The provisions of this chapter shall govern the occupancy and maintenance of all structures and premises for precautions against fire and the spread of fire and general requirements of fire safety.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be transported over any highway, road or street when the heat source for the kettle is operating.
Exception: Asphalt (tar) kettles in the process of patching road surfaces.
Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of any combustible material, combustible building surface or any building opening and within a controlled area identified by the use of traffic cones, barriers or other approved means. Asphalt (tar) kettles and pots shall not be utilized inside or on the roof of a building or structure. Roofing kettles and operating asphalt (tar) kettles shall not block means of egress, gates, roadways or entrances.
Fuel containers shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the burner.
Exception: Containers properly insulated from heat or flame are allowed to be within 2 feet (610 mm) of the burner.
An operating kettle shall be attended by not less than one employee knowledgeable of the operations and hazards. The employee shall be within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of the kettle and have the kettle within sight. Ladders or similar obstacles shall not form a part of the route between the attendant and the kettle.
There shall be a portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 40-B:C rating within 25 feet (7620 mm) of each asphalt (tar) kettle during the period such kettle is being utilized. Additionally, there shall be one portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 3-A:40-B:C rating on the roof being covered.
Asphalt (tar) kettles shall be equipped with tight-fitting lids.
Roofing kettles shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.
Fuel containers that operate under air pressure shall not exceed 20 gallons (76 L) in capacity and shall be approved.
Combustible waste material creating a fire hazard shall not be allowed to accumulate in buildings or structures or upon premises.
Accumulations of wastepaper, wood, hay, straw, weeds, litter or combustible or flammable waste or rubbish of any type shall not be permitted to remain on a roof or in any court, yard, vacant lot, alley, parking lot, open space, or beneath a grandstand, bleacher, pier, wharf, manufactured home, recreational vehicle or other similar structure.
Weeds, grass, vines or other growth that is capable of being ignited and endangering property, shall be cut down and removed by the owner or occupant of the premises. Vegetation clearance requirements in urban-wildland interface areas shall be in accordance with the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code.
Spaces underneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall be kept free from combustible and flammable materials. Except where enclosed in not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction in accordance with the International Building Code.
Spaces underneath grandstands and bleachers shall not be occupied or utilized for purposes other than means of egress except where equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.1.5.1, or separated with fire barriers and horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 1029.1.1.1.
Storage of combustible rubbish shall not produce conditions that will create a nuisance or a hazard to the public health, safety or welfare.
Materials susceptible to spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a listed disposal container. Contents of such containers shall be removed and disposed of daily.
Containers with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) (0.15 m3) shall be provided with lids. Containers and lids shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 where tested in accordance with ASTM E1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation.
Exception: Wastebaskets complying with Section 808.
Dumpsters and containers with an individual capacity of 1.5 cubic yards [40.5 cubic feet (1.15 m3)] or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines.
- Dumpsters or containers that are placed inside buildings in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.
- Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or container storage.
- Dumpsters or containers that are located adjacent to buildings where the exterior area is protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.
Dumpsters with an individual capacity of 1.0 cubic yard [200 gallons (0.76 m3)] or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines unless the dumpsters are constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 where tested in accordance with ASTM E1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation.
- Dumpsters in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.
- Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or container storage.
Clearance between ignition sources, such as luminaires, heaters, flame-producing devices and combustible materials, shall be maintained in an approved manner.
Hot ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or greasy or oily materials subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a combustible receptacle, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of other combustible material including combustible walls and partitions or within 2 feet (610 mm) of openings to buildings.
Exception: The minimum required separation distance to other combustible materials shall be 2 feet (610 mm) where the material is deposited in a covered, noncombustible receptacle placed on a noncombustible floor, ground surface or stand.
Open-flame warning devices shall not be used along an excavation, road, or any place where the dislodgment of such device might permit the device to roll, fall or slide on to any area or land containing combustible material.
It shall be unlawful to deliberately or through negligence set fire to or cause the burning of combustible material in such a manner as to endanger the safety of persons or property.
Acts or processes that have caused repeated ignition of unwanted fires shall be modified to prevent future ignition.
Electric arc, xenon or other light source projection equipment that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation and the projection of ribbon-type cellulose nitrate film, regardless of the light source used in projection, shall be operated within a motion picture projection room complying with Section 409 of the International Building Code.
Storage of cellulose nitrate film shall be in accordance with NFPA 40.
A person shall not kindle or maintain or authorize to be kindled or maintained any open burning unless conducted and approved in accordance with Sections 307.1.1 through 307.5.
Open burning shall be prohibited when atmospheric conditions or local circumstances make such fires hazardous.
Exception: Prescribed burning for the purpose of reducing the impact of wildland fire when authorized by the fire code official.
A permit shall be obtained from the fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to kindling a fire for recognized silvicultural or range or wildlife management practices, or prevention or control of disease or pests. Application for such approval shall only be presented by and permits issued to the owner of the land upon which the fire is to be kindled.
Where required by state or local law or regulations, open burning shall only be permitted with prior approval from the state or local air and water quality management authority, provided that all conditions specified in the authorization are followed.
Where open burning creates or adds to a hazardous situation, or a required permit for open burning has not been obtained, the fire code official is authorized to order the extinguishment of the open burning operation.
The location for open burning shall be not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any structure, and provisions shall be made to prevent the fire from spreading to within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of any structure.
- Fires in approved containers that are not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) from a structure.
- The minimum required distance from a structure shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) where the pile size is 3 feet (914 mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in height.
