Editor's Note—The title of this chapter was modified by Coun. J. 4-10-19, p. 100029.
14B-2-201 The provisions of Section 201 of IBC are not adopted. The following language is adopted as Section 201:
Added Coun. J. 4-10-19, p. 100029.
14B-2-202 The provisions of Section 202 of IBC are adopted by reference with the following modifications:
Added Coun. J. 4-10-19, p. 100029.
Amended Coun. J. 2-19-20, p. 14474.
Amended Coun. J. 10-7-20, p. 21791.
24-HOUR BASIS. The actual time that a person is an occupant within a facility for the purpose of receiving care. It shall not include a facility that is open for 24 hours and is capable of providing care to someone visiting the facility during any segment of the 24 hours.
ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. A continuous, unobstructed path that complies with Chapter 11 connecting all accessible elements and spaces of a building or facility. Interior accessible routes may include corridors, floors, ramps, elevators, lifts, skywalks, tunnels and clear floor space at fixtures. Exterior accessible routes may include parking access aisles, curb ramps, crosswalks at vehicular ways, pedestrian walkways, ramps, and lifts.
ACCREDITATION BODY. A third-party organization that is independent of the grading and inspection agencies, and the lumber mills, and that initially accredits and subsequently monitors, on a continuing basis, the competency and performance of a grading or inspection agency related to carrying out specific tasks.
ADAPTABILITY or ADAPTABLE (for Chapter 11). The ability of certain building spaces and elements, such as cabinetry, countertops, sinks and grab bars, to be added or altered so as to accommodate the needs of individuals with different types or degrees of disability.
ADAPTABLE DWELLING UNIT (for Chapter 11). A dwelling unit constructed and equipped so it can be converted with minimal structural change for use by persons with different types or degrees of disability.
AFFORDABLE UNIT (for Chapter 11). A dwelling unit or sleeping unit required to be affordable, as that term is defined in Chapter 2-44 of the Municipal Code, pursuant to Chapter 2-44 of the Municipal Code, an agreement between the owner and the City, or an agreement between the owner and another governmental entity.
AGGREGATE. In roofing, crushed stone, crushed slag or water-worn gravel used for surfacing for roof coverings.
AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public.
AIR-IMPERMEABLE INSULATION. An insulation having an air permeance equal to or less than 0.02 l/s × m2 at 75 pa pressure differential tested in accordance with ASTM E2178 or ASTM E283.
AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. A structure that uses air-pressurized membrane beams, arches or other elements to enclose space. Occupants of such a structure do not occupy the pressurized area used to support the structure.
AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure wherein the shape of the structure is attained by air pressure and occupants of the structure are within the elevated pressure area. Air-supported structures are of two basic types:
Single skin. Where there is only the single outer skin and the air pressure is directly against that skin.
ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire.
ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal.
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. A method of proportioning structural members, such that elastically computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable stresses (also called "working stress design").
ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on the same level at the same time.
AMBULATORY CARE FACILITY. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or similar care on a less than 24-hour basis to persons who are rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.
ANNULAR SPACE. The opening around the penetrating item.
ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in which each indication provides status information about a circuit, condition or location.
APPROVED. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
APPROVED AGENCY. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
ASSEMBLY SEATING, MULTILEVEL. See "Multilevel assembly seating."
ASSISTIVE LISTENING SYSTEM (ALS). An amplification system using transmitters, receivers and coupling devices to bypass the acoustical space between a sound source and a listener by means of induction loop, radio frequency, infrared or direct-wired equipment.
ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories, other than enclosed stairways, ramps, elevator hoistways, escalators or plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equipment shafts, which is closed at the top. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include interior balconies within assembly occupancies, mezzanines that comply with Section 505 or lofts that comply with Section 1207.5.
ATTIC. The unfinished space between the ceiling framing of the highest story that contains occupiable space and the underside of the roof structure. An attic with a clear height of 81 inches (2057 mm) or more between the top of the ceiling framing and underside of the roof structure shall be considered an additional story.
AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing.
AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a device or system providing an emergency function without the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or combustion products.
AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space with detectors to provide early warning of fire.
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.
AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM. A system consisting of a water supply, a pressure source and a distribution piping system with attached nozzles, which, at or above a minimum operating pressure defined by its listing, discharges water in fine droplets meeting the requirements of NFPA 750 for the purpose of the control, suppression or extinguishment of a fire. Such systems include wet-pipe, dry-pipe and preaction types. The systems are designed as engineered, preengineered, local-application or total-flooding systems.
AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever time period is less.
AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is partially or wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight frame structure over which a covering is attached.
BALANCED DOOR. A door equipped with double-pivoted hardware so designed as to cause a semicounterbalanced swing action when opening.
BALLAST. In roofing, ballast comes in the form of large stones or paver systems or light-weight interlocking paver systems and is used to provide uplift resistance for roofing systems that are not adhered or mechanically attached to the roof deck.
BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial barrier.
Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment a minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm).
BED-AND-BREAKFAST ESTABLISHMENT. An entire owner-occupied building, with not more than four stories above grade plane, or an owner-occupied dwelling unit containing 11 or fewer guest rooms that are regularly made available for rent or for hire on a transient basis.
BRACED WALL PANEL. A full-height section of wall constructed to resist in-plane shear loads through interaction of framing members, sheathing material and anchors. The panel's length meets the requirements of its particular bracing method and contributes toward the total amount of bracing required along its braced wall line.
Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). A pressed and subsequently autoclaved unit that consists of sand and lime, with or without the inclusion of other materials.
BUILDING ELEMENT. A fundamental component of building construction, listed in Table 601, which may or may not be of fire-resistance-rated construction and is constructed of materials based on the building type of construction.
BUILDING-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC ROOF PANEL (BIPV ROOF PANEL). A photovoltaic panel that functions as a component of the building envelope.
BUILDING OFFICIAL. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral aggregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material.
CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure in which the uplift is resisted by cables or webbings which are anchored to either foundations or dead men. Reinforcing cable or webbing is attached by various methods to the membrane or is an integral part of the membrane. This is not a cable-supported structure.
CANOPY. A permanent structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identity or decoration. A canopy is permitted to be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one or more sides.
CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. A system supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pressurized vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism.
CARBON MONOXIDE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm intended to detect carbon monoxide gas and alert occupants by a distinct audible signal. It incorporates a sensor, control components and an alarm notification appliance in a single unit.
CARE SUITE. In Group I-2 occupancies, a group of treatment rooms, care recipient sleeping rooms and the support rooms or spaces and circulation space within the suite where staff are in attendance for supervision of all care recipients within the suite, and the suite is in compliance with the requirements of Section 407.4.4.
CARPORT. A structure or portion of a structure that is open on at least two sides and in which not more than five motor vehicles used by the occupants of the building or buildings on the premises are stored or kept.
CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. A listed device installed in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly to limit automatically the radiative heat transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening. Ceiling radiation dampers include air terminal units, ceiling dampers and ceiling air diffusers.
CEMENT PLASTER. A mixture of Portland or blended cement, Portland cement or blended cement and hydrated lime, masonry cement or plastic cement and aggregate and other approved materials as specified in this code.
CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. A high-temperature mineral wool insulation material made of alumina-silica ceramic or calcium magnesium silicate soluble fibers and weighing 4 to 10 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (64 to 160 kg/m3).
CHICAGO BUILDING CODE. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CHICAGO BUILDING REHABILITATION CODE. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CHICAGO CONSTRUCTION CODES. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CHICAGO CONSTRUCTION CODES ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS. Title 14A of the Municipal Code.
CHICAGO CONVEYANCE DEVICE CODE. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CHICAGO ELECTRICAL CODE. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CHICAGO ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CHICAGO FIRE PREVENTION CODE. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CHICAGO FUEL GAS CODE. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CHICAGO MECHANICAL CODE. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CHICAGO PLUMBING CODE. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CHICAGO ZONING ORDINANCE. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical structure containing one or more flues, for the purpose of carrying gaseous products of combustion and air from a fuel-burning appliance to the outdoor atmosphere.
