About this chapter: Chapter 10 provides the general criteria for designing the means of egress established as the primary method for protection of people in buildings by allowing timely relocation or evacuation of building occupants. Both prescriptive and performance language is utilized in this chapter to provide for a basic approach in the determination of a safe exiting system for all occupancies. It addresses all portions of the egress system (exit access, exits and exit discharge) and includes design requirements as well as provisions regulating individual components. The requirements detail the size, arrangement, number and protection of means of egress components. Functional and operational characteristics that will permit the safe use of components without special knowledge or effort are specified.
The means of egress protection requirements work in coordination with other sections of the code, such as protection of vertical openings (see Chapter 7), interior finish (see Chapter 8), fire suppression and detection systems (see Chapter 9) and numerous others, all having an impact on life safety. Chapter 10 is subdivided into four main sections: general (Sections 1003—1015), exit access (Sections 1016—1021), exit (Sections 1022—1027) and exit discharge (Sections 1028—1029). Special allowances for the unique requirements for assembly spaces (Section 1030) and emergency escape and rescue openings (Section 1031) complete the chapter. Chapter 10 of this code is duplicated in Chapter 10 of the International Fire Code®; however, the International Fire Code contains one additional section on maintenance of the means of egress system in existing buildings.
Section 1010 was extensively reorganized for the 2021 edition. For complete information, see the moved sections table in the preface information for the International Building Code.
The means of egress shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm) above the finished floor.
Protruding objects are permitted to extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Section 1003.2 where a minimum headroom of 80 inches (2032 mm) is provided over any circulation paths, including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress shall be reduced in height by protruding objects.
Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm).
A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance above a circulation path is less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high above the finished floor. The leading edge of such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maximum above the finished floor.
A free-standing object mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or pylon more than 4 inches (102 mm) where the lowest point of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the finished floor. Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (686 mm) maximum or 80 inches (2032 mm) minimum above the finished floor or ground.
Where changes in elevation of less than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps complying with Section 1012 shall be used. Where the difference in elevation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less, the ramp shall be equipped with either handrails or floor finish materials that contrast with adjacent floor finish materials.
The number of occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant per unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004.5. For areas without fixed seating, the occupant load shall be not less than that number determined by dividing the floor area under consideration by the occupant load factor assigned to the function of the space as set forth in Table 1004.5. Where an intended function is not listed in Table 1004.5, the building official shall establish a function based on a listed function that most nearly resembles the intended function.
Exception: Where approved by the building official, the actual number of occupants for whom each occupied space, floor or building is designed, although less than those determined by calculation, shall be permitted to be used in the determination of the design occupant load.
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT
|FUNCTION OF SPACE||OCCUPANT LOAD FACTORa|
|Accessory storage areas, mechanical equipment room||300 gross|
|Agricultural building||300 gross|
|Aircraft hangars||500 gross|
Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.)
Exhibit gallery and museum
|Assembly with fixed seats||See Section 1004.6|
|Assembly without fixed seats|
Concentrated (chairs only—not fixed)
Unconcentrated (tables and chairs)
|Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each lane including 15 feet of runway, and for additional areas||7 net|
|Business areas||150 gross|
|See Section 1004.8|
|Courtrooms—other than fixed seating areas||40 net|
|Day care||35 net|
Shops and other vocational room areas
|Exercise rooms||50 gross|
|Group H-5 fabrication and manufacturing areas||200 gross|
|Industrial areas||100 gross|
Inpatient treatment areas
|Kitchens, commercial||200 gross|
|Locker rooms||50 gross|
|Mall buildings—covered and open||See Section 402.8.2|
Storage, stock, shipping areas
|Parking garages||200 gross|
|Skating rinks, swimming pools|
Rink and pool
|Stages and platforms||15 net|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
For areas having fixed seats and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004.5 and added to the number of fixed seats.
The occupant load of wheelchair spaces and the associated companion seat shall be based on one occupant for each wheelchair space and one occupant for the associated companion seat provided in accordance with Section 1109.2.3.
The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length measured at the backrest of the seating booth.
Yards, patios, occupied roofs, courts and similar outdoor areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chapter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned by the building official in accordance with the anticipated use. Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas.
