Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The requirements for spacing, location, and position of sprinklers shall be based on the following principles:
  1. Sprinklers shall be installed throughout the premises.
  2. Sprinklers shall be located so as not to exceed the maximum protection area per sprinkler.
  3. *Sprinklers shall be positioned and located so as to provide satisfactory performance with respect to activation time and distribution.
  4. Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from areas specifically allowed by this standard.
  5. When sprinklers are specifically tested and test results demonstrate that deviations from clearance requirements to structural members do not impair the ability of the sprinkler to control or suppress a fire, their positioning and locating in accordance with the test results shall be permitted.
  6. Clearance between sprinklers and ceilings exceeding the maximums specified in this standard shall be permitted, provided that tests or calculations demonstrate comparable sensitivity and performance of the sprinklers to those installed in conformance with these sections.
  7. Furniture, such as portable wardrobe units, cabinets, trophy cases, and similar features not intended for occupancy, does not require sprinklers to be installed in them. This type of feature shall be permitted to be attached to the finished structure.
  8. *Sprinklers shall not be required to be installed within electrical equipment, mechanical equipment, or air handling units not intended for occupancy.
System valves and gauges shall be accessible for operation, inspection, tests, and maintenance.
The maximum floor area on any one floor to be protected by sprinklers supplied by any one sprinkler system riser or combined system riser shall be as follows:
  1. Light hazard — 52,000 ft2 (4830 m2)
  2. Ordinary hazard — 52,000 ft2 (4830 m2)
  3. *Extra hazard — Hydraulically calculated — 40,000 ft2 (3720 m2)
  4. Storage — High-piled storage (as defined in 3.9.1.16) and storage covered by other NFPA standards — 40,000 ft2 (3720 m2)
The floor area occupied by mezzanines shall not be included in the area limits of 8.2.1.
Where single systems protect extra hazard, high-piled storage, or storage covered by other NFPA standards, and ordinary or light hazard areas, the extra hazard or storage area coverage shall not exceed the floor area specified for that hazard and the total area coverage shall not exceed 52,000 ft2 (4830 m2).
Multistory buildings exceeding two stories in height shall be provided with a floor control valve, check valve, main drain valve, and flow switch for isolation, control, and annunciation of water flow for each individual floor level.
The floor control valve, check valve, main drain valve, and flow switch required by 8.2.4.1 shall not be required where sprinklers on the top level of a multistory building are supplied by piping on the floor below.
The floor control valve, check valve, main drain valve, and flow switch required by 8.2.4.1 shall not be required where the total area of all floors combined does not exceed the system protection area limitations of 8.2.1.
The requirements of 8.2.4 shall not apply to dry systems in parking garages.
Multiple buildings attached by canopies, covered breezeways, common roofs, or a common wall(s) shall be permitted to be supplied by a single fire sprinkler riser.
The maximum system size shall comply with 8.2.1.
Unless the requirements of 8.2.6.2 apply, detached buildings, regardless of separation distance, that do not meet the criteria of 8.2.5 shall be provided with separate fire sprinkler systems.
When acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction, detached structures shall be permitted to be supplied by the fire sprinkler system of an adjacent building.
Sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with their listing.
The requirements of 8.3.1.1 shall not apply where construction features or other special situations require unusual water distribution, and listed sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed in positions other than anticipated by their listing to achieve specific results.
Upright sprinklers shall be installed with the frame arms parallel to the branch line, unless specifically listed for other orientation.
Where solvent cement is used as the pipe and fittings bonding agent, sprinklers shall not be installed in the fittings prior to the fittings being cemented in place.
Protective caps and straps shall be removed using means that are in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Protective caps and straps shall be removed from all sprinklers prior to the time when the sprinkler system is placed in service.
Protective caps and straps on all upright sprinklers or on any sprinklers installed more than 10 ft (3.0 m) above the floor shall be permitted to be removed from sprinklers immediately following their installation.
Unless the requirements of 8.3.2.2, 8.3.2.3, 8.3.2.4, or 8.3.2.5 are met, ordinary- and intermediate-temperature sprinklers shall be used throughout buildings.
Where maximum ceiling temperatures exceed 100°F (38°C), sprinklers with temperature ratings in accordance with the maximum ceiling temperatures of Table 6.2.5.1 shall be used.
High-temperature sprinklers shall be permitted to be used throughout ordinary and extra hazard occupancies, storage occupancies, and as allowed in this standard and other NFPA codes and standards.
Sprinklers of intermediate- and high-temperature classifications shall be installed in specific locations as required by 8.3.2.5.
The following practices shall be observed to provide sprinklers of other than ordinary-temperature classification unless other temperatures are determined or unless high-temperature sprinklers are used throughout, and temperature selection shall be in accordance with Table 8.3.2.5(a), Table 8.3.2.5(b), Table 8.3.2.5(c), and Figure 8.3.2.5:
  1. *Sprinklers in the high-temperature zone shall be of the high-temperature classification, and sprinklers in the intermediate-temperature zone shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
  2. Sprinklers located within 12 in. (300 mm) to one side or 30 in. (750 mm) above an uncovered steam main, heating coil, or radiator shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
  3. Sprinklers within 7 ft (2.1 m) of a low-pressure blowoff valve that discharges free in a large room shall be of the high-temperature classification.
  4. Sprinklers under glass or plastic skylights exposed to the direct rays of the sun shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
  5. Sprinklers in an unventilated, concealed space, under an uninsulated roof, or in an unventilated attic shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
  6. Sprinklers in unventilated show windows having high-powered electric lights near the ceiling shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
  7. Sprinklers protecting commercial-type cooking equipment and ventilation systems shall be of the high- or extra high-temperature classification as determined by use of a temperature-measuring device. (See 7.9.6.)
  8. Sprinklers protecting residential areas installed near specific heat sources identified in Table 8.3.2.5(c) shall be installed in accordance with Table 8.3.2.5(c).
  9. Ordinary-temperature sprinklers located adjacent to a heating duct that discharges air that is less than 100°F (38°C) are not required to be separated in accordance with Table 8.3.2.5(a).
  10. Sprinklers in walk-in type coolers and freezers with automatic defrosting shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification or higher.

Table 8.3.2.5(a) Temperature Ratings of Sprinklers Based on Distance from Heat Sources

Type of Heat Condition Ordinary-Temperature Rating Intermediate-Temperature Rating High-Temperature Rating
(1) Heating ducts
(a) Above More than 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) 2 ft 6 in. or less (750 mm)
(b) Side and below More than 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm) 1 ft 0 in. or less (300 mm)
(c) Diffuser Any distance except as shown under Intermediate-Temperature Rating column Downward discharge: Cylinder with 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm) radius from edge extending 1 ft 0 in. below and 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) above
Horizontal discharge:
Semicylinder or cylinder with 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) radius in direction of flow extending 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm) below and 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) above
(2) Unit heater
(a) Horizontal discharge Discharge side: 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) to 20 ft 0 in. (6.1 m) radius pie-shaped cylinder (see Figure 8.3.2.5) extending 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above and 2 ft 0 (600 mm) in. below heater; also 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder more than 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above unit heater 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder extending 7 ft 0 (2.1 m) in. above and 2 ft 0 (600 mm) in. below unit heater
(b) Vertical downward discharge (for sprinklers below unit heater, see Figure 8.3.2.5) 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder extending upward from an elevation 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above unit heater 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder extending from the top of the unit heater to an elevation 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above unit heater
(3) Steam mains (uncovered)
(a) Above More than 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) 2 ft 6 in. or less (750 mm)
(b) Side and below More than 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm) 1 ft 0 in. or less (300 mm)
(c) Blowoff valve More than 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) 7 ft 0 in. or less (2.1 m)

Table 8.3.2.5(b) Temperature Ratings of Sprinklers in Specified Locations

Location Ordinary-Temperature Rating Intermediate-Temperature Rating High-Temperature Rating
Skylights Glass or plastic
Attics Do not use Ventilated or unventilated
Peaked roof: metal or thin boards, concealed or not concealed, insulated or uninsulated Ventilated Unventilated
Flat roof: metal, not concealed Ventilated or unventilated Note: For uninsulated roof, climate and insulated or uninsulated occupancy can necessitate intermediate sprinklers. Check on job
Flat roof: metal, concealed, insulated or uninsulated Ventilated Unventilated
Show windows Ventilated Unventilated
Note: A check of job condition by means of thermometers might be necessary.

Table 8.3.2.5(c) Temperature Ratings of Sprinklers in Specified Residential Areas

Heat Source Minimum Distance from Edge of Source to Ordinary-Temperature Sprinkler Minimum Distance from Edge of Source to Intermediate-Temperature Sprinkler
in. mm in. mm
Side of open or recessed fireplace 36 915 12 300
Front of recessed fireplace 60 1525 36 915
Coal- or wood-burning stove 42 1070 12 305
Kitchen range 18 460 9 230
Wall oven 18 460 9 230
Hot air flues 18 460 9 230
Uninsulated heat ducts 18 460 9 230
Uninsulated hot water pipes 12 305 6 155
Side of ceiling- or wall-mounted hot air diffusers 24 610 12 305
Front of wall-mounted hot air diffusers 36 915 18 460
Hot water heater or furnace 6 155 3 75
Light fixture:
0 W-250 W
6 155 3 75
250 W-499 W 12 305 6 155

FIGURE 8.3.2.5 High-Temperature and Intermediate-Temperature Zones at Unit Heaters.

