ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2018 (IBC 2018)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

Editor's Note—Chapter 36 was added by Coun. J. 4-10-19, p. 100029.

APPENDICES A Through C [Reserved]

14B-36-3600 The provisions of Appendices A, B, C, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, and N of IBC are not adopted.

Added Coun. J. 4-10-19, p. 100029.

Appendix D Fire Limits

14B-36-3604 The provisions of Appendix D of IBC are adopted by reference with the following modifications:

Added Coun. J. 4-10-19, p. 100029.

Amended Coun. J. 2-19-20, p. 14474.

The fire limits shall include that portion of the city bounded by: Division Street; Lake Michigan; the Stevenson Expressway; the CTA red line right-of-way; Cermak Road; the Metra SouthWest Service right-of-way; the South Branch of the Chicago River; 16th Street; the Dan Ryan Expressway; Roosevelt Road; Halsted Street, the Eisenhower Expressway; Ashland Avenue; Ogden Avenue; Hubbard Street; the Kennedy Expressway; Ogden Avenue; Chicago Avenue; North Halsted Street; and the North Branch Canal.

Within the fire limits every building hereafter erected shall be either Type IA, IB, IIA, IIIA or IV, except as permitted in Section D105.
Exterior walls of buildings located in the fire limits shall comply with the requirements in Table 601 except as required in Section D102.2.6.
Group H occupancies shall be prohibited from location within the fire limits.
Every building shall be constructed as required based on the type of construction indicated in Chapter 6.
Roof covering in the fire limits shall conform to the requirements of Class A or B roof coverings as defined in Section 1505.

Exterior load-bearing walls of Type IIA buildings and, where permitted, Type IIB buildings shall have a fire-resistance rating of 2 hours or more where such walls have a fire separation distance of 30 feet (9144 mm) or less. Where allowed by Section D105, exterior nonload-bearing walls of Type IIB buildings located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of an abutting property line or an assumed property line shall have fire-resistance ratings as required by Table 601, but not less than 1 hour. Exterior walls located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) from an abutting property line or an assumed property line shall comply with Table 601.

Exception: In the case of one-story buildings that are 2,000 square feet (186 m2) or less in area, exterior walls located more than 15 feet (4572 mm) from an abutting property line or an assumed property line need only comply with Table 601.

Where allowed by Section D105, exterior walls of buildings of Type IIB, VA and VB construction shall be located to provide a fire separation distance of not less than 3 feet (914 mm). Where the fire separation distance is 6 feet (1829 mm) or less, the exterior wall shall have a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour or greater.
Projections extending beyond the exterior wall on buildings located in the fire limits shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

Permanent canopies are permitted to extend over adjacent open spaces provided that all of the following are met:

  1. The canopy and its supports shall be of noncombustible material.

    Exception: Any textile covering for the canopy shall be flame resistant as determined by tests conducted in accordance with NFPA 701 after both accelerated water leaching and accelerated weathering.

  2. Any canopy covering, other than textiles, shall have a flame spread index not greater than 25 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723 in the form intended for use.
  3. The canopy shall have at least one long side open.
  4. The horizontal width of the canopy shall be not greater than 15 feet (4572 mm).
  5. The fire-resistance rating of exterior walls shall not be reduced.
Rooftop structures, except aerial supports 12 feet (3658 mm) high or less shall be of noncombustible material and shall be supported by construction of noncombustible material.
The use of plastics complying with Section 2611 for signs is permitted provided that the structure of the sign in which the plastic is mounted or installed is noncombustible.
Exterior plastic veneer is not permitted in the fire limits.
An existing building shall not be increased in building height or building area unless it is of a type of construction permitted for new buildings within the fire limits or is altered to comply with the requirements for such type of construction. An existing structure, other than a building shall not be altered so as to increase its degree of nonconformity.
Nothing in Section D103.1 shall prohibit other alterations within the fire limits provided that such alterations do not create a change of occupancy that is otherwise prohibited or increase the fire hazard.
Buildings shall not hereafter be moved into the fire limits or to another lot in the fire limits unless the building is of a type of construction permitted in the fire limits.

