No attempt is made to define ordinary words, which are used in accordance with their established dictionary meanings, except where a word has been used loosely, and it is necessary to define its meaning as used in this code to avoid misunderstanding.
Accessible, Readily. Having a direct access without the necessity of removing a panel, door, or similar obstruction.
Air, Class 1. Air with low contaminant concentration, low sensory-irritation intensity, and inoffensive odor. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.16.1]
Air, Class 2. Air with moderate contaminant concentration, mild sensory-irritation intensity, or mildly offensive odors. Class 2 air also includes air that is not necessarily harmful or objectionable, but that is inappropriate for transfer or recirculation to spaces used for different purposes. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.16.1]
Air, Class 3. Air with significant contaminant concentration, significant sensory-irritation intensity, or offensive odor. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.16.1]
Air, Class 4. Air with highly objectionable fumes or gases or with potentially dangerous particles, bioaerosols, or gases, at concentrations high enough to be considered harmful. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.16.1]
Air, Conditioned. Air that has been treated to achieve a desired level of temperature, humidity, or cleanliness.
Air, Makeup. Air that is provided to replace air being exhausted.
Air Dispersion Systems: Any diffuser system designed to both convey air within a room, space
or area and diffuse air into that space while operating under positive pressure. Systems are
commonly constructed of, but not limited to, fabric or plastic film.
Air Intakes. An opening in a building's envelope whose purpose is to allow outside air to be drawn into the structure to replace inside air that is removed by exhaust systems or to improve the quality of the inside air by providing a source of air having a lower concentration of odors, suspended particles, or heating content. [NFPA 96:3.3.2]
Air-Moving System. A system designed to provide heating, cooling, or ventilation in which one or more air-handling units are used to supply air to a common space or are drawing air from a common plenum or space.
Air Pollution Control Devices. Equipment and devices used for the purpose of cleaning air passing through them or by them in such a manner as to reduce or remove the impurities contained therein. [NFPA 96:3.3.3]
Appliance. A device that utilizes an energy source to produce light, heat, power, refrigeration, air conditioning, or compressed fuel gas. This definition also shall include a vented decorative appliance
Appliance, Fan-Assisted Combustion. An appliance equipped with an integral mechanical means to either draw or force products of combustion through the combustion chamber or heat exchanger. [NFPA 54:22.214.171.124]
Appliance Categorized Vent Diameter/Area. The minimum vent diameter/area permissible for Category I appliances to maintain a nonpositive vent static pressure where tested in accordance with nationally recognized standards. [NFPA 54:3.3.6]
Appliance Flue Outlet. The opening or openings in a cooking device where vapors, combustion gases, or both leave the cooking device. [NFPA 96:3.3.4] There might or might not be ductwork attached to this opening.
Appurtenance. An accessory or a subordinate part that enables the primary device to perform or improve its intended function. [NFPA 96:3.3.5]
Assembly Building. A building or a portion of a building used for the gathering together of 50 or more persons for such purposes as deliberation, education, instruction, worship, entertainment, amusement, drinking, dining, or awaiting transportation.
Authority Having Jurisdiction. The organization, office, or individual responsible for enforcing the requirements of a code or standard, or for approving equipment, materials, installations, or procedures. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be a federal, state, local, or other regional department or an individual such as a plumbing official, mechanical official, labor department official, health department official, building official, or others having statutory authority. In the absence of statutory authority, the Authority Having Jurisdiction may be some other responsible party. This definition shall include the Authority Having Jurisdiction's duly authorized representative.
Automatic. That which provides a function without the necessity of human intervention.
Azeotrope. A refrigerant blend containing two or more refrigerants whose equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions are the same at a given pressure. At this pressure, the slope of the temperature vs. composition curve equals zero, which mathematically is expressed as (dt/dx)p = 0, which, in turn, implies the occurrence of a maximum, minimum, or saddle point temperature. Azeotropic blends exhibit some segregation of components at other conditions. The extent of the segregation depends on the particular azeotrope and the application. [ASHRAE 34:3]
Boiler, High-Pressure. A boiler for generating steam at gauge pressures in excess of 15 psi (103 kPa), or for heating water to a temperature in excess of 250°F (121°C) or at a gauge pressure in excess of 160 psi (gauge pressure of 1103 kPa). [NFPA 211:126.96.36.199]
Breathing Zone. The region within an occupiable space between planes 3 inches and 72 inches (76 mm and 1829 mm) above the floor and exceeds 2 feet (610 mm) from the walls or fixed air-conditioning equipment. [ASHRAE 62.1:3]
Burner, Automatic Boiler. A device to convey fuel into the combustion chamber in proximity to its combustion air supply so as to permit a stable, controlled heat release compatible with the burner design and that is equipped with an ignition system to reliably ignite the entire heat release surface of the burner assembly.
CAS Number. The Chemical Abstract System registry number.
Ceiling Radiation Damper. A listed device installed in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assembly to automatically limit the radiative heat transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening. [NFPA 5000:188.8.131.52]
Central Heating Plant or Heating Plant. Environmental heating equipment installed in a manner to supply heat by means of ducts or pipes to areas other than the room or space in which the equipment is located.