Bonfires are prohibited.
Recreational fires shall not be conducted within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure or combustible material. Conditions that could cause a fire to spread within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition.
Portable outdoor fireplaces shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and shall not be operated within 15 feet (3048 mm) of a structure or combustible material.
Exception: Portable outdoor fireplaces used at one- and two-family dwellings.
Barbecue pits used for commercial cooking operations shall be constructed as commercial food heat-processing equipment in accordance with the Mechanical Code. Barbecue pits in outdoor locations shall be constructed of concrete or approved noncombustible materials and shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of combustible walls or roofs or other combustible material.
Open burning, bonfires, recreational fires and use of portable outdoor fireplaces shall be constantly attended until the fire is extinguished. Not fewer than one portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 with a minimum 4-A rating or other approved on-site fire-extinguishing equipment, such as dirt, sand, water barrel, garden hose or water truck, shall be available for immediate utilization.
Outdoor fireplaces, fire pits and decorative appliances fueled by LP-gas or natural gas used in assembly occupancies or for public display are to be certified by a nationally recognized testing agency. The certification shall be applicable to the entire assembly. Reference codes, standards and applicable American National Standards Institute (ANSI) shall apply.
A person shall not take or utilize an open flame or light in a structure, vessel, boat or other place where highly flammable, combustible or explosive material is utilized or stored. Lighting appliances shall be well-secured in a glass globe and wire mesh cage or a similar approved device.
A person shall not throw or place, or cause to be thrown or placed, a lighted match, cigar, cigarette, matches, or other flaming or glowing substance or object on any surface or article where it can cause an unwanted fire.
A person utilizing a torch or other flame-producing device for removing paint from a structure shall provide not less than one portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 4-A rating, two portable fire extinguishers, each with a minimum 2-A rating, or a water hose connected to the water supply on the premises where such burning is done. The person doing the burning shall remain on the premises 1 hour after the torch or flame-producing device is utilized.
Charcoal burners and other open-flame cooking devices, including electric barbecues that produce open flames, shall not be located above the first story, operated on combustible balconies or within 10 feet (3048 mm) of combustible construction.
- One-and two-family dwellings
- Where buildings, balconies and decks are protected by an automatic sprinkler system, open flame cooking devices utilizing natural gas installed under a construction permit issued by the building code official.
Open flames such as from candles, lanterns, kerosene heaters and gas-fired heaters shall not be located on or near decorative material or similar combustible materials.
Torches and other devices, machines or processes liable to start or cause fire shall not be operated or used in or on wildfire risk areas, except by a permit in accordance with Section 105.6 secured from the fire code official.
Exception: Use within inhabited premises or designated campsites that are not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from grass-, grain-, brush- or forest-covered areas.
Flame-employing devices, such as lanterns or kerosene road flares, shall not be operated or used as a signal or marker in or on wildfire risk areas.
Exception: The proper use of fusees at the scenes of emergencies or as required by standard railroad operating procedures.
A person shall not release or cause to be released an untethered sky lantern.
Where, in the opinion of the fire code official, adequate safeguards have been taken, participants in religious ceremonies are allowed to carry hand-held candles. Hand-held candles shall not be passed from one person to another while lighted.
Flammable or combustible liquids used in the preparation of flaming foods or beverages shall be dispensed from one of the following:
Containers shall be secured to prevent spillage when not in use.
The serving of flaming foods or beverages shall be done in a safe manner and shall not create high flames. The pouring, ladling or spooning of liquids is restricted to a maximum height of 8 inches (203 mm) above the receiving receptacle.
Flaming foods or beverages shall be prepared only in the immediate vicinity of the table being serviced. They shall not be transported or carried while burning.
The person preparing the flaming foods or beverages shall have a wet cloth towel immediately available for use in smothering the flames in the event of an emergency.
Open flame devices using Class I or Class II flammable liquids or toxic materials shall be prohibited. Combustible metals shall not be used or demonstrated indoors,
Exception: Open flame devices that utilize gelled alcohol fuel per 308.1.9.3.
Candles, oil lamps and tea lights shall comply with all of the following:
- The flame shall be fully enclosed except where openings on the side are not more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) in diameter or where the opening over the top is at a distance away from the flame that does not allow a piece of tissue paper to ignite after ten seconds.
- Candles and tea lights shall be constructed with a device or holder that prevents spillage of wax or liquid fuel at a rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) when held at an angle of 45 degrees.
- Oil lamps containing more than 8 ounces (237 ml) shall self-extinguish and not leak at a rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) when held at an angle of 45 degrees.
- Holders and chimneys shall be made of noncombustible materials. Chimneys are not required for candles, oil lamps or tea lights that self extinguish when tipped over.
- Shades, where used, shall be made of noncombustible materials and securely fastened to the open flame device holder or chimney.
Exception: Candelabras securely fastened in place to prevent overturning located at least five feet away from combustible materials.
Fixed unvented gelled or liquid alcohol burning decorative appliances shall be listed per UL 1370, Standard for Unvented Alcohol Fuel Burning Decorative Appliances.
Food warming devices shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's operating instructions. The fuel shall be compatible with the appliance per the manufacture's operating instructions.
Alcohol burning food warming devices shall not be transported while lit unless secured in a holder designed for the device.
Shielding that surrounds alcohol burning food warming devices shall be of non-combustible materials.
Tiki torches using combustible liquid fuels shall comply with the following:
- The torches shall be ignited and used outdoors only.
- The torches shall not leak unburned fuel.
