This chapter shall apply to structures in the course of construction, alteration or demolition, including those in underground locations. Compliance with NFPA 241 is required for items not specifically addressed herein.
This chapter prescribes minimum safeguards for construction, alteration and demolition operations to provide reasonable safety to life and property from fire during such operations.
Words and terms used in this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings ascribed to them as defined therein.
Oil-fired heaters shall comply with Section 603.
Fuel supplies for liquefied-petroleum gas-fired heaters shall comply with Chapter 61 and the International Fuel Gas Code.
Refueling operations for liquid-fueled equipment or appliances shall be conducted in accordance with Section 5705. The equipment or appliance shall be allowed to cool prior to refueling.
Clearance to combustibles from temporary heating devices shall be maintained in accordance with the labeled equipment. When in operation, temporary heating devices shall be fixed in place and protected from damage, dislodgement or overturning in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
The use of temporary heating devices shall be supervised and maintained only by competent personnel.
Smoking shall be prohibited except in approved areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Section 310. In approved areas where smoking is permitted, approved ashtrays shall be provided in accordance with Section 310.
Combustible debris, rubbish and waste material shall not be accumulated within buildings.
Combustible debris, rubbish and waste material shall be removed from buildings at the end of each shift of work.
Where rubbish containers with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) (0.15 m3) are used for temporary storage of combustible debris, rubbish and waste material, they shall have tight-fitting or self-closing lids. Such rubbish containers shall be constructed entirely of materials that comply with either of the following:
- Noncombustible materials.
- Materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation.
Materials susceptible to spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a listed disposal container.
Open burning shall comply with Section 307.
Where required by the fire code official or the prefire plan established in accordance with Section 3308.3, a fire watch shall be provided for building demolition and for building construction that is hazardous in nature, such as temporary heating or hot work.
Where required by the fire code official, a fire watch shall be provided during nonworking hours for new construction that exceeds 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height above the lowest adjacent grade.
Trained personnel shall be provided to serve as an on-site fire watch. Fire watch personnel shall be provided with not fewer than one approved means for notification of the fire department, and the sole duty of such personnel shall be to perform constant patrols and watch for the occurrence of fire. The combination of fire watch duties and site security duties is acceptable. Fire watch personnel shall be trained in the use of portable fire extinguishers.
The fire watch shall include areas specified by the prefire plan established in accordance with Section 3308.3. The fire watch personnel shall keep a record of all time periods of duty, including a log entry each time the site was patrolled and each time a structure under construction was entered and inspected. The records and log entries shall be made available for review by the fire code official upon request.
Welding, cutting, open torches and other hot work operations and equipment shall comply with Chapter 35.
Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations used in connection with the construction, alteration or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or similar activities shall comply with NFPA 70.
Cooking shall be prohibited except in approved designated cooking areas. Signs with a minimum letter height of 3 inches (76 mm) and a minimum brush stroke of 1/2 inch (13 mm) shall be posted in conspicuous locations in designated cooking areas and state:
DESIGNATED COOKING AREA
COOKING OUTSIDE OF A DESIGNATED COOKING
AREA IS PROHIBITED
COOKING OUTSIDE OF A DESIGNATED COOKING
AREA IS PROHIBITED
Storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Section 5704.
The storage, use and handling of flammable and combustible liquids at construction sites shall be in accordance with Section 5706.2. Ventilation shall be provided for operations involving the application of materials containing flammable solvents.
Flammable and combustible liquid storage areas shall be maintained clear of combustible vegetation and waste materials. Such storage areas shall not be used for the storage of combustible materials.
Sources of ignition and smoking shall be prohibited in flammable and combustible liquid storage areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Section 310.
Class I and II liquids shall be kept in approved safety containers.
Leaking vessels shall be immediately repaired or taken out of service and spills shall be cleaned up and disposed of properly.
The storage, use and handling of flammable gases shall comply with Chapter 58.
Flammable gases shall not be used to clean or remove debris from piping open to the atmosphere.
The cleaning and purging of flammable gas piping systems, including cleaning new or existing piping systems, purging piping systems into service and purging piping systems out of service, shall comply with NFPA 56.
- Compressed gas piping systems other than fuel gas piping systems where in accordance with Chapter 53.