The capacity, in inches, of means of egress stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant load served by such stairways by a means of egress capacity factor of 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) per occupant. Where stairways serve more than one story, only the occupant load of each story considered individually shall be used in calculating the required capacity of the stairways serving that story.
Doors, when fully opened, shall not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half.
Handrail projections shall be in accordance with the provisions of Section 1014.8. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features shall be permitted to project into the required width not more than 11/2 inches (38 mm) on each side.
Two exits or exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where the design occupant load or the common path of egress travel distance exceeds the values listed in Table 1006.2.1. The cumulative occupant load from adjacent rooms, areas or spaces shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004.2.
|OCCUPANCY||MAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD OF SPACE||MAXIMUM COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL DISTANCE (feet)|
|Without Sprinkler System (feet)||With Sprinkler System (feet)|
|OL ≤ 30||OL > 30|
|Ac, E, M||49||75||75||75a|
|H-1, H-2, H-3||3||NP||NP||25b|
|I-1, I-2d, I-4||10||NP||NP||75a|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NP = Not Permitted.
Machinery rooms larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have not less than two exits or exit access doorways. Where two exit access doorways are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of the room.
Exit and exit access doorways shall swing in the direction of egress travel and shall be equipped with panic hardware, regardless of the occupant load served. Exit and exit access doorways shall be tight fitting and self-closing.
Rooms or spaces having a floor area larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2), containing a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature below 68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two exits or exit access doorways.
Exit access travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 1017.1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. Egress is allowed through adjoining refrigerated rooms or spaces.
Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the International Mechanical Code.
|STORY||OCCUPANCY||MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DWELLING UNITS||MAXIMUM EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE|
|Basement, first, second or third story above grade plane||R-2a, b||4 dwelling units||125 feet|
|Fourth story above grade plane and higher||NP||NA||NA|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NP = Not Permitted.
NA = Not Applicable.
|STORY||OCCUPANCY||MAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD PER STORY||MAXIMUM EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE (feet)|
|First story above or below grade plane||A, Bb, E, Fb, M, U||49||75|
|H-4, H-5, I, R-1, R-2a, c||10||75|
|Second story above grade plane||B, F, M, Sd||29||75|
|Third story above grade plane and higher||NP||NA||NA|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NP = Not Permitted.
NA = Not Applicable.
Where two exits, exit access doorways, exit access stairways or ramps, or any combination thereof, are required from any portion of the exit access, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between them. Interlocking or scissor stairways shall be counted as one exit stairway.
The separation distance required in Section 1007.1.1 shall be measured in accordance with the following:
The means of egress serving a room or space shall be illuminated at all times that the room or space is occupied.
The means of egress illumination level shall be not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface. Along exit access stairways, exit stairways and at their required landings, the illumination level shall not be less than 10 footcandles (108 lux) at the walking surface when the stairway is in use.
Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the walking surface is permitted to be reduced during performances by one of the following methods provided that the required illumination is automatically restored upon activation of a premises' fire alarm system:
In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:
Accessible means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible means of egress. Where more than one means of egress is required by Section 1006.2 or 1006.3 from any accessible space, each accessible portion of the space shall be served by not less than two accessible means of egress.
Where the exit discharge does not include an accessible route from an exit located on the level of exit discharge to a public way, an exterior area of assisted rescue shall be provided on the exterior landing in accordance with Sections 1009.7.1 through 1009.7.4.
Exterior walls separating the exterior area of assisted rescue from the interior of the building shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour, rated for exposure to fire from the inside. The fire-resistance-rated exterior wall construction shall extend horizontally not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) beyond the landing on either side of the landing or equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction is permitted to extend out perpendicular to the exterior wall not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) on the side of the landing. The fire-resistance-rated construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor level of the area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower. Openings within such fire-resistance-rated exterior walls shall be protected in accordance with Section 716.
Exception: The fire-resistance rating and opening protectives are not required in the exterior wall where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
Exception: The minimum clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails is not required at stairways serving buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
Signage indicating special accessibility provisions shall be provided as shown:
Signage shall comply with the ICC A117.1 requirements for visual characters and include the International Symbol of Accessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by Section 1013.3, the signs shall be illuminated. Additionally, visual characters, raised character and braille signage complying with ICC A117.1 shall be located at each door to an area of refuge and exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Section 1013.4.