Certified Person. A person trained and certified by the equipment manufacturer, or by a recognized organization through a formal certification program for the system to be serviced or cleaned; that is acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Chimney. One or more passageways, vertical or nearly so, for conveying flue or vent gases to the outdoors. [NFPA 54:3.3.18]
Chimney, Factory-Built. A chimney composed of listed factory-built components assembled in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions to form the completed chimney. [NFPA 54:184.108.40.206]
Chimney, Masonry. A field-constructed chimney of solid masonry units, bricks, stones, listed masonry chimney units, or reinforced portland cement concrete, lined with approved chimney flue liners. [NFPA 54:220.127.116.11]
Chimney, High-Heat Appliance-Type. A factory-built, masonry, or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning high-heat appliances producing combustion gases in excess of 2000°F (1093°C), measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Chimney, Low-Heat Appliance-Type. A factory-built, masonry, or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning low-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1000°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 1400°F (760°C) during intermittent forced firing for periods up to one hour. All temperatures are measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Chimney, Medium-Heat Appliance-Type. A factory-built, masonry, or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning medium-heat appliances producing combustion gases, not in excess of 2000°F (1093°C), measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Chimney, Residential Appliance-Type. A factory-built or masonry chimney suitable for removing products of combustion from residential-type appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1000°F (538°C), measured at the appliance flue outlet. Factory-built Type HT chimneys have high-temperature thermal shock resistance.
Circulators (Circulating Pump). A device that circulates liquids within a closed circuit for an intended purpose.
Clearly Identified. Capable of being recognized by a person of normal vision without causing uncertainty and indecisiveness about the location or operating process of the identified item. [NFPA 96:3.3.13]
Closed Combustible Construction. Combustible building construction, including walls, structural framing, roofs, roof ceilings, floors, and floor-ceiling assemblies, continuously enclosing a grease duct on four sides where one or more sides require protection in accordance with Section 507.4.
Closed Combustion Solid-Fuel-Burning Appliance. A heat-producing appliance that employs a combustion chamber that has no openings other than the flue collar, fuel-charging door, and adjustable openings provided to control the amount of combustion air that enters the combustion chamber.
Clothes Dryer, Type 2. Used in business with direct intercourse of the function with the public. May or may not be operated by public or hired attendant. May or may not be coin-operated. [NFPA 54:18.104.22.168]
Coastal High Hazard Areas. An area within the flood hazard area that is subject to high-velocity wave action, and shown on a Flood Insurance Rate Map or other flood hazard map as Zone V, VO, VE, or V1-30.
Combustible Material. A material that, in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will ignite and burn; a material that does not meet the definition of noncombustible. [NFPA 54:22.214.171.124]
Commercial Food Heat-Processing Equipment. Equipment used in a food establishment for heat-processing food or utensils and that produces grease vapors, steam, fumes, smoke, or odors that are required to be removed through a local exhaust ventilation system.
Compensating Hood. A hood for commercial food heat-processing equipment that has an outside-air supply with air delivered below or within the hood. Where makeup air is diffused directly into the exhaust within the hood cavity, it becomes a short-circuit hood.
Compressor, Positive Displacement. A compressor in which increase in pressure is attained by changing the internal volume of the compression chamber.
Compressor, Refrigerant. A machine, with or without accessories, for compressing a refrigerant vapor.
Concealed Spaces. That portion(s) of a building behind walls, over suspended ceilings, in pipe chases, attics, and elsewhere whose size might normally range from 13/4 inch (44 mm) stud spaces to 8 foot (2438 mm) interstitial truss spaces and that might contain combustible materials such as building structural members, thermal, electrical insulation, or both, and ducting. Such spaces have sometimes been used as HVAC plenum chambers.
Condensate. The liquid phase produced by condensation of a particular gas or vapor.
Condenser. The part of the system designed to liquefy refrigerant vapor by removal of heat.
Condensing Unit. A mechanical refrigeration system, consisting of one or more power-driven compressors, condensers, liquid receivers where provided, and the regularly furnished accessories that have been factory assembled and tested prior to its installation.
Confined Space. A room or space having a volume less than 50 cubic feet per 1000 British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) (4.83 m3/kW) of the aggregate input rating of all fuel-burning appliances installed in that space.
Construction Documents. Plans, specifications, written, graphic, and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location, and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a permit.
Continuous Enclosure. A recognized architectural or mechanical component of a building having a fire resistance rating as required for the structure and whose purpose is to enclose the vapor removal duct for its full length to its termination point outside the structure without any portion of the enclosure having a fire resistance rating less than the required value. [NFPA 96:126.96.36.199]
Continuous Weld. A metal-joining method that produces a product without visible interruption or variation in quality. [NFPA 96:3.3.15] For the purpose of the definition, it specifically includes the exhaust compartment of hoods and welded joints of exhaust ducts, yet specifically does not include filter support frames or appendages inside hoods.
Cooling System. All of the equipment, including associated refrigeration, intended or installed for the purpose of cooling air by mechanical means and discharging such air into any room or space. This definition shall not include an evaporative cooler.
