Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Building Code

Legislation

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Special Inspections and Tests

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board, Gypsum Panel Products and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Employee Qualifications

Appendix B Board of Appeals

Appendix C GROUP U—AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Signs

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Grading

Appendix K Administrative Provisions

Appendix L Earthquake Recording Instrumentation

Appendix M Tsunami-Generated Flood Hazard

In addition to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and occupancies described herein.
The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered or open mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by this section, covered and open mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.

Exceptions:

1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not required to comply with this section.

2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this section where they totally comply with other applicable provisions of this code.
A covered mall building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space or not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm). An open mall building and anchor buildings and parking garages adjoining the perimeter line shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm).

Exception: The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requirements are met:

1. The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered or open mall building and anchor buildings;

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than
3 hours;

3. Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have opening protectives with a fire protection rating of not less than 3 hours; and

4. Group E, H, I or R occupancies are not located within the covered or open mall building or anchor buildings.
For the purpose of this code, a perimeter line shall be established. The perimeter line shall encircle all buildings and structures that comprise the open mall building and shall encompass any open-air interior walkways, open-air courtyards or similar open-air spaces. The perimeter line shall define the extent of the open mall building. Anchor buildings and parking structures shall be outside of the perimeter line and are not considered as part of the open mall building.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

ANCHOR BUILDING.

COVERED MALL BUILDING.

Mall.

Open mall.

Open mall building.

FOOD COURT.

GROSS LEASABLE AREA.
Each owner of a covered mall building or of an open mall building shall provide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on the lease plan without prior approval of the building official.
The construction of covered and open mall buildings, anchor buildings and parking garages associated with a mall building shall comply with Sections 402.4.1 through 402.4.3.
The building area and type of construction of covered mall or open mall buildings, anchor buildings and parking garages shall comply with this section.
The building area of any covered mall or open mall building shall not be limited provided the covered mall or open mall building does not exceed three floor levels at any point nor three stories above grade plane, and is of Type I, II, III or IV construction.
The building area and building height of any anchor building shall be based on the type of construction as required by Section 503 as modified by Sections 504 and 506.

Exception: The building area of any anchor building shall not be limited provided the anchor building is not more than three stories above grade plane, and is of Type I, II, III or IV construction.
The building area and building height of any parking garage, open or enclosed, shall be based on the type of construction as required by Sections 406.5 and 406.6, respectively.
Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between tenant spaces and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall.
Each tenant space shall be separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition complying with Section 708. A tenant separation wall is not required between any tenant space and the mall.
An anchor building shall be separated from the covered or open mall building by fire walls complying with Section 706.

Exceptions:

1. Anchor buildings of not more than three stories above grade plane that have an occupancy classification the same as that permitted for tenants of the mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers complying with Section 707.

2. The exterior walls of anchor buildings separated from an open mall building by an open mall shall comply with Table 602.
Except for the separation between Group R-1 sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor buildings of Type IA, IB, IIA or IIB construction and the mall need not be protected.
An attached garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered or open mall building or anchor building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Parking garages, open or enclosed, which are separated from covered mall buildings, open mall buildings or anchor buildings, shall comply with the provisions of Table 602. Pedestrian walkways and tunnels that connect garages to mall buildings or anchor buildings shall be constructed in accordance with Section 3104.
Floor assemblies in, and roof assemblies over, the open mall of an open mall building shall be open to the atmosphere for not less than 20 feet (9096 mm), measured perpendicular from the face of the tenant spaces on the lowest level, from edge of balcony to edge of balcony on upper floors and from edge of roof line to edge of roof line. The openings within, or the unroofed area of, an open mall shall extend from the lowest/grade level of the open mall through the entire roof assembly. Balconies on upper levels of the mall shall not project into the required width of the opening.
Pedestrian walkways connecting balconies in an open mall shall be located not less than 20 feet (9096 mm) from any other pedestrian walkway.
Covered and open mall buildings and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with all of the following:

1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall of a covered mall building shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchor buildings.

3. Sprinkler protection for the tenant spaces of an open mall building shall be independent from that provided for anchor buildings.

4. Sprinkler protection shall be provided beneath exterior circulation balconies located adjacent to an open mall.

5. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages separated from the covered or open mall building in accordance with Section 402.4.2.3 and constructed in accordance with Section 406.5.
Interior finishes within the mall and installations within the mall shall comply with Sections 402.6.1 through 402.6.4.
Interior wall and ceiling finishes within the mall of a covered mall building and within the exits of covered or open mall buildings shall have a minimum flame spread index and smoke-developed index of Class B in accordance with Chapter 8. Interior floor finishes shall meet the requirements of Section 804.
Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or permanent) located within the mall of a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall meet the following requirements:

1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be located within a covered or open mall unless constructed of any of the following materials:

1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.

1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release rate not greater than 100 kW (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source.

1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended.

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall be provided with approved automatic sprinkler system and detection devices.

3. The horizontal separation between kiosks or groupings thereof and other structures within the mall shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).

4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have an area not greater than 300 square feet (28 m2).
Children's play structures located within the mall of a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall comply with Section 424. The horizontal separation between children's play structures, kiosks and similar structures within the mall shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).
Plastic signs affixed to the storefront of any tenant space facing a mall or open mall shall be limited as specified in Sections 402.6.4.1 through 402.6.4.5.
Plastic signs shall be not more than 20 percent of the wall area facing the mall.
Plastic signs shall be not greater than 36 inches (914 mm) in height, except that where the sign is vertical, the height shall be not greater than 96 inches (2438 mm) and the width shall be not greater than 36 inches (914 mm).
Plastic signs shall be located not less than 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants.
Plastics other than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D1929, and a flame spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723 or meet the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286.
Edges and backs of plastic signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal.
Foam plastics used in signs shall have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source, and the foam plastics shall have the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 402.6.4 shall not be required to comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed indices specified in Section 2603.3.
The density of foam plastics used in signs shall be not less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/ m3).
The thickness of foam plastic signs shall not be greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
Covered and open mall buildings, anchor buildings and associated parking garages shall be provided with emergency systems complying with Sections 402.7.1 through 402.7.5.
Covered and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.3.
Where a covered mall building contains an atrium, a smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Section 404.5.

Exception: A smoke control system is not required in covered mall buildings where an atrium connects only two stories.
Covered mall buildings greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in area and open mall buildings greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within the established perimeter line shall be provided with emergency power that is capable of operating the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 2702.
Where the total floor area is greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided.

Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, automatic sprinkler systems or other detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire department.
Covered mall buildings, open mall buildings and each tenant space within a mall building shall be provided with means of egress as required by this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the requirements of this code and the requirements of Sections 402.8.1 through 402.8.8, the requirements of Sections 402.8.1 through 402.8.8 shall apply.
For the purpose of providing required egress, malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code where the width of the mall is as specified in this section.
The aggregate clear egress width of the mall in either a covered or open mall building shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be sufficient to accommodate the occupant load served. No portion of the minimum required aggregate egress width shall be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) measured to a height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a tenant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, bench, display opening, food court or other obstruction to means of egress travel.
The occupant load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered or open mall building shall be determined as required by this code. Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces shall be based on the occupant load thus determined.
In determining required means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based on gross leasable area of the covered or open mall building (excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor as determined by Equation 4-1.



where:

OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per person).
GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet).


Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered or open mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the open mall of an open mall building or of a covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the mall building.
The occupant load factor (OLF) is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50.
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the mall.
The occupant load of a food court shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004. For the purposes of determining the means of egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered or open mall building as calculated above.
Wherever the distance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant space used by persons other than employees is greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant load of 50 or more, no fewer than two means of egress shall be provided.
Assembly occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more located within a covered mall building shall be so located such that their entrance will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the mall and shall have not less than onehalf of their required means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered mall building. Assembly occupancies located within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall be permitted to have their main exit open to the open mall.
Required means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided independently from the mall means of egress system. The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in determining means of egress requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating at an anchor building where no other means of egress has been provided shall be considered as a dead-end mall.
Within each individual tenant space in a covered or open mall building, the distance of travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).

The distance of travel from any point within a mall of a covered mall building to an exit shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The maximum distance of travel from any point within an open mall to the perimeter line of the open mall building shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).
Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall of a covered mall building to separate exits or from any point in an open mall of an open mall building to two separate locations on the perimeter line, provided neither location is an exterior wall of an anchor building or parking garage. The width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall be not less than 66 inches (1676 mm).

Exception: Access to exits is permitted by way of a dead-end mall that does not exceed a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead-end portion of the mall.
Where exit passageways provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space, doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by 1-hour fire door assemblies that are self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3.
Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated from such rooms with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire protection rating of openings in the fire barriers shall be not less than 1 hour.
Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of egress shall conform to the following:

1. Doors and grilles shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.

2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.

3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.

4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door.
High-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.2 through 403.6.

Exception: The provisions of Sections 403.2 through 403.6 shall not apply to the following buildings and structures:

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 412.3.

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.

3. The portion of a building containing a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance with Section 303.6.

4. Special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.

5. Buildings with:

5.1. A Group H-1 occupancy;

5.2. A Group H-2 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.8, 415.9.2, 415.9.3 or 426.1; or,

5.3. A Group H-3 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.8.
The construction of high-rise buildings shall comply with the provisions of Sections 403.2.1 through 403.2.4.
The fireresistance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.2.1.1 and 403.2.1.2 shall be allowed in buildings that have sprinkler control valves equipped with supervisory initiating devices and water-flow initiating devices for each floor.
The following reductions in the minimum fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Table 601 shall be permitted as follows:

1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IA construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the minimum fire-resistance ratings for the building elements in Type IB.

Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of columns supporting floors shall not be reduced.

2. In other than Group F-1, M and S-1 occupancies, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the fire-resistance ratings in Type IIA.

3. The building height and building area limitations of a building containing building elements with reduced fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted to be the same as the building without such reductions.
For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barriers enclosing vertical shafts, other than interior exit stairway and elevator hoistway enclosures, is permitted to be reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are installed within the shafts at the top and at alternate floor levels.
For seismic considerations, see Chapter 16.
For high-rise buildings of Risk Category III or IV in accordance with Section 1604.5, and for all buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures shall comply with Sections 403.2.3.1 through 403.2.3.4.
The wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures shall meet or exceed Soft Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.
The face of the wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior of the enclosures for interior exit stairways or elevator hoistway enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with one of the following methods:

1. The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer than two layers of impact-resistant construction board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.

2. The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer than one layer of impact-resistant construction material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.

3. The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of any material, tested in tandem, that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.
Concrete or masonry walls shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2.
Any other wall assembly that provides impact resistance equivalent to that required by Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2 for Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3, as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M, shall be permitted.
The bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the building shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4.

TABLE 403.2.4 MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH

HEIGHT OF BUILDINGa SFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH
Up to 420 feet 430 psf
Greater than 420 feet 1,000 psf

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.0479 kW/m2.
a. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary water supply where required by Section 403.3.3.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of:

1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.

2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height shall be supplied by no fewer than two risers. Each riser shall supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not be supplied from the same riser.
Sprinkler risers shall be placed in interior exit stairways and ramps that are remotely located in accordance with Section 1007.1.
In buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to no fewer than two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through no fewer than one of the connections.
An automatic secondary on-site water supply having a capacity not less than the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for highrise buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by Section 1613. An additional fire pump shall not be required for the secondary water supply unless needed to provide the minimum design intake pressure at the suction side of the fire pump supplying the automatic sprinkler system. The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes.
Fire pumps shall be located in rooms protected in accordance with Section 913.2.1.
The detection, alarm and emergency systems of high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.8.
Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.
A high-rise building shall be equipped with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Emergency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accordance with Section 510 of the International Fire Code.
A fire command center complying with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by the fire department.
To facilitate smoke removal in post-fire salvage and overhaul operations, buildings and structures shall be equipped with natural or mechanical ventilation for removal of products of combustion in accordance with one of the following:

1. Easily identifiable, manually operable windows or panels shall be distributed around the perimeter of each floor at not more than 50-foot (15 240 mm) intervals. The area of operable windows or panels shall be not less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) per 50 linear feet (15 240 mm) of perimeter.

Exceptions:

1. In Group R-1 occupancies, each sleeping unit or suite having an exterior wall shall be permitted to be provided with 2 square feet (0.19 m2) of venting area in lieu of the area specified in Item 1.

2. Windows shall be permitted to be fixed provided that glazing can be cleared by fire fighters.

2. Mechanical air-handling equipment providing one exhaust air change every 15 minutes for the area involved. Return and exhaust air shall be moved directly to the outside without recirculation to other portions of the building.

3. Any other approved design that will produce equivalent results.
A standby power system complying with Section 2702 and Section 3003 shall be provided for the standby power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.3. An emergency power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the emergency power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.4.
If the standby or emergency power system includes a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center.

Exception: In Group I-2, Condition 2, manual start and transfer features for the critical branch of the emergency power are not required to be provided at the fire command center.
Fuel lines supplying a generator set inside a building shall be separated from areas of the building other than the room the generator is located in by an approved method or assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. Where the building is protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the required fire-resistance rating shall be reduced to 1 hour.
The following are classified as standby power loads:

1. Power and lighting for the fire command center required by Section 403.4.6.

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.

3. Elevators.

4. Where elevators are provided in a high-rise building for accessible means of egress, fire service access or occupant self-evacuation, the standby power system shall also comply with Sections 1009.4, 3007 or 3008, as applicable.
The following are classified as emergency power loads:

1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination required by Chapter 10.

2. Elevator car lighting.

3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems.

