About this chapter: Storm water and some liquid waste from a building can be a source of nonpotable water that can be used to reduce the volume of potable water supplied to the building. Chapter 13 provides the requirements for storage, treatment and distribution of this resource. This chapter also regulates the piping systems for reclaimed water supplied by a wastewater treatment facility.
The provisions of Chapter 13 shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of systems for the collection, storage, treatment and distribution of nonpotable water. The use and application of nonpotable water shall comply with laws, rules and ordinances applicable in the jurisdiction.
Nonpotable water for each end use application shall meet the minimum water quality requirements as established for the intended application by the laws, rules and ordinances applicable in the jurisdiction. Where nonpotable water from different sources is combined in a system, the system shall comply with the most stringent of the requirements of this code that are applicable to such sources.
Where chlorine is used for disinfection, the nonpotable water shall contain not more than 4 ppm (4mg/L) of chloramines or free chlorine when tested in accordance with ASTM D1253. Where ozone is used for disinfection, the nonpotable water shall not contain gas bubbles having elevated levels of ozone at the point of use.
Exception: Reclaimed water sources shall not be required to comply with these requirements.
Nonpotable water utilized for water closet and urinal flushing application shall be filtered by a 100-micron or fine filter.
Exception: Reclaimed water sources shall not be required to comply with these requirements. Graywater treatment systems installed in accordance with Section 1302.6.1 do not need to meet additional filtration requirements.
Nonpotable water outlets such as hose connections, open ended pipes and faucets shall be identified at the point of use for each outlet with signage that reads as follows: "Nonpotable water is utilized for [application name]. CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER — DO NOT DRINK." The words shall be legibly and indelibly printed on a tag or sign constructed of corrosion-resistant waterproof material or shall be indelibly printed on the fixture. The letters of the words shall be not less than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in height and in colors in contrast to the background on which they are applied. In addition to the required wordage, the pictograph shown in Figure 1301.3 shall appear on the signage required by this section.
Nonpotable distribution piping shall comply with Section 608.8.2 as amended in Rule 1.2(E)(1)(v).
For each room that contains graywater treatment works components, a sign that says "CAUTION GRAYWATER TREATMENT WORKS, DO NOT DRINK, DO NOT CONNECT TO THE POTABLE DRINKING WATER SYSTEM. NOTICE: CONTACT BUILDING MANAGEMENT BEFORE PERFORMING
ANY WORK ON THIS WATER SYSTEM" must be posted on any door providing entrance to the room.
ANY WORK ON THIS WATER SYSTEM" must be posted on any door providing entrance to the room.
Permits shall be required for the construction, installation, alteration and repair of nonpotable water systems. Construction documents, engineering calculations, diagrams and other such data pertaining to the nonpotable water system shall be submitted with each permit application.
Where a potable system is connected to a nonpotable water system, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with Section 608.
The system shall be protected to prevent the entrance of insects and vermin into storage tanks and piping systems. Screen materials shall be compatible with contacting system components and shall not accelerate the corrosion of system components.
Where sustained freezing temperatures occur, provisions shall be made to keep storage tanks and the related piping from freezing.
Nonpotable water storage tanks shall comply with Sections 1301.9.1 through 1301.9.10.
Any storage tank or portion thereof that is above grade shall be protected from direct exposure to sunlight by one of the following methods:
- Tank construction using opaque, UV-resistant materials such as heavily tinted plastic, fiberglass, lined metal, concrete, wood, or painted to prevent algae growth.
- Specially constructed sun barriers.
- Installation in garages, crawl spaces or sheds.
Where collected on site, water shall be collected in an approved tank constructed of durable, nonabsorbent and corrosion-resistant materials. The storage tank shall be constructed of materials compatible with any disinfection systems used to treat water upstream of the tank and with any systems used to maintain water quality in the tank. Wooden storage tanks that are not equipped with a makeup water source shall be provided with a flexible liner.
Exemption. Tanks are not required if the graywater use is comprised of only subsurface irrigation and flows into a mulch basin system, where the mulch basin volume is three times the anticipated average daily flow.
Storage tanks shall be supported on a firm base capable of withstanding the weight of the storage tank when filled to capacity. Storage tanks shall be supported in accordance with the International Building Code.