- The torches shall be securely fastened to a base to prevent tipping and located a minimum of five feet from combustibles.
Permits shall be obtained from the fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to engaging in the following activities involving open flame, fire and burning:
- Use of a torch or flame-producing device to remove paint from a structure.
- Use of open flame, fire or burning in connection with Group A or E occupancies.
- Use or operation of torches and other devices, machines or processes liable to start or cause fire in or on wildfire risk areas.
Open-flame devices shall not be used in a Group A occupancy.
- Open-flame devices are allowed to be used in the following situations, provided that approved precautions are taken to prevent ignition of a combustible material or injury to occupants:
- 1.1. Where necessary for ceremonial or religious purposes in accordance with Section 308.1.7.
- 1.2. On stages and platforms as a necessary part of a performance in accordance with Section 308.3.2.
- 1.3. Where candles on tables are securely supported on substantial noncombustible bases and the candle flames are protected.
- Heat-producing equipment complying with Chapter 6 and the International Mechanical Code.
- Gas lights are allowed to be used provided that adequate precautions satisfactory to the fire code official are taken to prevent ignition of combustible materials.
Where approved, open-flame devices used in conjunction with theatrical performances are allowed to be used where adequate safety precautions have been taken in accordance with NFPA 160.
Open flame, fire and burning in Group R occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 308.1 through 308.1.6.3 and Section 308.4.1.
Candles, incense and similar open-flame-producing items shall not be allowed in sleeping units in Group R-2 dormitory occupancies.
Powered industrial trucks and similar equipment including, but not limited to, floor scrubbers and floor buffers, shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Section 309.2 through 309.7.
Powered industrial trucks used in areas designated as hazardous (classified) locations in accordance with NFPA 70 shall be listed and labeled for use in the environment intended in accordance with NFPA 505.
Battery chargers shall be of an approved type. Combustible storage shall be kept not less than 3 feet (915 mm) from battery chargers. Battery charging shall not be conducted in areas open to the public.
Ventilation shall be provided in an approved manner in battery-charging areas to prevent a dangerous accumulation of flammable gases.
Battery-charging areas shall be provided with a fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 having a minimum 4-A:20-B:C rating within 20 feet (6096 mm) of the battery charger.
Powered industrial trucks using liquid fuel, LP-gas or hydrogen shall be refueled outside of buildings or in areas specifically approved for that purpose. Fixed fuel-dispensing equipment and associated fueling operations shall be in accordance with Chapter 23. Other fuel-dispensing equipment and operations, including cylinder exchange for LP-gas-fueled vehicles, shall be in accordance with Chapter 57 for flammable and combustible liquids or Chapter 61 for LP-gas.
Smoking shall be prohibited where conditions are such as to make smoking a hazard, and in spaces where flammable or combustible materials are stored or handled.
The fire code official is authorized to order the posting of "No Smoking" signs in a conspicuous location in each structure or location in which smoking is prohibited. The content, lettering, size, color and location of required "No Smoking" signs shall be approved.
A posted "No Smoking" sign shall not be obscured, removed, defaced, mutilated or destroyed.
Smoking shall not be permitted nor shall a person smoke, throw or deposit any lighted or smoldering substance in any place where "No Smoking" signs are posted.
Where smoking is permitted, suitable noncombustible ash trays or match receivers shall be provided on each table and at other appropriate locations.
Lighted matches, cigarettes, cigars or other burning object shall not be discarded in such a manner that could cause ignition of other combustible material.
Where the fire code official determines that hazardous environmental conditions necessitate controlled use of smoking materials, the ignition or use of such materials in mountainous, brush-covered or forest-covered areas or other designated areas is prohibited except in approved designated smoking areas.
Buildings, structures and premises for which an owner cannot be identified or located by dispatch of a certificate of mailing to the last known or registered address, which persistently or repeatedly become unprotected or unsecured, which have been occupied by unauthorized persons or for illegal purposes, or which present a danger of structural collapse or fire spread to adjacent properties shall be considered to be abandoned, declared unsafe and abated by demolition or rehabilitation in accordance with the International Property Maintenance Code and the International Building Code.
Storage and lease plans required by this code shall be revised and updated to reflect temporary or partial vacancies.
Exterior and interior openings open to other tenants or unauthorized persons shall be boarded, locked, blocked or otherwise protected to prevent entry by unauthorized individuals. The fire code official is authorized to placard, post signs, erect barrier tape or take similar measures as necessary to secure public safety.
Fire alarm, sprinkler and stand-pipe systems shall be maintained in an operable condition at all times.
- Where the premises have been cleared of all combustible materials and debris and, in the opinion of the fire code official, the type of construction, fire separation distance and security of the premises do not create a fire hazard.
- Where approved by the fire code official, buildings that will not be heated and where fire protection systems will be exposed to freezing temperatures, fire alarm and sprinkler systems are permitted to be placed out of service and standpipes are permitted to be maintained as dry systems (without an automatic water supply), provided that the building does not have contents or storage, and windows, doors and other openings are secured to prohibit entry by unauthorized persons.
- Where approved by the fire code official, fire alarm and sprinkler systems are permitted to be placed out of service in seasonally occupied buildings: that will not be heated; where fire protection systems will be exposed to freezing temperatures; where fire areas do not exceed 12,000 square feet (1115 m2); and that do not store motor vehicles or hazardous materials.
Fire-resistance-rated partitions, fire barriers and fire walls separating vacant tenant spaces from the remainder of the building shall be maintained. Openings, joints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Chapter 7.