4. Automatic fire detection systems.

5. Fire alarm systems.

6. Electrically powered fire pumps.
The means of egress in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 through 403.5.6.
Required interior exit stairways shall be separated by a distance not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or not less than one-fourth of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served, whichever is less. The distance shall be measured in a straight line between the nearest points of the enclosure surrounding the interior exit stairways. In buildings with three or more interior exit stairways, no fewer than two of the interior exit stairways shall comply with this section. Interlocking or scissor stairways shall be counted as one interior exit stairway.
For buildings other than Group R-2 that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, one additional interior exit stairway meeting the requirements of Sections 1011 and 1023 shall be provided in addition to the minimum number of exits required by Section 1006.3. The total width of any combination of remaining interior exit stairways with one interior exit stairway removed shall be not less than the total width required by Section 1005.1. Scissor stairways shall not be considered the additional interior exit stairway required by this section.

Exception: An additional interior exit stairway shall not be required to be installed in buildings having elevators used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008.
Stairway doors other than the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked from the stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from the stairway side shall be capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center.
A telephone or other two-way communications system connected to an approved constantly attended station shall be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each stairway where the doors to the stairway are locked.
Every required interior exit stairway serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be a smokeproof enclosure in accordance with Sections 909.20 and 1023.11.
Luminous egress path markings shall be provided in accordance with Section 1025.
Emergency escape and rescue openings specified in Section 1030 are not required.
Elevator installation and operation in highrise buildings shall comply with Chapter 30 and Sections 403.6.1 and 403.6.2.
In buildings with an occupied floor more than 120 feet (36 576 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, no fewer than two fire service access elevators, or all elevators, whichever is less, shall be provided in accordance with Section 3007. Each fire service access elevator shall have a capacity of not less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) and shall comply with Section 3002.4.
Where installed in accordance with Section 3008, passenger elevators for general public use shall be permitted to be used for occupant self-evacuation.
In other than Group H occupancies, and where permitted by Section 712.1.7, the provisions of Sections 404.1 through 404.10 shall apply to buildings or structures containing vertical openings defined as "Atriums."
The following term is defined in Chapter 2:

ATRIUM.
The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the International Fire Code shall be used in the atrium space.

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for any approved use where the individual space is provided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building.

Exceptions:

1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.14.
A smoke control system shall be installed in accordance with Section 909.

Exception: In other than Group I-2, and Group I-1, Condition 2, smoke control is not required for atriums that connect only two stories.
Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

Exceptions:

1. A fire barrier is not required where a glass wall forming a smoke partition is provided. The glass wall shall comply with all of the following:

1.1. Automatic sprinklers are provided along both sides of the separation wall and doors, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side. The sprinklers shall be located between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and at intervals along the glass not greater than 6 feet (1829 mm). The sprinkler system shall be designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system without obstruction;

1.2. The glass wall shall be installed in a gasketed frame in a manner that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates; and

1.3. Where glass doors are provided in the glass wall, they shall be either self-closing or automatic-closing.

2. A fire barrier is not required where a glass-block wall assembly complying with Section 2110 and having a 3/4-hour fire protection rating is provided.

3. A fire barrier is not required between the atrium and the adjoining spaces of any three floors of the atrium provided such spaces are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system.
Equipment required to provide smoke control shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 909.11.
The interior finish of walls and ceilings of the atrium shall be not less than Class B with no reduction in class for sprinkler protection.
Exit access travel distance for areas open to an atrium shall comply with the requirements of this section.
Where required access to the exits is not through the atrium, exit access travel distance shall comply with Section 1017.
Where the path of egress travel is through an atrium space, exit access travel distance at the level of exit discharge shall be determined in accordance with Section 1017.
Where the path of egress travel is not at the level of exit discharge from the atrium, that portion of the total permitted exit access travel distance that occurs within the atrium shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).
A maximum of 50 percent of interior exit stairways are permitted to egress through an atrium on the level of exit discharge in accordance with Section 1028.
The provisions of Sections 405.2 through 405.9 apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions: The provisions of Section 405 are not applicable to the following buildings or portions of buildings:

1. One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.

2. Parking garages provided with automatic sprinkler systems in compliance with Section 405.3.

3. Fixed guideway transit systems.

4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar facilities.

5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load less than 10.

6. Pumping stations and other similar mechanical spaces intended only for limited periodic use by service or maintenance personnel.
The underground portion of the building shall be of Type I construction.
The highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in accordance with Section 903.4.
Compartmentation shall be in accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3.
A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into no fewer than two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.

Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented where the area is not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load of less than 10.
The compartments shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 709. Penetrations between the two compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with Section 714. Doorways shall be protected by fire door assemblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 and are installed in accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 716.5.3. Where provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an exhaust system independent of the other compartments.
Where elevators are provided, each compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each compartment by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 709. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill and be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3.
A smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 405.5.2.
A smoke control system is required to control the migration of products of combustion in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a usable condition.
Where compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have an independent smoke control system. The system shall be automatically activated and capable of manual operation in accordance with Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.
A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.
Means of egress shall be in accordance with Sections 405.7.1 and 405.7.2.
Each floor level shall be provided with no fewer than two exits. Where compartmentation is required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have no fewer than one exit and shall also have no fewer than one exit access doorway into the adjoining compartment.
Every required stairway serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of its level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in Section 1023.11.
A standby power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the standby power loads specified in Section 405.8.1. An emergency power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the emergency power loads specified in Section 405.8.2.
The following loads are classified as standby power loads:

1. Smoke control system.

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.

3. Fire pumps.

4. Elevators, as required in Section 3003.
The following loads are classified as emergency power loads:

1. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems.

2. Fire alarm systems.

3. Automatic fire detection systems.

4. Elevator car lighting.

5. Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required by Chapter 10.
The underground building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance with Section 905.
Motor-vehicle-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 406.1 through 406.8.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES.

OPEN PARKING GARAGE.

PRIVATE GARAGE.

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES.
Private garages and carports shall comply with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.6.
Private garages and carports shall be classified as Group U occupancies. Each private garage shall be not greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area. Multiple private garages are permitted in a building where each private garage is separated from the other private garages by 1-hour fire barriers in accordance with Section 707, or 1-hour horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 711, or both.
In private garages and carports, the clear height in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodating van-accessible parking shall comply with Section 1106.5.
Garage floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.
For other than private garages adjacent to dwelling units, the separation of private garages from other occupancies shall comply with Section 508. Separation of private garages from dwelling units shall comply with Sections 406.3.4.1 through 406.3.4.3.
The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of gypsum board, not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness, applied to the garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than a 5/8- inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or equivalent and 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to structures supporting the separation from habitable rooms above the garage. Door openings between a private garage and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than 13/8 inches (34.9 mm) in thickness, or doors in compliance with Section 716.5.3 with a fire protection rating of not less than 20 minutes. Doors shall be self-closing and self-latching.
Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.
Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit from the garage, including its attic area, shall be constructed of sheet steel of not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in thickness and shall have no openings into the garage.
Carports shall be open on at least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of an approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the requirements for private garages.