High-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, high-heat appliances producing combustion gases in excess of 2000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance flue outlet (see Section 2113.11.3).
Low-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, low-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1000°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 1400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for periods up to 1 hour. Temperatures shall be measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Medium-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, medium-heat appliances producing combustion gases not exceeding 2000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance flue outlet (see Section 2113.11.2).
CIRCULATION PATH. An exterior or interior way of passage from one place to another for pedestrians.
CIRCULATION PATH (for Chapter 11). An exterior or interior way of passage provided for pedestrian travel including but not limited to: pedestrian walkways, hallways, courtyards, elevators, platform lifts, ramps, stairways and landings.
CITY DATUM. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon vaporation.
COLLECTOR. A horizontal diaphragm element parallel and in line with the applied force that collects and transfers diaphragm shear forces to the vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system or distributes forces within the diaphragm, or both.
COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon the detection of heat and resist the passage of flame and smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.
COMBINED PILE RAFT. A geotechnical composite construction that combines the bearing effect of both foundation elements, raft and piles, by taking into account interactions between the foundation elements and the subsoil.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE. A motor vehicle used to transport passengers or property where the motor vehicle meets one of the following:
COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of exit access travel distance measured from the most remote point of each room, area or space to that point where the occupants have separate and distinct access to two exits or exit access doorways or to an exterior exit door at the level of exit discharge.
COMMON USE AREAS or COMMON AREAS (for Chapter 11). Areas, including interior and exterior rooms, spaces or elements, that are held out for use by all tenants and owners in public facilities and multi-story housing, including but not limited to: residents of an apartment building or condominium complex, occupants of an office building or the guests of such residents or occupants. Common use areas or common areas include but are not limited to lobbies, elevators, hallways, laundry rooms, swimming pools, storage rooms, recreation areas, parking garages, building offices, conference rooms, patios, restrooms, telephones, drinking fountains, restaurants, cafeterias, delicatessens and stores.
Lightweight aggregate. Concrete made with aggregates of expanded clay, shale, slag or slate or sintered fly ash or any natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and weighing 85 to 115 pcf (1360 to 1840 kg/m3).
Perlite. A lightweight insulating concrete having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3) made with perlite concrete aggregate. Perlite aggregate is produced from a volcanic rock which, when heated, expands to form a glass-like material of cellular structure.
Sand-lightweight. Concrete made with a combination of expanded clay, shale, slag, slate, sintered fly ash, or any natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and natural sand. Its unit weight is generally between 105 and 120 pcf (1680 and 1920 kg/m3).
Siliceous aggregate. Concrete made with normal-weight aggregates consisting mainly of silica or compounds other than calcium or magnesium carbonate, which contains more than 40-percent quartz, chert or flint.
Vermiculite. A light weight insulating concrete made with vermiculite concrete aggregate which is laminated micaceous material produced by expanding the ore at high temperatures. When added to a Portland cement slurry the resulting concrete has a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3).
CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or other emergency services.
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions. Also see "Permitted construction documents."
CONSTRUCTION TYPES. See Section 602.
Type I. See Section 602.2.
Type II. See Section 602.2.
Type III. See Section 602.3.
Type IV. See Section 602.4.
Type V. See Section 602.5.
CONTINUOUS INSULATION (ci). Insulating material that is continuous across all structural members without thermal bridges other than fasteners and service openings. It is installed on the interior or exterior, or is integral to any opaque surface of the building envelope.
CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled. See the definition of "Outdoor control area" in the Chicago Fire Prevention Code.
CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL. A self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill in place of compacted fill.
CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. Construction whose primary structural elements are formed by a system of repetitive wood-framing members. See Section 2308 for conventional light-frame construction provisions.