Cooling Unit. A self-contained refrigeration system that has been factory assembled tested, and installed with or without conditioned air and ducts, without connecting any refrigerant-containing parts. This definition shall not include a portable cooling unit or an absorption unit.
Copper Alloy. A homogenous mixture of two or more metals in which copper is the primary component, such as brass and bronze.
Crawl Space. In a building, an area accessible by crawling, having a clearance less than human height, for access to plumbing or wiring, storage, etc.
CSST. An acronym for corrugated stainless steel tubing.
Damper. A valve or plate for controlling draft or the flow of gases, including air. [NFPA 211:3.3.52]
Fire Damper. An automatic-closing metal assembly consisting of one or more louvers, blades, slats, or vanes that closes upon detection of heat so as to restrict the passage of flame and is listed to the applicable recognized standards.
Volume Damper. A device that, when installed, will restrict, retard, or direct the flow of air in any duct, or the products of combustion in any heat-producing equipment, its vent connector, vent, or chimney.
Design Flood Elevation. The elevation of the "design flood," including wave height, relative to the datum specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO, the design flood elevation is the elevation of the highest existing grade of the building's perimeter plus the depth number (in feet) specified on the flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO where a depth number is not specified on the map, the depth number is taken as being equal to 2 feet (610 mm).
Detection Devices. Electrical, pneumatic, thermal, mechanical, or optical sensing instruments, or subcomponents of such instruments, whose purpose is to cause an automatic action upon the occurrence of some preselected event. [NFPA 96:3.3.17] In the context of this document, the event in question could be excessive temperature or flame, and the action could be the operation of a fire-extinguishing system.
Direct Gas-Fired Non-recirculating Industrial Air Heater. A non-recirculating industrial air heater in which all the products of combustion generated by the appliance are released into the outdoor airstream being heated. [NFPA 54:188.8.131.52]
Direct Gas-Fired Recirculating Industrial Air Heater. An air recirculating heater in which all of the products of combustion generated by the appliance are released into the airstream being heated. [NFPA 54:184.108.40.206]
Direct-Vent Appliances. Appliances that are constructed and installed so that all air for combustion is derived directly from the outdoors and all flue gases are discharged to the outdoors. [NFPA 54:220.127.116.11]
- Provide for the ready escape of the flue gases from the appliance in the event of no draft, backdraft, or stoppage beyond the draft hood.
- Prevent a backdraft from entering the appliance.
- Neutralize the effect of stack action of the chimney or gas vent upon the operation of the appliance. [NFPA 54:3.3.31]
Duct. A tube or conduit for transmission of air, fumes, vapors, or dust. This definition shall not include:
- A vent, vent connector, or chimney connector.
- A tube or conduit wherein the pressure of the air exceeds 1 psi (7 kPa).
- The air passages of listed self-contained systems.
Duct Furnace. A furnace normally installed in distribution ducts of air-conditioning systems to supply warm air for heating. This definition applies only to an appliance that, for air circulation, depends on a blower not furnished as part of the furnace. [NFPA 54:18.104.22.168]
Duct System. A continuous passageway for the transmission of air and vapors that, in addition to the containment components themselves, might include duct fittings, dampers, plenums, other items, and air-handling equipment. [NFPA 96:3.3.20]
Ductless Mini-Split System. A heating and cooling equipment that includes one or multiple indoor evaporator, air handler, or both units, an outdoor condensing unit that is connected by refrigerant piping, and electrical wiring. A ductless mini-split system is capable of cooling or heating more rooms without the use of traditional ductwork.
Dwelling Unit. A building or portion thereof that contains living facilities, including provisions for sleeping, eating, cooking, and sanitation, as required by this code, for not more than one family.
Effective Ground-Fault Current Path. An intentionally constructed, low-impedance electrically conductive path designed and intended to carry current under ground-fault conditions from the point of a ground fault on a wiring system to the electrical supply source and that facilitates the operation of the overcurrent protective device or ground-fault detectors on high-impedance grounded systems. [NFPA 54:3.3.34]
Electric Heating Appliance. A device that produces heat energy to create a warm environment by the application of electric power to resistance elements, refrigerant compressors, or dissimilar material junctions.
Electrical Code. The National Electrical Code promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association, as adopted by this jurisdiction.
Emergency Alarm System. A system intended to provide the indication and warning of abnormal conditions and summon appropriate aid.
Environmental Air Duct. Ducting used for conveying air at temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121°C) to or from occupied areas of any occupancy through other than heating or air-conditioning systems, such as ventilation for human usage, domestic kitchen range exhaust, bathroom exhaust ducts, and domestic-type clothes dryer exhaust ducts.
Evaporative Cooling System. Equipment intended or installed for the purpose of environmental cooling by an evaporative cooler from which the conditioned air is distributed through ducts or plenums to the conditioned area.
Evaporator. Part of a refrigeration system in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized to produce refrigeration.
Fabrication Area (Fab Area). An area within a Group H Occupancy semiconductor fabrication facility and related research and development areas in that there are processes involving hazardous production materials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to the fab area processes.
