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SCOPE

Part 4 applies to elevators with other types of driving machines.

(a) Requirement 4.1 applies to rack-and-pinion elevators.

(b) Requirement 4.2 applies to screw-column elevators.

(c) Requirement 4.3 applies to hand elevators.

This Section applies to an elevator with a car raised and lowered by a pinion(s) on a rack.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to rack-and-pinion elevators.

Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construction shall conform to Part 2, except 2.7 (see 4.1.2) and 2.8 (see 4.1.3).

Motors, electrical control equipment, and other equipment used in conjunction with the elevator shall be permitted to be located within the hoistway and/or on the car. If it is in a separate machine room and/or machinery space, it shall conform to 2.7.
In jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC, the controller shall be permitted to be located on the exterior of the hoistway wall or other approved location apart from the hoistway, elevator machine room, or elevator machinery space. A controller so located shall be available to and used only by inspectors, maintenance personnel, and repair personnel.

In jurisdictions enforcing NBCC, the controller shall be permitted to be located on the exterior of the hoistway wall or other approved location apart from the hoistway, elevator machine room, or elevator machinery space. If the controller is located outside the hoistway, machine room, and machinery spaces, it shall be made accessible only to elevator personnel.

A rack-and-pinion machine and its controls, if located on the car, shall be protected by a noncombustible enclosure to prevent accidental contact. Openwork noncombustible enclosure material shall be permitted to be used for rack-and-pinion machines located on top of the car, provided the openwork material rejects a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter.
Access shall be provided to the rack-and-pinion machine for maintenance. Access panels to rack-and-pinion control equipment located in the car shall be provided with an electric contact and lock. The access panel shall be kept closed and locked. The electric contact shall be designed to prevent operation of the rack-and-pinion machine when the access panel is open. The lock shall not be operable by a key that will operate locks or devices for other purposes in the building. The key shall be available to, and used only by, inspectors, maintenance personnel, and repair personnel (see 8.1).

Electrical equipment, wiring, pipes, and ducts in the hoistway shall conform to 2.8, except that the main feeder of a rack-and-pinion machine located on the car shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway.

The supports and foundations shall be designed to support all loads imposed by the elevator (including impact loading in the event of a safety application, stop by a speed-limiting device, or drive nut failure) in accordance with the building code. Allowable stresses for machinery and sheave beams or floors and their supports shall be in accordance with 2.9.4.

Emergency doors meeting the requirements of 2.11.1 shall be installed in the blind portion of the hoistway, except in elevators having a manually operated device that permits lowering the car at an automatically controlled speed to the nearest landing.

The car frame and platform shall conform to the design and performance requirements of 2.15.

The elevator shall conform to the capacity and loading requirements of 2.16.

The car shall be provided with a safety identified in 2.17.5 or a rack-and-pinion safety. The safety shall be attached to the car frame or supporting structure. All car safeties shall be mounted on a single car frame and shall operate on one pair of guide members or on one vertical rack.

The safety shall be located as required by 2.17.1, or if it is a rack-and-pinion safety, shall be permitted to be located above or in the car, provided that the members to which they are fixed are part of the car frame and are designed to withstand the forces imposed.

Rack-and-pinion safeties are safeties in which a freely rotating safety pinion, a governor, and a safety device shall be permitted to form an integral unit mounted in the car. The freely rotating pinion travels on a stationary rack mounted vertically on the hoist structure. The rotating pinion drives the governor. When the speed of the car reaches the tripping value, the rotating governor actuates the safety device that, in turn, brings the car to a gradual stop.

In jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC, stopping distances for rack-and-pinion safeties and the travel of the car measured from the governor tripping time to the full stop time shall not exceed the values based on rated speed given in Table 4.1.9.1.