Persons owning, or in charge or control of, a vacant building or portion thereof, shall remove therefrom all accumulations of combustible materials, flammable or combustible waste or rubbish and shall securely lock or otherwise secure doors, windows and other openings to prevent entry by unauthorized persons. The premises shall be maintained clear of waste or hazardous materials.
- Buildings or portions of buildings undergoing additions, alterations, repairs or change of occupancy in accordance with the International Building Code, where waste is controlled and removed as required by Section 304.
- Seasonally occupied buildings.
Persons owning or having charge or control of a vacant building containing hazardous materials regulated by Chapter 50 shall comply with the facility closure requirements of Section 5001.6.
Any vacant or abandoned buildings or structures determined to be unsafe pursuant to Section 111 of this code relating to structural or interior hazards shall be marked as required by Sections 311.5.1 through 311.5.5.
Placards shall be applied on the front of the structure and be visible from the street. Additional placards shall be applied to the side of each entrance to the structure and on penthouses.
Placards shall be 24 inches by 24 inches (610 mm by 610 mm) minimum in size with a red background, white reflective stripes and a white reflective border. The stripes and border shall have a 2-inch (51 mm) minimum stroke.
Placards shall bear the date of their application to the building and the date of the most recent inspection.
The design of the placards shall use the following symbols:
- This symbol shall mean that the structure had normal structural conditions at the time of marking.
- This symbol shall mean that structural or interior hazards exist and interior fire-fighting or rescue operations should be conducted with extreme caution.
- This symbol shall mean that structural or interior hazards exist to a degree that consideration should be given to limit fire fighting to exterior operations only, with entry only occurring for known life hazards.
- Vacant marker hazard identification symbols: The following symbols shall be used to designate known hazards on the vacant building marker. They shall be placed directly above the symbol.
- 4.1. R/O—Roof open.
- 4.2. S/M—Stairs, steps and landing missing.
- 4.3. F/E—Avoid fire escapes.
- 4.4. H/F—Holes in floor.
The use of these symbols shall be informational only and shall not in any way limit the discretion of the on-scene incident commander.
Unoccupied tenant spaces in covered and open mall buildings shall be:
- Kept free from the storage of any materials.
- Separated from the remainder of the building by partitions of not less than 0.5-inch-thick (12.7 mm) gypsum board or an approved equivalent to the underside of the ceiling of the adjoining tenant spaces.
- Without doors or other access openings other than one door that shall be kept key locked in the closed position except during that time when opened for inspection.
- Kept free from combustible waste and be broomswept clean.
Vehicle impact protection required by this code shall be provided by posts that comply with Section 312.2 or by other approved physical barriers that comply with Section 312.3.
Guard posts shall comply with all of the following requirements:
- Constructed of steel not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter and concrete filled.
- Spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) between posts on center.
- Set not less than 3 feet (914 mm) deep in a concrete footing of not less than a 15-inch (381 mm) diameter.
- Set with the top of the posts not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above ground.
- Located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the protected object.
Barriers, other than posts specified in Section 312.2, that are designed to resist, deflect or visually deter vehicular impact commensurate with an anticipated impact scenario shall be permitted where approved.
Fueled equipment including, but not limited to, motorcycles, mopeds, lawn-care equipment, portable generators and portable cooking equipment, shall not be stored, operated or repaired within a building.
- Buildings or rooms constructed for such use in accordance with the International Building Code.
- Where allowed by Section 314.
- Storage of equipment utilized for maintenance purposes is allowed in approved locations where the aggregate fuel capacity of the stored equipment does not exceed 10 gallons (38 L) and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler systeminstalled in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
The fire code official is authorized to require removal of fueled equipment from locations where the presence of such equipment is determined by the fire code official to be hazardous.
Vehicles powered by flammable liquids, Class II combustible liquids or compressed flammable gases shall not be stored within the living space of Group R buildings.
Fixtures and displays of goods for sale to the public shall be arranged so as to maintain free, immediate and unobstructed access to exits as required by Chapter 10.
The display of highly combustible goods, including but not limited to fireworks, flammable or combustible liquids, liquefied flammable gases, oxidizing materials, pyroxylin plastics and agricultural goods, in main exit access aisles, corridors, covered and open malls, or within 5 feet (1524 mm) of entrances to exits and exterior exit doors is prohibited where a fire involving such goods would rapidly prevent or obstruct egress.
Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles, aircraft, boats or other motorcraft shall not be located indoors except as follows:
- Batteries are disconnected, or the engine starting system is made inoperable, except where the fire code official requires that the batteries remain connected to maintain safety features.
- Fuel in fuel tanks does not exceed one-quarter tank or 5 gallons (19 L) (whichever is least).
- Fuel tanks and fill openings are closed and sealed to prevent tampering.
- Vehicles, aircraft, boats or motorcraft equipment are not fueled or defueled within the building.
Storage shall be in accordance with Sections 315.2 through 315.6. Outdoor pallet storage shall be in accordance with Sections 315.2 and 315.7.
Exception: Wood and wood composite pallets stored outdoors at pallet manufacturing and recycling facilities and complying with Section 2810.
A permit for miscellaneous combustible storage shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
Storage of materials in buildings shall be orderly and stacks shall be stable. Storage of combustible materials shall be separated from heaters or heating devices by distance or shielding so that ignition cannot occur.
Storage shall be maintained 2 feet (610 mm) or more below the ceiling in nonsprinklered areas of buildings or not less than 18 inches (457 mm) below sprinkler head deflectors in sprinklered areas of buildings.
