When provided, counterweights shall conform to Section 2.3.
Vertical clearances and runbys for cars and counterweights shall conform to Section 2.4.
Horizontal car and counterweight clearances shall conform to Section 2.5.
(a) The counterweight shall be provided with a counterweight safety conforming to 4.1.17.
(b) be enclosed with noncombustible material to a height not less than 2000 mm (79 in.) where the building code does not require fire-resistive construction of the control room. The enclosure, if of openwork material, shall reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter.
(d) have clear headroom of not less than 2130 mm (84 in.).
(e) be provided with natural or mechanical means to keep the ambient air temperature and humidity in the range specified by the elevator equipment manufacturer.
(f) be provided with permanent lighting providing minimum illumination of 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level. The lighting control switch shall be located within easy reach of the access door.
(g) be provided with an access door having a minimum width of 750 mm (29.5 in.) and a minimum height of 2030 mm (80 in.). The door shall be self-closing and self-locking, provided with a spring-type lock arranged to permit the door to be opened from the inside without a key, and kept closed and locked.
(a) A rack-and-pinion machine and its controls shall be protected by a noncombustible enclosure(s) to prevent accidental contact. Openwork noncombustible enclosure material shall be permitted to be used for rack-and-pinion machines located on top of the car, provided the openwork material will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter.
(b) Access to the machinery space and/or control space located on the car top shall be permitted by means of the top emergency exit and shall be subject to the following:
(1) The top emergency exit shall conform to the requirements of 188.8.131.52.
(2) All edges of the top emergency exit shall be smooth and free of burrs.
(3) Means shall be provided to ascend and descend safely between the floor of the elevator and the car top.
(4) The top emergency exit shall be keyed to Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).
(c) Machinery spaces and control spaces on the car top shall be provided with permanent lighting providing minimum illumination of 200 lx (19 fc) at the standing surface on the car top. The lighting control switch shall be located at the point of entry.
(a) be protected by noncombustible solid enclosure(s) to prevent accidental contact.
(b) be provided with an access panel subject to the following:
(1) shall be provided with an electric contact and lock.
(2) shall not be self-closing and shall be self-locking.
(3) shall be kept closed and locked.
(4) The electric contact shall be designed to prevent operation of the rack-and-pinion machine when the access panel is open.
(5) shall be keyed to Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).
(c) be provided with permanent lighting having a minimum illumination of 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level. The lighting control switch shall be located at the point of entry.
(a) The rack-and-pinion machine shall be protected by noncombustible enclosure(s) to prevent accidental contact. Openwork noncombustible enclosure material shall be permitted to be used for rack-and-pinion machines located beneath the car, provided the openwork material will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter.
(b) Access to the machinery space shall be permitted by means of the pit access and shall comply with 2.2.4.
(c) A retractable stop shall be permanently installed and shall be subject to the following:
(1) The retractable stop shall maintain the car no less than 2100 mm (83 in.) from the pit floor position when in its extended position.
(2) Means shall be provided to secure the retractable stop in its fully extended position.
(3) Hoistway access operation or pit inspection operation shall be provided to position the car at the retractable stop.
(d) The machinery space beneath the car shall be provided with permanent lighting having a minimum illumination of 200 lx (19 fc) at the level of the standing surface when the car is in the blocked position. The lighting control switch shall be located at the point of entry.
NOTE: For rack-and-pinion elevators, beneath the car is limited to on the car.
Control spaces exterior to the hoistway shall conform to the following:
(a) Control spaces exterior to the hoistway shall be protected by noncombustible solid enclosure(s) to prevent accidental contact.
(b) Access shall be provided to the control space and shall be subject to the following:
(1) Access panels to control equipment shall be provided with an electric contact and lock.
(2) The access panel door(s) shall not be self-closing and shall be self-locking.
(3) The access panel shall be kept closed and locked.
(4) An electric contact shall be provided to remove power from the rack-and-pinion machine when the access panel is open. A means shall be provided to permit operation of the rack-and-pinion machine while performing testing and troubleshooting.
