About this chapter: Chapter 11 applies to existing buildings constructed prior to the adoption of the code and is intended to ensure a minimum degree of fire and life safety to persons occupying existing buildings by providing for alterations to such buildings that do not comply with the minimum requirements of the International Building Code®. The provisions address general fire safety features such as requirements for fire alarm systems in some existing buildings and general means of egress, and include a section dedicated to existing Group I-2 occupancies.
The provisions of this chapter shall not be construed to allow the elimination of fire protection systems or a reduction in the level of fire safety provided in buildings constructed in accordance with previously adopted codes.
OCCUPANCY AND USE REQUIREMENTSa
|High-rise||Atrium or covered mall||Under-ground building||Tire storage||A||B||E||F||H-1||H-2||H-3||H-4||H-5||I-1||I-2||I-3||I-4||M||R-1||R-2||R-3||R-4||S|
R = The building is required to comply.
Existing buildings other than Group R-3, that do not have approved in-building, two-way emergency response communication coverage for emergency responders in the building based on existing coverage levels of the public safety communication systems, shall be equipped with such coverage according to one of the following:
Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above or below the main floor or other level of a building and intended to serve the needs of emergency personnel for fire-fighting or rescue purposes shall be provided with emergency operation in accordance with ASME A17.3.
Elimination of previously installed Phase I emergency recall or Phase II emergency in-car systems shall not be permitted.
In other than Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting three to five stories shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the building in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
In other than Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies, interior vertical openings in a covered mall building or a building with an atrium shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the building in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
An approved fire alarm system shall be installed in existing buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 1103.7.1 through 1103.7.6 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5 unless other requirements are provided by other sections of this code.
Exception: Where each sleeping room has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior egress balcony that leads directly to the exits in accordance with Section 1021, and the building is not more than three stories in height.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in existing Group R-1 hotels and motels throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping rooms not equipped with an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.
Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
Exception: Buildings less than two stories in height where all sleeping units, attics and crawl spaces are separated by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction and each sleeping unit has direct access to a public way, egress court or yard.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in existing Group R-1 boarding and rooming houses throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units not equipped with an approved, supervised sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.
Exception: Buildings equipped with single-station smoke alarms meeting or exceeding the requirements of Section 907.2.11.1 and where the fire alarm system includes not less than one manual fire alarm box per floor arranged to initiate the alarm.
Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling or sleeping unit, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.
Single-station smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring provided that such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery backup shall be connected to an emergency electrical system. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.
Carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in existing Group I-1, I-2, I-4 and R occupancies and in classrooms in Group E occupancies where those units include any of the conditions identified in Sections 915.1.2 through 915.1.6. The carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in the locations specified in Section 915.2 and the installation shall be in accordance with Section 915.4.
Elevators, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a required means of egress.
Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated. The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than 5 footcandles (54 lux). Internally illuminated signs shall provide equivalent luminance and be listed for the purpose.
Where means of egress illumination is provided, the power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises' electrical supply. In the event of power supply failure, illumination shall be automatically provided from an emergency system for the following occupancies where such occupancies require two or more means of egress:
Guards shall form a protective barrier not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high.
Open guards shall have balusters or ornamental patterns such that a 6-inch-diameter (152 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 34 inches (864 mm).
The required capacity of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm). Where this section requires a minimum clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm). The minimum clear opening height of doorways shall be 80 inches (2032 mm).
Revolving doors shall comply with the following:
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS
|POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE SPEED CONTROL
|MANUAL-TYPE SPEED CONTROL
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Corridors serving an occupant load greater than 30 and the openings therein shall provide an effective barrier to resist the movement of smoke. Transoms, louvers, doors and other openings shall be kept closed or be self-closing. In Group I-2, corridors in areas housing patient sleeping or care rooms shall comply with Section 1105.5.