- The 2-foot (610 mm) ceiling clearance is not required for storage along walls in nonsprinklered areas of buildings.
- The 18-inch (457 mm) ceiling clearance is not required for storage along walls in areas of buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3
Combustible materials shall not be stored in exits or enclosures for stairways and ramps. Combustible materials in the means of egress during construction, demolition, remodeling or alterations shall comply with Section 3311.3.
Corridors and hallways, except for 1-hour rated corridors used to extend travel distance to an exit, serving new and existing Group A Occupancies that are oversized with floor space exceeding the required egress width are permitted to contain combustible storage incidental to the use of the occupancy when all of the following are provided:
- Maximum height of storage is 8 feet with top of storage a minimum of 18 inches below sprinkler deflectors.
- Quick response sprinklers designed per the requirements for an ordinary hazard group II occupancy, or higher design based on the items stored and the proposed storage configuration.
- Approved permanent durable floor plan(s) showing the assembly use, storage area, corridors and hallways are installed at a location(s) as required by the fire code official.
- Plans approved by the building code official identifying the minimum required width of the corridors or hallways.
- When required by the fire code official, a fire protection report shall be submitted addressing the parameters of storage, including protection requirements, separation requirements, and description of commodity type and configuration.
- Master egress drawings are provided to the fire code official and the building official.
The approved storage area shall be separated from egress by barriers. Barriers shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) in height if walls or fencing are used. Barriers may include the following:
- When approved by the fire code official, approved permanent delineation on the floor surface of the corridor or hallway marking the extent of permitted storage.
The following items and operations shall be prohibited from these corridors and hallways:
- Hazardous materials that may be moved through the back-of-house exit access corridor or hallway but prohibited from staging or storage: flammable and combustible liquids, highly combustible goods, LP-gas, pool chemicals, pyrotechnics, paint thinners and the like.
- Maintenance to permanent fixtures or equipment may be temporarily performed within back-of-house exit access corridors. Operations that can be relocated to shop areas or not essentially required to be performed within the back-of-house exit access corridors are prohibited.
- Cooking shall not be permitted within back-of-house exit access corridors.
Combustible material shall not be stored in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms, electrical equipment rooms or in fire command centers as specified in Section 508.1.5.
Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 13/4 inches (44.5 mm) in thickness. Storage shall not be placed on exposed joists.
- Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems.
- Group R-3 and Group U occupancies.
Outside storage of combustible materials shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a lot line.
- The separation distance is allowed to be reduced to 3 feet (914 mm) for storage not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.
- The separation distance is allowed to be reduced where the fire code official determines that hazard to the adjoining property does not exist.
Where buildings are protected by an automatic sprinkler system, the outdoor storage, display and handling of combustible materials under eaves, canopies or other projections or overhangs are prohibited except where automatic sprinklers are installed under such eaves, canopies or other projections or overhangs.
Storage in the open shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) in height.
Storage located underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall be in accordance with Section 316.6.2.
Storage is prohibited in plenums. Abandoned material in plenums shall be deemed to be storage and shall be removed. Where located in plenums, the portion of abandoned cables that are able to be accessed without causing damage, or requiring demolition to the building shall be identified for future use with a tag or shall be deemed storage and shall be removed.
Pallets stored outdoors shall comply with Section 315.7 through 315.7.10. Pallets stored within a building shall be protected in accordance with Chapter 32.
Where buildings are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, the outdoor storage of pallets under eaves, canopies or other projections or overhangs are prohibited except where automatic sprinklers are installed under such eaves, canopies or other projections or overhangs.
Pallet storage shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm), or a distance equal to the stack height, whichever is greater, of a lot line.
Pallet storage shall not exceed a height of 15 feet (4572 mm) or any height restriction set by other ordinances of the jurisdiction, whichever is lower.
Pallet stacks shall be arranged to form stable piles. Individual pallet piles shall cover an area not greater than 400 square feet (37 m2).
Pallets shall be all wood, with slatted or solid top or bottom, with metal fasteners, or shall be plastic or composite pallets, listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2335 or FM 4996. Plastic pallets shall be both solid and gridded deck, independent of the pallet manufacturing process, type of resin used in fabrication or geometry of the pallet.
In addition to the other requirements of this section, pallet stacks and piles shall be separated in accordance with Sections 318.104.22.168 and 322.214.171.124.
SEPARATION DISTANCE BETWEEN WOOD PALLET STACKS AND BUILDINGS
|WALL CONSTRUCTION||OPENING TYPE||WOOD PALLET SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet)|
|51 to 200
|Masonry||Fire-rated glazing with open sprinklers||2||5||20|
|Masonry||Plain glass with open sprinklers||5||10||20|
|Wood with open sprinklers||—||5||10||20|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
SEPARATION DISTANCE BETWEEN PLASTIC PALLET STACKS AND BUILDINGS
|WALL CONSTRUCTION||OPENING TYPE||PLASTIC PALLET SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet)|
|51 to 200
|Masonry||Fire-rated glazing with open sprinklers||10||20||50|
|Masonry||Plain glass with open sprinklers||15||40||100|
|Wood with open sprinklers||—||15||40||100|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
SEPARATION FROM OTHER PALLET PILES AND ON-SITE STORAGE (WOOD PALLETS)
|WOOD PALLET SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet)|
|51 to 200
|> 200 Pallets
|Between pallet piles||7.5||15||45|
|Other on-site storage||7.5||15||45|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
SEPARATION FROM OTHER PALLET PILES AND ON-SITE STORAGE (PLASTIC PALLETS)
|PLASTIC PALLET SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet)|
|51 to 200
|Between pallet piles||15||40||75|
|Other on-site storage||15||40||75|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Pallet stacks and piles shall be separated from buildings in accordance with Table 315.7.6(1) for wood pallets and Table 315.7.6(2) for plastic pallets.