Where the soil can become saturated, an underground storage tank shall be ballasted, or otherwise secured, to prevent the tank from floating out of the ground when empty. The combined weight of the tank and hold down ballast shall meet or exceed the buoyancy force of the tank. Where the installation requires a foundation, the foundation shall be flat and shall be designed to support the weight of the storage tank when full, consistent with the bearing capability of adjacent soil.
Where installed below grade, storage tank installations shall be designed to withstand earth and surface structural loads without damage and with minimal deformation when empty or filled with water.
Where an uninterrupted supply is required for the intended application, potable or reclaimed water shall be provided as a source of makeup water for the storage tank. The makeup water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with Section 608. A full-open valve located on the makeup water supply line to the storage tank shall be provided. Inlets to the storage tank shall be controlled by fill valves or other automatic supply valves installed to prevent the tank from overflowing and to prevent the water level from dropping below a predetermined point. Where makeup water is provided, the water level shall not be permitted to drop below the source water inlet or the intake of any attached pump.
The storage tank shall be equipped with an overflow pipe having a diameter not less than that shown in Table 606.5.4. The overflow pipe shall be protected from insects or vermin. The overflow drain shall not be equipped with a shutoff valve and shall discharge into the sanitary sewer either directly, or indirectly with a trap in the drain line to keep odors from escaping the tank. A cleanout shall be provided on each overflow pipe in accordance with Section 708.
Not less than one access opening shall be provided to allow inspection and cleaning of the tank interior. Access openings shall have an approved locking device or other approved method of securing access. Below-grade storage tanks, located outside of the building, shall be provided with a manhole either not less than 24 inches (610 mm) square or with an inside diameter not less than 24 inches (610 mm). Manholes shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above ground or shall be designed to prevent water infiltration. Finished grade shall be sloped away from the manhole to divert surface water. Manhole covers shall be secured to prevent unauthorized access. Service ports in manhole covers shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter and shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the finished grade level. The service port shall be secured to prevent unauthorized access.
Exception: Treated-water storage tanks that are less than 800 gallons (3028 L) in volume and installed below grade shall not be required to be equipped with a manhole provided that the tank has a service port of not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter.
Storage tanks shall be provided with a vent sized in accordance with Chapter 9 and based on the aggregate diameter of all tank influent pipes. The reservoir vent shall not be connected to sanitary drainage system vents. Vents shall be protected from contamination by means of an approved cap or U-bend installed with the opening directed downward. Vent outlets shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above grade or as necessary to prevent surface water from entering the storage tank. Vent openings shall be protected against the entrance of vermin and insects in accordance with the requirements of Section 1301.7.
Tanks shall be provided with a means of emptying the contents for the purpose of service or cleaning. Tanks shall be drained by using a pump or by a drain located at the lowest point in the tank. The tank drain pipe shall discharge into the sanitary sewer either directly, or indirectly with a trap in the drain line to keep odors from escaping the tank shall not be smaller in size than specified in Table 606.5.7. Not less than one cleanout shall be provided on each drain pipe in accordance with Section 708.
Each nonpotable water storage tank shall be labeled with its rated capacity. The contents of storage tanks shall be identified with the words "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER — DO NOT DRINK." Where an opening is provided that could allow the entry of personnel, the opening shall be marked with the words, "DANGER — CONFINED SPACE." Markings shall be indelibly printed on the tank or on a tag or sign constructed of corrosion-resistant waterproof material that is mounted on the tank. The letters of the words shall be not less than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in height and shall be of a color in contrast with the background on which they are applied.
Storage tanks shall be tested in accordance with the following:
Storage tanks shall be filled with water to the overflow line prior to and during inspection. Seams and joints shall be left exposed and the tank shall remain water tight without leakage for a period of 24 hours.
- After 24 hours, supplemental water shall be introduced for a period of 15 minutes to verify proper drainage of the overflow system and that there are no leaks.
- The tank drain shall be observed for proper operation.
- The makeup water system shall be observed for proper operation and successful automatic shutoff of the system at the refill threshold shall be verified.
If the owner of an on-site nonpotable water reuse system or rainwater collection and conveyance system elects to cease use of, or fails to properly maintain such system, the system shall be abandoned and shall comply with the following:
- All system piping connecting to a utility-provided water system shall be removed or disabled.