In case of occupancy change involving temperature change, the sprinklers shall be changed accordingly.
The minimum temperature rating of ceiling sprinklers in general storage, rack storage, rubber tire storage, roll paper storage, and baled cotton storage applications shall be 150°F (66°C).
Sprinklers in light hazard occupancies shall be one of the following:
  1. Quick-response type as defined in 3.6.4.8
  2. Residential sprinklers in accordance with the requirements of 8.4.5
  3. Quick response CMSA sprinklers
  4. ESFR sprinklers
  5. Standard-response sprinklers used for modifications or additions to existing light hazard systems equipped with standard-response sprinklers
  6. Standard-response sprinklers used where individual standard-response sprinklers are replaced in existing light hazard systems
Where quick-response sprinklers are installed, all sprinklers within a compartment shall be quick-response unless otherwise permitted in 8.3.3.3, 8.3.3.4, or 8.3.3.5.
Where there are no listed quick-response sprinklers in the temperature range required, standard-response sprinklers shall be permitted to be used.
The provisions of 8.3.3.2 shall not apply to in-rack sprinklers.
Where a sprinkler carries a listing for both standard-response protection and quick-response protection at different coverage areas, that sprinkler shall be permitted to be installed within a compartment at the spacing for both the quick-response and standard-response listings without any separation between the areas so covered.
When existing light hazard systems are converted to use quick-response or residential sprinklers, all sprinklers in a compartment shall be changed.
Sprinklers shall have a minimum nominal K-factor of 5.6 (80) unless otherwise permitted by 8.3.4.
For light hazard occupancies not requiring as much water as is discharged by a sprinkler with a nominal K-factor of K-5.6 (80) operating at 7 psi (0.5 bar), sprinklers having a smaller orifice shall be permitted, subject to the following restrictions:
  1. The system shall be hydraulically calculated.
  2. Sprinklers with nominal K-factors of less than K-5.6 (80) shall be installed only in wet pipe sprinkler systems or in accordance with the limitations of 8.3.4.3 or 8.3.4.4.
  3. A listed strainer shall be provided on the supply side of sprinklers with nominal K-factors of less than K-2.8 (40).
Sprinklers with nominal K-factors of less than K-5.6 (80) shall be permitted to be installed in conformance with 11.3.2 for protection against exposure fires.
Sprinklers with nominal K-factors of K-4.2 (57) shall be permitted to be installed on dry pipe and preaction systems protecting light hazard occupancies where piping is corrosion resistant or internally galvanized.
Sprinklers having a K-factor exceeding K-5.6 (80) and having 1/2 in. (15 mm) National Pipe Thread (NPT) shall not be installed in new sprinkler systems.
Sprinklers shall be selected for use as indicated in this section and shall be positioned and spaced as described in Section 8.5.
Upright and pendent spray sprinklers shall be permitted in all occupancy hazard classifications and building construction types unless the requirements of 8.15.1.6 apply.
Quick-response sprinklers shall not be permitted for use in extra hazard occupancies under the density/area design method.
Sidewall sprinklers shall only be installed as follows:
  1. Light hazard occupancies with smooth, horizontal or sloped, flat ceilings
  2. Ordinary hazard occupancies with smooth, flat ceilings where specifically listed for such use
  3. To protect areas below overhead doors
Extended coverage sprinklers shall only be installed as follows:
  1. In unobstructed construction consisting of flat, smooth ceilings with a slope not exceeding a pitch of 1 in 6 (a rise of 2 units in a run of 12 units, a roof slope of 16.7 percent)
  2. In unobstructed or noncombustible obstructed construction, where specifically listed for such use
  3. Within trusses or bar joists having web members not greater than 1 in. (25 mm) maximum dimension or where trusses are spaced greater than 71/2 ft (2.3 m) on center and where the ceiling slope does not exceed a pitch of 1 in 6 (a rise of 2 units in a run of 12 units, a roof slope of 16.7 percent)
  4. Extended coverage upright and pendent sprinklers installed under smooth, flat ceilings that have slopes not exceeding a pitch of 1 in 3 (a rise of 4 units in a run of 12 units, a roof slope of 33.3 percent), where specifically listed for such use
  5. Extended coverage sidewall sprinklers installed in accordance with 8.9.4.2.2 in slopes exceeding a ceiling pitch of 2 in 12
  6. In each bay of obstructed construction consisting of solid structural members that extend below the deflector of the sprinkler
  7. Extended coverage sprinklers installed to protect areas below a single overhead door(s)
Open sprinklers shall be permitted to be used in deluge systems to protect special hazards or exposures or in other special locations.
Open sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with all applicable requirements of this standard for their automatic counterpart.
Residential sprinklers shall be permitted in dwelling units and their adjoining corridors, provided they are installed in conformance with their listing.
Residential sprinklers shall be used only in wet systems unless specifically listed for use in dry systems or preaction systems.
Where residential sprinklers are installed in a compartment as defined in 3.3.6, all sprinklers within the compartment shall be residential sprinklers.
ESFR sprinklers shall be used only in wet pipe systems unless specifically listed for use in dry systems.
ESFR sprinklers shall be installed only in buildings where roof or ceiling slope above the sprinklers does not exceed a pitch of 2 in 12 (a rise of 2 units in a run of 12 units, a roof slope of 16.7 percent).
ESFR sprinklers shall be permitted for use in buildings with unobstructed and noncombustible obstructed construction.
Where depths of the solid structural members (beams, stem, and so forth) exceed 12 in. (300 mm), ESFR sprinklers shall be installed in each channel formed by the solid structural members.
Minimum sprinkler spacing and area of coverage shall comply with the requirements of 8.12.2 and 8.12.3.
Where ESFR sprinkler systems are installed adjacent to sprinkler systems with standard-response sprinklers, a draft curtain of noncombustible construction and at least 2 ft (600 mm) in depth shall be required to separate the two areas.
A clear aisle of at least 4 ft (1.2 m) centered below the draft curtain shall be maintained for separation.
Sprinkler temperature ratings for ESFR sprinklers shall be ordinary unless 8.3.2 requires intermediate- or high-temperature ratings.
ESFR sprinklers designed to meet any criteria in Chapter 12 through Chapter 20 shall be permitted to protect light and ordinary hazard occupancies.
CMSA sprinklers shall be permitted to be used in wet, dry, or preaction systems and shall be installed in accordance with their listing.
Unless the requirements of 8.4.7.2.2, 8.4.7.2.3, or 8.4.7.2.4 are met, sprinkler temperature ratings shall be the same as those indicated in Table 8.3.2.5(a) and Table 8.3.2.5(b) or those used in large-scale fire testing to determine the protection requirements for the hazard involved.
Sprinklers of intermediate- and high-temperature ratings shall be installed in specific locations as required by 8.3.2.
In storage occupancies, ordinary, intermediate, or high temperature-rated sprinklers shall be used for wet pipe systems.
In storage occupancies, high temperature-rated sprinklers shall be used for dry pipe systems.
Quick-response CMSA sprinklers designed to meet any criteria in Chapter 12 through Chapter 20 shall be permitted to protect light and ordinary hazard occupancies.
Standard-response CMSA sprinklers designed to meet any criteria in Chapter 12 through Chapter 20 shall be permitted to protect ordinary hazard occupancies.
Special sprinklers that are intended for the protection of specific hazards or construction features shall be permitted where such devices have been evaluated and listed for performance under the following conditions:
  1. Fire tests related to the intended hazard
  2. Distribution of the spray pattern with respect to wetting of floors and walls
  3. Distribution of the spray pattern with respect to obstructions
  4. Evaluation of the thermal sensitivity of the sprinkler
  5. Performance under horizontal or sloped ceilings
  6. Area of design
  7. Allowable clearance to ceilings
Special sprinklers shall maintain the following characteristics:
  1. K-factor size shall be in accordance with 6.2.3.
  2. Temperature ratings shall be in accordance with Table 6.2.5.1.
  3. The protection area of coverage shall not exceed 400 ft2 (37 m2) for light hazard and ordinary hazard occupancies.
  4. The protection area of coverage shall not exceed 196 ft2 (18.2 m2) for extra hazard and high-piled storage occupancies.
Where dry sprinklers are connected to wet pipe sprinkler systems protecting areas subject to freezing temperatures, the minimum exposed length of the barrel of the dry sprinkler shall be in accordance with Table 8.4.9.1(a) or Table 8.4.9.1(b).

Table 8.4.9.1(a) Exposed Barrel Lengths for Dry Sprinklers (U.S. Customary Units)

Ambient Temperature Exposed to Discharge End of Sprinkler
(°F)
Minimum Exposed Barrel Length when Exposed to 40°F
(in.)
Minimum Exposed Barrel Length when Exposed to 50°F
(in.)
Minimum Exposed Barrel Length when Exposed to 60°F
(in.)
40 0 0 0
30 0 0 0
20 4 0 0
10 8 1 0
0 12 3 0
—10 14 4 1
—20 14 6 3
—30 16 8 4
—40 18 8 4
—50 20 10 6
—60 20 10 6

Table 8.4.9.1(b) Exposed Barrel Lengths for Dry Sprinklers (Metric Units)

Ambient Temperature Exposed to Discharge End of Sprinkler
(°C)
Minimum Exposed Barrel Length when Exposed to 4°C
(mm)
Minimum Exposed Barrel Length when Exposed to 10°C
(mm)
Minimum Exposed Barrel Length when Exposed to 16°C
(mm)
4 0 0 0
—1 0 0 0
—7 100 0 0
—12 200 25 0
—18 300 75 0
—23 350 100 25
—29 350 150 75
—34 400 200 100
—40 450 200 100
—46 500 250 150
—51 500 250 150
The minimum barrel length shall be measured from the face of the fitting to which the dry sprinkler is installed to the inside surface of the insulation, wall, or ceiling leading to the cold space, whichever is closest to the fitting.
Where dry sprinklers are connected to wet pipe sprinkler systems protecting insulated freezer structures, the clearance space around the sprinkler barrel shall be sealed.
Sprinklers shall be located, spaced, and positioned in accordance with the requirements of Section 8.5.
Sprinklers shall be positioned to provide protection of the area consistent with the overall objectives of this standard by controlling the positioning and allowable area of coverage for each sprinkler.
The requirements of 8.5.2 through 8.5.7 shall apply to all sprinkler types unless modified by more restrictive rules in Section 8.6 through Section 8.12.
The protection area of coverage per sprinkler (AS) shall be determined as follows:
  1. Along branch lines as follows:
    1. Determine distance between sprinklers (or to wall or obstruction in the case of the end sprinkler on the branch line) upstream and downstream
    2. Choose the larger of either twice the distance to the wall or the distance to the next sprinkler
    3. Define dimension as S
  2. Between branch lines as follows:
    1. Determine perpendicular distance to the sprinkler on the adjacent branch line (or to a wall or obstruction in the case of the last branch line) on each side of the branch line on which the subject sprinkler is positioned
    2. Choose the larger of either twice the distance to the wall or obstruction or the distance to the next sprinkler
    3. Define dimension as L
The protection area of coverage of the sprinkler shall be established by multiplying the S dimension by the L dimension, as follows:

The maximum allowable protection area of coverage for a sprinkler (As) shall be in accordance with the value indicated in the section for each type or style of sprinkler.
The maximum area of coverage of any sprinkler shall not exceed 400 ft2 (37 m2).
The maximum distance permitted between sprinklers shall be based on the centerline distance between adjacent sprinklers.
The maximum distance shall be measured along the slope of the ceiling.
The maximum distance permitted between sprinklers shall comply with the value indicated in the applicable section for each type or style of sprinkler.
The distance from sprinklers to walls shall not exceed one-half of the allowable maximum distance between sprinklers.
The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be measured perpendicular to the wall.
The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be measured to the wall behind furniture, such as wardrobes, cabinets, and trophy cases.
The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be measured to the wall when sprinklers are spaced near windows and no additional floor space is created.
The minimum distance permitted between a sprinkler and the wall shall comply with the value indicated in the applicable section for each type or style of sprinkler.
The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be measured perpendicular to the wall.
A minimum distance shall be maintained between sprinklers to prevent operating sprinklers from wetting adjacent sprinklers and to prevent skipping of sprinklers.
The minimum distance permitted between sprinklers shall comply with the value indicated in the applicable section for each type or style of sprinkler.
The distances between the sprinkler deflector and the ceiling above shall be selected based on the type of sprinkler and the type of construction.
For corrugated metal deck roofs up to 3 in. (75 mm) in depth, the distance shall be measured to the sprinkler from the bottom of the deck.
For decks deeper than 3 in. (75 mm), the distance shall be measured to the highest point on the deck.
For ceilings that have insulation installed directly against underside of the ceiling or roof structure, the deflector distance shall be measured from the bottom of the insulation and shall be in accordance with 8.5.4.1.3.1 or 8.5.4.1.3.2.
For insulation that is installed directly against the ceiling or roof structure and is installed flat and parallel to the ceiling or roof structure, the deflector distance shall be measured to the underside of the insulation.
For insulation that is installed in a manner that causes it to deflect or sag down from the ceiling or roof structure, the deflector distance shall be measured as half of the distance of the deflection from the insulation high point to the insulation low point.