Table 4.1.9.1 Maximum and Minimum Stopping Distances for Rack-and-Pinion Safeties With Rated Load

SI Units Imperial Units
Rate Speed, m/s Maximum Governor Trip Speed, m/s Stopping Distance, mm Rated Speed, ft/min Maximum Governor Trip Speed, ft/min Stopping Distance, in.
Min. Max. Min. Max.
0.63 0.88 80.5 1 639.3 125 175 3.17 64.54
0.76 1.06 116.0 1 703.5 150 210 4.57 67.07
0.89 1.37 164.3 1 791.2 175 250 6.47 70.52
1.01 1.42 206.2 1 866.9 200 280 8.12 73.50
1.14 1.56 249.4 1 945.3 225 308 9.82 76.59
1.27 1.71 298.7 2 034.2 250 337 11.76 80.09
1.52 2.00 410.7 2 236.4 300 395 16.15 88.05
1.77 2.29 537.2 2 466.5 350 452 21.15 97.11
2.03 2.59 684.0 2 731.0 400 510 26.03 107.52
2.28 2.86 848.3 3 029.9 450 568 33.40 119.29
2.54 3.17 1 027.1 3 098.8 500 625 40.44 122.00
3.04 3.75 1 439.9 4 101.5 600 740 56.69 161.48
3.55 4.34 1 922.3 4 975.0 700 855 75.68 195.87
4.06 4.92 2 473.9 5 974.5 800 970 97.40 235.22
4.57 5.51 3 095.4 7 100.0 900 1,085 121.87 279.53
5.06 6.09 3 786.3 8 305.8 1,000 1,200 149.07 327.00
5.58 6.70 4 581.4 9 791.7 1,100 1,320 180.37 385.50
6.09 7.31 5 452.3 11 379.2 1,200 1,440 214.66 448.00
6.60 7.92 6 400.8 13 083.5 1,300 1,560 252.00 515.10
7.11 8.53 7 421.1 14 935.2 1,400 1,680 292.17 588.00
7.62 9.14 8 068.3 16 924.0 1,500 1,800 333.40 666.30
8.12 9.75 9 642.8 19 050.0 1,600 1,920 381.61 750.00
8.63 10.36 10 942.3 21 313.1 1,700 2,040 430.80 839.10
9.14 10.97 12 266.4 23 713.4 1,800 2,160 482.98 933.60
9.65 11.58 13 668.7 26 750.9 1,900 2,280 538.14 1,053.50
10.16 12.19 15 145.2 28 925.5 2,000 2,400 596.27 1,138.80

In jurisdictions enforcing NBCC, stopping distances for rack-and-pinion safeties and the travel of the car measured from the governor tripping time to the full stop time shall not exceed the values based on rated speed given in Table 4.1.9.1. When calculating stopping distances, the kinetic energy from the driving unit shall be taken into account.

Counterweights, where provided, shall conform to 2.21.

Buffers shall conform to 2.22. Kinetic energy from the drive unit shall be taken into account in the design calculations.

Guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their fastenings shall conform to 2.23.

Rack-and-pinion-type drives shall conform to 2.24 (except 2.24.1), and 4.1.13.1 through 4.1.13.6.

The rack-and-pinion drive shall consist of one or more power-driven rotating pinions mounted on the car and arranged to travel on a stationary rack mounted on the supporting structure. The drive shall have at least one pinion, one rack, and two backup rollers, which shall act on the same section of rack as the drive pinion. Driving machines utilizing a two-sided rack, where two drive pinions are located so that they are opposite each other and act as backup rollers, shall be deemed to have met this requirement.
The pinions and racks shall be of steel or of material having equivalent mechanical properties or better with a minimum factor of safety of 8 based on ultimate stress for the pinion and the rack. They shall be designed to conform to AGMA 218.01, including surface hardening and an assumption of a minimum of 200 000 life cycles.
All moving parts of the driving machine shall be properly protected with solid or perforated metal that will reject a ball of 13 mm (0.5 in.) diameter and shall be securely fastened.
The rack and pinion shall be so designed that the separation of the pinion from the rack in all directions in excess of 25% of the tooth depth of 6 mm (0.25 in.), whichever is the lesser, cannot occur. A guard shall be provided to prevent foreign material from lodging between the teeth, and clearance between the moving parts and the guard shall not exceed 5 mm (0.1875 in.).
Rack sections shall be fastened to the supporting structure with a factor of safety of 5 based on ultimate stress, and with dowels at each joint.
The manufacturer shall provide the measurement for checking tooth wear on pinion and rack. The measuring instruction shall be indicated on a metal plate securely fastened and conspicuously displayed on top of the car with letters not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) high.
Normal and final terminal stopping devices shall be provided conforming to 2.25.1, 2.25.2, and 2.25.3, except 2.25.3.3. Normal and final terminal stopping devices shall be permitted to be located on the car and operated by cams attached to the hoistway structure.
Operating devices and control equipment shall conform to 2.26 and to the following:

Where the rack-and-pinion machine and its controller are located on the car, the disconnecting means shall be located adjacent to the controller. Auxiliary disconnect means shall be provided at the main landing whenever the main power supply disconnect means (required by NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, as applicable; see Part 9) is mounted adjacent to the controller on the car. Auxiliary disconnect means shall be accessible to authorized personnel only in order to be available for their protection and emergency use.