(5) Keys to access control equipment shall be Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).
(c) Control spaces shall be provided with permanent lighting having a minimum illumination of 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level. The lighting control switch shall be located within easy reach of the access door.
Electrical equipment, wiring, pipes, and ducts in the hoistway or machinery spaces, control spaces, and control rooms shall conform to Section 2.8, except that the main feeder of a rack-and-pinion machine located on the car shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway.
Supports and foundations shall be designed to support all loads imposed by the elevator (including impact loading in the event of a safety application, the car striking the car buffers in accordance with 4.1.22, or the counterweight striking the counterweight buffers in accordance with 4.1.22) in accordance with the applicable building code. Allowable stresses for machinery and sheave beams or floors and their supports shall be in accordance with 2.9.4.
(b) exposed gears, sprockets, or drums of selectors, floor controllers, or signal machines, and their driving ropes, chains, or tapes
(c) keys, keyways, and screws in projecting shafts
Protection of hoistway openings shall conform to Section 2.11 except that emergency doors in 184.108.40.206 are not required when the elevator is restricted to access by authorized personnel and is equipped with a manually operated device that permits lowering the car at an automatically controlled speed to the nearest landing.
The car shall be provided with one of the following safeties:
(a) a rack-and-pinion safety. The safety shall be attached to the car frame. All rack-and-pinion car safeties shall be mounted on a single car frame and shall operate on one or more vertical racks. A rack-and-pinion safety shall be permitted to be located above, below, or in the car, provided that the members to which it is fixed are part of the car frame and are designed to withstand the forces imposed. Rack-and-pinion safeties are safeties in which a freely rotating safety pinion, a governor, and a safety device shall be permitted to form an integral unit. The freely rotating pinion travels on a stationary rack mounted vertically on a supporting structure. The rotating pinion drives the governor. When the speed of the car reaches the tripping value, the rotating governor actuates the safety device that, in turn, brings the car to a stop.
When calculating stopping distances, the kinetic energy from the driving unit shall be taken into account.
(a) the maximum tripping speed in meters per second (feet per minute) for which the safety is permitted
(b) the maximum weight in kilograms (pounds) for which the safety is designed and installed to stop and sustain
(c) the manufacturer's date of expiration (see 220.127.116.11), if applicable
(d) the manufacturer's name or trademark
(a) Tripping speeds shall conform to those given in Table 18.104.22.168.
(b) Rack-and-pinion speed governors shall be provided with a governor overspeed switch that shall open at 100% of the governor tripping speed in the down direction and shall be actuated by the action of the integral rack-and-pinion speed governor.
(c) The actuation of the governor overspeed switch shall cause power to be removed from the rack-and-pinion drive motor(s) and brake(s).
(d) The overspeed switch shall be positively opened, shall be the manually reset type, and shall comply with 22.214.171.124.10.
Table 126.96.36.199 Maximum and Minimum Stopping Distances for Rack-and-Pinion Safeties With Rated Load
|SI Units||Imperial Units|
|5.00||6.00||3 775.0||8 300.0||1,000||1,200||149||327|
|5.50||6.60||4 575.0||9 800.0||1,100||1,320||180||385|
(a) The buffers shall be designed and installed so that they will not be fully compressed when struck by the car with its rated load at the governor tripping speed. Kinetic energy from the drive unit shall be taken into account in the design calculations. The effect of the counterweight, where used, shall also be taken into account in the design calculations.
Car and counterweight guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their fastenings shall conform to Section 2.23.
(a) consist of one or more power-driven rotating pinions arranged to travel on a stationary rack mounted on the supporting structure.
(b) have at least one pinion, one rack, and two backup rollers, where at least one pinion, one rack, and one backup roller shall act on the same section of rack as the drive pinion. Driving machines using a two-sided rack, where two drive pinions are located so that they are opposite each other and act as backup rollers, shall be deemed to have met this requirement.
