKING FOUNTAIN. A plumbing fixture that is connected to the potable water distribution system and the drainage system. The fixture allows the user to obtain a drink directly from a stream of flowing water without the use of any accessories.
EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed in terms of the diameter of a circle or, if the opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. For faucets and similar fittings, the effective opening shall be measured at the smallest orifice in the fitting body or in the supply piping to the fitting.
ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUID. Fluids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene glycol; mineral oil; polydimethylsiloxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbon and carbon refrigerants; and FDA-approved boiler water additives for steam boilers.
FILL VALVE. A water supply valve, opened or closed by means of a float or similar device, utilized to supply water to a tank. An antisiphon fill valve contains an antisiphon device in the form of an approved air gap or vacuum breaker that is an integral part of the fill valve unit and that is positioned on the discharge side of the water supply control valve.
FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture."
Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume, direction of flow or both of water and is either attached to or accessed from a fixture, or is used with an open or atmospheric discharge.
[BS] FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following two areas:
- The area within a flood plain subject to a 1-percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
- The area designated as a flood hazard area on a community's flood hazard map or as otherwise legally designated.
FLOOD LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptacle from which water overflows.
FLOW CONTROL (Vented). A device installed upstream from the interceptor having an orifice that controls the rate of flow through the interceptor and an air intake (vent) downstream from the orifice that allows air to be drawn into the flow stream.
FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes.
FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A valve attached to a pressurized water supply pipe and designed so that when activated, the valve opens the line for direct flow into the fixture at a rate and quantity to operate the fixture properly, and then gradually closes to reseal fixture traps and avoid water hammer.
FULL-OPEN VALVE. A water control or shutoff component in the water supply system piping that, where adjusted for maximum flow, the flow path through the component's closure member is not a restriction in the component's through-flow area.
GRAYWATER. Wastewater that, before being treated or combined with other wastewater, is collected from fixtures within residential, commercial, or industrial buildings or institutional facilities for the purpose of being put to beneficial uses. Sources of graywater are limited to discharges from bathroom and laundry room sinks, bathtubs, showers, and laundry machines. Graywater does not include the wastewater from toilets, urinals, kitchen sinks, dishwashers, or non-laundry utility sinks.
Gravity. Plumbing appurtenances of not less than 500 gallons (1893 L) capacity that are installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept free-floating fats, oils and grease from waste water discharge. Separation is accomplished by gravity during a retention time of not less than 30 minutes.
Hydromechanical. Plumbing appurtenances that are installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept freefloating fats, oils and grease from waste water discharge. Continuous separation is accomplished by air entrainment, buoyancy and interior baffling.
GREASE-LADEN WASTE. Effluent discharge that is produced from food processing, food preparation or other sources where grease, fats and oils enter automatic dishwater prerinse stations, sinks or other appurtenances.
GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE, AUTOMATIC (GRD). A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept free-floating fats, oils and grease from waste water discharge. Such a device operates on a time- or event-controlled basis and has the ability to remove free-floating fats, oils and grease automatically without intervention from the user except for maintenance.
HANGERS. See "Supports."
HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN. A drainage branch pipe extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the discharge from two or more fixture drains or branches and conducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack or to the building drain.
HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with a horizontal plane.
HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 110°F (43°C).
INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system, but that discharges into the drainage system through an air break or air gap into a trap, fixture, receptor or interceptor.
INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank, cesspool or mechanical treatment, designed for utilization apart from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building.
INTERCEPTOR. A device designed and installed to separate and retain for removal, by automatic or manual means, deleterious, hazardous or undesirable matter from normal wastes, while permitting normal sewage or wastes to discharge into the drainage system by gravity.
Expansion. A loop, return bend or return offset that provides for the expansion and contraction in a piping system and is utilized in tall buildings or where there is a rapid change of temperature, as in power plants, steam rooms and similar occupancies.
Mechanical. See "Mechanical joint."
LEAD-FREE SOLDER AND FLUX. Containing not more than 0.2-percent lead.
MACERATING TOILET SYSTEM. An assembly consisting of a water closet and sump with a macerating pump that is designed to collect, grind and pump wastes from the water closet and up to two other fixtures connected to the sump.
MANIFOLD. See "Plumbing appurtenance."