Nothing in this appendix shall prohibit within the fire limits, subject to the specified limitations, the erection of new buildings or structures, nor the enlargement of existing buildings or structures, nor the use of wood or other combustible veneers, as follows:

  1. Temporary tents, canopies, platforms, stages reviewing stands and similar structures.
  2. Trailers used in connection with duly authorized construction.
  3. A detached private garage, not more than one story and 12 feet (3658 mm) in height, nor more than 500 square feet (60 m2) in area, located on the same lot with a building of Group R-5 occupancy.
  4. Fences not over 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining grade.
  5. Coal and material bins, water towers and trestles of Type IV construction.
  6. Water tanks and cooling towers conforming to Sections 1510.3 and 1510.4.
  7. Weather-protected entries not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) high and not more than 50 square feet (4.6 m2) in area.
  8. Greenhouses less than 15 feet (4572 mm) high and less than 400 square feet (37.2 m2) in area.
  9. Porches not over one story in height, and not over 10 feet (3048 mm) wide from the face of the building, provided that such porch does not come within 3 feet (914 mm) of any abutting property line and is not joined to more than one building.
  10. Sheds open on a long side not over 15 feet (4572 mm) high and 400 square feet (37.2 m2) in area.
  11. [Reserved]

  12. Wood or other combustible veneers on exterior walls conforming to Section 1404.5, not extending above the first story above grade plane.
  13. Fire-retardant treated wood veneers conforming to Section 1404.5 not extending above the second story above grade plane.
  14. Single-story buildings of Type IIB construction not exceeding 5,000 square feet (465 m2) in area. Exterior walls with a fire separation distance of less than 30 feet (9144 mm) shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
  15. Roofs over parking lots and bus stations of Type IIB construction where the roof is at least 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor and every 40 feet (12.2 m) there is an open roof ventilation area at least 6 feet (1829 mm) wide extending either the full length of the roof or the full width of the roof.

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

14B-36-3605 The provisions of Appendix E of IBC are adopted by reference with the following modifications:

Added Coun. J. 4-10-19, p. 100029.

The provisions of this appendix shall control the supplementary requirements for the design and construction of facilities for accessibility for individuals with disabilities.
Technical requirements for items herein shall comply with this code and ICC A117.1.

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this appendix, have the meanings shown herein. Refer to Chapter 2 of this code for general definitions.

CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEPHONE. A telephone with a dedicated line such as a house phone, courtesy phone or phone that must be used to gain entrance to a facility.

MAILBOXES. Receptacles for the receipt of documents, packages or other deliverable matter. Mailboxes include, but are not limited to, post office boxes and receptacles provided by commercial mail-receiving agencies, apartment houses and schools.

TRANSIENT LODGING. A building, facility or portion thereof, excluding inpatient medical care facilities and nursing homes, that contains one or more dwelling units or sleeping units occupied on a transient basis. Examples of transient lodging include, but are not limited to, group homes, hotels, homeless shelters, halfway houses and social service lodging. Transient lodging also includes housing at a place of education required to comply with Section 1107.6.2.3.

Transient lodging and assisted living facilities shall be provided with accessible features in accordance with Section E104.2. Group I-3 occupancies shall be provided with accessible features in accordance with Section E104.2.
Accessible communication features shall be provided in accordance with Sections E104.2.1 through E104.2.4.

In transient lodging and assisted living facilities, sleeping units with accessible communication features shall be provided in accordance with Table E104.2.1. Units required to comply with Table E104.2.1 shall be dispersed among the various classes of units.

TABLE E104.2.1

DWELLING OR SLEEPING UNITS WITH ACCESSIBLE COMMUNICATION FEATURES

TOTAL NUMBER OF DWELLING OR SLEEPING UNITS PROVIDED MINIMUM REQUIRED NUMBER OF DWELLING OR SLEEPING
UNITS WITH ACCESSIBLE COMMUNICATION FEATURES
1 1
2 to 25 2
26 to 50 4
51 to 75 7
76 to 100 9
101 to 150 12
151 to 200 14
201 to 300 17
301 to 400 20
401 to 500 22
501 to 1,000 5% of total
1,001 and over 50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000
At least one unit required to provide mobility features complying with Section 1107.5.1.1 or 1107.6.1.1 shall be used to satisfy the minimum number of units required to provide accessible communication features complying with Section E104.2.1. Not more than 10 percent of units required to provide mobility features complying with Section 1107.5.1.1 or 1107.6.1.1 shall be used to satisfy the minimum number of units required to provide accessible communication features complying with Section E104.2.1.
In Group I-3 occupancies at least 3 percent, but no fewer than one of the total number of general holding cells and general housing cells equipped with audible emergency alarm systems and permanently installed telephones within the cell, shall comply with Section E104.2.4. Cells shall be provided in each classification level.
Where dwelling units and sleeping units are altered or added, the requirements of Section E104.2 shall apply only to the units being altered or added until the number of units with accessible communication features complies with the minimum number required for new construction.
Visual notification devices shall be provided to alert room occupants of incoming telephone calls and a door knock or bell. Notification devices shall not be connected to visual alarm signal appliances. Permanently installed telephones shall have volume controls and an electrical outlet complying with ICC A117.1 located within 48 inches (1219 mm) of the telephone to facilitate the use of a TTY.