(A) If the deflection or sag in the insulation exceeds 6 in. (150 mm), the deflector distance shall be measured to the high point of the insulation.

(B) The deflector shall not be positioned above the low point of the insulation.

Heat collectors shall not be used as a means to assist the activation of a sprinkler.
Deflectors of sprinklers shall be aligned parallel to ceilings, roofs, or the incline of stairs.
Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize obstructions to discharge as defined in 8.5.5.2 and 8.5.5.3, or additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate coverage of the hazard. (See Figure A.8.5.5.1.)
Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less than or equal to 18 in. (450 mm) below the sprinkler deflector that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply with 8.5.5.2.
Sprinklers shall be positioned in accordance with the minimum distances and special requirements of Section 8.6 through Section 8.12 so that they are located sufficiently away from obstructions such as truss webs and chords, pipes, columns, and fixtures.
Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than 18 in. (450 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard shall comply with 8.5.5.3.
Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstructions over 4 ft (1.2 m) in width.
Open grate flooring over 4 ft (1.2 m) in width shall require sprinkler protection below the grating.
Sprinklers shall be located below the obstruction and not more than 3 in. (75 mm) from the outside edge of the obstruction.
Where sprinklers are located adjacent to the obstruction, they shall be of the intermediate level rack type.
The deflector of automatic sprinklers installed under fixed obstructions shall be positioned no more than 12 in. (300 mm) below the bottom of the obstruction.
Sprinklers shall not be required under noncombustible obstructions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide where the bottom of the obstruction is 24 in. (600 mm) or less above the floor or deck.
Sprinklers shall not be required under obstructions that are not fixed in place, such as conference tables.
Sprinklers installed under obstructions shall be of the same type (spray, CMSA, ESFR, residential) as installed at the ceiling except as permitted by 8.5.5.3.3.1.
Spray sprinklers shall be permitted to be utilized under overhead doors.
Sprinklers installed under open gratings shall be of the intermediate level/rack storage type or otherwise shielded from the discharge of overhead sprinklers.
In all closets and compartments, including those closets housing mechanical equipment, that are not larger than 400 ft3 (11.3 m3) in size, a single sprinkler at the highest ceiling level shall be sufficient without regard to obstructions or minimum distance to the wall.
Unless the requirements of 8.5.6.2, 8.5.6.3, 8.5.6.4, or 8.5.6.5 are met, the clearance between the deflector and the top of storage or contents of the room shall be 18 in. (450 mm) or greater.
Where other standards specify greater clearance to storage minimums, they shall be followed.
A minimum clearance to storage of 36 in. (900 mm) shall be permitted for special sprinklers.
A minimum clearance to storage of less than 18 in. (450 mm) between the top of storage and ceiling sprinkler deflectors shall be permitted where proven by successful large- scale fire tests for the particular hazard.
The clearance from the top of storage to sprinkler deflectors shall be not less than 36 in. (900 mm) where rubber tires are stored.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from skylights not exceeding 32 ft2 (3.0 m2) in area, regardless of hazard classification, that are separated by at least 10 ft (3.0 m) horizontally from any other unprotected skylight or unprotected ceiling pocket.
When a sprinkler is installed directly beneath a skylight not exceeding 32 ft2 (3.0 m2), the distance to the ceiling shall be measured to the plane of the ceiling as if the skylight was not present.
Skylights not exceeding 32 ft2 (3.0 m2) shall be permitted to have a plastic cover.
All requirements of Section 8.5 shall apply to standard pendent and upright spray sprinklers except as modified in Section 8.6.
Except as permitted by 8.6.2.1.2, the protection area of coverage per sprinkler (As) shall be determined in accordance with 8.5.2.1.
The requirements of 8.6.2.1.1 shall not apply in a small room as defined in 3.3.22.
The protection area of coverage for each sprinkler in the small room shall be the area of the room divided by the number of sprinklers in the room.
The maximum allowable protection area of coverage for a sprinkler (As) shall be in accordance with the value indicated in Table 8.6.2.2.1(a) through Table 8.6.2.2.1(d).

Table 8.6.2.2.1(a) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing of Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers for Light Hazard

Construction Type System Type Maximum Protection Area Maximum Spacing
ft2 m2 ft m
Noncombustible unobstructed Hydraulically calculated 225 20.9 15 4.6
Noncombustible unobstructed Pipe schedule 200 18.6 15 4.6
Noncombustible obstructed Hydraulically calculated 225 20.9 15 4.6
Noncombustible obstructed Pipe schedule 200 18.6 15 4.6
Combustible unobstructed with no exposed members Hydraulically calculated 225 20.9 15 4.6
Combustible unobstructed with no exposed members Pipe schedule 200 18.6 15 4.6
Combustible unobstructed with exposed members 3 ft (910 mm) or more on center Hydraulically calculated 225 20.9 15 4.6
Combustible unobstructed with exposed members 3 ft (910 mm) or more on center Pipe schedule 200 18.6 15 4.6
Combustible unobstructed with members less than 3 ft (910 mm) on center All 130 12.1 15 4.6
Combustible obstructed with exposed members 3 ft (910 mm) or more on center All 168 15.6 15 4.6
Combustible obstructed with members less than 3 ft (910 mm) on center All 130 12.1 15 4.6
Combustible concealed spaces in accordance with 8.6.4.1.4 All 120 11.1 15
parallel to the slope 10 perpendicular to the slope*
4.6
parallel to the slope 3.0 perpendicular to the slope*
*See 8.6.4.1.4.4.

Table 8.6.2.2.1(b) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing of Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers for Ordinary Hazard

Construction Type System Type Protection Area Maximum Spacing
ft2 m2 ft m
All All 130 12.1 15 4.6

Table 8.6.2.2.1(c) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing of Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers for Extra Hazard

Construction Type System Type Protection Area Maximum Spacing
ft2 m2 ft m
All Pipe schedule 90 8.4 12* 3.7*
All Hydraulically calculated with density ≥0.25 100 9.3 12* 3.7*
All Hydraulically calculated with density <0.25 130 12.1 15 4.6
*In buildings where solid structural members create bays up to 25 ft (7.6 m) wide, maximum spacing between sprinklers is permitted up to 12 ft 6 in. (3.8 m).

Table 8.6.2.2.1(d) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing of Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers for High-Piled Storage

Construction Type System Type Protection Area Maximum Spacing
ft2 m2 ft m
All Hydraulically calculated with density ≥0.25 100 9.3 12* 3.7*
All Hydraulically calculated with density <0.25 130 12.1 15 4.6
*In buildings where solid structural members create bays up to 25 ft (7.6 m) wide, maximum spacing between sprinklers is permitted up to 12 ft 6 in. (3.8 m).
In any case, the maximum area of coverage of a sprinkler shall not exceed 225 ft2 (20.9 m2).
The maximum distance permitted between sprinklers shall comply with Table 8.6.2.2.1(a) through Table 8.6.2.2.1(d).
The distance from sprinklers to walls shall not exceed one-half of the allowable distance between sprinklers as indicated in Table 8.6.2.2.1(a) through Table 8.6.2.2.1(d).
The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be measured perpendicular to the wall.
The requirements of 8.6.3.2.1 shall not apply where walls are angled or irregular, and the maximum horizontal distance between a sprinkler and any point of floor area protected by that sprinkler shall not exceed 0.75 times the allowable distance permitted between sprinklers, provided the maximum perpendicular distance is not exceeded.
The requirements of 8.6.3.2.1 shall not apply within small rooms as defined in 3.3.22.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be located not more than 9 ft (2.7 m) from any single wall.
Sprinkler spacing limitations of 8.6.3 and area limitations of Table 8.6.2.2.1(a) shall not be exceeded.
Under curved surfaces, the horizontal distance shall be measured at the floor level from the wall, or the intersection of the curved surface and the floor to the nearest sprinkler shall not be greater than one-half the allowable distance between sprinklers.
Sprinklers shall be located a minimum of 4 in. (100 mm) from a wall.
Unless the requirements of 8.6.3.4.2, 8.6.3.4.3, or 8.6.3.4.4 are met, sprinklers shall be spaced not less than 6 ft (1.8 m) on center.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed less than 6 ft (1.8 m) on center where the following conditions are satisfied:
  1. Baffles shall be arranged to protect the actuating elements.
  2. Baffles shall be of solid and rigid material that will stay in place before and during sprinkler operation.
  3. Baffles shall be not less than 8 in. (200 mm) long and 6 in. (150 mm) high.
  4. The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. (50 mm and 75 mm) above the deflectors of upright sprinklers.
  5. The bottoms of baffles shall extend downward to a level at least even with the deflectors of pendent sprinklers.
In-rack sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed less than 6 ft (1.8 m) on center.
Old-style sprinklers protecting fur storage vaults shall be permitted to be placed less than 6 ft (1.8 m) on center.
Under unobstructed construction, the distance between the sprinkler deflector and the ceiling shall be a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) and a maximum of 12 in. (300 mm) throughout the area of coverage of the sprinkler.
The requirements of 8.6.4.1.1.1 shall not apply where ceiling-type sprinklers (concealed, recessed, and flush types) have the operating element above the ceiling and the deflector located nearer to the ceiling where installed in accordance with their listing.
The requirements of 8.6.4.1.1.1 shall not apply for light and ordinary hazard occupancies with ceilings of noncombustible or limited-combustible construction where either 8.6.4.1.1.3(A) or 8.6.4.1.1.3(B) applies.

(A) Where a vertical change in ceiling elevation within the area of coverage of the sprinkler creates a distance of more than 36 in. (900 mm) between the upper ceiling and the sprinkler deflector, a vertical plane extending down from the ceiling at the change in elevation shall be considered a wall for the purpose of sprinkler spacing as shown in Figure 8.6.4.1.1.3(A).

FIGURE 8.6.4.1.1.3(A) Vertical Change in Ceiling Elevation Greater Than 36 in. (914 mm).

(B) Where the distance between the upper ceiling and the sprinkler deflector is less than or equal to 36 in. (900 mm), the sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced as though the ceiling was flat, provided the obstruction rules are observed as shown in Figure 8.6.4.1.1.3(B).

FIGURE 8.6.4.1.1.3(B) Vertical Change in Ceiling Elevation Less Than or Equal to 36 in. (914 mm).

Under obstructed construction, the sprinkler deflector shall be located in accordance with one of the following arrangements:
  1. Installed with the deflectors within the horizontal planes of 1 in. to 6 in. (25 mm to 150 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 22 in. (550 mm) below the ceiling/roof deck
  2. Installed with the deflectors at or above the bottom of the structural member to a maximum of 22 in. (550 mm) below the ceiling/roof deck where the sprinkler is installed in conformance with 8.6.5.1.2
  3. Installed in each bay of obstructed construction, with the deflectors located a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) and a maximum of 12 in. (300 mm) below the ceiling
  4. Installed with the deflectors within the horizontal planes 1 in. to 6 in. (25 mm to 150 mm) below composite wood joists to a maximum distance of 22 in. (550 mm) below the ceiling/roof deck only where joist channels are firestopped to the full depth of the joists with material equivalent to the web construction so that individual channel areas do not exceed 300 ft2 (27.9 m2)
  5. *Installed with deflectors of sprinklers under concrete tee construction with stems spaced less than 71/2 ft (2.3 m) on centers, regardless of the depth of the tee, located at or above a horizontal plane 1 in. (25 mm) below the bottom of the stems of the tees and complying with Table 8.6.5.1.2
Unless the requirements of 8.6.4.1.3.2 or 8.6.4.1.3.3 are met, sprinklers under or near the peak of a roof or ceiling shall have deflectors located not more than 36 in. (900 mm) vertically down from the peak as indicated in Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1(a) and Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1(b).