Pallets shall be separated from other pallet piles and other storage in accordance with Table 315.7.6(3) for wood pallets and Table 315.7.6(4) for plastic pallets.
Pallets shall not be stored underneath high-voltage transmission lines, elevated roadways or elevated railways.
The minimum required fire flow in pallet storage yards shall not be less than 2,000 gpm (7571 L/m). For storage yards with stable piles greater than 6,200 square feet (576 m2) the required fire flow will follow the requirements of Appendix B, Table B105.1 for Type V-B construction. Pallet storage yards shall not exceed the available fire hydrant flow and spacing.
Fire apparatus access roads in accordance with Section 503 shall be located within 150 feet (45 720mm) of all portions of the pallet storage array(s). Permanent delineation of on-site fire apparatus access roads shall be provided as required by the fire code official.
Trapdoors and scuttle covers, other than those that are within a dwelling unit or automatically operated, shall be kept closed at all times except when in use.
Vertical shafts shall be identified as required by this section.
Outside openings that can be reached by the fire department and that open directly on a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or more floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY in red letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible from the outside of the building.
Door or window openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY in red letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible.
Exception: Marking shall not be required on shaftway openings that are readily discernible as openings onto a shaftway by the construction or arrangement.
The intentional design or alteration of buildings to disable, injure, maim or kill intruders is prohibited. A person shall not install and use firearms, sharp or pointed objects, razor wire, explosives, flammable or combustible liquid containers, or dispensers containing highly toxic, toxic, irritant or other hazardous materials in a manner that could passively or actively disable, injure, maim or kill a fire fighter who forcibly enters a building for the purpose of controlling or extinguishing a fire, rescuing trapped occupants or rendering other emergency assistance.
Wires, cables, ropes, antennas, or other suspended obstructions installed on the roof of a building having a roof slope of less than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) shall not create an obstruction that is less than 7 feet (2133 mm) high above the surface of the roof.
- Such obstruction shall be permitted where the wire, cable, rope, antenna or suspended obstruction is encased in a white, 2-inch (51 mm) minimum diameter plastic pipe or an approved equivalent.
- Such obstruction shall be permitted where there is a solid obstruction below such that accidentally walking into the wire, cable, rope, antenna or suspended obstruction is not possible.
Any security device or system that emits any medium that could obscure a means of egress in any building, structure or premise shall be prohibited.
Structures and outdoor storage underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall comply with Sections 316.6.1 and 316.6.2, respectively.
Structures shall not be constructed within the utility easement beneath high-voltage transmission lines.
Exception: Restrooms and unoccupied telecommunication structures of noncombustible construction less than 15 feet (4572 mm) in height.
Outdoor storage within the utility easement underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall be limited to noncombustible material. Storage of hazardous materials including, but not limited to, flammable and combustible liquids is prohibited.
Exception: Combustible storage, including vehicles and fuel storage for backup power equipment serving public utility equipment, is allowed, provided that a plan indicating the storage configuration is submitted and approved.
Rooftop gardens and landscaped roofs shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Sections 317.2 through 317.5 and Sections 1505 and 1507.16 of the International Building Code.
Rooftop garden or landscaped roof areas shall not exceed 15,625 square feet (1450 m2) in size for any single area with a maximum dimension of 125 feet (39 m) in length or width. A minimum 6-foot-wide (1.8 m) clearance consisting of a Class A-rated roof system complying with ASTM E108 or UL 790 shall be provided between adjacent rooftop gardens or landscaped roof areas.
For all vegetated roofing systems abutting combustible vertical surfaces, a Class A-rated roof system complying with ASTM E108 or UL 790 shall be achieved for a minimum 6-foot-wide (1829 mm) continuous border placed around rooftop structures and all rooftop equipment including, but not limited to, mechanical and machine rooms, penthouses, skylights, roof vents, solar panels, antenna supports and building service equipment.
Supplemental irrigation shall be provided to maintain levels of hydration necessary to keep green roof plants alive and to keep dry foliage to a minimum.
Excess biomass, such as overgrown vegetation, leaves and other dead and decaying material, shall be removed at regular intervals not less than two times per year.
The fire code official is authorized to require a maintenance plan for vegetation placed on roofs due to the size of a roof garden, materials used or where a fire hazard exists to the building or exposures due to the lack of maintenance.
Fueled equipment stored on roofs and used for the care and maintenance of vegetation on roofs shall be stored in accordance with Section 313.
Laundry carts with an individual capacity of 1 cubic yard [200 gallons (0.76 m3)] or more, used in laundries within Group B, E, F-1, I, M and R-1 occupancies, shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or materials having a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 at a flux of 50 kW/m2 where tested in a horizontal orientation in accordance with ASTM E1354.
- Laundry carts in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
- Laundry carts in coin-operated laundries.
Mobile food preparation vehicles that are equipped with appliances that produce smoke or grease-laden vapors shall comply with this section.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
Cooking equipment that produces grease-laden vapors shall be provided with a kitchen exhaust hood in accordance with Section 607.
Cooking equipment shall be protected by automatic fire extinguishing systems in accordance with Section 904.12.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906.4.