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.
A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above.
Automatic garage door openers, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.
Parking garages, other than private garages, shall be classified as public parking garages and shall comply with the provisions of Sections 406.4.2 through 406.4.8 and shall be classified as either an open parking garage or an enclosed parking garage. Open parking garages shall also comply with Section 406.5. Enclosed parking garages shall also comply with Section 406.6. See Section 510 for special provisions for parking garages.
The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodating van-accessible parking shall comply with Section 1106.5.
Guards shall be provided in accordance with Section 1015. Guards serving as vehicle barriers shall comply with Sections 406.4.3 and 1015.
Vehicle barriers not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) in height shall be placed where the vertical distance from the floor of a drive lane or parking space to the ground or surface directly below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barriers shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 1607.8.3.

Exception: Vehicle barriers are not required in vehicle storage compartments in a mechanical access parking garage.
Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1:15 (6.67 percent).
Parking surfaces shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

Exceptions:

1. Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at ground level.

2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.
Parking garages shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 508.1.
Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the sources of ignition in the appliance are not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
Openings from a parking garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.
Open parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.5.1 through 406.5.11.
Open parking garages shall be of Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle barriers, see Section 406.4.3.
For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly distributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings in exterior walls on a tier shall be not less than 20 percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall be not less than 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be not less than 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings.

Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the required openings are uniformly distributed over two opposing sides of the building.
Where openings below grade provide required natural ventilation, the outside horizontal clear space shall be one and one-half times the depth of the opening. The width of the horizontal clear space shall be maintained from grade down to the bottom of the lowest required opening.
Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions of Sections 402.4.2.3, 406.5.11, 508.1, 510.3, 510.4 and 510.7.
Area and height of open parking garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 508.1.

TABLE 406.5.4 OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PER TIER
(square feet)
HEIGHT (in tiers)
Ramp access Mechanical access
Automatic sprinkler system
No Yes
IA Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
IB Unlimited 12 tiers 12 tiers 18 tiers
IIA 50,000 10 tiers 10 tiers 15 tiers
IIB 50,000 8 tiers 8 tiers 12 tiers
IV 50,000 4 tiers 4 tiers 4 tiers

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
Where the open parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 406.5.4, along with increases allowed by Section 406.5.5.

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier.

The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the building official.
The allowable area and height of open parking garages shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides open on three-fourths of the building's perimeter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the entire building's perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under the above provisions, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm).

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.5.4 shall be increased for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. No fewer than three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height extending for not less than 80 percent of the length of the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.

Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the building height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the side shall be not less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm). All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Section 406.5.2. These openings shall be permitted to be provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) for the full width of the openings.
Exterior walls and openings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be determined in accordance with Table 602 and Section 705.
Where persons other than parking attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there shall be no fewer than two exit stairways. Each exit stairway shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by noncombustible materials.
An open parking garage shall be equipped with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.
Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in Section 406.5.7.
Ventilation, other than the percentage of openings specified in Section 406.5.2, shall not be required.
The following uses and alterations are not permitted:

1. Vehicle repair work.

2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles.

3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means.

4. Dispensing of fuel.
Enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.6.1 through 406.6.3.
Enclosed vehicle parking garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition of open parking garages shall be limited to the allowable heights and areas specified in Sections 504 and 506 as modified by Section 507. Roof parking is permitted.
A mechanical ventilation system shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
An enclosed parking garage shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.10.
Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with the International Fire Code and Sections 406.7.1 and 406.7.2.
The vehicle shall be fueled on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by the methodology in EN 1081.
Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a canopy shall comply with one of the following:

1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible element of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes;

2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a thickness of not less than 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of not less than 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smokedeveloped index of 450 or less when tested in the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D1929; or

3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic materials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggregate areas of plastics shall be not greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). The maximum area of any individual panel shall be not greater than 100 square feet (9.3 m2).
Canopies that are used to shelter dispensing operations where flammable compressed gases are located on the roof of the canopy shall be in accordance with the following:

1. The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construction requirements.

2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited to refueling only.

3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.
Repair garages shall be constructed in accordance with the International Fire Code and Sections 406.8.1 through 406.8.6. This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispensing facilities, as regulated in Section 406.7.
Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of Section 508.1.
Repair garages shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the entrance to the garage.
Repair garage floors shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/cm2, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted.
Heating equipment shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Repair garages used for the repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases such as hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with a flammable gas detection system.
The flammable gas detection system shall be listed or approved and shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). Gas detection shall be provided in lubrication or chassis service pits of repair garages used for repairing nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles.
Gas detection system control units shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 864 or UL 2017. Gas detectors shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2075 for use with the gases and vapors being detected.
Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, where the system is interlocked with gas detection.
Failure of the gas detection system shall result in the deactivation of the heating system, activation of the mechanical ventilation system where the system is interlocked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble signal to sound in an approved location.
A repair garage shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.9.1.
Occupancies in Group I-2 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 407.1 through 407.10 and other applicable provisions of this code.
Corridors in occupancies in Group I-2 shall be continuous to the exits and shall be separated from other areas in accordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conforming to Sections 407.2.1 through 407.2.6.
Waiting areas and similar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be permitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the following criteria are met:

1. The spaces are not occupied as care recipient's sleeping rooms, treatment rooms, incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, or hazardous uses.

2. The open space is protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.

3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.
Spaces for care providers', supervisory staff, doctors' and nurses' charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where such spaces are constructed as required for corridors.
Areas wherein psychiatric care recipients who are not capable of self-preservation are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces other than incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, under continuous supervision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the following criteria are met:

1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facility staff.

3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to the required exits.

4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.

5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one smoke compartment.

6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.
Gift shops and associated storage that are less than 500 square feet (455 m2) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corridor where such spaces are constructed as required for corridors.
In Group I-2, Condition 1, occupancies, in areas where nursing home residents are housed, shared living spaces, group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where all of the following criteria are met:

1. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.

2. The spaces are not occupied as resident sleeping rooms, treatment rooms, incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, or hazardous uses.

3. The open space is protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.

4. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.

5. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.
In Group I-2, Condition 1, occupancies, rooms or spaces that contain a cooking facility with domestic cooking appliances shall be permitted to be open to the corridor where all of the following criteria are met:

1. The number of care recipients housed in the smoke compartment is not greater than 30.

2. The number of care recipients served by the cooking facility is not greater than 30.

3. Only one cooking facility area is permitted in a smoke compartment.

4. The types of domestic cooking appliances permitted are limited to ovens, cooktops, ranges, warmers and microwaves.

5. The corridor is a clearly identified space delineated by construction or floor pattern, material or color.

6. The space containing the domestic cooking facility shall be arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exit.

7. A domestic cooking hood installed and constructed in accordance with Section 505 of the International Mechanical Code is provided over the cooktop or range.