Factory-Built Grease Duct Enclosures. A listed factory-built grease duct system evaluated as an enclosure system for reduced clearances to combustibles and as an alternative to a duct with its fire-rated enclosure. [NFPA 96:22.214.171.124.1]
Fire Resistance Rating. The time, in minutes or hours, that materials or assemblies have withstood a fire exposure as established in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263.
Flood Hazard Area. The greater of the following two areas:
- The area within a floodplain subject to a 1 percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
- The area designated as a flood hazard area on a community's flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated.
Floor Furnace. A completely self-contained unit furnace suspended from the floor of the space being heated, taking air for combustion from outside this space. [NFPA 54:126.96.36.199] With means for observing flames and lighting the appliance from such space.
Forced-Air Furnace. A furnace equipped with a fan or blower that provides the primary means for circulation of air. [NFPA 54:188.8.131.52]
Downflow-Type Furnace. A forced-air-type furnace designed with airflow essentially in a vertical path, discharging air at or near the bottom of the furnace. [NFPA 211:184.108.40.206]
Horizontal-Type Furnace. A forced-air-type furnace designed with airflow through the furnace, essentially in a horizontal path. [NFPA 211:220.127.116.11]
Upflow-Type Furnace. A forced-air-type furnace designed with airflow essentially in a vertical path, discharging air at or near the top of the furnace. [NFPA 211:18.104.22.168]
Fractionation. A change in composition of a blend by preferential evaporation of the more volatile component or condensation of the less volatile component.
Fuel Gas. Natural, manufactured, liquefied petroleum, or a mixture of these.
Fume Incinerators. Devices utilizing intense heat or fire to break down, oxidize, or both vapors and odors contained in gases or air being exhausted into the atmosphere. [NFPA 96:3.3.27]
Furnace, Central. A self-contained appliance for heating air by transfer of heat of combustion through metal to the air and designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces remote from or adjacent to the appliance location. [NFPA 54:22.214.171.124]
Fusible Link. A form of fixed-temperature heat-detecting device sometimes employed to restrain the operation of an electrical or mechanical control until its designed temperature is reached. [NFPA 96:3.3.28] Such devices are to be replaced following each operation.
Fusible Plug. A device arranged to relieve pressure by operation of a fusible member at a predetermined temperature.
Galvanized Steel. A steel that has been coated with a thin layer of zinc for corrosion protection.
Gas Convenience Outlet. A permanently mounted, hand-operated device providing a means for connecting and disconnecting an appliance or an appliance connector to the gas supply piping. The device includes an integral, manually operated gas valve with a nondisplaceable valve member so that disconnection can be accomplished only where the manually operated gas valve is in the closed position. [NFPA 54:3.3.48]
- A portion of the service piping.
- An approved piping connection 6 feet (1829 mm) or less in length between an existing gas outlet and a gas appliance in the same room with the outlet.
Gas Piping System. An arrangement of gas piping or regulators after the point of delivery and each arrangement of gas piping serving a building, structure, or premises, whether individually metered or not.
Generator. A device equipped with a means of heating used in an absorption system to drive refrigerant out of solution.
Gravity-Type Floor Furnace. A floor furnace depending primarily on circulation of air by gravity. This classification also includes floor furnaces equipped with booster-type fans that do not materially restrict free circulation of air by gravity flow when such fans are not in operation. [NFPA 211:126.96.36.199.2]
Grease. Rendered animal fat, vegetable shortening, and other such oily matter used for the purposes of and resulting from cooking, preparing foods, or both. [NFPA 96:3.3.29] Grease might be liberated and entrained with exhaust air or might be visible as a liquid or solid.
Grease Ducts. A containment system for the transportation of air and grease vapors that is designed and installed to reduce the possibility of the accumulation of combustible condensation and the occurrence of damage if a fire occurs within the system. [NFPA 96:188.8.131.52]
Grease Filter, Mesh-Type. A filter construction consisting of a net made from intersecting strands with a space between each strand. [NFPA 96:184.108.40.206]
Grease Removal Devices. A system of components designed and intended to process vapors, gases, or air as it is drawn through such devices by collecting the airborne grease particles and concentrating them for further action at some future time, leaving the exiting air with a lower amount of combustible matter.
Hazardous Location. An area or space where combustible dust, ignitable fibers, flammable liquids, volatile liquids, gases, vapors, or mixtures are or may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures.
Hazardous Process Piping (HPP). A process material piping or tubing conveying a liquid or gas that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability, or reactivity of Class 3 or 4, as ranked by the fire code.
Heat Pump. A refrigeration system that extracts heat from one substance and transfers it to another portion of the same substance or to a second substance at a higher temperature for a beneficial purpose.
Heating Degree Day. A unit, based upon temperature difference and time, used in estimating fuel consumption and specifying nominal annual heating load of a building. For any one day when the mean temperature is less than 65°F (18°C), there exist as many degree days as there is Fahrenheit degrees difference in temperature between mean temperature for the day and 65°F (18°C).
Heating Equipment. Includes warm air furnaces, warm air heaters, combustion products vents, heating air-distribution ducts and fans, and all steam and hot water piping, together with all control devices and accessories installed as part of, or in connection with, any environmental heating system or appliance regulated by this code.