Doors in the means of egressshall comply with the requirements of Sections 1010.1.1 through 1010.3.4. Exterior exit doors shall also comply with the requirements of Section 1022.2. Gates in the means of egress shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1010.4 and 1010.4.1. Turnstiles in the means of egress shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1010.5 through 1010.5.4.
Doors, gates and turnstiles provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than required by this code shall comply with the requirements of this section.
Doors in themeans of egress shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials.
The required capacity of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm). The clear opening width of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). Where this section requires a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm). In Group I-2, doors serving as means of egress doors where used for the movement of beds shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 411/2 inches (1054 mm). The minimum clear opening height of doors shall be not less than 80 inches (2032 mm).
There shall not be projections into the required clear opening width lower than 34 inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm).
Exception: Door closers, overhead door stops, power door operators, and electromagnetic door locks shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the floor.
Egress doors shall be of the side-hinged swinging door, pivoted door, or balanced door types.
The forces to unlatch doors shall comply with the following:
There shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope).
Landings shall have a width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Where a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in any position shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm).
Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) in height above the finished floor or landing for sliding doors serving dwelling units or 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) above the finished floor or landing for other doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes greater than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent slope).
Space between two doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in a series shall swing either in the same direction or away from the space between the doors.
The unlatching of any door or leaf for egress shall require not more than one motion in a single linear or rotational direction to release all latching and all locking devices.
Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices shall be installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks used only for security purposes and not used for normal operation are permitted at any height.
Exception: Access doors or gates in barrier walls and fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall be permitted to have operable parts of the latch release on self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finished floor or ground, provided that the self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices operated by means of a key, electronic opener or integral combination lock.
Locks and latches shall be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of the following exist:
Manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts are not permitted.
In Group E occupancies, Group B educational occupancies and Group I-4 occupancies, egress doors from classrooms, offices and other occupied rooms with locking arrangements designed to keep intruders from entering the room shall comply with all of the following conditions:
Where panic or fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the following:
Delayed egress locking systems shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving the following occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.
The delayed egress locking system shall be installed and operated in accordance with all of the following:
Electric locking systems, including electro-mechanical locking systems and electromagnetic locking systems, shall be permitted to be locked in the means of egress in Group I-1 or I-2 occupancies where the clinical needs of persons receiving care require their containment. Controlled egress doors shall be permitted in such occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, provided that the doors are installed and operate in accordance with all of the following:
In buildings within correctional and detention facilities, doors in means of egress serving rooms or spaces occupied by persons whose movements are controlled for security reasons shall be permitted to be locked where equipped with egress control devices that shall unlock manually and by not less than one of the following means:
Revolving doors shall comply with the following:
MAXIMUM DOOR SPEED MANUAL REVOLVING DOORS
|REVOLVING DOOR MAXIMUM NOMINAL DIAMETER (FT-IN)||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE REVOLVING DOOR SPEED (RPM)|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
MAXIMUM DOOR SPEED AUTOMATIC OR POWER-OPERATED REVOLVING DOORS
|REVOLVING DOOR MAXIMUM NOMINAL DIAMETER (FT-IN)||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE REVOLVING DOOR SPEED (RPM)|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
A revolving door used as other than a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1010.3.1. The breakout force of a revolving door not used as a component of a means of egress shall not be more than 180 pounds (801 N).
Where means of egress doors are operated or assisted by power, the design shall be such that in the event of power failure, the door is capable of being opened manually to permit means of egress travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. The forces required to open these doors manually shall not exceed those specified in Section 1010.1.3, except that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of opening from any position to the full width of the opening in which such door is installed when a force is applied to the door on the side from which egress is made. Power-operated swinging doors, power-operated sliding doors and power-operated folding doors shall comply with BHMA A156.10. Power-assisted swinging doors and low-energy power-operated swinging doors shall comply with BHMA A156.19. Low-energy power-operated sliding doors and low-energy power-operated folding doors shall comply with BHMA A156.38.
Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium.
Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited with a capacity based on not more than a 50-person occupant load where all of the following provisions are met:
Security access turnstiles that inhibit travel in the direction of egress utilizing a physical barrier shall be permitted to be considered as a component of the means of egress, provided that all of the following criteria are met:
Exception: A side-hinged swinging door is not required at security access turnstiles that comply with Section 1010.5.2.
Stairways serving occupied portions of a building shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1011.2 through 1011.13. Alternating tread devices shall comply with Section 1011.14. Ship's ladders shall comply with Section 1011.15. Ladders shall comply with Section 1011.16.
Stairways shall have a headroom clearance of not less than 80 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the full width of the stairway and landing.
Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the nosings of adjacent treads or between the stairway landing and the adjacent tread. Rectangular tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread's nosing. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 11 inches (279 mm) between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the intersections with the walkline and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) within the clear width of the stair.
Stair treads and risers shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between the largest and smallest riser height or between the largest and smallest tread depth shall not exceed 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) in any flight of stairs. The greatest winder tread depth at the walkline within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).
There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings, measured perpendicularly to the direction of travel, shall be not less than the width of stairways served. Every landing shall have a minimum depth, measured parallel to the direction of travel, equal to the width of the stairway or 48 inches (1219 mm), whichever is less. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half the required width. When fully open, the door shall not project more than 7 inches (178 mm) into the required width of a landing. Where wheelchair spaces are required on the stairway landing in accordance with Section 1009.6.3, the wheelchair space shall not be located in the required width of the landing and doors shall not swing over the wheelchair spaces.
Stairways shall be built of materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of construction of the building.
The walls and soffits within enclosed usable spaces under enclosed and unenclosed stairways shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or the fire-resistance rating of the stairway enclosure, whichever is greater. Access to the enclosed space shall not be directly from within the stairway enclosure.
Curved stairways with winder treads shall have treads and risers in accordance with Section 1011.5 and the smallest radius shall be not less than twice the minimum width or required capacity of the stairway.
Spiral stairways are permitted to be used as a component in the means of egress only within dwelling units or from a space not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area and serving not more than five occupants, or from technical production areas in accordance with Section 410.5.
A spiral stairway shall have a 63/4-inch (171 mm) minimum clear tread depth at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrow edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 78 inches (1981 mm) minimum, but riser height shall not be more than 91/2 inches (241 mm). The minimum stairway clear width at and below the handrail shall be 26 inches (660 mm).
In buildings four or more stories above grade plane, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface unless the roof has a slope steeper than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope).
Exception: Other than where required by Section 1011.12.1, in buildings without an occupied roof access to the roof from the top story shall be permitted to be by an alternating tread device, a ships ladder or a permanent ladder.
Exception: In buildings without an occupied roof, access to the roof shall be permitted to be a roof hatch or trap door not less than 16 square feet (1.5 m2) in area and having a minimum dimension of 2 feet (610 mm).
Alternating tread devices shall have a minimum tread depth of 5 inches (127 mm), a minimum projected tread depth of 81/2 inches (216 mm), a minimum tread width of 7 inches (178 mm) and a maximum riser height of 91/2 inches (241 mm). The tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projections of adjacent treads. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent treads. The riser height and tread depth provided shall result in an angle of ascent from the horizontal of between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad). The initial tread of the device shall begin at the same elevation as the platform, landing or floor surface.
Exception: Alternating tread devices used as an element of a means of egress in buildings from a mezzanine area not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area that serves not more than five occupants shall have a minimum tread depth of 3 inches (76 mm) with a minimum projected tread depth of 101/2 inches (267 mm). The rise to the next alternating tread surface shall not exceed 8 inches (203 mm).
Permanent ladders shall not serve as a part of the means of egress from occupied spaces within a building. Permanent ladders shall be constructed in accordance with Section 306.5 of the International Mechanical Code and designed for the live loads indicated in Section 1607.17. Permanent ladders shall be permitted to provide access to the following areas:
The landing length shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum.
Where changes in direction of travel occur at landings provided between ramp runs, the landing shall be 60 inches by 60 inches (1524 mm by 1524 mm) minimum.