FIGURE 8.6.4.1.3.1(a) Sprinklers Under Pitched Roof with Sprinkler Directly Under Peak; Branch Lines Run Up Slopes.

FIGURE 8.6.4.1.3.1(b) Sprinklers at Pitched Roof; Branch Lines Run Up Slopes.

Under saw-toothed roofs, sprinklers at the highest elevation shall not exceed a distance of 36 in. (900 mm) measured down the slope from the peak.
Under a steeply pitched surface, the distance from the peak to the deflectors shall be permitted to be increased to maintain a horizontal clearance of not less than 24 in. (600 mm) from other structural members as indicated in Figure 8.6.4.1.3.3.

FIGURE 8.6.4.1.3.3 Horizontal Clearance for Sprinkler at Peak of Pitched Roof.

Sprinklers under a roof or ceiling in combustible concealed spaces of wood joist or wood truss construction with members less than 3 ft (900 mm) on center with a slope having a pitch of 4 in 12 or greater shall be positioned in accordance with Figure 8.6.4.1.4 and the requirements of 8.6.4.1.4.1 through 8.6.4.1.4.6.

*The 5 ft minimum dimension is measured from the intersection of the upper and lower truss chords or the wood rafters and ceiling joists.

FIGURE 8.6.4.1.4 Sprinklers Under Roof or Ceiling in Combustible Concealed Spaces of Wood Joist or Wood Truss Construction with Members Less Than 3 ft (0.91 m) on Center with a Slope Having a Pitch of 4 in 12 or Greater.

Sprinklers shall be quick-response.
Sprinklers shall be installed so that a row of sprinklers is installed within 12 in. (300 mm) horizontally of the peak and between 1 in. and 12 in. (25 mm and 300 mm) down from the bottom of the top chord member.
Sprinklers shall be installed so that the sprinklers installed along the eave are located not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from the intersection of the upper and lower truss chords or the wood rafters and ceiling joists.
Sprinklers installed where the dimension perpendicular to the slope exceeds 8 ft (2.4 m) shall have a minimum pressure of 20 psi (1.4 bar).
The requirements of 8.6.4.1.4.3 or 8.6.4.1.4.4 shall not apply to sprinklers installed at the corner of the eave of a hip type roof where located directly under the hip line spaced in accordance with 8.6.3.2.3 or located along the eave spaced on the slope plane not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from the intersection of the upper and lower truss chords or the wood rafters and ceiling joists.
The special requirements of 8.6.2.2.1 and 8.6.4.1.4 shall not apply when the exposed combustible sheathing in the roof or ceiling space are constructed of pressure impregnated fire retardant-treated wood as defined by NFPA 703.
Unless the requirements of 8.6.4.1.5.2 are met, where two sets of joists are under a roof or ceiling, and no flooring is over the lower set, sprinklers shall be installed above and below the lower set of joists where a clearance of 6 in. (150 mm) or more is between the top of the lower joist and the bottom of the upper joist as indicated in Figure 8.6.4.1.5.1.

FIGURE 8.6.4.1.5.1 Arrangement of Sprinklers Under Two Sets of Open Joists — No Sheathing on Lower Joists.

Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from below the lower set of joists where at least 18 in. (450 mm) is maintained between the sprinkler deflector and the top of the lower joist.
Unless the requirements of 8.6.4.2.2 or 8.6.4.2.3 are met, deflectors of sprinklers shall be aligned parallel to ceilings, roofs, hips, or the incline of stairs.
Where sprinklers are installed in the peak below a sloped ceiling or roof surface, the sprinkler shall be installed with the deflector horizontal.
Roofs having a pitch not exceeding 2 in 12 (16.7 percent) are considered horizontal in the application of 8.6.4.2, and sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed with deflectors horizontal.
Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize obstructions to discharge as defined in 8.6.5.2 and 8.6.5.3, or additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate coverage of the hazard.
Sprinklers shall be arranged to comply with one of the following arrangements:
  1. Subsection 8.5.5.2, Table 8.6.5.1.2, and Figure 8.6.5.1.2(a) shall be followed.
  2. Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on opposite sides of obstructions not exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width, provided the distance from the centerline of the obstruction to the sprinklers does not exceed one-half the allowable distance permitted between sprinklers.
  3. Obstructions located against the wall and that are not over 30 in. (750 mm) in width shall be permitted to be protected in accordance with Figure 8.6.5.1.2(b).
  4. Obstructions located against the wall and that are not over 24 in. (600 mm) in width shall be permitted to be protected in accordance with Figure 8.6.5.1.2(c). The maximum distance between the sprinkler and the wall shall be measured from the sprinkler to the wall behind the obstruction and not to the face of the obstruction.

Table 8.6.5.1.2 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge [Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent (SSU/SSP)]

Distance from Sprinklers to Side of Obstruction (A) Maximum Allowable Distance of Deflector Above Bottom of Obstruction (B)
[in. (mm)]
Less than 1 ft (300 mm) 0 (0)
1 ft (300 mm) to less than 1 ft 6 in. (450 mm) 21/2 (65)
1 ft 6 in. (450 mm) to less than 2 ft (600 mm) 31/2 (90)
2 ft (600 mm) to less than 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) 51/2 (140)
2 ft 6 (750 mm) in. to less than 3 ft (900 mm) 71/2 (190)
3 ft (900 mm) to less than 3 ft 6 in. (1.1 m) 91/2 (240)
3 ft 6 in. (1.1 m) to less than 4 ft (1.2 m) 12 (300)
4 ft (1.2 m) to less than 4 ft 6 in. (1.4 m) 14 (350)
4 ft 6 in. (1.4 m) to less than 5 ft (1.5 m) 161/2 (420)
5 ft (1.5 m) to less than 5 ft 6 in. (1.7 m) 18 (450)
5 ft 6 in. (1.7 m) to less than 6 ft (1.8 m) 20 (510)
6 ft (1.8 m) to less than 6 ft 6 in. (2.0 m) 24 (600)
6 ft 6 in. (2.0 m) to less than 7 ft (2.1 m) 30 (750)
7 ft (2.1 m) to less than 7 ft 6 in. (2.3 m) 35 (875)
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m.
Note: For A and B, refer to Figure 8.6.5.1.2(a).

FIGURE 8.6.5.1.2(a) Positioning of Sprinkler to Avoid Obstruction to Discharge (SSU/SSP).

FIGURE 8.6.5.1.2(b) Obstruction Against Wall (SSU/SSP).

FIGURE 8.6.5.1.2(c) Obstructions Against Walls (SSU/SSP).

Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less than or equal to 18 in. (450 mm) below the sprinkler deflector that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply with 8.6.5.2.
Regardless of the rules of 8.6.5.2, solid continuous obstructions, where the top of the obstruction is level with or above the plane of the deflector, shall meet the applicable requirements of 8.6.5.1.2.
Unless the requirements of 8.6.5.2.1.4 through 8.6.5.2.1.9 are met, sprinklers shall be positioned away from obstructions a minimum distance of three times the maximum dimension of the obstruction (e.g., structural members, pipe, columns, and fixtures) in accordance with Figure 8.6.5.2.1.3(a) and Figure 8.6.5.2.1.3(b).

FIGURE 8.6.5.2.1.3(a) Minimum Distance from an Obstruction in the Vertical Orientation (SSU/SSP).

FIGURE 8.6.5.2.1.3(b) Minimum Distance from an Obstruction in the Horizontal Orientation (SSU/SSP).

(A) The maximum clear distance required shall be 24 in. (600 mm).

(B) The maximum clear distance shall not be applied to obstructions in the vertical orientation (e.g., columns).

For light and ordinary hazard occupancies, structural members only shall be considered when applying the requirements of 8.6.5.2.1.3.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on opposite sides of the obstruction where the distance from the centerline of the obstruction to the sprinklers does not exceed one-half the allowable distance between sprinklers.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be located one-half the distance between the obstructions where the obstruction consists of open trusses 20 in. (500 mm) or greater apart [24 in. (600 mm) on center], provided that all truss members are not greater than 4 in. (100 mm) (nominal) in width.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed on the centerline of a truss or bar joist or directly above a beam, provided that the truss chord or beam dimension is not more than 8 in. (200 mm) and the sprinkler deflector is located at least 6 in. (150 mm) above the structural member and where the sprinkler is positioned at a distance three times greater than the maximum dimension of the web members away from the web members.
The requirements of 8.6.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to sprinkler system piping less than 3 in. (80 mm) in diameter.
The requirements of 8.6.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to sprinklers positioned with respect to obstructions in accordance with 8.6.5.1.2.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed without regard to the blades of ceiling fans less than 60 in. (1.5 m) in diameter, provided the plan view of the fan is at least 50 percent open.
The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains, freestanding partitions, room dividers, and similar obstructions in light hazard occupancies shall be in accordance with Table 8.6.5.2.2 and Figure 8.6.5.2.2.

Table 8.6.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions in Light Hazard Occupancies Only (SSU/SSP)

Horizontal Distance (A) Minimum Vertical Distance Below Deflector (B)
[in. (mm)]
6 in. (150 mm) or less 3 (75)
More than 6 in. (150 mm) to 9 in. (225 mm) 4 (100)
More than 9 in. (225 mm) to 12 in. (300 mm) 6 (150)
More than 12 in. (300 mm) to 15 in. (375 mm) 8 (200)
More than 15 in. (375 mm) to 18 in. (400 mm) 91/2 (240)
More than 18 in. (400 mm) to 24 in. (600 mm) 121/2 (315)
More than 24 in. (600 mm) to 30 in. (750 mm) 151/2 (395)
More than 30 in. (750 mm) 18 (450)
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
Note: For A and B, refer to Figure 8.6.5.2.2.

FIGURE 8.6.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstruction in Light Hazard Occupancies Only (SSU/SSP).