Heating System. A warm air heating plant consisting of a heat exchanger enclosed in a casing, from which the heated air is distributed through ducts to various rooms and areas. A heating system includes the outside air, return air, and supply air system, and all accessory apparatus and equipment installed in connection therewith.
High Limit Control Device. An operating device installed and serving as an integral component of a deep-fat fryer that provides secondary limitation of the grease temperature by automatically disconnecting the thermal energy input when the temperature limit is exceeded. [NFPA 96:3.3.32]
High Purity Piping. A form of process piping but is usually specified for critical clean applications in the semiconductor, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, chemical, fiber optics, food, and dairy industries.
Hood. An air-intake device connected to a mechanical exhaust system for collecting and removing grease-laden vapors, fumes, smoke, steam, heat, or odors from commercial food heat-processing equipment.
Fixed Baffle. A listed unitary exhaust hood design where the grease removal device is a nonremovable assembly that contains an integral fire-activated water-wash fire-extinguishing system listed for this purpose. [NFPA 96:220.127.116.11]
Hot-Water-Heating Boiler. A boiler having a volume exceeding 120 gallons (454 L), a heat input exceeding 200 000 Btu/h (58.6 kW), or an operating temperature exceeding 210°F (99°C) that provides hot water to be used externally to itself.
IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health). A concentration of airborne contaminant's, normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), that represents the maximum level from which one is capable of escaping within 30 minutes without escape-impairing symptoms or irreversible health effects. This level is established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
Industrial Heating Equipment. Includes appliances, devices, or equipment used, or intended to be used, in an industrial, manufacturing, or commercial occupancy for applying heat to any material being processed, but shall not include water heaters, boilers, or portable equipment used by artisans in pursuit of a trade.
Insanitary Location. An area, space, or room where the air is unfit or undesirable for circulation to occupiable parts of a building.
Interconnected. Mutually assembled to another component in such a manner that the operation of one directly affects the other or that the contents of one specific duct system are allowed to encounter or contact the products being moved by another duct system. [NFPA 96:3.3.34]
Interlock. A device that senses a limit or off-limit condition or improper sequence of events and shuts down the offending or related piece of equipment or prevents proceeding in an improper sequence in order to prevent a hazardous condition from developing.
Joint, Brazed. A joint obtained by joining of metal parts with alloys that melt at temperatures exceeding 840°F (449°C) but less than the melting temperature of the parts being joined.
Joint, Compression. A multipiece joint with cup-shaped threaded nuts that, when tightened, compress tapered sleeves so that they form a tight joint on the periphery of the tubing they connect.
Joint, Flanged. One made by bolting together a pair of flanged ends.
Joint, Press-Connect. A permanent mechanical joint consisting of an elastomeric seal or an elastomeric seal and corrosion-resistant grip ring. The joint is made with a pressing tool and jaw or ring approved by the fitting manufacturer.
Joint, Soldered. A joint obtained by the joining of metal parts with metallic mixtures or alloys that melt at a temperature up to and including 840°F (449°C).
Joint, Welded. A gastight joint obtained by the joining of metal parts in the plastic molten state.
LFL (Lower Flammable Limit or Lower Limit of Flammability). The minimum concentration of a substance that propagates a flame through a homogeneous mixture of the substance and air under the specified test conditions. The LFL is sometimes referred to as LEL (Lower Explosive Limit). For the purposes of this definition, LFL and LEL are identical.
Limited-Combustible Material. Refers to a building construction material that does not comply with the definition of noncombustible material that, in the form in which it is used, has a potential heat value not exceeding 3500 British thermal units per pound-force (Btu/lb) (8141 kJ/kg), where tested in accordance with NFPA 259, and includes either of the following:
- Materials having a structural base of noncombustible material, with a surfacing not exceeding a thickness of 1/8 of an inch (3.2 mm), that has a flame-spread index not greater than 50.
- Materials, in the form and thickness used, having neither a flame-spread index greater than 25 nor evidence of continued progressive combustion, and of such composition that surfaces that would be exposed by cutting through the material on any plane would have neither a flame-spread index greater than 25 nor evidence of continued progressive combustion, where tested in accordance with ASTM E84.
Line Contact Installation. An installation in which a furnace is installed so that building joists, studs, or framing are contacted by the furnace jacket upon the lines formed by the intersection of the jacket sides with the top surface.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas). Means and includes a material composed predominantly of any of the following hydrocarbons or mixtures of them: propane, propylene, butanes (normal butane or isobutane), and butylenes. When reference is made to liquefied petroleum gas in this code, it shall refer to liquefied petroleum gases in either the liquid or gaseous state.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas) Facilities. Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas) facilities include tanks, containers, container valves, regulating equipment, meters, appurtenances, or any combination thereof for the storage and supply of liquefied petroleum gas for a building, structure, or premises.
Liquid-Tight. Constructed and performing in such a manner as not to permit the passage of liquid at any temperature. [NFPA 96:3.3.35]
Listed (Third Party Certified). Equipment or materials included in a list published by a listing agency (accredited conformity assessment body) that maintains periodic inspection of current production of listed equipment or materials and whose listing states either that the equipment or material complies with approved standards or has been tested and found suitable for use in a specified manner.