CORRIDOR DAMPER. A listed device intended for use where air ducts penetrate or terminate at horizontal openings in the ceilings of fire-resistance-rated corridors, where the corridor ceiling is permitted to be constructed as required for the corridor walls.
CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when exposed to its environment.
CRITICAL CIRCUIT. A circuit that requires continuous operation to ensure safety of the structure and occupants.
CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER. A prefabricated engineered wood product consisting of not less than three layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber where the adjacent layers are cross oriented and bonded with structural adhesive to form a solid wood element.
CUSTODIAL CARE. Assistance with day-to-day living tasks; such as assistance with cooking, taking medication, bathing, using toilet facilities and other tasks of daily living. Custodial care includes persons receiving care who have the ability to respond to emergency situations and evacuate at a slower rate and/or who have mental and psychiatric complications.
DEAD LOAD. The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and the weight of fixed service equipment, such as cranes, plumbing stacks and risers, electrical feeders, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and automatic sprinkler systems.
DECORATIVE GLAZING. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or glazing material whose purpose is decorative or artistic, not functional; whose coloring, texture or other design qualities or components cannot be removed without destroying the glazing material and whose surface, or assembly into which it is incorporated, is divided into segments.
DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other effect including, but not limited to, curtains, draperies, fabrics and streamers; and all other materials utilized for decorative effect including, but not limited to, bulletin boards, artwork, posters, photographs, batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items, foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials do not include wall coverings, ceiling coverings, floor coverings, ordinary window shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate.
DEFEND-IN-PLACE. A method of emergency response that engages building components and trained staff to provide occupant safety during an emergency. Emergency response involves remaining in place, relocating within the building, or both, without evacuating the building.
DEFERRED SUBMITTAL. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto.
DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1905.1.1.
DESIGN PROFESSIONAL, REGISTERED. See "Registered design professional."
DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN RESPONSIBLE CHARGE, REGISTERED. See "Registered design professional in responsible charge."
DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. Those nonstructural components that require design in accordance with Chapter 13 of ASCE 7 and for which the component importance factor, Ip, is greater than 1 in accordance with Section 13.1.3 of ASCE 7.
DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use of hazardous materials and located an acceptable distance from all other structures.
DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat—either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both.
DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or sloped system acting to transmit lateral forces to vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system. When the term "diaphragm" is used, it shall include horizontal bracing systems.
Diaphragm boundary. In light-frame construction, a location where shear is transferred into or out of the diaphragm sheathing. Transfer is either to a boundary element or to another force-resisting element.
Diaphragm, unblocked. A diaphragm that has edge nailing at supporting members only. Blocking between supporting structural members at panel edges is not included. Diaphragm panels are field nailed to supporting members.
Nominal. The specified dimension plus an allowance for the joints with which the units are to be laid. Nominal dimensions are usually stated in whole numbers. Thickness is given first, followed by height and then length.
DISABILITY (for Chapter 11). A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; or a record or history of such an impairment; or regarded as having such an impairment.
DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere.
DOOR, LOW-ENERGY POWER-OPERATED. See "Low-energy power-operated door."
DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group or household.
DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics.
DRAG STRUT. See "Collector."
DRILLED SHAFT. A cast-in-place deep foundation element, also referred to as a caisson, drilled pier or bored pile, constructed by drilling a hole (with or without permanent casing or drilling fluid) into soil or rock and filling it with fluid concrete after the drilling equipment is removed.
DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added particulate material supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities.
EAVE HEIGHT. The vertical distance from the ground surface adjacent to the building to the roof eave line at a particular wall. If the vertical distance varies along the wall, eave height shall be the average height.
ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE SYSTEM. A specific construction of devices, materials, or coatings installed as a fire-resistive barrier system applied to electrical system components, such as cable trays, conduits and other raceways, open run cables and conductors, cables, and conductors.
ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a building located adjacent or directly across from one another that responds to common hall call buttons.
EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM. A source of automatic electric power of a required capacity and duration to operate required life safety, fire alarm, detection and ventilation systems in the event of a failure of the primary power. Emergency power systems are required for electrical loads where interruption of the primary power could result in loss of human life or serious injuries.