Gas cooking appliances shall be secured in place and connected to fuel-supply piping with an appliance connector complying with ANSI Z21.69/CSA 6.16. The connector installation shall be configured in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Movement of appliances shall be limited by restraining devices installed in accordance with the connector and appliance manufacturers' instructions.
Cooking oil storage containers within mobile food preparation vehicles shall have a maximum aggregate volume not more than 120 gallons (454 L), and shall be stored in such a way as to not be toppled or damaged during transport.
Cooking oil storage tanks within mobile food preparation vehicles shall comply with Sections 319.7.1 through 3126.96.36.199.
Nonmetallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer's instructions and shall comply with both of the following:
Metallic and nonmetallic cooking oil storage system components shall include, but are not limited to, piping, connections, fittings, valves, tubing, hose, pumps, vents and other related components used for the transfer of cooking oil.
The design, fabrication and assembly of system components shall be suitable for the working pressures, temperatures and structural stresses to be encountered by the components.
Normal and emergency venting shall be provided for cooking oil storage tanks.
Normal vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall have a minimum effective area not smaller than the largest filling or withdrawal connection. Normal vents are not required to vent to the exterior.
Emergency relief vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall be in the form of a device or devices that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by an exposure fire. For nonmetallic tanks, the emergency relief vent shall be allowed to be in the form of construction. Emergency vents are not required to discharge to the exterior.
Where LP-gas systems provide fuel for cooking appliances, such systems shall comply with Chapter 61 and Sections 319.8.1 through 319.8.5.
The maximum aggregate capacity of LP-gas containers transported on the vehicle and used to fuel cooking appliances only shall not exceed 200 pounds (91 kg) propane capacity.
LP-gas containers installed on the vehicle shall be securely mounted and restrained to prevent movement.
LP-gas containers shall be manufactured in compliance with the requirements of NFPA 58.
LP-gas system piping, including valves and fittings, shall be adequately protected to prevent tampering, impact damage, and damage from vibration.
A listed LP-gas alarm shall be installed within the vehicle in the vicinity of LP-gas system components, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
CNG containers installed solely to provide fuel for cooking purposes shall be in accordance with Sections 3188.8.131.52 through 3184.108.40.206
The maximum aggregate capacity of CNG containers transported on the vehicle shall not exceed 1,300 pounds (590 kg) water capacity.
CNG containers shall be securely mounted and restrained to prevent movement. Containers shall not be installed in locations subject to a direct vehicle impact.
CNG containers shall be an NGV-2 cylinder.
Where CNG containers and systems are used to supply fuel for cooking purposes in addition to being used for transportation fuel, the installation shall be in accordance with NFPA 52.
CNG system piping, including valves and fittings, shall be adequately protected to prevent tampering, impact damage and damage from vibration.
A listed methane gas alarm shall be installed within the vehicle in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.
Maintenance of systems on mobile food preparation vehicles shall be in accordance with Sections 319.10.1 through 319.10.3.
The exhaust system, including hood, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances, shall be inspected and cleaned in accordance with Section 607.3.
Fire protection systems and devices shall be maintained in accordance with Section 901.6.
LP-gas containers installed on the vehicle and fuel-gas piping systems shall be inspected annually by an approved inspection agency or a company that is registered with the U.S. Department of Transportation to requalify LP-gas cylinders, to ensure that system components are free from damage, suitable for the intended service and not subject to leaking. CNG containers shall be inspected every 3 years in a qualified service facility. CNG containers shall not be used past their expiration date as listed on the manufacturer's container label. Upon satisfactory inspection, the approved inspection agency shall affix a tag on the fuel gas system or within the vehicle indicating the name of the inspection agency and the date of satisfactory inspection.
Indoor Exposition and Trade Show Facilities are addressed in this section. These include, but are not limited to exhibition halls, convention general sessions, association meetings, product convention showrooms, trade shows with or without booths, and political conventions that constitute temporary assembly uses. An operational permit shall be obtained in accordance with Section 105.6.13.
Exhibit booths exceeding 1,500 square feet are not permitted in nonsprinklered buildings.
Single-level exhibit booths exceeding 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and covered with a ceiling shall be protected by automatic fire sprinklers installed within the booth.
Each level of multi-level exhibit booths shall be protected by an automatic fire sprinkler system installed within the booth where the accessible floor area of the upper walking level(s) is greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2).
Hydraulic calculations shall be provided to the Authority Having Jurisdiction when the sprinklers required by Section 3220.127.116.11 and 318.104.22.168 are supplied by the standpipe system or in a hydraulically most remote location as defined by the currently adopted edition of Standard for the Installation of Sprinklers, NFPA 13.
A covered single exhibit (booth) or group of covered exhibits (booths) that do not require fire sprinklers shall be separated by a distance of not less than 8 ft. (2.4 m) from other covered exhibit booths where the aggregate ceiling exceeds 1000 sq. ft. (93 sq. m.).
The upper deck of multi-level exhibit booths exceeding 300 sq. ft. (28 sq. m.) shall have not less than two remote means of egress.
Exhibit booths shall be constructed using any of the following:
- Noncombustible or limited combustible materials
- Wood exceeding 1/4 in. (6.3 mm) nominal thickness
- Wood that is pressure-treated, fire-retardant wood meeting the requirements of NFPA 703, Standard for Fire Retardant-Treated Wood and Fire-Retardant Coatings for Building Materials.
- Flame-retardant materials complying with one of the following:
- They shall meet the flame propagation performance criteria contained in Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate of NFPA 701, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films
- They shall exhibit a heat release rate not exceeding 100 kW when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source.