Listing Agency. An agency accredited by an independent and authoritative conformity assessment body to operate a material and product listing and labeling (certification) system and that are accepted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, which is in the business of listing or labeling. The system includes initial and ongoing product testing, a periodic inspection on current production of listed (certified) products, and that makes available a published report of such listing in which specific information is included that the material or product is in accordance with applicable standards and found safe for use in a specific manner.
Machinery. The refrigeration equipment forming a part of the refrigeration system, including, but not limited to, the following: compressors, condensers, liquid receivers, evaporators, and connecting piping.
Mechanical Ventilation. Ventilation provided by mechanically powered equipment, such as motor-driven fans and blowers, but not by devices such as wind-driven turbine ventilators and mechanically operated windows. [ASHRAE 62.1:3]
Miniature Boiler. A power boiler having an internal shell diameter of 16 inches (406 mm) or less, a gross volume of 5 cubic feet (0.14 m3) or less, a heating surface of 20 square feet (1.86 m2) or less (not applicable to electric boilers), and not exceeding 100 psi (689 kPa).
Natural Ventilation. Ventilation provided by thermal, wind, or diffusion effects through doors, windows, or other intentional openings in the building. [ASHRAE 62.1:3]
Noncombustible Material. As applied to building construction material, means a material that in the form in which it is used is either one of the following:
- A material that, in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors when subjected to fire or heat. Materials that are reported as passing ASTM El36 are considered noncombustible material.
- Material having a structural base of noncombustible material as defined in item 1 above, with a surfacing material not over 1/8 of an inch (3.2 mm) thick that has a flame-spread index not higher than 50.
Noncombustible does not apply to surface finish materials. Material required to be noncombustible for reduced clearances to flues, heating appliances, or other sources of high temperature shall refer to material in accordance with item 1 above. No material shall be classed as noncombustible that is subject to increase in combustibility or flame-spread index beyond the limits herein established, through the effects of age, moisture, or other atmospheric condition.
Occupancy. The purpose for which a building or part thereof is used or intended to be used.
Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL). The time-weighted average (TWA) concentration for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek to which nearly all workers can be repeatedly exposed without adverse effect, based on the OSHA PEL, ACGIH TLV-TWA, TERA OARS-WEEL, or consistent value. [ASHRAE 34:3]
Occupiable Space. An enclosed space intended for human activities excluding those spaces intended primarily for other purposes such as storage rooms and equipment rooms that are only occupied occasionally and for short periods of time. [ASHRAE 62.1:3]
Open Combustible Construction. Combustible building construction, including wall, structural framing, roof, roof ceiling, floor, and floor-ceiling assemblies, adjacent to a grease duct on three or fewer sides where one or more sides require protection in accordance with Section 507.4.
PE-RT. Polyethylene of raised temperature.
PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit). The time-weighted average concentration [set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)] for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek to which nearly all workers can be repeatedly exposed without adverse effect. Chemical manufacturers publish similar recommendations [e.g., acceptable exposure level (AEL), industrial exposure limit (IEL), or occupational exposure limit (OEL), depending on the company], generally for substances for which PEL has not been established. [ASHRAE 34:3] The maximum permitted time-weighted average exposures to be utilized are those published in 29 CFR 1910.1000.
PEX. Cross-linked polyethylene.
PEX-AL-PEX. Cross-linked polyethylene-aluminum-cross-linked polyethylene.
Pilot. A burner smaller than the main burner that is ignited by a spark or other independent and stable ignition source, and that provides ignition energy required to immediately light off the main burner.
Piping. The pipe or tube mains for interconnecting the various parts of a system. Piping includes pipe, tube, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings the pressure-containing parts of other components such as expansion joints, strainers, and devices that serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling flow, pipe-supporting fixtures and structural attachments.
Pitched. To be fixed or set at a desired angle or inclination. [NFPA 96:3.3.39]
Plenum. An air compartment or chamber including uninhabited crawl space areas above a ceiling or below a floor, including air spaces below raised floors of computer/data processing centers or attic spaces, to one or more ducts are connected and that forms part of either the supply-air, return-air, or exhaust-air system, other than the occupiable space being conditioned.
Plumbing Code. The Uniform Plumbing Code promulgated by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials, as adopted by this jurisdiction.
Portable Cooling Unit. A self-contained refrigerating system, not over 3 horsepower (hp) (2.2 kW) rating that has been factory assembled and tested, installed without supply-air ducts and without connecting any refrigerant-containing parts. This definition shall not include an absorption unit.
Portable Evaporative Cooler. An evaporative cooler that discharges the conditioned air directly into the conditioned area without the use of ducts and can be readily transported from place to place without dismantling any portion thereof.
Portable Heating Appliance. A heating appliance designed for environmental heating that may have a self-contained fuel supply and is not secured or attached to a building by any means other than by a factory-installed power supply cord.
Power Hot Water Boiler (High Temperature Water Boiler). A boiler used for heating water or liquid to a pressure exceeding 160 psi (1103 kPa) or to a temperature exceeding 250°F (121°C).