Exception: In Group R-2 and R-3 individual dwelling or sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units in accordance with Section 1108, landings are permitted to be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) minimum.
Exits and exit access doors shall be marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direction of egress travel. The path of egress travel to exits and within exits shall be marked by readily visible exit signs to clearly indicate the direction of egress travel in cases where the exit or the path of egress travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Intervening means of egress doors within exits shall be marked by exit signs. Exit sign placement shall be such that any point in an exit access corridor or exit passageway is within 100 feet (30 480 mm) or the listed viewing distance of the sign, whichever is less, from the nearest visible exit sign.
Where exit signs are required in Group R-1 occupancies by Section 1013.1, additional low-level exit signs shall be provided in all areas serving guest rooms in Group R-1 occupancies and shall comply with Section 1013.5.
The bottom of the sign shall be not less than 10 inches (254 mm) nor more than 18 inches (455 mm) above the floor level. The sign shall be flush mounted to the door or wall. Where mounted on the wall, the edge of the sign shall be within 4 inches (102 mm) of the door frame on the latch side.
Every exit sign and directional exit sign shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) wide. The word "EXIT" shall have letters having a width not less than 2 inches (51 mm) wide, except the letter "I," and the minimum spacing between letters shall be not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Signs larger than the minimum established in this section shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height.
The word "EXIT" shall be in high contrast with the background and shall be clearly discernible when the means of exit sign illumination is or is not energized. If a chevron directional indicator is provided as part of the exit sign, the construction shall be such that the direction of the chevron directional indicator cannot be readily changed.
Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. To ensure continued illumination for a duration of not less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the sign illumination means shall be connected to an emergency power system provided from storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Chapter 27. Group I-2, Condition 2 exit sign illumination shall not be provided by unit equipment batteries only.
Exception: Approved exit sign illumination types that provide continuous illumination independent of external power sources for a duration of not less than 90 minutes, in case of primary power loss, are not required to be connected to an emergency electrical system.
Handrail height, measured above stair tread nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be uniform, not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm). Handrail height of alternating tread devices and ships ladders, measured above tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more than 34 inches (864 mm).
Exception: In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; handrails shall be Type I in accordance with Section 1014.3.1, Type II in accordance with Section 1014.3.2 or shall provide equivalent graspability.
Handrail gripping surfaces shall be continuous, without interruption by newel posts or other obstructions.
Handrails shall return to a wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent flight of stairs or ramp run. Where handrails are not continuous between flights, the handrails shall extend horizontally not less than 12 inches (305 mm) beyond the top riser and continue to slope for the depth of one tread beyond the bottom riser. At ramps where handrails are not continuous between runs, the handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the top and bottom of ramp runs. The extensions of handrails shall be in the same direction of the flights of stairs at stairways and the ramp runs at ramps.
Guards shall be located along open-sided walking surfaces, including mezzanines, equipment platforms, aisles, stairs, ramps and landings that are located more than 30 inches (762 mm) measured vertically to the floor or grade below at any point within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally to the edge of the open side. Guards shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 1607.9.
Exceptions: Guards are not required for the following locations:
Required guards shall be not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, measured vertically as follows:
Guards shall be provided where various components that require service are located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) beyond each end of such components. The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter.
Exception: Guards are not required where personal fall arrest anchorage connector devices that comply with ANSI/ASSE Z 359.1 are installed.
Guards shall be provided where the roof hatch opening is located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) beyond each end of the hatch parallel to the roof edge. The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter.
Exception: Guards are not required where personal fall arrest anchorage connector devices that comply with ANSI/ASSE Z 359.1 are installed.
Windows in Group R-2 and R-3 buildings including dwelling units, where the bottom of the clear opening of an operable window is located less than 36 inches (914 mm) above the finished floor and more than 72 inches (1829 mm) above the finished grade or other surface below on the exterior of the building, shall comply with one of the following:
Egress through intervening spaces shall comply with this section.
Where more than one tenant occupies any one floor of a building or structure, each tenant space, dwelling unit and sleeping unit shall be provided with access to the required exits without passing through adjacent tenant spaces, dwelling units and sleeping units.