Where multiple single-user portable toilet or bathing units are clustered at a single location, at least 5 percent, but not less than one toilet unit or bathing unit at each cluster, shall be accessible. Signs containing the International Symbol of Accessibility shall identify accessible portable toilets and bathing units.

Exception: Portable toilet units provided for use exclusively by construction personnel on a construction site.

Where provided in spaces required to be accessible, washing machines and clothes dryers shall comply with this section.
Where three or fewer washing machines are provided, one or more shall be accessible. Where more than three washing machines are provided, two or more shall be accessible.
Where three or fewer clothes dryers are provided, one or more shall be accessible. Where more than three clothes dryers are provided, two or more shall be accessible.

Not fewer than one of each type of depository, vending machine, change machine and similar equipment shall be accessible. Two percent of gaming machines shall be accessible and provided with a front approach. Accessible gaming machines shall be distributed throughout the different types of gaming machines provided.

Exception: Drive-up-only depositories are not required to comply with this section.

Where mailboxes are provided in an interior location, 5 percent of the total, but not less than one, of each type shall be accessible. In residential and institutional facilities, where mailboxes are provided for each dwelling unit or sleeping unit, accessible mailboxes shall be provided for each unit required to be an Accessible unit.
Where automatic teller machines or self-service fare vending, collection or adjustment machines are provided, not fewer than one machine of each type at each location where such machines are provided shall be accessible. Where bins are provided for envelopes, wastepaper or other purposes, not fewer than one of each type shall be accessible.
Where two-way communication systems are provided to gain admittance to a building or facility or to restricted areas within a building or facility, the system shall be accessible.
Where coin-operated public pay telephones, coinless public pay telephones, public closed-circuit telephones, courtesy phones or other types of public telephones are provided, accessible public telephones shall be provided in accordance with Sections E106.2 through E106.5 for each type of public telephone provided. For purposes of this section, a bank of telephones shall be considered to consist of two or more adjacent telephones.

Where public telephones are provided, wheelchair-accessible telephones shall be provided in accordance with Table E106.2.

Exception: Drive-up-only public telephones are not required to be accessible.

TABLE E106.2

WHEELCHAIR-ACCESSIBLE TELEPHONES

NUMBER OF TELEPHONES
PROVIDED ON A FLOOR, LEVEL
OR EXTERIOR SITE
MINIMUM REQUIRED NUMBER OF
WHEELCHAIR-ACCESSIBLE
TELEPHONES
1 or more single unit 1 per floor, level and exterior site
1 bank 1 per floor, level and exterior site
2 or more banks 1 per bank
All public telephones provided shall have accessible volume control.
TTYs shall be provided in accordance with Sections E106.4.1 through E106.4.9.

Where four or more public pay telephones are provided at a bank of telephones, at least one public TTY shall be provided at that bank.

Exception: TTYs are not required at banks of telephones located within 200 feet (60 960 mm) of, and on the same floor as, a bank containing a public TTY.

Where four or more public pay telephones are provided on a floor of a privately owned building, one or more public TTY shall be provided on that floor. Where one public pay telephone or more, is provided on a floor of a publicly owned building, not fewer than one public TTY shall be provided on that floor.
Where four or more public pay telephones are provided in a privately owned building, one or more public TTY shall be provided in the building. Where at least one public pay telephone is provided in a publicly owned building, one or more public TTY shall be provided in the building.
Where four or more public pay telephones are provided on a site, one or more public TTY shall be provided on the site.
Where a public pay telephone is provided at a public rest stop, emergency road stop or service plaza, at least one public TTY shall be provided.
Where a public pay telephone is provided in or adjacent to a hospital emergency room, hospital recovery room or hospital waiting room, one or more public TTY shall be provided at each such location.
Transportation facilities shall be provided with TTYs in accordance with Sections E109.2.5 and E110.2 in addition to the TTYs required by Sections E106.4.1 through E106.4.4.
In detention and correctional facilities, where a public pay telephone is provided in a secured area used only by detainees or inmates and security personnel, then not fewer than one TTY shall be provided in not fewer than one secured area.
Public TTYs shall be identified by the International Symbol of TTY complying with ICC A117.1. Directional signs indicating the location of the nearest public TTY shall be provided at banks of public pay telephones not containing a public TTY. Additionally, where signs provide direction to public pay telephones, they shall provide direction to public TTYs. Such signs shall comply with visual signage requirements in ICC A117.1 and shall include the International Symbol of TTY.

Where a bank of telephones in the interior of a building consists of three or more public pay telephones, not fewer than one public pay telephone at the bank shall be provided with a shelf and an electrical outlet.