(d) have the rack and pinion designed to limit the separation of the pinion from the rack in all directions to 25% of the tooth depth or 6 mm (0.25 in.), whichever is greater.
(e) have the pinion guarded to prevent foreign material from falling onto and lodging between the teeth of the pinion and rack. The clearance between the moving parts and the guard shall not exceed 5 mm (0.1875 in.).
(f) be provided with a sign that shall
(1) include information on checking tooth wear of the pinion and rack
(2) show the maximum allowable wear limits for the rack and the pinion
(3) be metal securely fastened and conspicuously displayed on top of the car with permanent lettering not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) high
(a) Pinions and racks shall be steel or material having mechanical properties equivalent to or better than those of steel, with a minimum factor of safety of 8 based on ultimate stress for the pinion and the rack. They shall be designed to conform to AGMA 218.01, including surface hardening and an assumption of a minimum of 200000 life cycles.
(b) Rack sections shall be fastened to the supporting structure with a factor of safety of 5 based on ultimate stress and with dowels at each joint.
NOTE: The requirements of 188.8.131.52 are organized to parallel those in 2.26.2, as indicated by the last digit(s) of the paragraph designations (e.g., 184.108.40.206 and 220.127.116.11.1 both address slack-rope switch requirements).
(a) A disconnecting means shall be provided conforming to NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). The disconnecting means shall be located in a control room, a machinery space, or a control space located outside the hoistway.
(b) When the controller is located on the car, an auxiliary disconnecting means conforming to NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9], shall be located adjacent to and within sight of the controller.
18.104.22.168 System to Monitor and Prevent Automatic Operation of the Elevator With Faulty Door Contact Circuits
22.214.171.124 Installation of Capacitors or Other Devices to Make Electrical Protective Devices Ineffective
Emergency operation and signaling devices shall conform to Section 2.27.
Layout drawings shall, in addition to the data required by 2.28.1, indicate the following:
(a) the dimensions of the rack and its location with respect to the guide rail
(b) the magnitude of the loads from the rack imposed on the building structure
Electrical wiring, pipes, and ducts in hoistways, machine rooms, and machinery spaces shall conform to Section 2.8, except the main feeder of a screw-column elevator shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway if the screw machine is located in the hoistway, provided there is no intermediate access to the conductors between the disconnecting means and the termination at the motor or controller.
(a) AISC Book No. S326 or CAN/CSA-S16.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9) for structural steel
NOTE: In determining unit stresses, the maximum normal loading is doubled to take care of impact, accelerating stresses, etc.
(a) limit the down speed of the car with rated load to notover0.87 m/s (175 ft/min) in the event of failure of the driving means
(b) limit the fall of the elevator in the event of failure of the driving nut to a distance not exceeding 13 mm (0.5 in.), by using a safety nut or other equivalent means
- date of installation of driving and safety nuts
- spacing between driving and safety nuts
The fastening of guide rails to brackets or to the elevator-supporting frame shall be by clips, welds, or bolts. The rail structure and the structural members to which it is attached shall withstand the forces specified in 126.96.36.199, and the application of the car safety shall be within the deflection limits specified.
|A||=||net cross-sectional area of the screw at the root of the thread, mm2 (in.2)|
|L||=||maximum free length of the screw, mm (in.) R = radius of gyration of the screw at the root of the thread, mm (in.)|
|W||=||the total weight with rated load plus one-half the weight of the screw column, kg (lb)|
|W/A||=||maximum allowable fiber stress|
Elevators having a rated speed of 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min) or less shall be designed so that the elevator car will be brought to a stop without damage to the elevator system in the event of overtravel of the elevator at either terminal due to a malfunction.
(a) Requirement 188.8.131.52.
(b) Requirement 184.108.40.206, except that top-of-car operating devices are not required on private residence elevators and special purpose personnel elevators. Top-of-car operating devices are not required on any screw-column elevator if there is no mechanical or electrical equipment that requires maintenance from the top of the car.
(d) Requirement 2.26.3.
(e) Requirement 2.26.4.
(f) Requirement 2.26.5.