Exception: The means of egress from a smaller tenant space shall not be prohibited from passing through a larger adjoining tenant space where such rooms or spaces of the smaller tenant occupy less than 10 percent of the area of the larger tenant space through which they pass; are the same or similar occupancy group; a discernible path of egress travel to an exit is provided; and the means of egress into the adjoining space is not subject to locking from the egress side. A required means of egress serving the larger tenant space shall not pass through the smaller tenant space or spaces.
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCEa
|OCCUPANCY||WITHOUT SPRINKLER SYSTEM (feet)||WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM (feet)|
|A, E, F-1, M, R, S-1||200e||250b|
|F-2, S-2, U||300||400c|
|I-2, I-3||Not Permitted||200c|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Exit access travel distance shall be measured from the most remote point of each room, area or space along the natural and unobstructed path of horizontal and vertical egress travel to the entrance to an exit. Where more than one exit is required, exit access travel distance shall be measured to the nearest exit.
Aisles and aisle accessways serving as a portion of the exit access in the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Aisles or aisle accessways shall be provided from all occupied portions of the exit access that contain seats, tables, furnishings, displays and similar fixtures or equipment. The minimum width or required capacity of aisles shall be unobstructed.
Exception: Encroachments complying with Section 1005.7.
In Group B and M occupancies, the minimum clear aisle width shall be determined by Section 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but shall be not less than that required for corridors by Section 1020.3.
An aisle accessway shall be provided on not less than one side of each element within the merchandise pad. The minimum clear width for an aisle accessway not required to be accessible shall be 30 inches (762 mm). The required clear width of the aisle accessway shall be measured perpendicular to the elements and merchandise within the merchandise pad. The 30-inch (762 mm) minimum clear width shall be maintained to provide a path to an adjacent aisle or aisle accessway. The common path of egress travel shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any point in the merchandise pad.
In other than rooms or spaces used for assembly purposes and Group B and M occupancies, the minimum clear aisle capacity shall be determined by Section 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but the width shall be not less than that required for corridors by Section 1020.3.
In Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies, floor openings between stories containing exit access stairways or ramps are required to be enclosed with a shaft enclosure constructed in accordance with Section 713.
|OCCUPANCY||OCCUPANT LOAD SERVED BY CORRIDOR||REQUIRED FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)|
|Without sprinkler system||With sprinkler system|
|H-1, H-2, H-3||All||Not Permitted||1c|
|H-4, H-5||Greater than 30||Not Permitted||1c|
|A, B, E, F, M, S, U||Greater than 30||1||0|
|R||Greater than 10||Not Permitted||0.5c/1d|
|I-1, I-3||All||Not Permitted||1b, c|
Exception: In Group I-2 occupancies, corridors are not required to have a clear width of 96 inches (2438 mm) in areas where there will not be stretcher or bed movement for access to care or as part of the defend-in-place strategy.
MINIMUM CORRIDOR WIDTH
|OCCUPANCY||MINIMUM WIDTH (inches)|
|Any facility not listed in this table||44|
|Access to and utilization of mechanical, plumbing or electrical systems or equipment||24|
|With an occupant load of less than 50||36|
|Within a dwelling unit||36|
|In Group E with a corridor having an occupant load of 100 or more||72|
|In corridors and areas serving stretcher traffic in ambulatory care facilities||72|
|Group I-2 in areas where required for bed movement||96|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Fire-resistance-rated corridors shall be continuous from the point of entry to an exit, and shall not be interrupted by intervening rooms. Where the path of egress travel within a fire-resistance-rated corridor to the exit includes travel along unenclosed exit access stairways or ramps, the fire-resistance rating shall be continuous for the length of the stairway or ramp and for the length of the connecting corridor on the adjacent floor leading to the exit.
Exterior egress balconies shall have a minimum fire separation distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) measured at right angles from the exterior edge of the egress balcony to the following:
For the purposes of this section, other portions of the building shall be treated as separate buildings.
Enclosures for interior exit stairways and ramps shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Interior exit stairway and ramp enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting four stories or more and not less than 1 hour where connecting less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the interior exit stairways or ramps shall include any basements, but not any mezzanines. Enclosures for interior exit stairways and ramps shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 hours.