8. The domestic cooking hood provided over the cooktop or range shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system of a type recognized for protection of domestic cooking equipment. Preengineered automatic extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300A and listed and labeled for the intended application. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's instructions.

9. A manual actuation device for the hood suppression system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 904.12.1 and 904.12.2.

10. An interlock device shall be provided such that upon activation of the hood suppression system, the power or fuel supply to the cooktop or range will be turned off.

11. A shut-off for the fuel and electrical power supply to the cooking equipment shall be provided in a location that is accessible only to staff.

12. A timer shall be provided that automatically deactivates the cooking appliances within a period of not more than 120 minutes.

13. A portable fire extinguisher shall be installed in accordance with Section 906 of the International Fire Code.
Corridor walls shall be constructed as smoke partitions in accordance with Section 710.
Corridor doors, other than those in a wall required to be rated by Section 509.4 or for the enclosure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a required fire protection rating and shall not be required to be equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Section 716.5.
Group I-2 occupancies shall be provided with means of egress complying with Chapter 10 and Sections 407.4.1 through 407.4.4. The fire safety and evacuation plans provided in accordance with Section 1001.4 shall identify the building components necessary to support a defend-in-place emergency response in accordance with Sections 404 and 408 of the International Fire Code.
Habitable rooms in Group I-2 occupancies shall have an exit access door leading directly to a corridor.

Exceptions:

1. Rooms with exit doors opening directly to the outside at ground level.

2. Rooms arranged as care suites complying with Section 407.4.4.
Locking devices that restrict access to a care recipient's room from the corridor and that are operable only by staff from the corridor side shall not restrict the means of egress from the care recipient's room.

Exceptions:

1. This section shall not apply to rooms in psychiatric treatment and similar care areas.

2. Locking arrangements in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.6.
The distance of travel between any point in a Group I-2 occupancy sleeping room, not located in a care suite, and an exit access door in that room shall be not greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm).
In Group I-2, Condition 1, occupancies, where the corridor width is a minimum of 96 inches (2440 mm), projections shall be permitted for furniture where all of the following criteria are met:

1. The furniture is attached to the floor or to the wall.

2. The furniture does not reduce the clear width of the corridor to less than 72 inches (1830 mm) except where other encroachments are permitted in accordance with Section 1005.7.

3. The furniture is positioned on only one side of the corridor.

4. Each arrangement of furniture is 50 square feet (4.6 m2) maximum in area.

5. Furniture arrangements are separated by 10 feet (3048 mm) minimum.

6. Placement of furniture is considered as part of the fire and safety plans in accordance with Section 1001.4.
Care suites in Group I-2 shall comply with Sections 407.4.4.1 through 407.4.4.4 and either Section 407.4.4.5 or 407.4.4.6.
Exit access from all other portions of a building not classified as a care suite shall not pass through a care suite. In a care suite required to have more than one exit, one exit access is permitted to pass through an adjacent care suite provided all of the other requirements of Sections 407.4 and 1016.2 are satisfied.
Care suites shall be separated from other portions of the building, including other care suites, by a smoke partition complying with Section 710.
Movement from habitable rooms shall not require passage through more than three doors and 100 feet (30 480 mm) distance of travel within the suite.

Exception: The distance of travel shall be permitted to be increased to 125 feet (38 100 mm) where an automatic smoke detection system is provided throughout the care suite and installed in accordance with NFPA 72.
Doors in care suites serving habitable rooms shall be permitted to comply with one of the following:

1. Manually operated horizontal sliding doors permitted in accordance with Exception 9 to Section 1010.1.2.

2. Power-operated doors permitted in accordance with Exception 7 to Section 1010.1.2.

3. Means of egress doors complying with Section 1010.
Sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be grouped into care suites where one of the following criteria is met:

1. The care suite is not used as an exit access for more than eight care recipient beds.

2. The arrangement of the care suite allows for direct and constant visual supervision into the sleeping rooms by care providers.

3. An automatic smoke detection system is provided in the sleeping rooms and installed in accordance with NFPA 72.
Care suites containing sleeping rooms shall be not greater than 7,500 square feet (696 m2) in area.

Exception: Care suites containing sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be not greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2) in area where an automatic smoke detection system is provided throughout the care suite and installed in accordance with NFPA 72.
Any sleeping room, or any care suite that contains sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have no fewer than two exit access doors from the care suite located in accordance with Section 1007.
Areas not containing sleeping rooms, but only treatment areas and the associated rooms, spaces or circulation space, shall be permitted to be grouped into care suites and shall conform to the limitations in Sections 407.4.4.6.1 and 407.4.4.6.2.
Care suites of rooms, other than sleeping rooms, shall have an area not greater than 12,500 square feet (1161 m2).

Exception: Care suites not containing sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be not greater than 15,000 square feet (1394 m2) in area where an automatic smoke detection system is provided throughout the care suite in accordance with Section 907.
Care suites, other than sleeping rooms, with an area of more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) shall have no fewer than two exit access doors from the care suite located in accordance with Section 1007.1.
Smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide every story used by persons receiving care, treatment or sleeping and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into no fewer than two smoke compartments. Such stories shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m2) in Group I-2, Condition 1, and not more than 40,000 square feet (3716 m2) in Group I-2, Condition 2, and the distance of travel from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Section 709.
Refuge areas shall be provided within each smoke compartment. The size of the refuge area shall accommodate the occupants and care recipients from the adjoining smoke compartment. Where a smoke compartment is adjoined by two or more smoke compartments, the minimum area of the refuge area shall accommodate the largest occupant load of the adjoining compartments. The size of the refuge area shall provide the following:

1. Not less than 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for each care recipient confined to bed or stretcher.

2. Not less than 6 square feet (0.56 m2) for each ambulatory care recipient not confined to bed or stretcher and for other occupants.

Areas or spaces permitted to be included in the calculation of refuge area are corridors, sleeping areas, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas.
A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.
Horizontal assemblies supporting smoke barriers required by this section shall be designed to resist the movement of smoke. Elevator lobbies shall be in accordance with Section 3006.2.
Smoke compartments containing sleeping rooms shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sections 903.3.1.1 and 903.3.2.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.
Corridors in Group I-2, Condition 1 occupancies and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system.

Group I-2, Condition 2 occupancies shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in Section 407.2.

Exceptions:

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required where sleeping rooms are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping room and an audible and visual alarm at the care provider's station attending each unit.

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required where sleeping room doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
Grounds are permitted to be fenced and gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for bed and stretcher care recipients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) for ambulatory care recipients and other occupants are located between the building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building they serve.
In Group I-2 occupancies, the essential electrical system for electrical components, equipment and systems shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 27 and NFPA 99.
Occupancies in Group I-3 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 408.1 through 408.11 and other applicable provisions of this code (see Section 308.5).
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

CELL.

CELL TIER. HOUSING UNIT.