[M] MECHANICAL JOINT. A connection between pipes, fittings, or pipes and fittings that is not screwed, caulked, threaded, soldered, solvent cemented, brazed, welded or heat fused. A joint in which compression is applied along the centerline of the pieces being joined. In some applications, the joint is part of a coupling, fitting or adapter.
MEDICAL GAS SYSTEM. The complete system to convey medical gases for direct patient application from central supply systems (bulk tanks, manifolds and medical air compressors), with pressure and operating controls, alarm warning systems, related components and piping networks extending to station outlet valves at patient use points.
MEDICAL VACUUM SYSTEM. A system consisting of central-vacuum-producing equipment with pressure and operating controls, shutoff valves, alarm-warning systems, gauges and a network of piping extending to and terminating with suitable station inlets at locations where patient suction may be required.
METER. A measuring device used to collect data and indicate water usage.
NONPOTABLE WATER. Water not safe for drinking, personal or culinary utilization.
NUISANCE. Public nuisance as known in common law or in equity jurisprudence; whatever is dangerous to human life or detrimental to health; whatever structure or premises is not sufficiently ventilated, sewered, drained, cleaned or lighted, with respect to its intended occupancy; and whatever renders the air, or human food, drink or water supply unwholesome.
[A] OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building or portion thereof is utilized or occupied.
ON-SITE NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE SYSTEM. A water system for the collection, treatment, storage, distribution and reuse of nonpotable water generated on site, including but not limited to a gray water system. This definition does not include a rainwater harvesting system.
OPEN AIR. Outside the structure.
PLUMBING. The practice, materials and fixtures utilized in the installation, maintenance, extension and alteration of all piping, fixtures, plumbing appliances and plumbing appurtenances, within or adjacent to any structure, in connection with sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities; venting systems; and public or private water supply systems.
PLUMBING APPLIANCE. Water or drain-connected devices intended to perform a special function. These devices have their operation or control dependent on one or more energized components, such as motors, controls or heating elements. Such devices are manually adjusted or controlled by the owner or operator, or are operated automatically through one or more of the following actions: a time cycle, a temperature range, a pressure range, a measured volume or weight.
PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A manufactured device, prefabricated assembly or on-the-job assembly of component parts that is an adjunct to the basic piping system and plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance does not demand additional water supply and does not add any discharge load to a fixture or to the drainage system.
PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptacle or device that is connected to a water supply system or discharges to a drainage system or both. Such receptacles or devices require a supply of water; or discharge liquid waste or liquid-borne solid waste; or require a supply of water and discharge waste to a drainage system.
PLUMBING SYSTEM. A system that includes the water distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; water-treating or water-using equipment; soil, waste and vent pipes; and building drains; in addition to their respective connections, devices and appurtenances within a structure or premises; and the water service, building sewer and building storm sewer serving such structure or premises.
POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the potable water to a degree that does not create a hazard to public health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aesthetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use.
POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming to the bacteriological and chemical quality requirements of the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards or the regulations of the public health authority having jurisdiction.
[M] PRESS-CONNECT JOINT. A permanent mechanical joint incorporating an elastomeric seal or an elastomeric seal and corrosion-resistant grip ring. The joint is made with a pressing tool and jaw or ring approved by the fitting manufacturer.
PRIVATE. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, "private" applies to fixtures in residences and apartments, and to fixtures in nonpublic toilet rooms of hotels and motels and similar installations in buildings where the plumbing fixtures are intended for utilization by a family or an individual.
PUBLIC OR PUBLIC UTILIZATION. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, "public" applies to fixtures in general toilet rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, airports, bus and railroad stations, public buildings, bars, public comfort stations, office buildings, stadiums, stores, restaurants and other installations where a number of fixtures are installed so that their utilization is similarly unrestricted.
PUBLIC SWIMMING POOL. A pool, other than a residential pool, that is intended to be used for swimming or bathing and is operated by an owner, lessee, operator, licensee or concessionaire, regardless of whether a fee is charged for use.
PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe for public utilization controlled by public authority.
RAINWATER. Water from natural precipitation.
[M] READY ACCESS. That which enables a fixture, appliance or equipment to be directly reached without requiring the removal or movement of any panel, door or similar obstruction and without the use of a portable ladder, step stool or similar device.