In light hazard occupancies, privacy curtains, as shown in Figure 8.6.5.2.2, shall not be considered obstructions where all of the following are met:
  1. The curtains are supported by fabric mesh on ceiling track.
  2. Openings in the mesh are equal to 70 percent or greater.
  3. The mesh extends a minimum of 22 in. (550 mm) down from ceiling.
Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than 18 in. (450 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard shall comply with 8.6.5.3.
The requirements of 8.6.5.3 shall also apply to obstructions 18 in. (450 mm) or less below the sprinkler for light and ordinary hazard occupancies.
Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstructions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide.
Sprinklers shall not be required below obstructions that are not fixed in place, such as conference tables.
Sprinklers installed under open gratings shall be of the intermediate level/rack storage type or otherwise shielded from the discharge of overhead sprinklers.
The deflector of automatic sprinklers installed under fixed obstructions shall be positioned no more than 12 in. (300 mm) below the bottom of the obstruction.
Sprinklers installed under round ducts shall be of the intermediate level/rack storage type or otherwise shielded from the discharge of overhead sprinklers.
The clearance between the deflector and the top of storage shall be 18 in. (450 mm) or greater.
The 18 in. (450 mm) dimension shall not limit the height of shelving on a wall or shelving against a wall in accordance with 8.6.6, 8.7.6, 8.8.6, and Section 8.9.
Where shelving is installed on a wall and is not directly below sprinklers, the shelves, including storage thereon, shall be permitted to extend above the level of a plane located 18 in. (450 mm) below ceiling sprinkler deflectors.
Shelving, and any storage thereon, directly below the sprinklers shall not extend above a plane located 18 in. (450 mm) below the ceiling sprinkler deflectors.
Where other standards specify greater clearance to storage minimums, they shall be followed.
Except as provided in 8.6.7.2 and 8.6.7.3, sprinklers shall be required in all ceiling pockets.
Sprinklers shall not be required in ceiling pockets where all of the following are met:
  1. The total volume of the unprotected ceiling pocket does not exceed 1000 ft3 (28 m3).
  2. The depth of the unprotected ceiling pocket does not exceed 36 in. (900 mm).
  3. The entire floor under the unprotected ceiling pocket is protected by sprinklers at the lower ceiling elevation.
  4. *The total size of all unprotected ceiling pockets in the same compartment within 10 ft (3 m) of each other does not exceed 1000 ft3 (28 m3).
  5. The unprotected ceiling pocket has noncombustible or limited-combustible finishes.
  6. Quick-response sprinklers are utilized throughout the compartment.
Sprinklers shall not be required in skylights and similar pockets in accordance with 8.5.7.
All requirements of Section 8.5 shall apply to sidewall standard spray sprinklers except as modified in Section 8.7.
The protection area of coverage per sprinkler (As) shall be determined as follows:
  1. Along the wall as follows:
    1. Determine the distance between sprinklers along the wall (or to the end wall or obstruction in the case of the end sprinkler on the branch line) upstream and downstream
    2. Choose the larger of either twice the distance to the end wall or the distance to the next sprinkler
    3. Define dimension as S
  2. Across the room as follows:
    1. Determine the distance from the wall on which the sprinkler is installed to the wall opposite the sprinklers or to the midpoint of the room where sprinklers are installed on two opposite walls (see 8.7.3.1.5 and 8.7.3.1.6)
    2. Define dimension as L
The protection area of the sprinkler shall be established by multiplying the S dimension by the L dimension, as follows:

The maximum allowable protection area of coverage for a sprinkler (As) shall be in accordance with the value indicated in Table 8.7.2.2.1.

Table 8.7.2.2.1 Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinkler)

Light Hazard Ordinary Hazard
Combustible Ceiling Finish Noncombustible or Limited-Combustible Ceiling Finish Combustible Ceiling Finish Noncombustible or Limited-Combustible Ceiling Finish
Maximum distance along the wall (S) (ft) [m] 14 [4.3] 14 [4.3] 10 [3.0] 10 [3.0]
Maximum room width (L) (ft) [m] 12 [3.7] 14 [4.3] 10 [3.0] 10 [3.0]
Maximum protection area (ft2) [m] 120 [11.1] 196 [18.2] 80 [7.4] 100 [9.3]
In any case, the maximum area of coverage of a sprinkler shall not exceed 196 ft2 (18.2 m2).
The maximum distance permitted between sidewall spray sprinklers shall be based on the centerline distance between sprinklers on the branch line.
The maximum distance between sidewall spray sprinklers or to a wall shall be measured along the slope of the ceiling.
Where sidewall spray sprinklers are installed along the length of a single wall of rooms or bays, they shall be spaced in accordance with the maximum spacing provisions of Table 8.7.2.2.1.
Sidewall spray sprinklers shall not be installed back-to-back without being separated by a continuous lintel or soffit.
The maximum width of the lintel or soffit shall not exceed 16 in. (400 mm).
The maximum width of the lintel or soffit can exceed 16 in. (400 mm) when a pendent sprinkler is installed under the lintel or soffit.
Where sidewall spray sprinklers are installed on two opposite walls or sides of bays, the maximum width of the room or bay shall be permitted to be up to 24 ft (7.3 m) for light hazard occupancy or 20 ft (6.1 m) for ordinary hazard occupancy, with spacing as required by Table 8.7.2.2.1.
Sidewall spray sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed on opposing or adjacent walls, provided no sprinkler is located within the maximum protection area of another sprinkler.
Where sidewall standard spray sprinklers are installed to protect areas below overhead doors within ordinary hazard occupancy spaces or rooms, protection area and maximum sprinkler spacing for light hazard as specified in Table 8.7.2.2.1 shall be permitted under the overhead doors.
The distance from sprinklers to the end walls shall not exceed one-half of the allowable distance permitted between sprinklers as indicated in Table 8.7.2.2.1.
Sprinklers shall be located a minimum of 4 in. (100 mm) from an end wall.
The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be measured perpendicular to the wall.
Sprinklers shall be spaced not less than 6 ft (1.8 m) on center unless required by 8.7.4.1.3.1 or unless the sprinklers are separated by baffles that comply with the following:
  1. Baffles shall be arranged to protect the actuating elements.
  2. Baffles shall be of solid and rigid material that will stay in place before and during sprinkler operation.
  3. Baffles shall be not less than 8 in. (200 mm) long and 6 in. (150 mm) high.
  4. The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. (50 mm and 75 mm) above the deflectors.
  5. The bottoms of baffles shall extend downward to a level at least even with the deflectors.
Unless the requirements of 8.7.4.1.1.2 are met, sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be located not more than 6 in. (150 mm) or less than 4 in. (100 mm) from ceilings.
Horizontal sidewall sprinklers shall be permitted to be located in a zone 6 in. to 12 in. (150 mm to 300 mm) or 12 in. to 18 in. (300 mm to 450 mm) below noncombustible and limited-combustible ceilings where listed for such use.
Vertical sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be located not more than 6 in. (150 mm) or less than 4 in. (100 mm) from the wall from which they are projecting.
Horizontal sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be located no more than 6 in. (150 mm), and shall be permitted to be located with their deflectors less than 4 in. (100 mm), from the wall on which they are mounted.
Where soffits used for the installation of sidewall sprinklers exceed 8 in. (200 mm) in width or projection from the wall, additional sprinklers shall be installed below the soffit.
Where soffits used for the installation of sidewall sprinklers are less than or equal to 8 in. (200 mm) in width or projection from the wall, additional sprinklers shall not be required below the soffit when the sidewall sprinkler is installed on the soffit.
A sidewall sprinkler shall be permitted to be installed under a soffit when both the minimum distance from the sprinkler deflector to the bottom of the soffit and maximum distance from the sprinkler deflector to the high ceiling is maintained.
Where soffits are used for the installation of sidewall sprinklers, the sprinklers and soffits shall be installed in accordance with 8.7.4.1.4.1, 8.7.4.1.4.2, or 8.7.4.1.4.3.
Where soffits exceed more than 8 in. (200 mm) in width or projection from the wall, pendent sprinklers shall be installed under the soffit.
Sidewall sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed in the face of a soffit located directly over cabinets, without requiring additional sprinklers below the soffit or cabinets, where the soffit does not project horizontally more than 12 in. (300 mm) from the wall.
Where sidewall sprinklers are more than 36 in. (900 mm) above the top of cabinets, the sprinkler shall be permitted to be installed on the wall above the cabinets where the cabinets are no greater than 12 in. (300 mm) from the wall.
Deflectors of sprinklers shall be aligned parallel to ceilings or roofs.
Sidewall sprinklers, where installed under a sloped ceiling with a slope exceeding 2 in 12, shall be located at the high point of the slope and positioned to discharge downward along the slope.
Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize obstructions to discharge as defined in 8.5.5.2 and 8.5.5.3, or additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate coverage of the hazard.
Sidewall sprinklers shall be installed no closer than 4 ft (1.2 m) from light fixtures or similar obstructions.
The distance between light fixtures or similar obstructions located more than 4 ft (1.2 m) from the sprinkler shall be in conformity with Table 8.7.5.1.3 and Figure 8.7.5.1.3.

Table 8.7.5.1.3 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers)

Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler to Side of Obstruction (A) Maximum Allowable Distance of Deflector Above Bottom of Obstruction (B) [in. (mm)]
Less than 4 ft (1.2 m) Not allowed
4 ft (1.2 m) to less than 5 ft (1.5 m) 1 (25)
5 ft (1.5 m) to less than 5 ft 6 in. (1.7 m) 2 (50)
5 ft 6 in. (1.7 m) to less than 6 ft (1.8 m) 3 (75)
6 ft (1.8 m) to less than 6 ft 6 in. (2.0 m) 4 (100)
6 ft 6 in. (2.0 m) to less than 7 ft (2.1 m) 6 (150)
7 ft (2.1 m) to less than 7 ft 6 in. (2.3 m) 7 (175)
7 ft 6 in. (2.3 m) to less than 8 ft (2.4 m) 9 (225)
8 ft (2.4 m) to less than 8 ft 6 in. (2.6 m) 11 (275)
8 ft 6 in. (2.6 m) or greater 14 (350)
Note: For A and B, refer to Figure 8.7.5.1.3.

FIGURE 8.7.5.1.3 Positioning of Sprinkler to Avoid Obstruction (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers).

Obstructions projecting from the same wall as the one on which the sidewall sprinkler is mounted shall be in accordance with Table 8.7.5.1.4 and Figure 8.7.5.1.4.

Table 8.7.5.1.4 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions Along Wall (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers)

Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler to Side of Obstruction (A) Maximum Allowable Distance of Deflector Above Bottom of Obstruction (B)
[in. (mm)]
4 in.(100 mm) to less than 6 in. (150 mm) 1 (25)
6 in. (150 mm) to less than 1 ft (300 mm) 2 (50)
1 ft (300 mm) to less than 1 ft 6 in. (450 mm) 3 (75)
1 ft 6 in. (450 mm) to less than 2 ft (600 mm) 41/2 (115)
2 ft (600 mm) to less than 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) 53/4 (145)
2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) to less than 3 ft (900 mm) 7 (175)
3 ft (900 mm) to less than 3 ft 6 in. (1.1 m) 8 (200)
3 ft 6 in. (1.1 m) to less than 4 ft (1.2 m) 91/4 (230)
4 ft (1.2 m) to less than 4 ft 6 in. (1.4 m) 10 (250)
4 ft 6 in. (1.4 m) to less than 5 ft (1.5 m) 111/2 (290)
5 ft (1.5 m) to less than 5 ft 6 in. (1.7 m) 123/4 (325)
5 ft 6 in. (1.7 m) to less than 6 ft (1.8 m) 14 (350)
6 ft (1.8 m) to less than 6 ft 6 in. (2.0 m) 15 (380)
6 ft 6 in. (2.0 m) to less than 7 ft (2.2 m) 161/4 (410)
7 ft (2.2 m) to less than 7 ft 6 in. (2.3 m) 171/2 (440)
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m.
Note: For A and B, refer to Figure 8.7.5.1.4(a).