Voltage permitted in control and operating circuits shall not exceed 300 V on rack-and-pinion equipment.

Emergency operation and signal service shall conform to 2.27.

Elevator layout drawings shall, in addition to the other data required by 2.28, indicate

(a) the dimensions of the rack and location with respect to the guide rail

(b) the magnitude of the loads on the rack imposed on the building structure

Welding shall conform to 8.8.

This Section applies to an elevator having an uncounterweighted car that is supported by a screw column and is raised and lowered by screw thread means.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to screw-column elevators.

Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construction shall conform to 2.1, 2.2, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, and 2.13.

The bottom car clearance shall conform to 2.4.1, provided that, in the determination of the required clearance, any undercar machinery and bracing that is located within 150 mm (6 in.) horizontally from the edge of the car platform or 75 mm (3 in.) horizontally from the centerline of the guide rails is not considered.
The minimum bottom and top car runby shall be not less than

(a) 75 mm (3 in.) for rated speeds not exceeding 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min)

(b) 150 mm (6 in.) for rated speeds exceeding 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min)

The maximum bottom and top car runby shall be not more than 600 mm (24 in.).

The top car clearance shall be not less than the sum of the following two items:

(a) the top car runby

(b) the height of the refuge space on top of the enclosure (see 4.2.2.4) or the clearance required for equipment projecting above the top of the car to prevent its striking any part of the overhead structure or equipment located in the hoistway, but in no case less than 1 070 mm (42 in.)

A refuge space shall be provided on top of the car enclosure conforming to 2.4.12.

The horizontal car clearances shall conform to 2.5, except 2.5.1.2.

Where the space below the hoistway is used for a passageway, is occupied by persons, or if unoccupied, is not secured against unauthorized access, the requirements specified in 4.2.4.1 through 4.2.4.3 shall be conformed to.

The screw column, and any associated framing, shall be supported by a structure of sufficient strength to support the entire load imposed upon it, including the impact if the drive nut should fail.
The guide rails shall be supported by a structure of sufficient strength to withstand, without permanent deformation, the impact of a safety application with a fully loaded car.
The buffers shall be supported by a structure of sufficient strength to withstand, without permanent deformation, the impact resulting from buffer engagement by the car with its rated load at the maximum speed in the down direction.

The machine rooms, machinery spaces, and location of elevator components shall conform to 4.2.5.1 through 4.2.5.6.

Motors and other integral mechanical or electrical equipment shall be permitted to be located in machinery space within the hoistway, on the car, in the pit, or in a separate machine room or machinery space.
The controller shall be permitted to be located on the car or on the exterior of the hoistway wall or other location apart from the hoistway, machine room, or machinery space. A controller so located shall be readily accessible for maintenance and inspection at all times. Controllers located apart from the hoistway, machine room, or machinery space shall be housed in a locked metal cabinet. The key shall be Group 1 Security (see 8.1).
A separate machine room or machinery space, apart from the hoistway, shall conform to 2.7.
A screw machine and its controls, if located on the car, shall be protected by a noncombustible enclosure to prevent accidental contact. Openwork enclosures of noncombustible material shall be permitted to be used for screw machines located on top of the car, provided the openwork material rejects a ball 13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter.
Access shall be provided to the screw machine for maintenance. Access panels to screw machines located on the car shall be provided with an electric contact and lock. The electric contact shall be designed to prevent operation of the screw machine when the access panel is open. The access panel shall be kept closed and locked. The key shall be Group 1 Security (see 8.1).
Where the screw machine is located in the pit, means shall be permanently provided in the pit for supporting the car and its frame or platform during repairs or adjustments. Clear headroom under the platform shall be not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.) when the car is landed on the supports.