Exceptions:

  1. In secured areas of detention and correctional facilities, if shelves and outlets are prohibited for purposes of security or safety shelves and outlets for TTYs are not required to be provided.
  2. The shelf and electrical outlet shall not be required at a bank of telephones with a TTY.
Required accessible portable toilets and bathing facilities shall be identified by the International Symbol of Accessibility.

Interior and exterior signs identifying permanent rooms and spaces shall be visual characters, raised characters and braille complying with ICC A117.1. Where pictograms are provided as designations of interior rooms and spaces, the pictograms shall have visual characters, raised characters and braille complying with ICC A117.1.

Exceptions:

  1. Exterior signs that are not located at the door to the space they serve are not required to comply.
  2. Building directories, menus, seat and row designations in assembly areas, occupant names, building addresses and company names and logos are not required to comply.
  3. Signs in parking facilities are not required to comply.
  4. Temporary (seven days or less) signs are not required to comply.
  5. In detention and correctional facilities, signs not located in public areas are not required to comply.

Signs that provide direction to, or information about, permanent interior spaces of the site and facilities shall contain visual characters complying with ICC A117.1.

Exception: Building directories, personnel names, company or occupant names and logos, menus and temporary (seven days or less) signs are not required to comply with ICC A117.1.

Signage indicating special accessibility provisions shall be provided as follows:

  1. At bus stops and terminals, signage must be provided in accordance with Section E108.4.
  2. At fixed facilities and stations, signage must be provided in accordance with Sections E109.2.2 through E109.2.2.3.
  3. At airports, terminal information systems must be provided in accordance with Section E110.3.
Bus stops shall comply with Sections E108.2 through E108.5.
Bus boarding and alighting areas shall comply with Sections E108.2.1 through E108.2.4.
Bus boarding and alighting areas shall have a firm, stable surface.
Bus boarding and alighting areas shall have a clear length of 96 inches (2440 mm) minimum, measured perpendicular to the curb or vehicle roadway edge, and a clear width of 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum, measured parallel to the vehicle roadway.
Bus boarding and alighting areas shall be connected to streets, sidewalks or pedestrian paths by an accessible route complying with Section 1104.
Parallel to the roadway, the slope of the bus boarding and alighting area shall be the same as the roadway, to the maximum extent practicable. For water drainage, a maximum slope of 1:48 perpendicular to the roadway is allowed.
Where provided, new or replaced bus shelters shall provide a minimum clear floor or ground space complying with ICC A117.1, Section 305, entirely within the shelter. Such shelters shall be connected by an accessible route to the boarding area required by Section E108.2.

New bus route identification signs shall have finish and contrast complying with ICC A117.1. Additionally, to the maximum extent practicable, new bus route identification signs shall provide visual characters complying with ICC A117.1.

Exception: Bus schedules, timetables and maps that are posted at the bus stop or bus bay are not required to meet this requirement.

Bus stop sites shall be chosen such that, to the maximum extent practicable, the areas where lifts or ramps are to be deployed comply with Sections E108.2 and E108.3.
Fixed transportation facilities and stations shall comply with the applicable provisions of Section E109.2.
New stations in rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, high speed rail and other fixed guideway systems shall comply with Sections E109.2.1 through E109.2.8.
Where different entrances to a station serve different transportation fixed routes or groups of fixed routes, at least one entrance serving each group or route shall comply with Section 1104.
Signage in fixed transportation facilities and stations shall comply with Sections E109.2.2.1 through E109.2.2.3.

Where signs are provided at entrances to stations identifying the station or the entrance, or both, at least one sign at each entrance shall be raised characters and braille. A minimum of one raised character and braille sign identifying the specific station shall be provided on each platform or boarding area. Such signs shall be placed in uniform locations at entrances and on platforms or boarding areas within the transit system to the maximum extent practicable.

Exceptions:

  1. Where the station does not have a defined entrance but signs are provided, the raised characters and braille signs shall be placed in a central location.
  2. Signs are not required to be raised characters and braille where audible signs are remotely transmitted to hand-held receivers, or are user or proximity actuated.
Stations covered by this section shall have identification signs containing visual characters complying with ICC A117.1. Signs shall be clearly visible and within the sightlines of a standing or sitting passenger from within the train on both sides when not obstructed by another train.
Lists of stations, routes and destinations served by the station that are located on boarding areas, platforms or mezzanines shall provide visual characters complying with ICC A117.1. Signs covered by this provision shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be placed in uniform locations within the transit system.
Self-service fare vending, collection and adjustment machines shall comply with ICC A117.1, Section 707. Where self-service fare vending, collection or adjustment machines are provided for the use of the general public, at least one accessible machine of each type provided shall be provided at each accessible point of entry and exit.

Station platforms shall be positioned to coordinate with vehicles in accordance with the applicable provisions of 36 CFR, Part 1192. Lowlevel platforms shall be 8 inches (250 mm) minimum above top of rail.