FIGURE 8.7.5.1.4 Positioning of Sprinkler to Avoid Obstruction Along Wall (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers).

Isolated obstructions projecting from the same wall as the one on which the sidewall sprinkler is mounted shall be located a minimum of 4 in. (100 mm) from the sidewall sprinkler.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on opposite sides of obstructions less than 4 ft (1.2 m) in width where the distance from the centerline of the obstruction to the sprinklers does not exceed one-half the allowable distance between sprinklers.
Obstructions on the wall opposite from the sidewall sprinkler shall be permitted where the obstruction is up to 2 ft (600 mm) deep and 2 ft (600 mm) wide.
Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less than or equal to 18 in. (450 mm) below the sprinkler deflector that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply with this section.
Regardless of the rules of this section, solid continuous obstructions shall meet the requirements of 8.7.5.1.2 and 8.7.5.1.3.
Unless the requirements of 8.7.5.2.1.4 or 8.7.5.2.1.5 are met, sprinklers shall be positioned away from obstructions a minimum distance of three times the maximum dimension of the obstruction (e.g., truss webs and chords, pipe, columns, and fixtures) in accordance with Figure 8.7.5.2.1.3(a) and Figure 8.7.5.2.1.3(b).

A ≥ 3C or 3D
(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater)

FIGURE 8.7.5.2.1.3(a) Minimum Distance from an Obstruction in the Vertical Orientation (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers).

A ≥ 3C or 3D
A ≤ 24 in. (600 mm)
(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater)

FIGURE 8.7.5.2.1.3(b) Minimum Distance from an Obstruction in the Horizontal Orientation (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers).

(A) The maximum clear distance required to obstructions in the horizontal orientation (e.g., light fixtures and truss chords) shall be 24 in. (600 mm).

(B) The maximum clear distance shall not be applied to obstructions in the vertical orientation (e.g., columns).

The requirements of 8.7.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to sprinkler system piping less than 3 in. (80 mm) in diameter.
The requirements of 8.7.5.2.1.3 shall not apply where sprinklers are positioned with respect to obstructions in accordance with 8.7.5.1.2, 8.7.5.1.3, and 8.7.5.1.4.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed without regard to the blades of ceiling fans less than 60 in. (1.5 m) in diameter, provided the plan view of the fan is at least 50 percent open.
The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains, free-standing partitions, room dividers, and similar obstructions in light hazard occupancies shall be in accordance with Table 8.7.5.2.2 and Figure 8.7.5.2.2.

Table 8.7.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only

Horizontal Distance (A) Minimum Vertical Distance Below Deflector (B)
[in. (mm)]
6 in. (150 mm) or less 3 (75)
More than 6 in. (150 mm) to 9 in. (225 mm) 4 (100)
More than 9 in. (225 mm) to 12 in. (300 mm) 6 (150)
More than 12 in. (300 mm) to 15 in. (375 mm) 8 (200)
More than 15 in. (375 mm) to 18 in. (450 mm) 91/2 (240)
More than 18 in. (450 mm) to 24 in. (600 mm) 121/2 (315)
More than 24 in. (600 mm) to 30 in. (750 mm) 151/2 (390)
More than 30 in. (750 mm) 18 (450)
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
Note: For A and B, refer to Figure 8.7.5.2.2.

FIGURE 8.7.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstruction (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancy Only.

In light hazard occupancies, privacy curtains, as shown in Figure 8.7.5.2.2, shall not be considered obstructions where all of the following are met:
  1. The curtains are supported by fabric mesh on ceiling track.
  2. Openings in the mesh are equal to 70 percent or greater.
  3. The mesh extends a minimum of 22 in. (550 mm) down from ceiling.
Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than 18 in. (450 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard shall comply with this section.
Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstructions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide such as ducts, decks, open grate flooring, cutting tables, and overhead doors.
Sprinklers shall not be required under obstructions that are not fixed in place such as conference tables.
The clearance between the deflector and the top of storage shall be 18 in. (450 mm) or greater.
All requirements of Section 8.5 shall apply to extended coverage upright and pendent sprinklers except as modified in Section 8.8.
The protection area of coverage (As) for extended coverage sprinklers shall be not less than that prescribed by the listing.
Listing dimensions shall be even-numbered square protection areas as shown in Table 8.8.2.1.2.

Table 8.8.2.1.2 Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers)

Construction Type Light Hazard Ordinary Hazard Extra Hazard High-Piled Storage
Protection Area
ft2 (m2)
Spacing
ft (m)
Protection Area
ft2 (m2)
Spacing
ft (m)
Protection Area
ft2 (m2)
Spacing
ft (m)
Protection Area
ft2 (m2)
Spacing
ft (m)
Unobstructed 400 (37) 20 (6.1) 400 (37) 20 (6.1)
324 (30) 18 (5.5) 324 (30) 18 (5.5)
256 (23.8) 16 (4.9) 256 (23.8) 16 (4.9)
196 (18.2) 14 (4.3) 196 (18.2) 14 (4.3) 196 (18.2) 14 (4.3)
144 (13.4) 12 (3.7) 144 (13.4) 15 (4.6) 144 (13.4) 15 (4.6)
Obstructed noncombustible (when specifically listed for such use) 400 (37) 20 (6.1) 400 (37) 20 (6.1)
324 (30) 18 (5.5) 324 (30) 18 (5.5)
256 (23.8) 16 (4.9) 256 (23.8) 16 (4.9)
196 (18.2) 14 (4.3) 196 (18.2) 14 (4.3) 196 (18.2) 14 (4.3)
144 (13.4) 12 (3.7) 144 (13.4) 15 (4.6) 144 (13.4) 15 (4.6)
Obstructed combustible N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
For SI units, 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2.
Determination of the protection area of coverage and sprinkler spacing for sprinklers listed for extended coverage extra hazard or high-piled storage shall be permitted to be spaced in accordance with the requirements of 8.5.2 and 8.5.3 and shall not exceed 14 ft (4.3 m) maximum spacing and 196 ft2 (18.2 m2) maximum area per sprinkler or 15 ft (4.6 m) maximum spacing and 144 ft2 (13.5 m2) maximum area per sprinkler.
The maximum allowable area of coverage for a sprinkler (As) shall be in accordance with the value indicated in Table 8.8.2.1.2.
In any case, the maximum area of coverage of a sprinkler shall not exceed 400 ft2 (37 m2).
The maximum distance permitted between sprinklers shall be based on the centerline distance between sprinklers on the branch line or on adjacent branch lines.
The maximum distance shall be measured along the slope of the ceiling.
The maximum distance permitted between sprinklers shall comply with Table 8.8.2.1.2.
The distance from sprinklers to walls shall not exceed one-half of the allowable distance permitted between sprinklers as indicated in Table 8.8.2.1.2.
The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be measured perpendicular to the wall.
Where walls are angled or irregular, the maximum horizontal distance between a sprinkler and any point of floor area protected by that sprinkler shall not exceed 0.75 times the allowable distance permitted between sprinklers.
Sprinklers shall be located a minimum of 4 in. (100 mm) from a wall unless listed for distances less than 4 in. (100 mm).
Unless the requirements of 8.8.3.4.2 are met, sprinklers shall be spaced not less than 8 ft (2.4 m) on center.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed less than 8 ft (2.4 m) on center where the following conditions are satisfied:
  1. Baffles shall be arranged to protect the actuating elements.
  2. Baffles shall be of solid and rigid material that will stay in place before and during sprinkler operation.
  3. Baffles shall be not less than 8 in. (200 mm) long and 6 in. (150 mm) high.
  4. The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. (50 mm and 75 mm) above the deflectors of upright sprinklers.
  5. The bottoms of baffles shall extend downward to a level at least even with the deflectors of pendent sprinklers.
Under unobstructed construction, the distance between the sprinkler deflector and the ceiling shall be a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) and a maximum of 12 in. (300 mm) throughout the area of coverage of the sprinkler.
The requirements of 8.8.4.1.1.1 shall not apply where ceiling-type sprinklers (concealed, recessed, and flush types) have the operating element above the ceiling and the deflector located nearer to the ceiling where installed in accordance with their listing.
The requirements of 8.8.4.1.1.1 shall not apply where sprinklers are listed for use under other ceiling construction features or for different distances where they shall be permitted to be installed in accordance with their listing.
The requirements of 8.8.4.1.1.1 shall not apply for light and ordinary hazard occupancies with ceilings of noncombustible or limited-combustible construction.

(A) * Where a vertical change in ceiling elevation within the area of coverage of the sprinkler creates a distance of more than 36 in. (900 mm) between the upper ceiling and the sprinkler deflector, a vertical plane extending down from the ceiling at the change in elevation shall be considered a wall for the purpose of sprinkler spacing.

(B) * Where the distance between the upper ceiling and the sprinkler deflector is less than or equal to 36 in. (900 mm), the sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced as though the ceiling were flat, provided the obstruction rules are observed.

Under obstructed construction, the sprinkler deflector shall be located in accordance with one of the following arrangements:
  1. Installed with the deflectors within the horizontal planes of 1 in. to 6 in. (25 mm to 150 mm) below noncombustible structural members and a maximum distance of 22 in. (550 mm) below the ceiling/roof deck
  2. Installed with the deflectors at or above the bottom of noncombustible structural member to a maximum of 22 in. (550 mm) below the noncombustible ceiling/roof deck where the sprinkler is installed in conformance with 8.8.5.1.2
  3. Installed in each bay of combustible or noncombustible obstructed construction, with the deflectors located a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) and a maximum of 12 in. (300 mm) below the ceiling
  4. Installed in accordance with their listing where sprinklers are listed for use under other ceiling construction features or for different distances
Sprinklers under or near the peak of a roof or ceiling shall have deflectors located not more than 3 ft (900 mm) vertically down from the peak in accordance with Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1(a) and Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1(b).
Deflectors of sprinklers shall be aligned parallel to ceilings or roofs.
Roofs and ceilings having a pitch not exceeding 2 in 12 (16.7 percent) are considered horizontal in the application of 8.8.4.2, and sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed with deflectors horizontal.
Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize obstructions to discharge as defined in 8.8.5.2 and 8.8.5.3, or additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate coverage of the hazard.
Sprinklers shall be arranged to comply with one of the following arrangements:
  1. Sprinklers shall be in accordance with 8.5.5.2, Table 8.8.5.1.2, and Figure 8.8.5.1.2(a).
  2. Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on opposite sides of obstructions not exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width provided the distance from the centerline of the obstruction to the sprinklers does not exceed one-half the allowable distance permitted between sprinklers.
  3. Obstructions located against the wall and that are not over 30 in. (750 mm) in width shall be permitted to be protected in accordance with Figure 8.8.5.1.2(b).
  4. Obstructions located against the wall and that are not over 24 in. (600 mm) in width shall be permitted to be protected in accordance with Figure 8.8.5.1.2(c). The maximum distance between the sprinkler and the wall shall be measured from the sprinkler to the wall behind the obstruction and not to the face of the obstruction.