COMMON PATH, DEAD-END AND TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS (by occupancy)
|OCCUPANCY||COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL LIMIT||DEAD-END LIMIT||EGRESS ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMIT|
|Group F-1, S-1||75g||100j||50||50||200c||250c, h, j|
|Group F-2, S-2||75g||100j||50||50||300||400l|
|Group H-1||25||25l||0||0||75||75j, l|
|Group H-2||50||100l||0||0||75||100 j, l|
|Group H-3||50||100l||20||20||100||150j, l|
|Group H-4||75||75l||20||20||150||175j, l|
|Group I-2||Notes d, e, f||Notes d, e, f, j||Note e||Note e||150||200b, j|
|Group I-3||100||100j||NR||NR||150b||200b, j|
|Group M||75||100j||50||50||200||250i, j|
|Group R-1||75||75j, k||50||50||200||250j, k|
|Group R-2||75||125j, k||50||50||200||250j, k|
NR = No Requirements.
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
|CONSTRUCTION TYPE||AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM||ALLOWABLE FLOOR LEVELa|
|1||2||3||4 or more|
P = Permitted; NP = Not Permitted.
|ROOM OR AREA||SEPARATION AND/OR PROTECTION|
|Furnace room where any piece of equipment is over 400,000 Btu per hour input||1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system|
|Rooms with boilers where the largest piece of equipment is over 15 psi and 10 horsepower||1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system|
|Refrigerant machinery room||1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system|
|Hydrogen fuel gas rooms, not classified as Group H||2 hours|
|Incinerator rooms||2 hours and provide automatic sprinkler system|
|Paint shops not classified as Group H||2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic sprinkler system|
|Laboratories and vocational shops, not classified as Group H||1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system|
|Laundry rooms over 100 square feet||1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system|
|Patient rooms equipped with padded surfaces||1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system|
|Physical plant maintenance shops||1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system|
|Waste and linen collection rooms with containers with total volume of 10 cubic feet or greater||1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system|
|Storage rooms greater than 100 square feet||1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system|
|Stationary storage battery systems having a liquid electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons for flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium or VRLA, or more than 1,000 pounds for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer used for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterruptable power supplies||2 hours|
Corridor walls shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor below to one of the following:
Windows in corridor walls shall be sealed to limit the passage of smoke, or the window shall be automatic-closing upon detection of smoke, or the window opening shall be protected by an automatic closing device that closes upon detection of smoke.
Doors in corridor walls shall not include louvers, transfer grills or similar openings.
Doors in corridor walls shall limit the transfer of smoke by complying with the following:
The space around a duct penetrating a smoke partition shall be filled with an approved material to limit the passage of smoke. Air transfer openings in smoke partitions shall be provided with a smoke damper complying with Section 7220.127.116.11 of the International Building Code.
Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper will interfere with the operation of a required smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative protection shall be utilized.
Means of egress doors used for the movement of patients in beds shall provide a minimum clear width of 411/2 inches (1054 mm). The height of the door opening shall be not less than 80 inches (2032 mm).
Refuge areas shall be provided within each smoke compartment. The size of the refuge area shall accommodate the occupants and care recipients from the adjoining smoke compartment. Where a smoke compartment is adjoined by two or more smoke compartments, the minimum area of the refuge area shall accommodate the largest occupant load of the adjoining compartments.
The size of the refuge area shall provide the following:
Areas of spaces permitted to be included in the calculation of the refuge area are corridors, sleeping areas, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas.
Exception: Where existing duct and air transfer openings in smoke barriers exist without smoke dampers, they shall be permitted to remain. Any changes to existing smoke dampers shall be submitted for review and approved in accordance with Section 717 of the International Building Code.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be provided throughout the floor containing the Group I-2 fire area. The sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor where the Group I-2 occupancy is located, on all floors between the Group I-2 occupancy fire area and the level of exit discharge, the level of exit discharge, and all floors below the level of exit discharge.
Exception: Floors classified as an open parking garage are not required to be sprinklered.
Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes in patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such that manual fire alarm boxes are visible, are provided with ready access, and travel distances required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.