- The distribution piping system shall be replaced with an approved potable water supply piping system. Where an existing potable pipe system is already in place, the fixtures shall be connected to the existing system.
- The storage tank shall be secured from accidental access by sealing or locking tank inlets and access points, or filling with sand or equivalent.
The provisions of ASTM E2635 and Section 1302 shall govern the construction, installation, alteration and repair of on-site nonpotable water reuse systems for the collection, storage, treatment and distribution of on-site sources of nonpotable water as permitted by the jurisdiction. All plumbing systems utilizing nonpotable water reuse systems shall have a reduced pressure backflow preventer device installed at the water service entrance immediately downstream of the building water service shut off valve.
On-site nonpotable water reuse systems shall collect waste discharge from only the following sources: bathtubs, showers, lavatories, clothes washers and laundry trays. Where approved and as appropriate for the intended application, water from other nonpotable sources shall be collected for reuse by on-site nonpotable water reuse systems,
Wastewater containing urine or fecal matter shall not be diverted to on-site nonpotable water reuse systems and shall discharge to the sanitary drainage system of the building or premises in accordance with Chapter 7. Reverse osmosis system reject water, water softener discharge water, kitchen sink wastewater, dishwasher wastewater and wastewater discharged from wet-hood scrubbers shall not be collected for reuse in an on-site nonpotable water reuse system.
Traps serving fixtures and devices discharging waste water to on-site nonpotable water reuse systems shall comply with Section 1002.4.
On-site nonpotable water reuse systems shall utilize drainage piping approved for use in plumbing drainage systems to collect and convey untreated water for reuse. Vent piping approved for use in plumbing venting systems shall be utilized for vents in the gray water system. Collection and vent piping materials shall comply with Section 702.
Collection piping conveying untreated water for reuse shall be installed in accordance with Section 704.
Collection piping conveying untreated water for reuse shall utilize joints approved for use with the distribution piping and appropriate for the intended applications as specified in Section 705.
Collection piping conveying untreated water for reuse shall be sized in accordance with drainage sizing requirements specified in Section 710.
Untreated water collected for reuse shall be filtered as required for the intended end use. Filters shall be provided with access for inspection and maintenance. Filters shall utilize a pressure gauge or other approved method to provide indication when a filter requires servicing or replacement. Filters shall be installed with shutoff valves immediately upstream and downstream to allow for isolation during maintenance. Graywater used for dispersed subsurface irrigation system requires a cartridge filter. The cartridge filter must be a minimum of sixty mesh located between the storage tank and the irrigation system.
Exemption. Filtration is not required for mulch basin subsurface irrigation systems.
Where the intended application for nonpotable water collected on site for reuse requires disinfection or other treatment or both, it shall be disinfected as needed to ensure that the required water quality is delivered at the point of use. Nonpotable water collected on site containing untreated gray water shall be retained in collection reservoirs for not longer than 24 hours.
Graywater used for flushing water closets and urinals shall be disinfected and treated by an on-site water reuse treatment system complying with NSF 350. Graywater used for toilet and urinal flushing shall be dyed with blue or green food grade vegetable dye and be visibly distinct from potable water.
Storage tanks utilized in on-site nonpotable water reuse systems shall comply with Sections 1301.9, 1302.7.1 and 1302.7.2.
Storage tanks shall be located with a minimum horizontal distance between various elements as indicated in Table 1302.7.1.
LOCATION OF NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE STORAGE TANKS
|ELEMENT||MINIMUM HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM STORAGE TANK (feet)|
|Critical root zone (CRZ) of protected trees||2|
|Lot line adjoining private lots||5|
|Streams and lakes||50|
|Public water main||10|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Outlets shall be located not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the bottom of the storage tank and shall not skim water from the surface.
Storage tank for on-site nonpotable systems must include an overflow line without a shut off valve. The overflow line shall be connected to the sanitary sewer indirectly. The overflow line must be the same or larger diameter line than the tank influent line. The overflow line connected indirectly must be trapped to prevent the escape of gas vapors from the tank.
Storage tank for on-site nonpotable systems must be vented. Indoor tanks must be vented to the atmosphere outside the building or connected to the plumbing vent system.
Storage tank for on-site nonpotable systems must include a valved drain. The drain shall be indirectly connected to the sanitary sewer. The tank drainline must be the same or larger diameter line than the tank influent line.