Pressure, Design. The maximum working pressure for which a specific part of a refrigeration system is designed.
Pressure, Field Test. A test performed in the field to prove system tightness.
Pressure Test. The minimum gauge pressure to which a specific system component is subjected under test condition.
Pressure Vessel (Unfired). A closed container, having a nominal internal diameter exceeding 6 inches (152 mm) and a volume exceeding 11/2 cubic feet (0.04 m3), for liquids, gases, vapors subjected to pressures exceeding 15 psi (103 kPa), or steam under a pressure.
Pressure Vessel, Refrigerant. A refrigerant-containing receptacle that is a portion of a refrigeration system, but shall not include evaporators, headers, or piping of certain limited size and capacity.
Product-Conveying Duct. Ducting used for conveying solid particulates, such as refuse, dust, fumes, and smoke; liquid particulate matter, such as spray residue, mists, and fogs; vapors, such as vapors from flammable or corrosive liquids; noxious and toxic gases; and air at temperatures exceeding 250°F (121°C).
PVC. Polyvinyl chloride.
Quick-Disconnect Device, Fuel Gas. A hand-operated device that provides a means for connecting and disconnecting an appliance or an appliance connector to a gas supply and that is equipped with an automatic means to shut off the gas supply when the device is disconnected. [NFPA 54:18.104.22.168]
Receiver, Liquid. A vessel permanently connected to a refrigeration system by inlet and outlet pipes for storage of liquid.
Reclaimed Refrigerants. Refrigerants reprocessed to the same specifications as new refrigerants by any means, including distillation. Such refrigerants have been chemically analyzed to verify that those specifications have been met. [ASHRAE 15:3]
Recovered Refrigerants. Refrigerants removed from a system in any condition without necessarily testing or processing them. [ASHRAE 15:3]
Recycled Refrigerants. Refrigerants for which contaminants have been reduced by oil separation, removal of noncondensible gases, and single or multiple passes through filter driers or other devices that reduce moisture, acidity, and particulate matter. [ASHRAE 15:3]
Refrigerant Designation. The unique identifying alphanumeric value assigned to an individual refrigerant.
Refrigerant Safety Classifications. Made up of a letter (A or B), that indicates the toxicity class, followed by a number (1, 2, or 3), that indicates the flammability class. Refrigerant blends are similarly classified, based on the compositions at their worst cases of fractionation, as separately determined for toxicity and flammability. In some cases, the worst case of fractionation is the original formulation.
Class 1. Refrigerants that do not show flame propagation where tested in air at 14.7 pound-force per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa) and 140°F (60°C).
Class 2. Refrigerants having a lower flammability limit (LFL) of more than 0.00625 pound per cubic foot (lb/ft3) (0.10012 kg/m3) at 140°F (60°C), 14.7 psia (101 kPa), and a heat of combustion of less than 8169 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) (1.8988 E+07 J/kg).
Class 3. Refrigerants that are highly flammable having a LFL of not more than 0.00625 lb/ft3 (0.10012 kg/m3) at 140°F (60°C) and 14.7 psia (101 kPa) or a heat of combustion not less than 8169 Btu/lb (1.8988 E+07 J/kg).
Class B. Refrigerants have an OEL of less than 400 ppm.
Refrigeration Room or Space. A room or space in which an evaporator or brine coil is located for the purpose of reducing or controlling the temperature within the room or space to less than 68°F (20°C).
Refrigeration System, Absorption. A heat-operated closed refrigeration cycle in which a secondary fluid, the absorbent, absorbs a primary fluid, the refrigerant that has been vaporized in the evaporator.
Refrigeration System, Indirect. A system in which a secondary coolant cooled or heated by the refrigerating system is circulated to the air or other substance to be cooled or heated. Indirect systems are distinguished by the method of application given below. [ASHRAE 15:5.1.2]
Indirect Open Spray System. A system in which a secondary coolant is in direct contact with the air or other substance to be cooled or heated. [ASHRAE 15:22.214.171.124]
Double Indirect Open Spray System. A system in which the secondary substance for an indirect open spray system is heated or cooled by the secondary coolant circulated from a second enclosure. [ASHRAE 15:126.96.36.199]
Indirect Closed System. A system in which a secondary coolant passes through a closed circuit in the air or other substance to be cooled or heated. [ASHRAE 15:188.8.131.52]
Refrigeration System, Mechanical. A combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting heat and in which a compressor is used for compressing the refrigerant vapor.
Refrigeration System, Self-Contained. A complete factory-assembled and tested system that is shipped in one or more sections and has no refrigerant-containing parts that are joined in the field by other than companion or block valves.
Registered Design Professional. An individual who is registered or licensed by the laws of the state to perform such design work in the jurisdiction.
Removable. Capable of being transferred to another location with a limited application of effort and tools. [NFPA 96:3.3.42]
Residential Building. A building or portion thereof designed or used for human habitation.