(h) Requirement 2.26.6.
(i) Requirement 2.26.7.
(j) Requirement 2.26.8.
(k) Requirement 2.26.9.
(l) Requirement 2.26.11.
(m) Requirement 2.26.12.
Emergency operation and signaling devices shall conform to Section 2.27.
|2.1.3||Floor Over Hoistways|
|2.1.6||Projections, Recesses, and Setbacks in Hoistway Enclosures|
|Section 2.3||Location and Guarding of Counterweights|
|Section 2.4||Vertical Clearances and Runbys for Cars and Counterweights|
|Section 2.5||Horizontal Car and Counterweight Clearances|
|2.7.2||Maintenance Path and Clearance|
|2.7.4||Headroom in Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, Control Spaces, and Control Rooms|
|27.9.2||Temperature and Humidity|
|Section 2.8||Equipment in Hoistways, Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, Control Spaces, and Control Rooms|
|Section 2.10||Guarding of Equipment and Standard Railing|
|2.11.3||Closing of Hoistway Doors|
|2.11.7||Glass in Hoistway Doors|
|2.11.9||Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Power Operation|
|Section 2.12||Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Closed Detection Means, and Hoistway Access Switches|
|Section 2.13||Power Operation of Hoistway Doors and Car Doors|
Pits are not required.
(a) self-closing or manually operated horizontally sliding or swinging, single section
(b) self-closing or manually operated horizontally swinging, two section (Dutch type) with one section above the other and the lower section extending not less than 1070 mm (42 in.) above the floor, and arranged to be opened only when the car is in the landing zone and after the upper section has been opened, and to be closed by the closing of the upper section
(c) manually operated vertically sliding counterweighted single or multisection
(d) manually operated vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced
Manually operated doors shall be equipped with approved devices to close them automatically when released by the action of heat. Self-closing doors equipped with hold-open devices shall be equipped with fusible links that will release the door in case of excessive heat.
Landing doors shall be provided with mechanical locks arranged so that the car cannot leave the landing unless the door is closed. The lock or latch shall be arranged to ensure that the door is in a position to be locked when or before the car leaves the landing.
Hoistway landing openings equipped with horizontally sliding or swinging doors shall also be provided with vertically sliding semiautomatic gates, not less than 1070 mm (42 in.) high and of a design that will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter. Gates shall be constructed and guided to withstand a lateral force of 445 N (100 lbf) concentrated at the center of the gate without being deflected beyond the line of the landing sill, and a force of 1112 N (250 lbf) without forcing the gate from its guides or causing it to break or be permanently deformed.
(b) General Design Requirements. The lock shall hold the gate in the closed position by means of gravity or a restrained compression spring, or both.
(c) Closed Position. Hoistway gates provided with hoistway gate separate mechanical locks shall be considered to be in the closed position when the gate is within 10 mm (0.375 in.) of contact with the landing sill.
Cars shall be enclosed on the sides not used for entrance. The deflection of the enclosure shall be not more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) when subjected to a force of 334 N (75 lbf) applied perpendicularly to the car enclosure at any point. The enclosure shall be secured to the car platform or frame in such a manner that it cannot work loose or become displaced in ordinary service.
These requirements do not apply to sidewalk elevators.
Car frames and platforms shall be metal or sound seasoned wood designed with a factor of safety not less than 4 for metal and 6 for wood, based on the rated load uniformly distributed. Connections between frame members of the car frame and the platform shall be riveted, bolted, or welded.
Elevator cars on which an operator is permitted to ride shall have not more than one compartment.
Elevator cars on which persons are permitted to ride shall not be arranged to counterbalance each other.
(a) rated load in kilograms (pounds)
(b) the maximum number of passengers to be carried based on 68 kg (150 lb) per person (if a passenger elevator)
(c) suspension data required by 220.127.116.11
(a) the guide rails and their fastenings shall not deflect more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) under normal operation
(b) the guide rails and their fastenings shall withstand the application of the safety, where provided, when stopping the car with rated load or when stopping the counterweight