EMPLOYEE WORK AREA. All or any portion of a space used only by employees and only for work. Corridors, toilet rooms, bathing rooms, locker rooms, kitchenettes and break rooms are not employee work areas.
ENGINEERED WOOD RIM BOARD. A full-depth structural composite lumber, wood structural panel, structural glued laminated timber or prefabricated wood I-joist member designed to transfer horizontal (shear) and vertical (compression) loads, provide attachment for diaphragm sheathing, siding and exterior deck ledgers, and provide lateral support at the ends of floor or roof joists or rafters.
ENTRANCE (for Chapter 11). Any access point to a building or portion of a building or facility or multi-story housing used for entering. An entrance includes the approach pedestrian walkway, the vertical access leading to the entrance platform, the entrance platform itself, vestibule, if provided, the entry door or gate and the hardware of the entry door or gate.
EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated platform used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, including the associated elevated walkways, stairways, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to access the platform (see Section 505.3).
EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system between the exit access and the exit discharge or public way. Exit components include exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge, interior exit stairways and ramps, exit passageways, exterior exit stairways and ramps and horizontal exits.
EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access point along the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor, exit access stairway or ramp.
EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to an exit or to the exit discharge.
EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. Wall covering consisting of a woven textile backing, an expanded vinyl base coat layer and a nonexpanded vinyl skin coat. The expanded base coat layer is a homogeneous vinyl layer that contains a blowing agent. During processing, the blowing agent decomposes, causing this layer to expand by forming closed cells. The total thickness of the wall covering is approximately 0.055 inch to 0.070 inch (1.4 mm to 1.78 mm).
EXTERIOR BALCONY. An exterior floor structure, other than an occupiable rooftop, that is attached to the exterior wall of a building, with all means of egress requiring travel through the building, and that is open to the atmosphere on at least one side.
EXTERIOR EXIT RAMP. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and is open to yards, courts or public ways.
EXTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and is open to yards, courts or public ways.
EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS). EIFS are nonstructural, nonload-bearing, exterior wall cladding systems that consist of an insulation board attached either adhesively or mechanically, or both, to the substrate; an integrally reinforced base coat and a textured protective finish coat.
EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. An EIFS that incorporates a means of drainage applied over a water-resistive barrier.
EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that is used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than a fire wall, and that has a slope of 60 degrees (1.05 rad) or greater with the horizontal plane.
EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. A material or assembly of materials applied on the exterior side of exterior walls for the purpose of providing a weather-resisting barrier, insulation or for aesthetics, including but not limited to, veneers, siding, exterior insulation and finish systems, architectural trim and embellishments such as cornices, soffits, facias, gutters and leaders.
EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. A system or assembly of exterior wall components, including exterior wall finish materials, that provides protection of the building structural members, including framing and sheathing materials, and conditioned interior space, from the detrimental effects of the exterior environment.
FABRIC PARTITION. A partition consisting of a finished surface made of fabric, without a continuous rigid backing, that is directly attached to a framing system in which the vertical framing members are spaced greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center.
FABRICATED ITEM. Structural, load-bearing or lateral load-resisting members or assemblies consisting of materials assembled prior to installation in a building or structure, or subjected to operations such as heat treatment, thermal cutting, cold working or reforming after manufacture and prior to installation in a building or structure. Materials produced in accordance with standards referenced by this code, such as rolled structural steel shapes, steel reinforcing bars, masonry units and wood structural panels, or in accordance with a referenced standard that provides requirements for quality control done under the supervision of a third-party quality control agency, are not "fabricated items."
FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility and related research and development areas in which there are processes using hazardous production materials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to the fabrication area processes.
FENESTRATION. Products classified as either vertical fenestration or skylights and sloped glazing, installed in such a manner as to preserve the weather-resistant barrier of the wall or roof in which they are installed. Fenestration includes products with glass or other transparent or translucent materials.