Electrical wiring, pipes, and ducts in hoistways, machine rooms, and machinery spaces shall conform to 2.8, except, the main feeder of a screw-column elevator shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway if the screw machine is located in the hoistway, provided there is no intermediate access to the conductors between the disconnecting means and the termination at the motor or controller.

The supports and foundations shall be designed to support all loads imposed by the elevator in accordance with the building code, including impact loading in the event of a car safety application, stop by a safety nut, or controlled descent by a speed-limiting device. The unit stresses in elevator-supporting members and their supports, based on two times the normal loading, shall not exceed those permitted for static loading in accordance with the requirements of the following standards:

(a) AISC Book No. S326 or CAN/CSA-S16.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9) for structural steel

(b) ANSI/ACI 318 or CAN3-A23.3, whichever is applicable (see Part 9) for reinforced concrete

Where stresses due to loads, other than elevator loads supported on the beams, floor, or structure, exceed those due to the elevator loads, 100% of the permitted stresses shall be permitted to be used.

NOTE: In determining unit stresses, the maximum normal loading is doubled to take care of impact, accelerating stresses, etc.

The car frame and platform shall conform to 2.15, except 2.15.12 and 2.15.13.

The capacity and loading shall conform to 2.16.

A car safety device and speed governor shall be provided, which shall conform to the design and performance requirements of 2.17 and 2.18, except as specified in 4.2.11.1 and 4.2.11.2.

For elevators driven by an alternating- current squirrel cage induction motor and having a down speed of not more than 0.37 m/s (75 ft/min), the car safety and governor are not required if another safety device is provided to either

(a) limit the down speed of the car with rated load to not over 0.87 m/s (175 ft/min) in the event of failure of the driving means; or

(b) limit the fall of the elevator in the event of failure of the driving nut to a distance not exceeding 13 mm (0.5 in.), by utilizing a safety nut or other equivalent means.

The capability of the alternate safety devices described in 4.2.11.1(a) and (b) to function as required shall be verified by engineering tests as described in 8.3.10.
A safety nut is required on all screw machines that utilize a driving nut made of a material other than metal and shall be permitted to be provided on all screw machines. The safety nut shall be made of metal and designed to withstand the impact without damage if the driving nut should fail.
A metal data tag shall be securely attached to each screw machine equipped with a safety nut bearing the following data:

(a) date of installation of driving and safety nuts

(b) spacing between driving and safety nuts

The material and markings of the safety nut spacing data tag shall conform to 2.16.3.3, except that the height of the letters and figures shall be not less than 1.6 mm (0.0625 in.).

Car buffers shall be provided, which conform to 2.22, except that solid bumpers shall be permitted to be used for elevators provided with a safety nut [see 4.2.11.1(b)] and having a maximum speed in the down direction of 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min).

Guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their fastenings shall conform to 2.23, except 2.23.4.2, 2.23.4.3, 2.23.9.1, and 2.23.10.

The fastening of guide rails to brackets or to the elevator-supporting frame shall be by clips, welds, or bolts. The rail structure and the structural members to which it is attached shall withstand the forces specified in 2.23.5.2, and the application of the car safety shall be within the deflection limits specified.

The screw machine shall function to raise or lower the elevator car acting in conjunction with a screw column that directly supports the elevator car.

The screw column and machine shall conform to 2.24.4, 2.24.5, 2.24.6, 2.24.8, 2.29, and 4.2.15.1 through 4.2.15.11.