SALLYPORT.
Buildings or portions of buildings in Group I-3 occupancies where security operations necessitate the locking of required means of egress shall be permitted to be classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies classified as other than Group I-3 shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for that occupancy where provisions are made for the release of occupants at all times.

Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies.

Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a Group H use.
Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the means of egress provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.
Doors to resident sleeping units shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).
Where doors in a means of egress are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its fully open position shall be not greater than 50 pounds (220 N) with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N).
A hatch or trap door not less than 16 square feet (610 m2) in area through the floor and having dimensions of not less than 2 feet (610 mm) in any direction shall be permitted to be used as a portion of the means of egress from guard towers.
Spiral stairways that conform to the requirements of Section 1011.10 are permitted for access to and between staff locations.
Ships ladders shall be permitted for egress from control rooms or elevated facility observation rooms in accordance with Section 1011.15.
Exits are permitted to discharge into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building and have an area of not less than 15 square feet (1.4 m2) per person.
A sallyport shall be permitted in a means of egress where there are provisions for continuous and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an emergency egress condition.
One interior exit stairway or ramp in each building shall be permitted to have glazing installed in doors and interior walls at each landing level providing access to the interior exit stairway or ramp, provided that the following conditions are met:

1. The interior exit stairway or ramp shall not serve more than four floor levels.

2. Exit doors shall be not less than 3/4-hour fire door assemblies complying with Section 716.5

3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not exceed 5,000 square inches (3.2 m2) and individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).

4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire when actuated.

5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.
Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accordance with the applicable use condition. Doors from a refuge area to the outside are permitted to be locked with a key in lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1. The keys to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door.
Remote release of locks on doors in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Condition 3 or 4, the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release mechanisms required for egress shall be such that with the minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms are capable of being released within 2 minutes.

Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required provided that not more than 10 locks are necessary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished with not more than two separate keys.
Poweroperated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door. Emergency power shall be provided for the doors and locks in accordance with Section 2702.

Exceptions:

1. Emergency power is not required in facilities with 10 or fewer locks complying with the exception to Section 408.4.1.

2. Emergency power is not required where remote mechanical operating releases are provided.
Remote release, mechanically operated sliding doors or remote release, mechanically operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically operated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided with a redundant remote release control.
Doors remotely unlocked under emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location to enable doors to relock.
Any vertical opening shall be protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 713, or shall be in accordance with Section 408.5.1.
Openings in floors within a housing unit are permitted without a shaft enclosure, provided all of the following conditions are met:

1. The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation of the areas by supervisory personnel;

2. Means of egress capacity is sufficient for all occupants from all interconnected cell tiers and areas;

3. The height difference between the floor levels of the highest and lowest cell tiers shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm); and

4. Egress from any portion of the cell tier to an exit or exit access door shall not require travel on more than one additional floor level within the housing unit.
Where a floor opening is permitted between communicating floor levels of a housing unit in accordance with Section 408.5.1, plumbing chases serving vertically staked individual cells contained with the housing unit shall be permitted without a shaft enclosure.
Occupancies in Group I-3 shall have smoke barriers complying with Sections 408.7 and 709 to divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into no fewer than two smoke compartments.

Exception: Spaces having a direct exit to one of the following, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors involved complies with the requirements for doors at the smoke barrier for the use condition involved:

1. A public way.

2. A building separated from the resident housing area by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet (15 240 mm) of open space.

3. A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 square feet (0.56 m2) or more of refuge area per occupant, including residents, staff and visitors.
The number of residents in any smoke compartment shall be not more than 200. The distance of travel to a door in a smoke barrier from any room door required as exit access shall be not greater than 150 feet (45 720 mm). The distance of travel to a door in a smoke barrier from any point in a room shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).
Not less than 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. This space shall be readily available wherever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a fire emergency.
A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originates.
In occupancies in Group I-3, windows and doors in 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in accordance with Section 708 and smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 709 shall be permitted to have security glazing installed provided that the following conditions are met.

1. Individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).

2. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire.

3. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

4. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.
Sleeping areas and any contiguous day room, group activity space or other common spaces where residents are housed shall be separated from other spaces in accordance with Sections 408.8.1 through 408.8.4.
Each sleeping area in Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4 shall be separated from the adjacent common spaces by a smoke-tight partition where the distance of travel from the sleeping area through the common space to the corridor exceeds 50 feet (15 240 mm).
Each sleeping area in Occupancy Condition 5 shall be separated from adjacent sleeping areas, corridors and common spaces by a smoketight partition. Additionally, common spaces shall be separated from the corridor by a smoke-tight partition.
The aggregate area of openings in a solid sleeping room face in Occupancy Conditions 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall not exceed 120 square inches (0.77 m2). The aggregate area shall include all openings including door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Openings shall be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. In Occupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be closeable from the room side.
Doors in openings in partitions required to be smoke tight by Section 408.8 shall be substantial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell doors.
For the purposes of this section, a windowless building or portion of a building is one with nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or without windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an engineered smoke control system to provide a tenable environment for exiting from the smoke compartment in the area of fire origin in accordance with Section 909 for each windowless smoke compartment.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3.
Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.6.
The provisions of Sections 409.1 through 409.5 shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety film is utilized in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is utilized or stored, such rooms shall comply with NFPA 40.
Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an adjacent room of equivalent construction.
Every projection room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements for the type of building in which the projection room is located. Openings are not required to be protected.

The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet (7.44 m2) for a single machine and not less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to close completely the opening.
Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Each projection room shall be provided with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to provide well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permitted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces within the building, provided the volume and infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning system, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air when other systems are not in operation.
Projection rooms are permitted to be exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. The projection room ventilation system is permitted to also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind rooms.
Each projection machine shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible connector approved for the purpose. The projection lamp or projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be combined but shall not be interconnected with any other exhaust or return system, or both, within the building.
Provisions shall be made for control of the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting systems of theaters from inside the projection room and from not less than one other convenient point in the building.
Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and film storage facilities.
The provisions of Sections 410.1 through 410.8 shall apply to all parts of buildings and structures that contain stages or platforms and similar appurtenances as herein defined.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

PLATFORM.

PROSCENIUM WALL.

STAGE.

TECHNICAL PRODUCTION AREA.
Stage construction shall comply with Sections 410.3.1 through 410.3.7.
Stages shall be constructed of materials as required for floors for the type of construction of the building in which such stages are located.

Exception: Stages need not be constructed of the same materials as required for the type of construction provided the construction complies with one of the following:

1. Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nominal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the stage is separated from other areas in accordance with Section 410.3.4.

2. In buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construction, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, provided the space below the stage is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system or fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 903 or 904.

3. In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be constructed of wood or approved noncombustible materials. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors with approved safety locks.
Stage areas shall be measured to include the entire performance area and adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construction. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above the stage.
Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of approved materials consistent with the requirements for the type of construction of the building; and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels in applying this code.