Table 8.8.5.1.2 Position of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers)

Distance from Sprinklers to Side of Obstruction (A) Maximum Allowable Distance of Deflector Above Bottom of Obstruction (B)
[in. (mm)]
Less than 1 ft (300 m) 0 (0)
1 ft (300 m) to less than 1 ft 6 in. (450 m) 0 (0)
1 ft 6 in. (450 m) to less than 2 ft (600 m) 1 (25)
2 ft (600 m) to less than 2 ft 6 in. (750 m) 1 (25)
2 ft 6 in. (750 m) to less than 3 ft (900 m) 1 (25)
3 ft (900 m) to less than 3 ft 6 in. (1.1 m) 3 (75)
3 ft 6 in. (1.1 m) to less than 4 ft (1.2 m) 3 (75)
4 ft (1.2 m) to less than 4 ft 6 in. (1.4 m) 5 (125)
4 ft 6 in. (1.4 m) to less than 5 ft (1.5 m) 7 (175)
5 ft (1.5 m) to less than 5 ft 6 in. (1.7 m) 7 (175)
5 ft 6 in. (1.7 m) to less than 6 ft (1.8 m) 7 (175)
6 ft (1.8 m) to less than 6 ft 6 in. (2 m) 9 (225)
6 ft 6 in. (2 m) to less than 7 ft (2.1 m) 11 (275)
7 ft (2.1 m) to less than 7 ft 6 in. (2.3 m) 14 (350)
7 ft 6 in. (2.3 m) to less than 8 ft (2.4 m) 14 (350)
8 ft (2.4 m) to less than 8 ft 6 in. (2.6 m) 15 (375)
8 ft 6 in. (2.6 m) to less than 9 ft (2.7 m) 17 (425)
9 ft (2.7 m) to less than 9 ft 6 in. (2.9 m) 19 (475)
9 ft 6 in. (2.9 m) to less than 10 ft (3.0 m) 21 (525)
Note: For A and B, refer to Figure 8.8.5.1.2(a).

FIGURE 8.8.5.1.2(a) Position of Sprinkler to Avoid Obstruction to Discharge (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers).

FIGURE 8.8.5.1.2(b) Obstructions Against Walls (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers).

FIGURE 8.8.5.1.2(c) Obstructions Against Walls (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers).

Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less than or equal to 18 in. (450 mm) below the sprinkler deflector that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply with 8.8.5.2.
Regardless of the rules of this section, solid continuous obstructions shall meet the applicable requirements of 8.8.5.1.2.
Unless the requirements of 8.8.5.2.1.4 through 8.8.5.2.1.8 are met, sprinklers shall be positioned away from obstructions a minimum distance of four times the maximum dimension of the obstruction (e.g., truss webs and chords, pipe, columns, and fixtures) in accordance with Figure 8.8.5.2.1.3(a) and Figure 8.8.5.2.1.3(b).

A ≥ 4C or 4D

(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater)

FIGURE 8.8.5.2.1.3(a) Minimum Distance from an Obstruction in the Vertical Orientation (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinkler).

A ≥ 4C or 4D

A ≤ 36 in. (900 mm)

(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater)

FIGURE 8.8.5.2.1.3(b) Minimum Distance from an Obstruction in the Horizontal Orientation (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinkler).

(A) The maximum clear distance required to obstructions in the horizontal orientation (e.g., light fixtures and truss chords) shall be 36 in. (900 mm).

(B) The maximum clear distance shall not be applied to obstructions in the vertical orientation (e.g., columns).

Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on opposite sides of the obstruction where the distance from the centerline of the obstruction to the sprinklers does not exceed one-half the allowable distance between sprinklers.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be located one-half the distance between the obstructions where the obstruction consists of wood bar joists 20 in. (500 mm) or greater apart, provided that the top and bottom chords of the wood bar joist are not greater than 4 in. (100 mm) (nominal) in width and bar members do not exceed 1 in. (25 mm) in width.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed on the centerline of a truss or bar joist or directly above a beam, provided that the truss chord or beam, dimension is not more than 8 in. (200 mm) and the sprinkler deflector is located at least 6 in. (150 mm) above the structural member and where the sprinkler is positioned at a distance four times greater than the maximum dimension of the web members away from the web members.
The requirements of 8.8.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to sprinkler system piping less than 3 in. (80 mm) in diameter.
The requirements of 8.8.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to sprinklers positioned with respect to obstructions in accordance with 8.8.5.1.2.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed without regard to the blades of ceiling fans less than 60 in. (1.5 m) in diameter, provided the plan view of the fan is at least 50 percent open.
The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains, freestanding partitions, room dividers, and similar obstructions in light hazard occupancies shall be in accordance with Table 8.8.5.2.2 and Figure 8.8.5.2.2.

Table 8.8.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only

Horizontal Distance (A) Minimum Vertical Distance Below Deflector (B) [in. (mm)]
6 in. (150 mm) or less 3 (75)
More than 6 in. (150 mm) to 9 in. (225 mm) 4 (100)
More than 9 in. (225 mm) to 12 in. (300 mm) 6 (150)
More than 12 in. (300 mm) to 15 in. (375 mm) 8 (200)
More than 15 in. (375 mm) to 18 in. (450 mm) 91/2 (240)
More than 18 in. (450 mm) to 24 in. (600 mm) 121/2 (315)
More than 24 in. (600 mm) to 30 in. (750 mm) 151/2 (390)
More than 30 in. (750 mm) 18 (450)
Note: For A and B, refer to Figure 8.8.5.2.2.

FIGURE 8.8.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstruction (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancy Only.

In light hazard occupancies, privacy curtains, as shown in Figure 8.8.5.2.2, shall not be considered obstructions where all of the following are met:
  1. The curtains are supported by fabric mesh on ceiling track.
  2. Openings in the mesh are equal to 70 percent or greater.
  3. The mesh extends a minimum of 22 in. (550 mm) down from ceiling.
Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than 18 in. (450 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard shall comply with 8.8.5.3.
Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstructions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide such as ducts, decks, open grate flooring, cutting tables, and overhead doors.
Sprinklers shall not be required under obstructions that are not fixed in place such as conference tables.
Sprinklers installed under open gratings shall be of the intermediate level/rack storage type or otherwise shielded from the discharge of overhead sprinklers.
The deflector of automatic sprinklers installed under fixed obstructions shall be positioned no more than 12 in. (300 mm) below the bottom of the obstruction.
Sprinklers installed under round ducts shall be of the intermediate level/rack storage type or otherwise shielded from the discharge of overhead sprinklers.
The clearance between the deflector and the top of storage shall be 18 in. (450 mm) or greater.
Where other standards specify greater clearance to storage minimums, they shall be followed.
Except as provided in 8.8.7.2 and 8.8.7.3, sprinklers shall be required in all ceiling pockets.
Sprinklers shall not be required in ceiling pockets where all of the following are met:
  1. The total volume of the unprotected ceiling pocket does not exceed 1000 ft3 (28 m3).
  2. The depth of the unprotected ceiling pocket does not exceed 36 in. (900 mm).
  3. The entire floor under the unprotected ceiling pocket is protected by sprinklers at the lower ceiling elevation.
  4. *The total size of all unprotected ceiling pockets in the same compartment within 10 ft (3 m) of each other does not exceed 1000 ft3 (28 m3).
  5. The unprotected ceiling pocket has noncombustible or limited-combustible finishes.
  6. Quick-response sprinklers are utilized throughout the compartment.
Sprinklers shall not be required in skylights and similar pockets in accordance with 8.5.7.
All requirements of Section 8.5 shall apply to extended coverage sidewall spray sprinklers except as modified in Section 8.9.
The protection area of coverage per sprinkler (As) for extended coverage sidewall sprinklers shall be not less than that prescribed by the listing.
Listing dimensions shall be in 2 ft (600 mm) increments up to 28 ft (8.5 m).
The maximum allowable protection area of coverage for a sprinkler (As) shall be in accordance with the value indicated in Table 8.9.2.2.1.

Table 8.9.2.2.1 Protection Area and Maximum Spacing for Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers

Construction Type Light Hazard Ordinary Hazard
Protection Area Spacing Protection Area Spacing
ft2 m2 ft m ft2 m2 ft m
Unobstructed, smooth, flat 400 37 28 8.5 400 37 24 7.3
In any case, the maximum area of coverage of a sprinkler shall not exceed 400 ft2 (37.2 m2).
The maximum distance permitted between sprinklers shall be based on the centerline distance between sprinklers on the branch line along the wall.
Where sprinklers are installed along the length of a single wall of rooms or bays, they shall be spaced in accordance with the maximum spacing provisions of Table 8.9.2.2.1.
Sidewall sprinklers shall not be installed back-to-back without being separated by a continuous lintel, soffit, or baffle.
Sidewall sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed on opposing or adjacent walls, provided no sprinkler is located within the maximum protection area of another sprinkler.
The distance from sprinklers to the end walls shall not exceed one-half of the allowable distance permitted between sprinklers as indicated in Table 8.9.2.2.1.
Sprinklers shall be located a minimum of 4 in. (100 mm) from an end wall.
The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be measured perpendicular to the wall.
Sprinklers shall be not located within the maximum protection area of any other sprinkler unless required by 8.9.4.1.4.1 or separated by baffles that comply with the following:
  1. Baffles shall be arranged to protect the actuating elements.
  2. Baffles shall be of solid and rigid material that will stay in place before and during sprinkler operation.
  3. Baffles shall be not less than 8 in. (200 mm) long and 6 in. (150 mm) high.
  4. The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. (50 mm and 75 mm) above the deflectors.
  5. The bottoms of baffles shall extend downward to a level at least even with the deflectors.
Unless the requirements of 8.9.4.1.1.2 are met, sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be located not more than 6 in. (150 mm) nor less than 4 in. (100 mm) from ceilings.
Horizontal sidewall sprinklers shall be permitted to be located in a zone 6 in. to 12 in. (150 mm to 300 mm) or 12 in. to 18 in. (300 mm to 450 mm) below noncombustible or limited-combustible ceilings where listed for such use.
Sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be located not more than 6 in. (150 mm) or less than 4 in. (100 mm) from walls on which they are mounted.
Horizontal sidewall sprinklers shall be permitted to be located with their deflectors less than 4 in. (100 mm) from the wall on which they are mounted.
Where soffits used for the installation of sidewall sprinklers are less than or equal to 8 in. (200 mm) in width or projection from the wall, additional sprinklers shall not be required below the soffit.
A sidewall sprinkler shall be permitted to be installed under a soffit when both the minimum distance from the sprinkler deflector to the bottom of the soffit and the maximum distance from the sprinkler deflector to the high ceiling are maintained.
Soffits and Cabinets in Residential Areas/Occupancies. Where soffits are used for the installation of sidewall sprinklers, the sprinklers and soffits shall be installed in accordance with 8.9.4.1.4.1, 8.9.4.1.4.2, or 8.9.4.1.4.3.
Where soffits exceed more than 8 in. (200 mm) in width or projection from the wall, pendent sprinklers shall be installed under the soffit.
Sidewall sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed in the face of a soffit located directly over cabinets, without requiring additional sprinklers below the soffit or cabinets, where the soffit does not project horizontally more than 12 in. (300 mm) from the wall.
Where sidewall sprinklers are more than 3 ft (900 mm) above the top of cabinets, the sprinkler shall be permitted to be installed on the wall above the cabinets where the cabinets are no greater than 12 in. (300 mm) from the wall.
Deflectors of sprinklers shall be aligned parallel to ceilings or roofs.
Sidewall sprinklers, where installed under a sloped ceiling with a slope exceeding 2 in 12, shall be located at the high point of the slope and positioned to discharge downward along the slope.
Sidewall sprinklers specifically listed for other ceiling configurations shall be permitted to be installed in accordance with the listing requirements.
Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize obstructions to discharge as defined in 8.5.5.2 and 8.5.5.3, or additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate coverage of the hazard.
Sidewall sprinklers shall be installed no closer than 8 ft (2.4 m) from light fixtures or similar obstructions.
The distance between light fixtures or similar obstructions located more than 8 ft (2.4 m) from the sprinkler shall be in conformance with Table 8.9.5.1.3 and Figure 8.9.5.1.3.