Exception: Where vehicles are boarded from sidewalks or street level, low-level platforms shall be permitted to be less than 8 inches (250 mm).

Where a public pay telephone is provided in a transit facility (as defined by the Department of Transportation), at least one public TTY complying with ICC A117.1, Section 704.4, shall be provided in the station. In addition, where one or more public pay telephones serve a particular entrance to a transportation facility, at least one TTY telephone complying with ICC A117.1, Section 704.4, shall be provided to serve that entrance.

Where a circulation path serving boarding platforms crosses tracks, an accessible route shall be provided.

Exception: Openings for wheel flanges shall be permitted to be 21/2 inches (64 mm) maximum.

Where public address systems convey audible information to the public, the same or equivalent information shall be provided in a visual format.
Where clocks are provided for use by the general public, the clock face shall be uncluttered so that its elements are clearly visible. Hands, numerals and digits shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. Where clocks are mounted overhead, numerals and digits shall comply with visual character requirements.
New construction of airports shall comply with Sections E110.2 through E110.4.
Where public pay telephones are provided, at least one TTY shall be provided in compliance with ICC A117.1, Section 704.4. Additionally, if four or more public pay telephones are located in a main terminal outside the security areas, a concourse within the security areas or a baggage claim area in a terminal, at least one public TTY complying with ICC A117.1, Section 704.4, shall also be provided in each such location.
Where terminal information systems convey audible information to the public, the same or equivalent information shall be provided in a visual format.
Where clocks are provided for use by the general public, the clock face shall be uncluttered so that its elements are clearly visible. Hands, numerals and digits shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. Where clocks are mounted overhead, numerals and digits shall comply with visual character requirements.
Construction in the public way shall comply with regulations adopted by the Commissioner of Transportation.
DOJ 36 CFR Part 1192 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles (ADAAG). Washington, DC: Department of Justice, 1991 E109.2.4

APPENDICES F Through R [Reserved]

14B-36-3600 The provisions of Appendices A, B, C, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M and N of IBC are not adopted.

Added Coun. J. 4-10-19, p. 100029.

Editor's Note—Coun J. 4-10-19, p. 100029, Art. III, did not provide for Appendices O through R.

Appendix S Optional Smoke Control Systems

Editor's Note—Appendix S is substantially based on Section 909 of the IBC. Readers may wish to refer to the Commentary for Section 909 of the IBC to better understand the provisions of Appendix S.

14B-36-3619 The following language is adopted as a new Appendix S:

Added Coun. J. 4-10-19, p. 100029.

Amended Coun. J. 10-7-20, p. 21791.

This appendix applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems where they are installed. Where smoke control systems are proposed as an alternative to other requirements of this code, they shall be approved by the Committee on Standards and Tests in accordance with Section 1004 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions. The purpose of this appendix is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of operations or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this appendix serve a different purpose than the smoke- and heat-removal provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the Chicago Mechanical Code.
Buildings, structures or parts thereof required by this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section S101 and the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to adequately describe the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied by sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.
In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements that buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section S101 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms in Section 1704.
A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, their methods of operation, the systems supporting them and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the submitted construction documents and shall include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections S101.4.1 through S101.4.7.
The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used.
Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section S101.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities.
The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind-loading provisions of Chapter 16.
The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the HVAC systems.
The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage.
All portions of active or engineered smoke control systems shall be capable of continued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress time, whichever is greater.
The design shall consider the interaction effects of the operation of multiple smoke control systems for all design scenarios.

Smoke barriers required for passive smoke control and a smoke control system using the pressurization method shall comply with Section 709. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:

  1. Walls A/Aw = 0.00100
  2. Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw = 0.00035
  3. Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150
  4. Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050

where:

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m2).

AF = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).

Aw = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to gaps around doors and operable windows. The total leakage area of the smoke barrier shall be determined in accordance with Section S101.5.1 and tested in accordance with Section S101.5.2.

Total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps around doors and operable windows.
Compliance with the maximum total leakage area shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems utilizing the pressurization method. Compliance with the maximum total leakage area of passive smoke control systems shall be verified through methods such as door fan testing or other methods, as approved by the fire code official.

Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 716.

Exceptions:

  1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
  2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.
  3. In Group I-1, Condition 2; Group I-2; and ambulatory care facilities, where a pair of opposite-swinging doors are installed across a corridor in accordance with Section S101.5.3.1, the doors shall not be required to be protected in accordance with Section 716. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have a center mullion or undercuts in excess of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm), louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops and astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and, where permitted by the door manufacturer's listing, positive-latching devices are not required.
  4. In Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where such doors are special-purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies installed in accordance with Section 1010.1.4.3 and are automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.2.6.5.
  5. Group I-3.
  6. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.
In Group I-1, Condition 2; Group I-2; and ambulatory care facilities, where doors are installed across a corridor, the doors shall be automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.2.6.5 and shall have a vision panel with fire-protection-rated glazing materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested.
Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper complying with Section 717.
The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke control zone of fire origin.