- Piping systems regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code.
- Liquefied petroleum gas systems in accordance with Chapter 61.
Explosive materials shall be stored, used and handled in accordance with Chapter 56.
Blasting operations shall be conducted in accordance with Chapter 56.
Approved fire hoses for use by demolition personnel shall be maintained at the demolition site wherever explosives are used for demolition. Such fire hoses shall be connected to an approved water supply and shall be capable of being brought to bear on post-detonation fires anywhere on the site of the demolition operation.
The owner or owner's authorized agent shall be responsible for the development, implementation and maintenance of a written plan establishing a fire prevention program at the project site applicable throughout all phases of the construction, repair, alteration or demolition work. The plan shall address the requirements of this chapter and other applicable portions of this code, the duties of staff, and staff training requirements. The plan shall be made available for review by the fire code official upon request.
The owner shall designate a person to be the fire prevention program superintendent who shall be responsible for the fire prevention program and ensure that it is carried out through completion of the project. The fire prevention program superintendent shall have the authority to enforce the provisions of this chapter and other provisions as necessary to secure the intent of this chapter. Where guard service is provided in accordance with NFPA 241, the superintendent shall be responsible for the guard service.
The fire prevention program superintendent shall develop and maintain an approved prefire plan in cooperation with the fire chief. The fire chief and the fire code official shall be notified of changes affecting the utilization of information contained in such prefire plans.
Training of responsible personnel in the use of fire protection equipment shall be the responsibility of the fire prevention program superintendent. Records of training shall be kept and made a part of the written plan for the fire prevention program.
The fire prevention program superintendent shall determine that all fire protection equipment is maintained and serviced in accordance with this code. The quantity and type of fire protection equipment shall be approved. Fire protection equipment shall be inspected in accordance with the fire protection program.
The fire prevention program superintendent shall be responsible for supervising the permit system for hot work operations in accordance with Chapter 35.
Impairments to any fire protection system shall be in accordance with Section 901.
Smoke detectors and smoke alarms located in an area where airborne construction dust is expected shall be covered to prevent exposure to dust or shall be temporarily removed. Smoke detectors and alarms that were removed shall be replaced upon conclusion of dust-producing work. Smoke detectors and smoke alarms that were covered shall be inspected and cleaned, as necessary, upon conclusion of dust-producing work.
Coverings placed on or over fire protection devices to protect them from damage during construction processes shall be immediately removed upon the completion of the construction processes in the room or area in which the devices are installed.
Emergency telephone facilities with ready access shall be provided in an approved location at the construction site, or an approved equivalent means of communication shall be provided. The street address of the construction site and the emergency telephone number of the fire department shall be posted adjacent to the telephone. Alternatively, where an equivalent means of communication has been approved, the site address and fire department emergency telephone number shall be posted at the main entrance to the site, in guard shacks and in the construction site office.
Approved vehicle access for fire fighting shall be provided to all construction or demolition sites. Vehicle access shall be provided to within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of temporary or permanent fire department connections. Vehicle access shall be provided by either temporary or permanent roads, capable of supporting vehicle loading under all weather conditions. Vehicle access shall be maintained until permanent fire apparatus access roads are available.
The street address of the construction site shall be posted on the street side of the site. Signage shall have approved address numbers, buildings numbers or approved building identification placed in a position that is plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting the property. These numbers shall contrast with their background. Signage shall have nominal 12" high, 1" stroke numbering and lettering.
Where building construction exceeds 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, a temporary or permanent stairway shall be provided. As construction progresses, such stairway shall be extended to within one floor of the highest point of construction having secured decking or flooring.
Required means of egress and required accessible means of egress shall be maintained during construction and demolition, remodeling or alterations and additions to any building.
Exception: Approved temporary means of egress and accessible means of egress systems and facilities.
Combustible materials associated with construction, demolition, remodeling or alterations to an occupied structure shall not be stored in exits, enclosures for stairways and ramps, or exit access corridors serving an occupant load of 30 or more.
- Where the only occupants are construction workers.
- Combustible materials that are temporarily accumulated to support work being performed when workers are present.
An approved water supply for fire protection, either temporary or permanent, shall be made available as soon as combustible material arrives on the site. Additional fire flow shall be provided upon commencement of vertical construction in accordance with Section 3312.