Table 8.9.5.1.3 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions (Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers)

Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler to Side of Obstruction (A) Maximum Allowable Distance of Deflector Above Bottom of Obstruction (B) [in. (mm)]
Less than 8 ft (2.4 m) Not allowed
8 ft (2.4 m) to less than 10 ft (3.0 m) 1 (25)
10 ft (3.0 m) to less than 11 ft (3.3 m) 2 (50)
11 ft (3.3 m) to less than 12 ft (3.7 m) 3 (75)
12 ft (3.7 m) to less than 13 ft (4.0 m) 4 (100)
13 ft (4.0 m) to less than 14 ft (4.3 m) 6 (150)
14 ft (4.3 m) to less than 15 ft (4.6 m) 7 (175)
15 ft (4.6 m) to less than 16 ft (4.9 m) 9 (225)
16 ft (4.9 m) to less than 17 ft (5.2 m) 11 (275)
17 ft (5.2 m) or greater 14 (350)
Note: For A and B, refer to Figure 8.9.5.1.3.

FIGURE 8.9.5.1.3 Positioning of Sprinkler to Avoid Obstruction (Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers).

Continuous obstructions projecting from the same wall as the one on which the sidewall sprinkler is mounted shall be in accordance with one of the following arrangements:
  1. Sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with Table 8.9.5.1.4 and Figure 8.9.5.1.4(a).
  2. Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on opposite sides of obstructions less than 4 ft (1.2 m) in width where the distance from the centerline of the obstruction to the sprinklers does not exceed one-half the allowable distance between sprinklers.
  3. Obstructions located against the wall and that are not over 30 in. (750 mm) in width shall be permitted to be protected in accordance with Figure 8.9.5.1.4(b).
  4. Obstructions located against the wall and that are not over 24 in. (600 mm) in width shall be permitted to be protected in accordance with Figure 8.9.5.1.4(c). The maximum distance between the sprinkler and the wall shall be measured from the sprinkler to the wall behind the obstruction and not to the face of the obstruction.

Table 8.9.5.1.4 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions Along Wall (Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers)

Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler to Side of Obstruction (A) Maximum Allowable Distance of Deflector Above Bottom of Obstruction (B)
[in. (mm)]
Less than 1 ft 6 in. (450 mm) 0 (0)
1 ft 6 in. (450 mm) to less than 3 ft (900 mm) 1 (25)
3 ft (900 mm) to less than 4 ft (1.2 m) 3 (75)
4 ft (1.2 m) to less than 4 ft 6 in. (1.4 m) 5 (125)
4 ft 6 in. (1.4 m) to less than 6 ft (1.5 m) 7 (175)
6 ft (1.5 m) to less than 6 ft 6 in. (2.0 m) 9 (225)
6 ft 6 in. (2.0 m) to less than 7 ft (2.1 m) 11 (275)
7 ft (2.1 m) to less than 7 ft 6 in. (2.3 m) 14 (350)
Note: For A and B, refer to Figure 8.9.5.1.4(a).

FIGURE 8.9.5.1.4(a) Positioning of Sprinkler to Avoid Obstruction Along Wall (Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers).

FIGURE 8.9.5.1.4(b) Obstruction Against Wall (Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers).

FIGURE 8.9.5.1.4(c) Obstruction Against Wall (Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers).

Isolated obstructions projecting from the same wall as the one on which the extended coverage sidewall sprinkler is mounted shall be located a minimum of 6 in. (150 mm) from the sidewall sprinkler.
Obstructions on the wall opposite from the sidewall sprinkler shall be permitted where the obstruction is up to 2 ft (600 mm) deep and 2 ft (600 mm) wide.
Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less than or equal to 18 in. (450 mm) below the sprinkler deflector that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply with this section.
Regardless of the rules of this section, solid continuous obstructions shall meet the requirements of 8.9.5.1.2 and 8.9.5.1.3.
Unless the requirements of 8.9.5.2.1.4 through 8.9.5.2.1.5 are met, sprinklers shall be positioned away from obstructions a minimum distance of four times the maximum dimension of the obstruction (e.g., truss webs and chords, pipe, columns, and fixtures) in accordance with Figure 8.9.5.2.1.3(a) and Figure 8.9.5.2.1.3(b).

A ≥ 4C or 4D

(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater)

FIGURE 8.9.5.2.1.3(a) Minimum Distance from an Obstruction in the Vertical Orientation (Extended Coverage Sidewall).

A ≥ 4C or 4D

A ≤ 36 in. (900 mm)

(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater)

FIGURE 8.9.5.2.1.3(b) Minimum Distance from an Obstruction in the Horizontal Orientation (Extended Coverage Sidewall).

(A) The maximum clear distance required to obstructions in the horizontal orientation (e.g., light fixtures and truss chords), shall be 36 in. (900 mm).

(B) The maximum clear distance shall not be applied to obstructions in the vertical orientation (e.g., columns).

The requirements of 8.9.5.2.1.3 and 8.9.5.2.1.4 shall not apply where sprinklers are positioned with respect to obstructions in accordance with 8.9.5.1.2 and 8.9.5.1.3.
The requirements of 8.9.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to sprinkler system piping less than 3 in. (80 mm) in diameter.
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed without regard to the blades of ceiling fans less than 60 in. (1.5 m) in diameter, provided the plan view of the fan is at least 50 percent open.
The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains, freestanding partitions, room dividers, and similar obstructions in light hazard occupancies shall be in accordance with Table 8.9.5.2.2 and Figure 8.9.5.2.2.

Table 8.9.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only

Horizontal Distance (A) Minimum Allowable Distance Below Deflector (B) [in. (mm)]
6 in. (150 mm) or less 3 (75)
More than 6 in. (150 mm) to 9 in. (225 mm) 4 (100)
More than 9 in. (225 mm) to 12 in. (300 mm) 6 (150)
More than 12 in. (300 mm) to 15 in. (375 mm) 8 (200)
More than 15 in. (375 mm) to 18 in. (450 mm) 91/2 (240)
More than 18 in. (450 mm) to 24 in. (600 mm) 121/2 (315)
More than 24 in. (600 mm) to 30 in. (750 mm) 151/2 (390)
More than 30 in. (750 mm) 18 (450)
Note: For A and B, refer to Figure 8.9.5.2.2.

FIGURE 8.9.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstruction (Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancy Only.

In light hazard occupancies, privacy curtains, as shown in Figure 8.9.5.2.2, shall not be considered obstructions where all of the following are met:
  1. The curtains are supported by fabric mesh on ceiling track.
  2. Openings in the mesh are equal to 70 percent or greater.
  3. The mesh extends a minimum of 22 in. (550 mm) down from ceiling.
Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than 18 in. (450 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard shall comply with this section.
Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstructions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide, such as ducts, decks, open grate flooring, cutting tables, and overhead doors.
Sprinklers shall not be required under obstructions that are not fixed in place, such as conference tables.
Areas of coverage shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's listing.
Residential sprinklers shall not be permitted to be used on ceilings with slopes greater than 8 in 12 or ceiling with heights greater than 24 ft unless specifically listed for this purpose.
Maximum distances between sprinklers shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's listing.
The distance between the sprinkler and the wall shall not exceed half the maximum allowable distance between sprinklers per the manufacturer's listing.
The minimum distance between sprinklers within a compartment shall be 8 ft (2.4 m), unless the listing of the sprinkler requires a greater distance, unless required by 8.10.7.1.5.1, or unless separated by baffles that comply with the following:
  1. Baffles shall be arranged to protect the actuating elements.
  2. Baffles shall be of solid and rigid material that will stay in place before and during sprinkler operation.
  3. Baffles shall be not less than 8 in. (200 mm) long and 6 in. (150 mm) high.
  4. The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. (50 mm and 75 mm) above the deflectors of upright sprinklers.
  5. The bottoms of baffles shall extend downward to a level at least even with the deflectors of pendent sprinklers.
Residential sidewall sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed on opposing or adjacent walls, provided no sprinkler is located within the maximum protection area of another sprinkler or unless separated by baffles that comply with the following:
  1. Baffles shall be arranged to protect the actuating elements.
  2. Baffles shall be of solid and rigid material that will stay in place before and during sprinkler operation.
  3. Baffles shall be not less than 8 in. (200 mm) long and 6 in. (150 mm) high.
  4. The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. (50 mm and 75 mm) above the deflectors.
  5. The bottoms of baffles shall extend downward to a level at least even with the deflectors.
The maximum distance shall be measured along the slope of the ceiling as shown in Figure 8.10.3.5(a) and Figure 8.10.3.5(b).

FIGURE 8.10.3.5(a) Maximum Distance Between Sprinklers with Sloped Ceilings — Arrangement A.

FIGURE 8.10.3.5(b) Maximum Distance Between Sprinklers with Sloped Ceilings — Arrangement B.

Where sprinklers are installed along sloped ceilings, the sprinklers shall maintain the minimum listed spacing, but no less than 8 ft (2.4 m), measured in the plan view from one sprinkler to another as shown in Figure 8.10.3.6(a) and Figure 8.10.3.6(b), or unless separated by baffles that comply with the following:
  1. Baffles shall be arranged to protect the actuating elements.
  2. Baffles shall be of solid and rigid material that will stay in place before and during sprinkler operation.
  3. Baffles shall be not less than 8 in. (200 mm) long and 6 in. (150 mm) high.
  4. The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. (50 mm and 75 mm) above the deflectors of upright sprinklers.
  5. The bottoms of baffles shall extend downward to a level at least even with the deflectors of pendent sprinklers.

FIGURE 8.10.3.6(a) Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers with Sloped Ceilings — Arrangement A.

FIGURE 8.10.3.6(b) Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers with Sloped Ceilings —Arrangement B.

Pendent and upright sprinklers shall be positioned so that the deflectors are 1 in. to 4 in. (25 mm to 100 mm) from the ceiling unless the listing allows a greater distance.
Sidewall sprinklers shall be positioned so that the deflectors are within 4 in. to 6 in. (100 mm to 150 mm) from the ceiling unless the listing allows greater distances.
Where soffits used for the installation of sidewall sprinklers exceed 8 in. (200 mm) in width or projection from the wall, additional sprinklers shall be installed below the soffit.
Residential horizontal sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be located no more than 6 in. (150 mm) from the wall on which they are mounted unless listed for greater distances.
The distance from sprinklers to the end walls shall not exceed one-half of the allowable distance permitted between sprinklers as indicated in the sprinkler listing.
Sprinklers shall be located a minimum of 4 in. (100 mm) from an end wall.