ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Plumbing Code 2018 (IPC 2018)

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About this chapter: Chapter 1 establishes the limits of applicability of this code and describes how the code is to be applied and enforced. Chapter 1 is in two parts: Part 1—Scope and Application (Sections 101102) and Part 2—Administration and Enforcement (Sections 103110). Section 101 identifies which buildings and structures come under its purview and references other I-Codes as applicable. Standards and codes are scoped to the extent referenced (see Section 102.8).


This code is intended to be adopted as a legally enforceable document and it cannot be effective without adequate provisions for its administration and enforcement. The provisions of Chapter 1 establish the authority and duties of the code official appointed by the authority having jurisdiction and also establish the rights and privileges of the design professional, contractor and property owner.

Part 1 Scope and Application

[A] 101.1 Title

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The provisions of this code shall apply to the erection, installation, alteration, repairs, relocation, replacement, addition to, use or maintenance of plumbing systems within this jurisdiction. This code shall regulate nonflammable medical gas, inhalation anesthetic, vacuum piping, nonmedical oxygen systems and sanitary and condensate vacuum collection systems. The installation of fuel gas distribution piping and equipment, fuel-gas-fired water heaters and water heater venting systems shall be regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically adopted.
Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than three stories high with separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with the International Residential Code.

[A] 101.3 Intent

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[A] 101.4 Severability

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Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall govern. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.
Plumbing systems lawfully in existence at the time of the adoption of this code shall be permitted to have their use and maintenance continued if the use, maintenance or repair is in accordance with the original design and hazard to life, health or property is not created by such plumbing system.
Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs related to building or structural issues shall be regulated by the International Existing Building Code.

Plumbing systems, materials and appurtenances, both existing and new, and parts thereof, shall be maintained in proper operating condition in accordance with the original design in a safe and sanitary condition. Devices or safeguards required by this code shall be maintained in compliance with the edition of the code under which they were installed.

The owner or the owner's authorized agent shall be responsible for maintenance of plumbing systems. To determine compliance with this provision, the code official shall have the authority to require any plumbing system to be reinspected.

Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs to any plumbing system shall conform to that required for a new plumbing system without requiring the existing plumbing system to comply with all the requirements of this code. Additions, alterations or repairs shall not cause an existing system to become unsafe, insanitary or overloaded.

Minor additions, alterations, renovations and repairs to existing plumbing systems shall meet the provisions for new construction, unless such work is done in the same manner and arrangement as was in the existing system, is not hazardous and is approved.

It shall be unlawful to make any change in the occupancy of any structure that will subject the structure to any special provision of this code applicable to the new occupancy without approval of the code official. The code official shall certify that such structuremeets the intent of the provisions of law governing building construction for the proposed new occupancy and that such change of occupancy does not result in any hazard to the public health, safety or welfare.
The provisions of this code relating to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, relocation or moving of buildings or structures shall not be mandatory for existing buildings or structures identified and classified by the state or local jurisdiction as historic buildings where such buildings or structures are judged by the code official to be safe and in the public interest of health, safety and welfare regarding any proposed construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, relocation or moving of buildings.
Except as determined by Section 102.2, plumbing systems that are a part of buildings or structures moved into or within the jurisdiction shall comply with the provisions of this code for new installations.

[A] 102.8 Referenced Codes and Standards

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The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed in Chapter 15 and such codes and standards adopted or recognized by the Plumbing Board shall be considered as part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference.
Where conflicts occur between provisions of this code and the referenced standards, the provisions of this code shall apply.
Where the extent of the reference to a referenced code or standard includes subject matter that is within the scope of this code, the provisions of this code, as applicable, shall take precedence over the provisions in the referenced code or standard.
Any requirements necessary for the strength, stability or proper operation of an existing or proposed plumbing system, or for the public safety, health and general welfare, not specifically covered by this code shall be determined by the code official.
The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law.
Reference to chapter section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

Part 2 Administration and Enforcement

Section 103 Department of Plumbing Inspection

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[A] 103.1 General

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[A] 103.2 Appointment

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[A] 103.3 Deputies

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[A] 103.4 Liability

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[A] 103.4.1 Legal Defense

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Section 104 Duties and Powers of the Code Official

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[A] 104.1 General

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[A] 104.2 Applications and Permits

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[A] 104.3 Inspections

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[A] 104.4 Right of Entry

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[A] 104.5 Identification

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[A] 104.6 Notices and Orders

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[A] 104.7 Department Records

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Where there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the code official shall have the authority to grant modifications for individual cases, upon application of the owner or owner's authorized agent, provided that the code official shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code impractical and the modification conforms to the intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements. The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files of the plumbing inspection department.
The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material or method of construction shall be approved where the code official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, not less than the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. Where the alternative material, design or method of construction is not approved, the code official shall respond in writing, stating the reasons why the alternative was not approved.
Supporting data, where necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources.
Where there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternate materials or methods, the code official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction.
Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the code official shall approve the testing procedures.
Tests shall be performed by an approved agency.
Reports of tests shall be retained by the code official for the period required for retention of public records.
Materials, equipment and devices approved by the code official shall be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval.
Materials, equipment and devices shall not be reused unless such elements have been reconditioned, tested, placed in good and proper working condition and approved.