The required volume of fire flow shall be based on the fire flow required for the building/facility when constructed, with reductions permitted as set forth in this section. In all cases, a minimum fire flow of 1,500 gpm shall be required.
Exception: Where approved by the fire code official for rural areas or other areas with decreased fire flow capacity, the minimum required fire flow may be reduced below 1,500 gpm
Where combustibles are delivered to a construction site, a minimum fire flow in accordance with Section 3312.2 shall be provided. The fire hydrant(s) shall be within 300 feet of combustible materials.
Required fire flow shall be provided at the commencement of vertical construction in accordance with the separation distance as specified in this section.
Where the structure is separated greater than 20 feet (6.1m) and up to 60 feet (18.3m) from property lines against property that has an existing structure or otherwise can be constructed upon, a fire flow of no less than 50% of the required fire flow shall be provided. Sufficient hydrants to accommodate the required flow shall be provided, subject to approval by the fire code official.
Where the structure is separated greater than 60 feet (18.3m) from property lines against property that has an existing structure or otherwise can be constructed upon, fire flow shall be provided in accordance with Section 3312.2. The fire hydrant(s) shall be within 300 feet of the structure protected.
Fire flow is not required prior to commencing vertical construction of non-combustible construction buildings. Where combustible materials are delivered to the construction site, fire flow in accordance with Section 3312.3 shall be provided. When a standpipe per Section 3313 is provided, fire flow shall be provided in accordance with Section 3312.2.
Where combustible loading (stocking) of the building has been approved by the fire code official, the fire flow provided shall be equal to 100% of the fire flow required at the time of building occupancy.
Prior to occupancy of the completed building, the required fire flow shall be provided and flow tested to verify the water system's capability to supply the required fire flow. All acceptance testing shall be witnessed by the fire code official.
Access in accordance with Section 3310 shall be provided between all hydrants required by this section and the construction being protected.
In buildings required to have standpipes by Section 905.3.1, not less than one standpipe shall be provided for use during construction. Such standpipes shall be installed prior to construction exceeding 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. Such standpipes shall be provided with fire department hose connections at locations adjacent to stairways complying with Section 3311.1. As construction progresses, such standpipes shall be extended to within one floor of the highest point of construction having secured decking or flooring.
Where a building is being demolished and a standpipe is existing within such a building, such standpipe shall be maintained in an operable condition so as to be available for use by the fire department. Such standpipe shall be demolished with the building but shall not be demolished more than one floor below the floor being demolished.
Standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Section 905.
Exception: Standpipes shall be either temporary or permanent in nature, and with or without a water supply, provided that such standpipes comply with the requirements of Section 905 as to capacity, outlets and materials.
In buildings where an automatic sprinkler system is required by this code or the International Building Code, it shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the automatic sprinkler system installation has been tested and approved, except as provided in Section 105.3.4.
Operation of sprinkler control valves shall be allowed only by properly authorized personnel and shall be accompanied by notification of duly designated parties. Where the sprinkler protection is being regularly turned off and on to facilitate connection of newly completed segments, the sprinkler control valves shall be checked at the end of each work period to ascertain that protection is in service.
Structures under construction, alteration or demolition shall be provided with not less than one approved portable fire extinguisher in accordance with Section 906 and sized for not less than ordinary hazard as follows:
- At each stairway on all floor levels where combustible materials have accumulated.
- In every storage and construction shed.
- Additional portable fire extinguishers shall be provided where special hazards exist including, but not limited to, the storage and use of flammable and combustible liquids.
Internal-combustion-powered construction equipment shall be used in accordance with all of the following conditions:
- Equipment shall be located so that exhausts do not discharge against combustible material.
- Exhausts shall be piped to the outside of the building.
- Equipment shall not be refueled while in operation.
- Fuel for equipment shall be stored in an approved area outside of the building.
Roofing operations utilizing heat-producing systems or other ignition sources shall be conducted in accordance with Sections 3317.2 and 3317.3 and Chapter 35.
Asphalt and tar kettles shall be operated in accordance with Section 303.
Fire extinguishers shall comply with Section 906. There shall be not less than one multiple-purpose portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 3-A 40-B:C rating on the roof being covered or repaired.