Room Heater, Unvented. An unvented, self-contained, freestanding, nonrecessed, fuel- gas-burning appliance for furnishing warm air by gravity or fan circulation to the space in which installed, directly from the heater without duct connection. [NFPA 54:184.108.40.206]
Secondary Filtration. Fume incinerators, thermal recovery units, air pollution control devices or other filtration media installed in ducts or hoods located in the path of travel of exhaust products after the initial filtration.
Self-Contained. Having all essential working parts, except energy and control connections, so contained in a case or framework that they do not depend on appliances or fastenings outside of the machine.
Service Corridor. A fully enclosed passage used for transporting hazardous production materials and purposes other than required exiting.
Shaft. An interior space enclosed by walls or construction extending through one or more stories or basements that connect openings in successive floors, or floors and roof, to accommodate elevators, dumbwaiters, mechanical equipment, or similar devices to transmit light or ventilation air.
Shall. Indicates a mandatory requirement.
Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is advised but not required.
Solid-Fuel Cooking Equipment. Cooking equipment that utilizes solid fuel. [NFPA 96:220.127.116.11] This equipment includes ovens, tandoori charcoal pots, grills, broilers, rotisseries, barbecue pits, or other type of cooking equipment that derives all or part of its heat source from the burning of solid cooking fuel.
Solvent. A substance (usually liquid) capable of dissolving or dispersing another substance; a chemical compound designed and used to convert solidified grease into a liquid or semiliquid state in order to facilitate a cleaning operation. [NFPA 96:3.3.46]
Standard. A document, the main text of which contains only mandatory provisions using the word "shall" to indicate requirements and that is in a form generally suitable for mandatory reference by another standard or code or for adoption into law. Nonmandatory provisions shall be located in an appendix, footnote, or fine-print note and are not to be considered a part of the requirements of a standard.
Stationary Fuel Cell Power Plant. A self-contained package or factory-matched packages that constitute an automatically operated assembly of integrated systems for generating useful electrical energy and recoverable energy that is permanently connected and fixed in place.
Strength, Ultimate. The highest stress level that the component can tolerate without rupture.
Thermal Recovery Unit. A device or series of devices whose purpose is to reclaim only the heat content of air, vapors, gases, or fluids that are being expelled through the exhaust system and to transfer the thermal energy so reclaimed to a location whereby a useful purpose can be served. [NFPA 96:3.3.49]
Trained. A person who has become proficient in performing a skill reliably and safely through instruction and practice/field experience acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:3.3.50]
Transition Gas Riser. A listed or approved section or sections of pipe and fittings used to convey fuel gas and installed in a gas piping system for the purpose of providing a transition from belowground to aboveground.
Unusually Tight Construction. Construction where:
- Walls and ceilings exposed to the outdoors have a continuous water vapor retarder with a rating of 1 perm or less with openings gasketed or sealed.
- Weatherstripping is on openable windows and doors.
- Caulking or sealants are applied to areas such as joints around window and door frames, between sole plates and floors, between wall-ceiling joints, between wall panels, and at penetrations for plumbing, electrical, and gas lines and at other openings.
Use (Material). The placing in action or making available for service by opening or connecting a container utilized for confinement of material, whether a solid, liquid, or gas.
Vacuum. A pressure less than that exerted by the atmosphere.
Valve, Pressure-Relief. A pressure-actuated valve held closed by a spring or other means and designed to automatically relieve pressure in excess of its setting.
Valve, Three-Way-Type Stop. A manually operated valve with one inlet that alternately can stop flow to either of two outlets.
Valves, Companion or Block. Pairs of mating stop valves valving off sections of refrigeration systems and arranged so that these sections may be joined before opening these valves or separated after closing them.
Vent, Gas. A passageway composed of listed factory-built components assembled in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions for conveying vent gases from appliances or their vent connectors to the outdoors. [NFPA 54:3.3.53]
Vent Offset. An arrangement of two or more fittings and pipe installed for the purpose of locating a vertical section of vent pipe in a different but parallel plane with respect to an adjacent section of a vertical vent pipe. [NFPA 54:3.3.102]
Vented Wall Furnace. A self-contained, vented, fuel gasburning appliance complete with grilles or equivalent, designed for incorporation in or permanent attachment to the structure of a building and furnishing heated air, circulated by gravity or by a fan, directly into the space to be heated through openings in the casing. [NFPA 54:18.104.22.168]
Ventilating Ceiling. A suspended ceiling containing many small apertures through which air, at low pressure, is forced downward from an overhead plenum dimensioned by the concealed space between the suspended ceiling and the floor or roof above.
Ventilation System. All of that equipment intended or installed for the purpose of supplying air to or removing air from, any room or space by mechanical means, other than equipment that is a portion of an environmental heating, cooling, absorption, or evaporative cooling system.
Venting System. The vent or chimney and its connectors, assembled to form a continuous open passageway from an appliance to the outdoors for the purpose of removing products of combustion. This definition also shall include a venting assembly that is an integral part of an appliance.
Volume, Internal Gross. The volume as determined from internal dimensions of the container, with no allowance for the volume of the internal parts.
Water Heater or Hot-Water-Heating Boiler. An appliance designed primarily to supply hot water for domestic or commercial purposes and equipped with automatic controls limiting water temperature to a maximum of 210°F (99°C).