The pressure difference across a smoke barrier used to separate smoke zones shall be not less than 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.

In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences not less than two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.

The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1010.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:


(Equation S-1)

where:

A = Door area, square feet (m2).

d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).

F = Total door opening force, pounds (N).

Fdc = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).

K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).

W = Door width, feet (m).

ΔP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).

Where stairways or elevator hoistways are pressurized, such pressurization systems shall comply with Section S101 as smoke control systems, in addition to the requirements of Sections S101.20 of this code and the entire Chicago Fire Prevention Code.

 

Where approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. Smoke control systems using the airflow method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92.
This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. Airflow toward the fire shall not exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). Where the calculated airflow exceeds this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.
Where approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92.
The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above a walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone.
The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section S101.4 and this section.
The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady.
Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing and configuration.
The analysis shall make use of best available data and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material.
A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation.
Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers, shall be suitable for its intended use and suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates.

Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:


(Equation S-2)

where:

c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, Btu/lb°F (kJ/kg • K).

m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).

Qc = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).

Ta = Ambient temperature, °F (K).

Ts = Smoke temperature, °F (K).

Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.

Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section S101.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the Chicago Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.

Exception: Flexible connections, for the purpose of vibration isolation, complying with the Chicago Mechanical Code and that are constructed of fire-resistance-rated materials.

Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard.
Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of recognized standards.

In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty, with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer's fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 16.

Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts), as determined from measurement of actual current draw, and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.

Smoke control systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 2702.
The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Elements of the smoke control system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke control system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means.
Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override and the presence of power downstream of all disconnects. A preprogrammed weekly test sequence shall report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. The preprogrammed weekly test shall operate all devices, equipment and components used for smoke control.

Exception: Where verification of individual components tested through the preprogrammed weekly testing sequence will interfere with, and produce unwanted effects to, normal building operation, such individual components are permitted to be bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly testing, where approved by the fire code official and in accordance with both of the following:

  1. Where the operation of components is bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test, presence of power downstream of all disconnects shall be verified weekly by a listed control unit.
  2. Testing of all components bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test shall be in accordance with the Chicago Fire Prevention Code.
In addition to meeting requirements of the Chicago Electrical Code, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.
Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section.
Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control.
Passive smoke control systems actuated by spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted.
Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls provided with ready access for the fire department and any smoke detectors required by engineering analysis.
Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action.

Control-air tubing shall be hard-drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B42, ASTM B43, ASTM B68, ASTM B88, ASTM B251 and ASTM B280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type in accordance with ASME B16.18 or ASME B16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP-5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquids below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices provided that all of the following conditions are met:

  1. Tubing shall comply with the requirements of the Chicago Mechanical Code.
  2. Tubing and connected devices shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No. 22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or Teflon or by suitable brass compression to male barbed adapter.
  3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.
  4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within the enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinets and doors or moveable devices shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing connected to devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.
Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system.
Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices.
The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses and terminations.
Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the fire code official.
A fire fighter's smoke control panel for fire department emergency response purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be part of the fire command center in high-rise buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other buildings, the fire fighter's smoke control panel shall be installed in a location adjacent to the fire alarm control panel. The fire fighter's smoke control panel shall comply with Sections S101.16.1 through S101.16.3.

Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire fighter's control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone, and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:

  1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status—WHITE.
  2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status—RED.
  3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status—GREEN.
  4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status—YELLOW/AMBER.

The fire fighter's control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke control system equipment within the building as follows:

  1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.
  2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are controlled from other sources within the building.
  3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire fighter's control panel.

Exceptions:

  1. Complex systems, where approved, where the controls and indicators are combined to control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit.
  2. Complex systems, where approved, where the control is accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands.

The fire fighter's control panel actions shall be as follows:

  1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire fighter's control panel, automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall not contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment including, but not limited to, duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices, such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire fighter's control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire fighter's control panel switch position shall prevail. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

    Exception: Power disconnects required by the Chicago Electrical Code.