RECLAIMED WATER. Domestic wastewater that has received secondary treatment by a domestic wastewater treatment works (centralized system or a localized system) and such additional treatment as to enable the wastewater to meet the standards for approved uses.
REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE BACKFLOW PREVENTION ASSEMBLY. A backflow prevention device consisting of two independently acting check valves, internally force-loaded to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means of venting to the atmosphere, internally loaded to a normally open position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and with a means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening of the relief means.
[A] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession, as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.
Pressure relief valve. A pressure-actuated valve held closed by a spring or other means and designed to relieve pressure automatically at the pressure at which such valve is set.
Temperature relief valve. A temperature-actuated valve designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at which such valve is set.
RIM. An unobstructed open edge of a fixture.
ROUGH-IN. Parts of the plumbing system that are installed prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes drainage, water supply, vent piping and the necessary fixture supports and any fixtures that are built into the structure.
SEPARATOR. See "Interceptor."
Public sewer. That part of the drainage system of pipes, installed and maintained by a city, township, county, public utility company or other public entity, and located on public property, in the street or in an approved dedicated easement of public or community use.
SPILLPROOF VACUUM BREAKER. An assembly consisting of one check valve force-loaded closed and an air-inlet vent valve force-loaded open to atmosphere, positioned downstream of the check valve, and located between and including two tightly closing shutoff valves and a test cock.
STORM WATER. Natural precipitation, including snow-melt, that has contacted a surface at or below grade.
[A] STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.
SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting and securing pipe, fixtures and equipment.
SWIMMING POOL. A permanent or temporary structure that is intended to be used for swimming, bathing or wading and that is designed and manufactured or built to be connected to a circulation system. A swimming pool can be open to the public regardless of whether a fee is charged for its use or can be accessory to a residential setting where the pool is available only to the household and guests of the household.
TEMPERED WATER. Water having a temperature range between 85°F (29°C) and 110°F (43°C).
THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION AGENCY. An approved agency operating a product or material certification system that incorporates initial product testing, assessment and surveillance of a manufacturer's quality control system.
THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED. Certification obtained by the manufacturer indicating that the function and performance characteristics of a product or material have been determined by testing and ongoing surveillance by an approved third-party certification agency. Assertion of certification is in the form of identification in accordance with the requirements of the third-party certification agency.
TOILET FACILITY. A room or space that contains not less than one water closet and one lavatory.
VACUUM. Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmosphere.
VACUUM BREAKER. A type of backflow preventer installed on openings subject to normal atmospheric pressure that prevents backflow by admitting atmospheric pressure through ports to the discharge side of the device.
VENT PIPE. See "Vent system."
VENT SYSTEM. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system, or to provide a circulation of air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and backpressure.
VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal.
WALL-HUNG WATER CLOSET. A wall-mounted water closet installed in such a way that the fixture does not touch the floor.
WASTE. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area or appurtenance that does not contain fecal matter.
WATER DISPENSER. A plumbing fixture that is manually controlled by the user for the purpose of dispensing potable drinking water into a receptacle such as a cup, glass or bottle. Such fixture is connected to the potable water distribution system of the premises. This definition includes a freestanding apparatus for the same purpose that is not connected to the potable water distribution system and that is supplied with potable water from a container, bottle or reservoir.
WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe or system of pipes, installed and maintained by a city, township, county, public utility company or other public entity, on public property, in the street or in an approved dedicated easement of public or community use.
WATER OUTLET. A discharge opening through which water is supplied to a fixture, into the atmosphere (except into an open tank that is part of the water supply system), to a boiler or heating system, or to any devices or equipment that require water to operate but are not part of the plumbing system.
Water distribution pipe. A pipe within the structure or on the premises that conveys water from the water service pipe, or from the meter when the meter is at the structure, to the points of utilization.
Water service pipe. The pipe from the water main or other source of potable water supply, or from the meter when the meter is at the public right of way, to the water distribution system of the building served.
Dug. A well constructed by excavating a large-diameter shaft and installing a casing.
WHIRLPOOL BATHTUB. A plumbing appliance consisting of a bathtub fixture that is equipped and fitted with a circulating piping system designed to accept, circulate and discharge bathtub water upon each use.