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of any approved material.
Where protection of openings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with fire door assemblies that comply with Section 716. Exterior openings that are located on the stage for means of egress or loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium.
Where the stage height is greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage shall be completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating extending continuously from the foundation to the roof.
Where a proscenium wall is required to have a fire-resistance rating, the stage opening shall be provided with a fire curtain complying with NFPA 80, horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 716.5.2 having a fire protection rating of at least 1 hour, or an approved water curtain complying with Section 903.3.1.1 or, in facilities not utilizing the provisions of smoke-protected assembly seating in accordance with Section 1029.6.2, a smoke control system complying with Section 909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the smoke level not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of the means of egress.
Combustible materials used in sets and scenery shall meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701, in accordance with Section 806 and the International Fire Code. Foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics shall comply with Section 2603 and the International Fire Code.
Emergency ventilation shall be provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 or 410.3.7.2.
Two or more vents constructed to open automatically by approved heat-activated devices and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the center and above the highest part of the stage area. Supplemental means shall be provided for manual operation of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled.
Smoke control in accordance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the highest level of the assembly seating or above the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium wall is provided in compliance with Section 410.3.4.
Permanent platforms shall be constructed of materials as required for the type of construction of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Permanent platforms are permitted to be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood for Types I, II and IV construction where the platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the main floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area and not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in area. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor assembly shall be not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside of the permanent platform need not be protected.
Platforms installed for a period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be constructed of any materials permitted by this code. The space between the floor and the platform above shall only be used for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment.
Dressing and appurtenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 and 410.5.2.
The stage shall be separated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage and other parts of the building by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 2 hours for stage heights greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) and not less than 1 hour for stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less.
Dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated from each other by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.
Where two or more exits or exit access doorways from the stage are required in accordance with Section 1006.2, no fewer than one exit or exit access doorway shall be provided on each side of a stage.
Exit access stairways and ramps serving a stage or platform are not required to be enclosed. Exit access stairways and ramps serving technical production areas are not required to be enclosed.
Technical production areas shall be provided with means of egress and means of escape in accordance with Sections 410.6.3.1 through 410.6.3.5.
No fewer than one means of egress shall be provided from technical production areas.
The exit access travel distance shall be not greater than 300 feet (91 440 mm) for buildings without a sprinkler system and 400 feet (121 900 mm) for buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Where two means of egress are required, the common path of travel shall be not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm).

Exception: A means of escape to a roof in place of a second means of egress is permitted.
The following exit access components are permitted where serving technical production areas:

1. Stairways.

2. Ramps.

3. Spiral stairways.

4. Catwalks.

5. Alternating tread devices.

6. Permanent ladders.
The path of egress travel within and from technical support areas shall be not less than 22 inches (559 mm).
Stages shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such stages.

Exceptions:

1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by Type X gypsum board not less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) in thickness.

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less in height where curtains, scenery or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a single main curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop.

3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra enclosures on stages.
Standpipe systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.
Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8. Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of less than 50 shall comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8.

Exception: Special amusement buildings or portions thereof that are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the accumulation of smoke need not comply with this section.

For flammable decorative materials, see the International Fire Code.
The following term is defined in Chapter 2:

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING.
Special amusement buildings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.
Special amusement buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means.

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and the exit access travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm).
Actuation of a single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.
An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.12 and 907.5.2.2, which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.
Exit signs shall be installed at the required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings in accordance with this section and Section 1013. Approved directional exit markings shall also be provided. Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utilized that disguise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, approved and listed low-level exit signs that comply with Section 1013.5, and directional path markings listed in accordance with UL 1994, shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.
Where photoluminescent exit signs are installed, activating light source and viewing distance shall be in accordance with the listing and markings of the signs.
The interior finish shall be Class A in accordance with Section 803.1.
Aircraft-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 412.1 through 412.8 and the International Fire Code.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO).

HELIPORT.

HELISTOP.

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR.

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT.
The provisions of Sections 412.3.1 through 412.3.8 shall apply to airport traffic control towers occupied only for the following uses:

1. Airport traffic control cab.

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.
Airport traffic control towers shall be constructed to comply with the height limitations of Table 412.3.1.

TABLE 412.3.1 HEIGHT LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION HEIGHTa
(feet)
IA Unlimited
IB 240
IIA 100
IIB 85
IIIA 65

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor.
Stairways in airport traffic control towers shall be in accordance with Section 1011. Stairways shall be smokeproof enclosures complying with one of the alternatives provided in Section 909.20.

Exception: Stairways in airport traffic control towers are not required to comply with Section 1011.12.
From observation levels, airport traffic control towers shall be permitted to have a single means of exit access for a distance of travel not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm). Exit access stairways from the observation level need not be enclosed.
Not less than one exit stairway shall be permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height provided that the occupant load per floor is not greater than 15 and the area per floor does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).
Where an airport traffic control tower is provided with only one exit stairway, interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be either Class A or Class B.
Airport traffic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.
Where an occupied floor is located more than 35 feet (10 668 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, airport traffic control towers shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Wires or cables that provide normal or standby power, control signals, communication with the car, lighting, heating, air conditioning, ventilation and fire detecting systems to elevators shall be protected by construction having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, or shall be circuit integrity cable having a fireresistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
Where provided in addition to an exit stairway, occupant evacuation elevators shall be in accordance with Section 3008.
Airport traffic control towers need not be accessible as specified in the provisions of Chapter 11.
Aircraft hangars shall be in accordance with Sections 412.4.1 through 412.4.6.
Exterior walls located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lot lines or a public way shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours.
Where hangars have basements, floors over basements shall be of Type IA construction and shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. There shall be no opening or communication between basements and the hangar. Access to basements shall be from outside only.
Floors shall be graded and drained to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer or to an outside vented sump.

Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) each in which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded toward the door, but shall not require a separator.
Heating equipment shall be placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exceptions:

1. Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating equipment suspended not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above the upper surface of wings or engine enclosures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be housed in the hangar need not be located in a separate room provided they are mounted not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor in shops, offices and other sections of the hangar communicating with storage or service areas.

2. Entrance to the separated room shall be permitted by a single interior door provided the sources of ignition in the appliances are not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
The process of "doping," involving use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be carried on in a separate detached building equipped with automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with Section 903.
Aircraft hangars shall be provided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar given in Table 412.4.6.

[F] TABLE 412.4.6 HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c

MAXIMUM SINGLE
FIRE AREA
(square feet)
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
IA IB IIA IIB IIIA IIIB IV VA VB
≥ 40,001 Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I
40,000 Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
30,000 Group III Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
20,000 Group III Group III Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
15,000 Group III Group III Group III Group II Group III Group II Group III Group II Group II
12,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group II Group II
8,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group II
5,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area.
b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409.
c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar.


Exception: Where a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system is exempt from foam requirements.
Any Group III aircraft hangar according to Table 412.4.6 that contains hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire suppression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as applicable:

1. Doping.

2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, torch cutting and torch soldering.

3. Fuel transfer.

4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled.