  2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire fighter's control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire fighter's control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described in Section S101.16.1. Where directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.
Smoke-control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes of smoke control, the fire fighter's control panel response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action initiated from any other building control point. The total response time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The system response time for each component and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis and verification of their installed condition reported in the required final report.
Devices, equipment, components and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, where applicable, capacity of their installed condition.
Smoke or fire detectors that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. Where applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.
Ducts that are part of a smoke control system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to determine actual air quantities.
Dampers shall be tested for function in their installed condition.
Inlets and outlets shall be read using generally accepted practices to determine air quantities.
Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute (rpm) and belt tension shall be made.
Measurements using inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring devices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for each possible smoke control condition.
Each smoke zone equipped with an automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by the actuation of one such device. Each additional device within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the fire fighter's control panel and simulation of standby power conditions.
Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector in accordance with Section 1705.18.

Testing shall be conducted in accordance with the following:

  1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.
  2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.
Approved agencies for smoke control testing shall have expertise in fire protection engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air balancers.
A complete report of testing shall be prepared by the approved agency. The report shall include identification of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, measured values and identification tag or mark. The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered design professional and, when satisfied that the design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered design professional shall sign, seal and date the report.
A copy of the final report shall be filed with the fire code official and an identical copy shall be maintained in the building.
Charts, drawings and other documents identifying and locating each component of the smoke control system, and describing its proper function and maintenance requirements, shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the report required by Section S101.18.8.3. Devices shall have an identifying tag or mark on them consistent with the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by whom.
Where provided, a smokeproof enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with this section. A smokeproof enclosure shall consist of an interior exit stairway or ramp that is enclosed in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 1023 and an open exterior balcony or ventilated vestibule meeting the requirements of this section. Where access to the roof is required by the Chicago Fire Prevention Code, such access shall be from the smokeproof enclosure where a smokeproof enclosure is required.
Access to the stairway or ramp shall be by way of a vestibule or an open exterior balcony. The minimum dimension of the vestibule shall be not less than the required width of the corridor leading to the vestibule but shall not have a width of less than 44 inches (1118 mm) and shall not have a length of less than 72 inches (1829 mm) in the direction of egress travel.
The smokeproof enclosure shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Openings are not permitted other than the required means of egress doors. The vestibule shall be separated from the stairway or ramp by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The open exterior balcony shall be constructed in accordance with the fire-resistance rating requirements for floor assemblies.
Doors in a smokeproof enclosure shall be self- or automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 716.2.6.6 and shall be installed at the floor-side entrance to the smokeproof enclosure. The actuation of the smoke detector on any door shall activate the closing devices on all doors in the smokeproof enclosure at all levels. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
The provisions of Sections S101.20.3.1 through S101.20.3.3 shall apply to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by natural means.
Where access to the stairway or ramp is by way of an open exterior balcony, the door assembly into the enclosure shall be a fire door assembly in accordance with Section 716.
Where access to the stairway or ramp is by way of a vestibule, the door assembly into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly complying with Section 716. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairway shall have not less than a 20-minute fire protection rating complying with Section 716.
Each vestibule shall have a minimum net area of 16 square feet (1.5 m2) of opening in a wall facing an outer court, yard or public way that is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in width.
The provisions of Sections S101.20.4.1 through S101.20.4.4 shall apply to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by mechanical means.
The door assembly from the building into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly complying with Section 716.2.2.1. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairway or ramp shall not have less than a 20-minute fire protection rating and shall meet the requirements for a smoke door assembly in accordance with Section 716.2.2.1. The door shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 105.
The vestibule shall be supplied with not less than one air change per minute and the exhaust shall be not less than 150 percent of supply. Supply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge from the vestibule through separate, tightly constructed ducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter the vestibule within 6 inches (152 mm) of the floor level. The top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top of the smoke trap but not more than 6 inches (152 mm) down from the top of the trap, and shall be entirely within the smoke trap area. Doors in the open position shall not obstruct duct openings. Duct openings with controlling dampers are permitted where necessary to meet the design requirements, but dampers are not otherwise required.
Where a specially engineered system is used, the system shall exhaust a quantity of air equal to not less than 90 air changes per hour from any vestibule in the emergency operation mode and shall be sized to handle three vestibules simultaneously. Smoke detectors shall be located at the floor-side entrance to each vestibule and shall activate the system for the affected vestibule. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
The vestibule ceiling shall be not less than 20 inches (508 mm) higher than the door opening into the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and to provide an upward-moving air column. The height shall not be decreased unless approved and justified by design and test.
The stairway or ramp shaft shall be provided with a dampered relief opening and supplied with sufficient air to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) in the shaft relative to the vestibule with all doors closed.
Where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the vestibule is not required, provided that each interior exit stairway or ramp is pressurized to not less than 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and not more than 0.35 inches of water (87 Pa) in the shaft relative to the building measured with all interior exit stairway and ramp doors closed under maximum anticipated conditions of stack effect and wind effect.
The activation of ventilating equipment required by the alternatives in Sections S101.20.4 and S101.20.5 shall be by smoke detectors installed at each floor level and at each entrance to the smokeproof enclosure. When the closing device for the stairway and ramp shaft and vestibule doors is activated by smoke detection or power failure, the mechanical equipment shall activate and operate at the required performance levels. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.3.