- Textile wall coverings, such as carpeting and similar products used in wall or ceiling finishes complying with Section 803.5 of the IFC.
- Plastics limited to a Class A flame spread index.
- Foamed plastics and materials containing foamed plastics complying with Section 807.5.1 of the IFC.
- Cardboard, honeycombed paper, and other combustible materials having a heat release rate for any single fuel package that does not exceed 150 kW where tested in accordance one of the following:
- ANSI/UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes
- NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source
- Alternate materials as approved by the fire code official.
Curtains, drapes, and textiles used in temporary exhibitions and trade shows shall comply with Section 320, and shall not be required to comply with Section 807. Curtains, drapes and textiles shall comply with Standard Method of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films, NFPA 701, Test Method 2. Compliance shall be indicated by a tag affixed to each curtain, drape, or textile. The tag shall be affixed by the owner of the material after gaining assurance that the material is inherently flame retardant, provided with current flame retardant treatment, or otherwise is compliant with NFPA 701. The tag shall indicate the name of the owner of the material and a statement indicating compliance with the Fire Code. The fire code official is authorized to conduct field test in accordance with the current edition of NFPA 705, Recommended Practice for a Field Flame Test of Textiles and Films, on any curtain, drape or textile installed.
Curtains, drapes and textiles shall comply with Standard Method of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films, NFPA 701, Test Method 2.
Curtains, drapes or textiles shall not be installed to cover exit signs, means of egress components, sprinklers, strobes, horn-strobes, standpipe outlets, hose cabinets, fire extinguishers, or any other fire protection equipment.
Exception: Free-standing partitions situated in a manner to permit the minimum required egress width to one or both sides of the partition shall be permitted. The paths of egress provided around the partition shall be marked by exit signs complying with Chapter 10.
Ceiling suspended curtains, drapes and textiles in exhibition spaces are to have a minimum of 18 inches of clear space between the top of the material and the sprinkler deflector.
Exception: Clearance between the ceiling and the top of the curtain, drape or textile is not required when the curtain, drape, or textile is within 6 inches of a full-height wall.
Artificial decorative vegetation used in exhibits and trade shows shall comply with IFC Section 807.4.
Demonstration cooking and food warming in exhibition spaces shall comply with the following:
- All cooking appliances shall be listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing agency.
- All cooking equipment is to be operated according to the manufacturers' recommendations and operating instructions. Equipment recommended for outdoor use shall not be used indoors.
- All cooking equipment (deep fat fryers and woks) operations using combustible oils shall meet all of the
- Metal lids sized to cover the horizontal cooking surface are to be provided. The cooking surface is limited to 288 sq in (two sq ft).
- The fryer is to be separated from all other equipment by a distance not less than 24 in.
- These cooking displays must be separated from all other combustibles by a distance not less than 10 ft.
- Deep fat fryers shall be electrically powered and have a shut-off switch.
- Class-K fire extinguishers shall be provided within 30-ft of each cooking operation in accordance with 904.11.5.
- Solid fuel cooking equipment shall be protected in accordance with the mechanical code.
- LP-gas used for displays and demonstrations shall be in accordance with section 622.214.171.124.
Plans for the exhibition or trade show shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction for approval, along with application for an operational permit, prior to setting up any exhibit. The plans shall show all pertinent details of the proposed exposition which shall include the following as applicable:
- Overall floor plan (either drawn to scale or dimensioned properly).
- Egress analysis showing conformance with Chapter 10 of the IFC.
- Seating arrangements and/or table and chair configurations.
- Locations of all exhibits (booths, aisles and exits).
- Locations of temporary walls, partitions, or curtains.
- Lobby and registration area usage.
- Location of temporary platforms (along with any intended use beneath the platform).
- Location of fire protection equipment (e.g. extinguishers, fire alarm devices, hose cabinets, etc.)
- Temporary fire sprinkler and fire alarm system/devices to be installed (note: This requires a separate installation permit).
- Copy of excerpt from show management information guide serving notice that all exhibits shall comply with applicable codes and shall have all necessary Fire Code permits.
Special activity lots, including Christmas tree lots, pumpkin patches, hay ride lots, and other similar lots, shall comply with this section.
Combustibles, such as Christmas trees, hay bales, and other combustible materials associated with the special activity, shall be arranged on the lot in a manner to mitigate the impact of fire, and shall be arranged in accordance with this section.
Fire apparatus access roads shall be provided within 150 feet of all portions of the special activity lot, as measured along normal paths of travel.
All combustible materials shall be a minimum of ten (10) feet away from fire apparatus access roads.
All combustible materials shall be a minimum of twenty (20) feet from property lines for property where buildings are or are permitted to be built.
All combustible materials shall be a minimum of 50 feet away from any fuel dispenser.
All combustible materials shall be a minimum of ten (10) feet from any building, building exit, and the path of discharge between the building exit and the public way.
Fire protection features, such as fire extinguishers and water supply, shall be provided for special activity lots as required by this section.
A minimum two 2 1/2 gallon water-type fire extinguisher shall be provided at an approved location for protection against incipient fires.
The special activity lot shall be located within 750 feet of a fire hydrant.
Smoking is prohibited on special activity lots. "NO SMOKING" signs with 2-inch high letters on a contrasting background shall be posted at entrances to the special activity lot and to each aisle.
Open burning, such as a campfire, is prohibited on special activity lots.
Egress shall be provided as required by this code.