Section 106 Permits

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Any owner, owner's authorized agent or contractor who desires to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish or change the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any plumbing system, the installation of which is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be performed, shall first make application to the code official and obtain the required permit for the work.
Instead of an individual construction permit for each alteration to an already approved system or equipment or appliance installation, the code official is authorized to issue an annual permit upon application therefor to any person, firm or corporation regularly employing one or more qualified tradespersons in the building, structure or on the premises owned or operated by the applicant for the permit.
The person to whom an annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of alterations made under such annual permit. The code official shall have access to such records at all times or such records shall be filed with the code official as designated.

[A] 106.2 Exempt Work

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Each application for a permit, with the required fee, shall be filed with the code official on a form furnished for that purpose and shall contain a general description of the proposed work and its location. The application shall be signed by the owner or owner's authorized agent. The permit application shall indicate the proposed occupancy of all parts of the building and of that portion of the site or lot, if any, not covered by the building or structure and shall contain such other information required by the code official.

Construction documents, engineering calculations, diagrams and other such data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each application for a permit. The code official shall require construction documents, computations and specifications to be prepared and designed by a registered design professional where required by state law. Construction documents shall be drawn to scale and shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that the work conforms to the provisions of this code. Construction documents for buildings more than two stories in height shall indicate where penetrations will be made for pipes, fittings and components and shall indicate the materials and methods for maintaining required structural safety, fire-resistance rating and fireblocking.

Exception: The code official shall have the authority to waive the submission of construction documents, calculations or other data if the nature of the work applied for is such that reviewing of construction documents is not necessary to determine compliance with this code.

Before a permit is issued, the code official shall be authorized to inspect and evaluate the systems, equipment, buildings, devices, premises and spaces or areas to be used.
An application for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has been issued; except that the code official shall have the authority to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding 180 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.
Application for a permit shall be made by the person or agent to install all or part of any plumbing system. The applicant shall meet all qualifications established by statute, or by rules promulgated by this code, or by ordinance or by resolution. The full name and address of the applicant shall be stated in the application.
The application, construction documents and other data filed by an applicant for permit shall be reviewed by the code official. If the code official finds that the proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and all laws and ordinances applicable thereto, and that the fees specified in Section 106.6 have been paid, a permit shall be issued to the applicant.

[A] 106.5.1 Approved Construction Documents

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[A] 106.5.2 Validity

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[A] 106.5.3 Expiration

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[A] 106.5.4 Extensions

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The code official shall have the authority to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

[A] 106.5.6 Retention of Construction Documents

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[A] 106.5.7 Previous Approvals

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[A] 106.5.8 Posting of Permit

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[A] 106.6 Fees

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Any person who commences any work on a plumbing system before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to 100 percent of the usual permit fee in addition to the required permit fees.

[A] 106.6.2 Fee Schedule

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[A] 106.6.3 Fee Refunds

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The code official is authorized to conduct such inspections as are deemed necessary to determine compliance with the provisions of this code. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the code official, and such construction or work shall remain visible and able to be accessed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain visible and able to be accessed for inspection purposes. Neither the code official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to allow inspection.

The code official, upon notification from the permit holder or the permit holder's agent, shall make the following inspections and such other inspections as necessary, and shall either release that portion of the construction or shall notify the permit holder or an agent of any violations that must be corrected. The holder of the permit shall be responsible for the scheduling of such inspections.