Screws shall be made of steel. Nuts shall be made of bronze or other materials having an elongation of at least 14% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.).
Means shall be provided to maintain the screw in its vertical position under all conditions of operation. Screws suspended from their upper end shall be restrained at their lower end.
A vertical casing, closed at the end, shall be provided to enclose and protect the screw column in cases where the screw column extends outside the hoistway and machine room.
The screw column and nut and their attachments to the car frame, car platform, or other structure shall provide sufficient strength to support the loads imposed on these connections with a factor of safety of 5.
Factors of safety for the driving machine, excluding the screw column and nut, their attachments to the car frame, car platform, or other structure, shall conform to 2.24.3, except that the load used in determining the factor of safety shall be based on the total weight supported with rated load in the car.
Screw machines of the indirect drive type shall conform to 2.24.9. The elevator shall be so designed that the elevator car, while carrying 125% of rated load and traveling at rated speed, shall decelerate and stop in the event the driving-belt system or driving-chain system should break.
Means shall be provided to prevent the disengagement of the nut from the screw column. This means shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent disengagement in the event of overtravel at full speed and without damage to any part of the elevator installation. Any additional loads imposed by this action shall also be considered in the computations made in accordance with 4.2.15.8.
Where the screw column is a compression member, column formulas of 8.2.8.1.1 shall be used in the design with the words "screw column" substituted for the word "plunger" and:
A = net cross-sectional area of screw at root of thread, mm2 (in.2)
L = maximum free length of screw, mm (in.)
R = radius of gyration of screw at root of thread, mm (in.)
W = the total weight with rated load plus one-half the weight of the screw column, kg (lb)
W/A = maximum allowable fiber stress
Where the screw column is a tension member, the unit stress (considering the root dimension and any associated stress concentration and/or the reduced section at any joints in the screw) shall not exceed one-fifth of the ultimate strength of the material with a maximum fiber stress not to exceed 124 MPa (18,000 psi).
Positive mechanical means shall be provided to prevent rotation or separation of sections of a multiple section screw column.
Means shall be provided to permit authorized personnel from a position outside the elevator car to raise or lower the car manually in the event of a power failure, unless emergency or standby power is provided, except that for private residence elevators and special purpose personnel elevators, means to allow a passenger within a stalled car to manually move the car to a landing is acceptable and no other means of moving the stalled car is required.
Final terminal stopping devices, conforming to 2.25.3.1 and 2.25.3.3, shall be provided for elevators having a rated speed exceeding 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min). Final terminal stopping devices shall be located in the hoistway and operated by cams attached to the car.

Elevators having a rated speed of 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min) or less shall be designed so that the elevator car will be brought to a stop without damage to the elevator system in the event of overtravel of the elevator at either terminal due to a malfunction.

Emergency terminal speed-limiting devices shall be installed where reduced stroke buffers are used (see 2.22.4.1.2). These devices shall conform to 2.25.4.
Operating devices and control equipment shall conform to the following:

(a) Requirement 2.26.1.1, Types of Operating Devices.

(b) Requirement 2.26.1.4, Inspection Operation, except that a top-of-car operating devices are not required on private residence elevators and special purpose personnel elevators. Top-of-car operating devices are not required on any screw-column elevator if there is no mechanical or electrical equipment that requires maintenance from the top of the car.

(c) Requirements 2.26.2.5, 2.26.2.7 through 2.26.2.10, 2.26.2.12 through 2.26.2.15, 2.26.2.18 through 2.26.2.21, 2.26.2.25, and 2.26.2.28, Electrical Protective Devices.

(d) Requirement 2.26.3, Contactors and Relays in Critical Operating Circuits.

(e) Requirement 2.26.4, Requirements of Electrical Equipment and Wiring.

(f) Requirement 2.26.5, System to Monitor and Prevent Automatic Operation of the Elevators With Faulty Door Contact Circuits.

(g) Where the screw machine and its controller are located on the car, in the hoistway, or outside the hoistway, the disconnecting means shall be located adjacent to the controller.

(h) Requirement 2.26.6, Phase Protection of Motors.

(i) Requirement 2.26.7, Installation of Capacitors or Other Devices to Make Electrical Protective Devices Ineffective.

(j) Requirement 2.26.8, Release and Application of Driving-Machine Brakes.

(k) Requirement 2.26.9, Control and Operating Circuits.

(l) Requirement 2.26.11, Car Platform to Hoistway Door Sills Vertical Distance.

(m) Requirement 2.26.13, Operating Device Symbols.

Emergency operation and signaling devices shall conform to 2.27.

Elevator layout drawings shall, in addition to the other data required by 2.28, indicate the following:

(a) the material and dimensions of the screw column, including thread dimensions

(b) the location and amount of the maximum loadings on the building structure

All welding shall conform to 8.8.

This Section applies to hand-operated elevators.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to hand elevators.

Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construction shall conform to Part 2, except for the following, which do not apply:

2.1.3 Floor Over Hoistways
2.1.6 Projections, Recesses, and Setbacks in Hoistway Enclosures
2.2 Pits
2.3 Location and Guarding of Counterweights
2.4 Vertical Clearances and Runbys for Cars and Counterweights
2.5 Horizontal Car and Counterweight Clearances
2.7.1.1 Fire-Resistive Construction
2.7.1.2 Non-Fire-Resistive Construction
2.7.2 Maintenance Path and Clearance
2.7.4 Headroom in Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, Control Spaces, and Control Rooms
2.7.9.2 Temperature and Humidity
2.8 Equipment in Hoistways, Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, Control Spaces, and Control Rooms
2.10 Guarding of Equipment and Standard Railing
2.11.2.1 Passenger Elevators
2.11.2.2 Freight Elevators
2.11.3 Closing of Hoistway Doors
2.11.7 Glass in Hoistway Doors
2.11.9 Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Power Operation
2.12 Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Electric Contacts, and Hoistway Access Switches
2.13 Power Operation of Hoistway Doors and Car Doors

Pits are not required.

The top car clearance shall be not less than the sum of the following:

(a) the bottom counterweight runby, if any

(b) the stroke of the counterweight buffer where a spring-type buffer is used (buffer not required for sidewalk elevators)

(c) 300 mm (12 in.)

The top counterweight clearance shall be not less than the sum of the following:

(a) the bottom car runby, if any

(b) the stroke of the car buffer where a spring-type buffer is used (buffer not required for sidewalk elevators)

(c) 150 mm (6 in.)

Elevator machines and their control equipment shall be permitted to be located inside the hoistway enclosure at the top or bottom without intervening enclosures or platforms.

Machines of sidewalk elevators having a rise of not more than one floor, and having an opening into the building at the bottom terminal landing only, are not required to be enclosed.

Overhead beams and their supports shall conform to 2.9.
Adequate and permanent means of access shall be provided to machines and sheaves for maintenance and inspection (see 2.7.3).
Entrances will be of the following types:

(a) self-closing or manually operated horizontally sliding or swinging, single section

(b) self-closing or manually operated horizontally swinging, two section (Dutch type) with one section above the other and the lower section extending not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.) above the floor, and arranged to be opened only when the car is in the landing zone and after the upper section has been opened, and to be closed by the closing of the upper section

(c) manually operated vertically sliding counterweighted single- or multi-section

(d) manually operated vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced

(e) for sidewalk elevator doors in sidewalks or other areas exterior to the building, see 5.5.1.11.2

All doors shall be kept closed, except the door at the floor where the car is being operated or is being loaded or unloaded.

Manually operated doors shall be equipped with approved devices to close them automatically when released by the action of heat. Self-closing doors equipped with hold-open devices shall be equipped with fusible links that will release the door in case of excessive heat.

Landing doors shall be provided with mechanical locks so arranged that the car cannot leave the landing unless the door is closed. The lock or latch shall be arranged to ensure that the door is in a position to be locked when or before the car leaves the landing.

These requirements do not apply to bottom landing doors of sidewalk elevators.

Every hoistway door shall have conspicuously displayed on the landing side in letters not less than 50 mm (2 in.) high the words: "DANGER-ELEVATOR-KEEP CLOSED."

Hoistway landing openings equipped with horizontally sliding or swinging doors shall also be provided with vertically sliding semiautomatic gates, not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.) high and of a design that will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter. Gates shall be so constructed and guided as to withstand a lateral force of 445 N (100 lbf) concentrated at the center of the gate without being deflected beyond the line of the landing sill, and a force of 1 112 N (250 lbf) without forcing the gate from its guides or without causing it to break or be permanently deformed.

Hoistway doors and hoistway gates, where required, shall be provided with locking devices as specified in 4.3.8.1 and 4.3.8.2.

Hoistway doors shall be provided with spring-type latches to hold them in the closed position. Such latches shall be capable of being released from both the hoistway and landing side, irrespective of the position of the car.
Hoistway gates required with horizontally sliding or swinging type hoistway doors (see 4.3.7) shall be provided with hoistway gate separate mechanical locks.

(a) Type Required. Hoistway gate separate mechanical locks shall be of a type actuated only when the car is within the landing zone by a cam attached to the car.

(b) General Design Requirements. The lock shall hold the gate in the closed position by means of gravity or by a restrained compression spring, or by both.