5. Spray finishing operations.

6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 gallons (6057 L).

7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maximum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons (28 390 L) for a hangar with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Maximum single fire areas established in accordance with hangar classification and construction type in Table 412.4.6 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls constructed in accordance with Section 706. In determining the maximum single fire area as set forth in Table 412.4.6, ancillary uses that are separated from aircraft servicing areas by a fire barrier of not less than 1 hour, constructed in accordance with Section 707, shall not be included in the area.
Residential aircraft hangars shall comply with Sections 412.5.1 through 412.5.5.
A hangar shall not be attached to a dwelling unless separated by a fire barrier having a fireresistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the dwelling unit. Doors into the dwelling unit shall be equipped with self-closing devices and conform to the requirements of Section 716 with a noncombustible raised sill not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height. Openings from a hangar directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.
A hangar shall provide two means of egress. One of the doors into the dwelling shall be considered as meeting only one of the two means of egress.
Smoke alarms shall be provided within the hangar in accordance with Section 907.2.21.
Electrical, mechanical and plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed within the hangar shall be independent of the systems installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be permitted to be connected outside the structures.

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electrical subpanels in the hangar.
Residential aircraft hangars shall be not greater than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height.
Aircraft painting operations where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 307.1(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that complies with the provisions of Sections 412.6.1 through 412.6.6.
Aircraft paint hangars shall be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and the International Fire Code for such occupancy.
The aircraft paint hangar shall be of Type I or II construction.
Only those flammable liquids necessary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1(1). Spray equipment cleaning operations shall be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and mixing room.
Storage of flammable liquids shall be in a liquid storage room.
Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409.
Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with ventilation as required in the International Mechanical Code.
In buildings used for the manufacturing of aircraft, exit access travel distances indicated in Section 1017.1 shall be increased in accordance with the following:

1. The building shall be of Type I or II construction.

2. Exit access travel distance shall not exceed the distances given in Table 412.7.

TABLE 412.7 AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE

HEIGHT (feet) b MANUFACTURING AREA (sq. ft.) a
150,000 200,000 250,000 500,000 750,000 1,000,000
≥ 25 400 450 500 500 500 500
≥ 50 400 500 600 700 700 700
≥ 75 400 500 700 850 1,000 1,000
≥ 100 400 500 750 1,000 1,250 1,500

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Contiguous floor area of the aircraft manufacturing facility having the indicated height.
b. Minimum height from finished floor to bottom of ceiling or roof slab or deck.
Rooms, areas and spaces ancillary to the primary manufacturing area shall be permitted to egress through such area having a minimum height as indicated in Table 412.7. Exit access travel distance within the ancillary room, area or space shall not exceed that indicated in Table 1017.2 based on the occupancy classification of that ancillary area. Total exit access travel distance shall not exceed that indicated in Table 412.7.
Heliports and helistops shall be permitted to be erected on buildings or other locations where they are constructed in accordance with Sections 412.8.1 through 412.8.5.
The landing area for helicopters less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in length and width. The landing area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm).
Helicopter landing areas and the supports thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design requirements, see Section 1607.6.
The means of egress from heliports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures shall have two or more means of egress. For landing areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length or less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area, the second means of egress is permitted to be a fire escape, alternating tread device or ladder leading to the floor below.
Rooftop heliports and helistops shall comply with NFPA 418.
In buildings equipped with a standpipe system, the standpipe shall extend to the roof level in accordance with Section 905.3.6.
High-piled stock or rack storage in any occupancy group shall comply with the International Fire Code.
Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 13/4 inch (45 mm) in thickness.

Exception: Neither fire-resistance-rated construction nor opening protectives are required in any of the following locations:

1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems.

2. Group R-3 and U occupancies.
The provisions of Sections 414.1 through 414.6 shall apply to buildings and structures occupied for the manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials.
Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall comply with this section and the applicable provisions of Section 415 and the International Fire Code.
The safe design of hazardous material occupancies is material dependent. Individual material requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in the International Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code.
Level 2 and 3 aerosol products shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the International Fire Code. See Section 311.2 and the International Fire Code for occupancy group requirements.
A report shall be submitted to the building official identifying the maximum expected quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, used in a closed system and used in an open system, and subdivided to separately address hazardous material classification categories based on Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). The methods of protection from such hazards, including but not limited to control areas, fire protection systems and Group H occupancies shall be indicated in the report and on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the building official and provided without charge to the enforcing agency.

For buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identifying the locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building and structure.
Control areas shall comply with Sections 414.2.1 through 414.2.5 and the International Fire Code.
Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area permitted at each floor level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

[F] TABLE 414.2.2 DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS

FLOOR LEVEL PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAa
NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS
PER FLOOR
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR
FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
Above grade
plane
Higher than 9 5 1 2
7-9 5 2 2
6 12.5 2 2
5 12.5 2 2
4 12.5 2 2
3 50 2 1
2 75 3 1
1 100 4 1
Below grade
plane
1 75 3 1
2 50 2 1
Lower than 2 Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed

a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.
b. Separation shall include fire barriers and horizontal assemblies as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.
The maximum number of control areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.
The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:

1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1; and

2. The building is three or fewer stories above grade plane.
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the International Fire Code and quantities do not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 414.2.5(1).

In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the International Fire Code.

The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.

[F] TABLE 414.2.5(1) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd,e,f

CONDITION MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA
Materiala Class Solids
pounds
Liquids
gallons
A. Health-hazard materials‒nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids
1. Corrosivesb,c Not Applicable 9,750 975
2. Highly toxics Not Applicable 20b,c 2b,c
3. Toxicsb,c Not Applicable 1,000 100
B. Physical-hazard materials‒nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids
1. Oxidizersb,c 4 Not Allowed Not Allowed
3 1,150g 115
2 2,250h 225
1 18,000 i, j 1,800 i, j
2. Unstable (reactives)b,c 4 Not Allowed Not Allowed
3 550 55
2 1,150 115
1 Not Limited Not Limited
3. Water reactives 3b,c 550 55
2b,c 1,150 115
1 Not Limited Not Limited

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code.
b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas.
e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307.
f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.
g. Maximum amounts shall be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
h. Maximum amounts shall be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.


[F] TABLE 414.2.5(2) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREAa

TYPE OF LIQUID MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)
Sprinklered in accordance with note
b densities and arrangements
Sprinklered in accordance with Tables 5704.3.6.3(4)
through 5704.3.6.3(8) and 5704.3.7.5.1 of the
International Fire Code
Nonsprinklered
Class IA 60 60 30
Class IB, IC, II and IIIA 7,500c 15,000c 1,600
Class IIIB Unlimited Unlimited 13,200

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.
a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall.
b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities as follows:
1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.
2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.
c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.
Rooms, areas or spaces in which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of materials shall be mechanically ventilated where required by this code, the International Fire Code or the International Mechanical Code.

Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the area in which they are generated as specified in the International Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code.
Systems involving hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended application. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where provided, shall be designed to be fail safe.