Valves shall be supplied on on-site nonpotable water reuse systems in accordance with Sections 1302.8.1 and 1302.8.2.
One three-way diverter valve listed and labeled to NSF 50 or other approved device shall be installed on collection piping upstream of any graywater treatment equipment, as applicable, to divert untreated on-site reuse sources to the sanitary sewer to allow servicing and inspection of the system. Bypass valves shall be installed downstream of fixture traps and vent connections. Bypass valves shall be marked to indicate the direction of flow, connection graywater treatment works, storage tank and graywater subsurface irrigation systems. Bypass valves shall be installed in accessible locations. Two shutoff valves shall not be installed to serve as a bypass valve. In addition to the bypass valve a series of drainage fittings shall be installed in the collection piping upstream of the bypass valve in a configuration that will allow the graywater from the plumbing fixtures to automatically flow directly into the sanitary sewer system in the event the filter or other parts of the collection system become clogged to the point of not allowing the effluent free flow through the system. The overflow line connected to the sanitary sewer shall be equipped with a backwater valve.
One or more backwater valves shall be installed on each overflow and tank drain pipe. Backwater valves shall be in accordance with Section 714.
Mechanical equipment including pumps, valves and filters shall be easily accessible and removable in order to perform repair, maintenance and cleaning. The minimum flow rate and flow pressure delivered by the pumping system shall be appropriate for the application and in accordance with Section 604.
Where the water pressure supplied by the pumping system exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa) static, a pressure-reducing valve shall be installed to reduce the pressure in the nonpotable water distribution system piping to 80 psi (552 kPa) static or less. Pressure-reducing valves shall be specified and installed in accordance with Section 604.8.
Distribution piping utilized in on-site nonpotable water reuse systems shall comply with Sections 1302.11.1 through 1302.11.3.
Exception: Irrigation piping located outside of the building and downstream of a backflow preventer.
Distribution piping shall conform to the standards and requirements specified in Section 605.
On-site nonpotable water reuse distribution piping systems shall be designed and sized in accordance with Section 604 for the intended application.
On-site nonpotable water distribution piping labeling and marking shall comply with Section 608.9.
Drain, waste and vent piping used for on-site water reuse systems shall be tested in accordance with Section 312.
Storage tanks shall be tested in accordance with Section 1301.9.10.
The testing of makeup water supply piping and distribution piping shall be conducted in accordance with Section 312.5.
The testing of backflow preventers and backwater valves shall be conducted in accordance with Section 312.10.
Inlets and vents to the system shall be inspected to verify that each is protected to prevent the entrance of insects and vermin into the storage tank and piping systems in accordance with Section 1301.7.
The quality of the water for the intended application shall be verified at the point of use in accordance with the requirements of the jurisdiction.
A detailed operations and maintenance manual shall be supplied in hardcopy form with all systems.
The manual shall include a detailed system schematic, and the locations and a list of all system components, including manufacturer and model number.
The manual shall provide a schedule and procedures for all system components requiring periodic maintenance. Consumable parts, including filters, shall be noted along with part numbers.
The manual shall include system startup and shutdown procedures. The manual shall include detailed operating procedures for the system.
The provisions of this section shall govern the construction, installation, alteration and repair of systems supplying nonpotable reclaimed water.
Where the reclaimed water pressure supplied to the building exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa) static, a pressure-reducing valve shall be installed to reduce the pressure in the reclaimed water distribution system piping to 80 psi (552 kPa) static or less. Pressure-reducing valves shall be specified and installed in accordance with Section 604.8.
The design of the reclaimed water systems shall conform to accepted engineering practice.
Distribution piping shall comply with Sections 1304.3.1.1 through 1304.3.1.3.
Exception: Irrigation piping located outside of the building and downstream of a backflow preventer.
Distribution piping conveying reclaimed water shall conform to standards and requirements specified in Section 605 for nonpotable water.
Distribution piping systems shall be designed and sized in accordance with Section 604 for the intended application.
Nonpotable distribution piping labeling and marking shall comply with Section 608.9.
The testing of makeup water supply piping and reclaimed water distribution piping shall be conducted in accordance with Section 312.5.
The testing of backflow preventers shall be conducted in accordance with Section 312.10.