(c) Closed Position. Hoistway gates provided with hoistway gate separate mechanical locks shall be considered to be in the closed position when the gate is within 10 mm (0.375 in.) of contact with the landing sill.

Cars shall be enclosed on the sides not used for entrance. The deflection of the enclosure shall be not more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) when subjected to a force of 334 N (75 lbf) applied perpendicularly to the car enclosure at any point. The enclosure shall be secured to the car platform or frame in such a manner that it cannot work loose or become displaced in ordinary service.

These requirements do not apply to sidewalk elevators.

Glass shall not be used in elevator cars, except as permitted in 2.14.1.8.

Car frames and platforms shall be of metal or sound seasoned wood designed with a factor of safety of not less than 4 for metal and 6 for wood, based on the rated load uniformly distributed. Connection between frame members of the car frame and the platform shall be riveted, bolted, or welded.

Sidewalk elevator platforms shall be provided with steel bow irons or stanchions to open sidewalk doors or covers (see 5.5.1.15.2).

Elevator cars upon which an operator is permitted to ride shall have not more than one compartment.

Elevator cars upon which persons are permitted to ride shall not be arranged to counterbalance each other.

The rated load of hand elevators shall be not less than 240 kg/m2 (50 lb/ft2) of inside net car area.
A metal plate shall be fastened in a conspicuous place in the elevator car and shall bear the following information in not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) letters or numerals, stamped, etched, or raised on the surface of the plate:

(a) rated load in kg (lb)

(b) the maximum number of passengers to be carried based on 68 kg (150 lb) per person (if passenger elevator)

(c) suspension data required by 4.3.16.5

Elevators having a rise of more than 4.6 m (15 ft) shall be provided with a car safety, attached to the underside of the car frame, capable of stopping and sustaining the car with rated load.

The car safety device is not required to be operated by a speed governor, and is permitted to be of the instantaneous type operated as a result of the breaking or slackening of the suspension members.

Where the rise exceeds 12.5 m (40 ft), driving machines having hand-operated brakes shall also be equipped with an automatic speed retarder.

Suspension means shall consist of not less than two wire ropes or chains.
The factor of safety used in determining the size and number of the suspension members shall be not less than 5, based on the weight of the car and its rated load.
The length of suspension members shall be such as to provide the minimum top car and counterweight clearances specified in 4.3.3.
Drum ends of suspension members shall be secured to the inside of the drum by clamps or babbitted sockets, and there shall be not less than one complete turn of the suspension members around the winding drum when the car or counterweight is resting on its buffers.
The capacity plate required by 4.3.14.2 shall show the size, rated ultimate strength, and material of the suspension members. The date of installation of the suspension members shall be shown on a metal tag attached to the suspension fastening.
Sections of counterweights, whether carried in frames or not, shall be secured by at least two tie-rods passing through holes in the sections. The tie-rods shall have locknuts at each end, secured by cotter pins.
Car and counterweights shall be provided with guide rails of steel or straight-grained seasoned wood free from knots, shakes, dry rot, or other imperfections.

Guide rails for sidewalk elevators shall be of steel. The guiding surfaces of the guide rails for elevators equipped with car safeties shall be finished smooth.

Guide rails shall be securely fastened with through bolts or clips of such strength, design, and spacing that

(a) the guide rails and their fastenings shall not deflect more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) under normal operation

(b) the guide rails and their fastenings shall withstand the application of the safety, where provided, when stopping the car with rated load or when stopping the counterweight

Car and counterweight guide rails shall rest on suitable supports and extend at the top of the hoistway sufficiently to prevent the guide shoes from running off the guide rails in case the car or counterweight travels beyond the terminal landings.
The factors of safety, based on static loads, to be used in the design of driving machines and sheaves shall be not less than 8 for wrought iron or wrought steel and 10 for cast iron or other materials.
Driving machines shall be equipped with a hand brake or an automatic brake operating in either direction of motion of the elevator, and capable of stopping and holding the car with its rated load. When the brake has been applied, it shall remain in the "ON" position until released by the operator.

Power attachments are prohibited. Elevators shall not be equipped with any means or attachment for applying electric or other power unless the elevator is permanently and completely converted into a power elevator conforming to all requirements of this Code for electric or hydraulic elevators.

The information provided on layout data shall conform to 2.28.

See 8.10 and 8.11 for the testing requirements for hand elevators.

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