  1. Underground inspection shall be made after trenches or ditches are excavated and bedded, piping installed, and before any backfill is put in place.
  2. Rough-in inspection shall be made after the roof, framing, fireblocking, firestopping, draftstopping and bracing is in place and all sanitary, storm and water distribution piping is roughed-in, and prior to the installation of wall or ceiling membranes.
  3. Final inspection shall be made after the building is complete, all plumbing fixtures are in place and properly connected, and the structure is ready for occupancy.
In addition to the inspections specified in Section 107.2, the code official shall be authorized to make or require other inspections of any construction work to ascertain compliance with the provisions of this code and other laws that are enforced.
It shall be the duty of the holder of the permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the code official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code.
Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the code official. The code official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the code official.
The code official is authorized to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, provided that such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reliability.
Prior to the approval of a closed, prefabricated plumbing system and the issuance of a plumbing permit, the code official shall require the submittal of an evaluation report on each prefabricated plumbing system indicating the complete details of the plumbing system, including a description of the system and its components, the basis on which the plumbing system is being evaluated, test results and similar information, and other data as necessary for the code official to determine conformance to this code.
The code official shall designate the evaluation service of an approved agency as the evaluation agency, and review such agency's evaluation report for adequacy and conformance to this code.
Except where ready access is provided to all plumbing systems, service equipment and accessories for complete inspection at the site without disassembly or dismantling, the code official shall conduct the frequency of in-plant inspections necessary to ensure conformance to the approved evaluation report or shall designate an independent, approved inspection agency to conduct such inspections. The inspection agency shall furnish the code official with the follow-up inspection manual and a report of inspections on request, and the plumbing system shall have an identifying label permanently affixed to the system indicating that factory inspections have been performed.
Required test and inspection records shall be available to the code official at all times during the fabrication of the plumbing system and the erection of the building, or such records as the code official designates shall be filed.
Special inspections of alternative engineered design plumbing systems shall be conducted in accordance with Sections 107.3.1 and 107.3.2.
The registered design professional or designated inspector shall periodically inspect and observe the alternative engineered design to determine that the installation is in accordance with the approved construction documents. Discrepancies shall be brought to the immediate attention of the plumbing contractor for correction. Records shall be kept of all inspections.
The registered design professional shall submit a final report in writing to the code official upon completion of the installation, certifying that the alternative engineered design conforms to the approved construction documents. A notice of approval for the plumbing system shall not be issued until a written certification has been submitted.
Plumbing work and systems shall be tested as required in Section 312 and in accordance with Sections 107.4.1 through 107.4.3. Tests shall be made by the permit holder and observed by the code official.

New plumbing systems and parts of existing systems that have been altered, extended or repaired shall be tested as prescribed herein to disclose leaks and defects, except that testing is not required in the following cases:

  1. In any case that does not include addition to, replacement, alteration or relocation of any water supply, drainage or vent piping.
  2. In any case where plumbing equipment is set up temporarily for exhibition purposes.
Equipment, material and labor required for testing a plumbing system or part thereof shall be furnished by the permit holder.
Where any work or installation does not pass any initial test or inspection, the necessary corrections shall be made to comply with this code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to the code official for inspection and testing.
After the prescribed tests and inspections indicate that the work complies in all respects with this code, a notice of approval shall be issued by the code official.
The code official is authorized to, in writing, suspend or revoke a notice of approval issued under the provisions of this code wherever the notice is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure, premise or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.
The code official shall have the authority to authorize the temporary connection of the building or system to the utility source for the purpose of testing plumbing systems or for use under a temporary certificate of occupancy.
A person shall not make connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel, power, water system or sewer system to any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a permit is required until authorized by the code official.

Section 108 Violations

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It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, demolish or utilize any plumbing system, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code.

[A] 108.2 Notice of Violation

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[A] 108.3 Prosecution of Violation

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[A] 108.4 Violation Penalties

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[A] 108.5 Stop Work Orders

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[A] 108.6 Abatement of Violation

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[A] 108.7 Unsafe Plumbing

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[A] 108.7.1 Authority to Condemn Equipment

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[A] 108.7.2 Authority to Disconnect Service Utilities

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[A] 108.7.3 Connection After Order to Disconnect

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Section 109 Means of Appeal

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[A] 109.1 Application for Appeal

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[A] 109.2 Membership of Board

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[A] 109.2.1 Qualifications

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[A] 109.2.2 Alternate Members

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[A] 109.2.3 Chairman

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[A] 109.2.4 Disqualification of Member

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[A] 109.2.5 Secretary

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[A] 109.2.6 Compensation of Members

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[A] 109.3 Notice of Meeting

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[A] 109.4 Open Hearing

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[A] 109.4.1 Procedure

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[A] 109.5 Postponed Hearing

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[A] 109.6 Board Decision

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[A] 109.6.1 Resolution

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[A] 109.6.2 Administration

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[A] 109.7 Court Review

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Section 110 Temporary Equipment, Systems and Uses

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[A] 110.1 General

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[A] 110.2 Conformance

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The code official is authorized to give permission to temporarily supply utilities before an installation has been fully completed and the final certificate of completion has been issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, heat or power in the code.

[A] 110.4 Termination of Approval

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