Smokeproof enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent of other building ventilation systems. The equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall comply with one of the following:

  1. Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located exterior to the building and directly connected to the smokeproof enclosure or connected to the smokeproof enclosure by ductwork enclosed by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
  2. Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located within the smokeproof enclosure with intake or exhaust directly from and to the outside or through ductwork enclosed by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
  3. Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located within the building if separated from the remainder of the building, including other mechanical equipment, by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

Exceptions:

  1. Control wiring and power wiring located outside of a 2-hour fire barrier construction shall be protected using any one of the following methods:

    1. 1.1. Cables used for survivability of required critical circuits shall be listed in accordance with UL 2196 and shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
    2. 1.2. Where encased with not less than 2 inches (51 mm) of concrete.
    3. 1.3. Electrical circuit protective systems shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. Electrical circuit protective systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements.
Mechanical vestibule and stairway and ramp shaft ventilation systems and automatic fire detection systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 2702.
Before the mechanical equipment is put into operation, the system shall be tested in the presence of the fire code official to confirm that the system is operating in compliance with these requirements.
Where elevator hoistway pressurization is provided in lieu of required enclosed elevator lobbies, the pressurization system shall comply with Sections S101.21.1 through S101.21.11.

Elevator hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to adjacent occupied space on all floors. This pressure shall be measured at the midpoint of each hoistway door, with all elevator cars at the floor of recall and all hoistway doors on the floor of recall open and all other hoistway doors closed. The pressure differentials shall be measured between the hoistway and the adjacent elevator landing. The opening and closing of hoistway doors at each level must be demonstrated during this test. The supply air intake shall be from an outside, uncontaminated source located a minimum distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) from any air exhaust system or outlet.

Exceptions:

  1. On floors containing only Group R occupancies, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and a dwelling unit or sleeping unit.
  2. Where an elevator opens into a lobby enclosed in accordance with Section 3007.6 or 3008.6, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and the space immediately outside the door(s) from the floor to the enclosed lobby.
  3. The pressure differential is permitted to be measured relative to the outdoor atmosphere on floors other than the following:

    1. 3.1. The fire floor.
    2. 3.2. The two floors immediately below the fire floor.
    3. 3.3. The floor immediately above the fire floor.
  4. The minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to occupied floors are not required at the floor of recall with the doors open.
Ventilation systems, other than hoistway supply air systems, are permitted to be used to exhaust air from adjacent spaces on the fire floor, two floors immediately below and one floor immediately above the fire floor to the building's exterior where necessary to maintain positive pressure relationships as required in Section S101.21.1 during operation of the elevator shaft pressurization system.
A rational analysis complying with Section S101.4 shall be submitted with the construction documents.
Any duct system that is part of the pressurization system shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating as required for the elevator shaft enclosure.
The fan system provided for the pressurization system shall be as required by Sections S101.21.4.1 through S101.21.4.4.
Where located within the building, the fan system that provides the pressurization shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating required for the elevator shaft enclosure.
The fan system shall be equipped with a smoke detector that will automatically shut down the fan system when smoke is detected within the system.
A separate fan system shall be used for each elevator hoistway.
The supply fan shall be either adjustable with a capacity of not less than 1,000 cfm (0.4719 m3/s) per door, or that specified by a registered design professional to meet the requirements of a designed pressurization system.
The pressurization system shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 2702.
The elevator pressurization system shall be activated upon activation of either the building fire alarm system or the elevator lobby smoke detectors. Where both a building fire alarm system and elevator lobby smoke detectors are present, each shall be independently capable of activating the pressurization system.
Testing for performance shall be required in accordance with Section S101.18.8. System acceptance shall be in accordance with Section S101.19.
Detection and control systems shall be marked in accordance with Section S101.14.
Control diagrams shall be provided in accordance with Section S101.15.
A control panel complying with Section S101.16 shall be provided.
Hoistway pressurization systems shall comply with the requirements for smoke control system response time in Section S101.17.
Smoke control systems shall be maintained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capable of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Sections S101.22.1 through S101.22.6.
A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated immediately after the smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established.
Records of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained. The record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced.
Operational testing of the smoke control system shall include all equipment such as initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows.
Dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence semiannually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.
Nondedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence annually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.
Where components of the smoke control system are bypassed by the preprogrammed weekly test required by Section S101.12.1, such components shall be tested semiannually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.
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