FENESTRATION, VERTICAL. Windows that are fixed or movable, opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combination opaque and glazed doors installed in a wall at less than 15 degrees from the vertical.
FIBER-CEMENT (BACKER BOARD, SIDING, SOFFIT, TRIM AND UNDERLAYMENT) PRODUCTS. Manufactured thin section composites of hydraulic cementitious matrices and discrete nonasbestos fibers.
FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER. A polymeric composite material consisting of reinforcement fibers, such as glass, impregnated with a fiber-binding polymer which is then molded and hardened. Fiber-reinforced polymers are permitted to contain cores laminated between fiber-reinforced polymer facings.
FIBERBOARD. A fibrous, homogeneous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers (usually wood or cane) and having a density of less than 31 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (497 kg/m3) but more than 10 pcf (160 kg/m3).
FIRE ALARM BOX, CITY. See "City fire alarm box."
FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See "Manual fire alarm box."
FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices and may be capable of supplying power to detection devices and transponders or off-premises transmitters. The control unit may be capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification appliances and transfer of condition to relays or devices.
FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic fire detector, waterflow switch or other device whose activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combination system consisting of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate response to those signals.
FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or horizontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor next above.
FIRE CODE OFFICIAL. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or unattended location where the status of detection, alarm communications and control systems is displayed, and from which the systems can be manually controlled.
FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detection of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are classified for use in either static systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow.
FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action.
FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are protected.
FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an opening protective will maintain the ability to confine a fire as determined by tests specified in Section 716. Ratings are stated in hours or minutes.
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof.
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a building element, component or assembly maintains the ability to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on tests, prescribed in Section 703.
FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, tested and fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E1966 or UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated assemblies.
FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for occupants or to control the spread of harmful effects of fire.
FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof, with sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall.
FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. A window constructed and glazed to give protection against the passage of fire.
FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the firebox and the smoke chamber.
FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services, such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and flight instruction.
FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface.
FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. A combination of a fire door, a frame, hardware and other accessories installed in a horizontal plane, which together provide a specific degree of fire protection to a through-opening in a fire-resistance-rated floor (see Section 7220.127.116.11).
FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. A plastic that is intentionally expanded by the use of a foaming agent to produce a reduced-density plastic containing voids consisting of open or closed cells distributed throughout the plastic for thermal insulating or acoustical purposes and that has a density less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m3).
FOUNDATION PIER (for Chapter 21). An isolated vertical foundation member whose horizontal dimension measured at right angles to its thickness does not exceed three times its thickness and whose height is equal to or less than four times its thickness.
FUEL CELL POWER SYSTEM, STATIONARY. A stationary energy-generation system that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and oxidant to electric energy (DC or AC electricity) by an electrochemical process.
GAMING. To deal, operate, carry on, conduct, maintain or expose for play any game played with cards, dice, equipment or any mechanical, electromechanical or electronic device or machine for money, property, checks, credit or any representative of value except where occurring at private home or operated by a charitable or educational organization.
GAMING AREA. Single or multiple areas of a building or facility where gaming machines or tables are present and gaming occurs, including but not limited to, primary casino gaming areas, VIP gaming areas, high-roller gaming areas, bar tops, lobbies, dedicated rooms or spaces such as in retail or restaurant establishments, sports books and tournament areas.
GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combination system that utilizes one or more stationary sensors to detect the presence of a specified gas at a specified concentration and initiate one or more responses required by this code, such as notifying a responsible person, activating an alarm signal, or activating or deactivating equipment. A self-contained gas detection and alarm device is not classified as a gas detection system.
GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and supplies are stored or used.
GLASS FIBERBOARD. Fibrous glass roof insulation consisting of inorganic glass fibers formed into rigid boards using a binder. The board has a top surface faced with asphalt and kraft reinforced with glass fiber.
GOVERNMENTAL UNIT. State agencies, as defined in the State Auditing Act, 30 ILCS 5/, circuit courts, units of local government and their officers, boards of election commissioners, public colleges and universities and school districts.
GRADE (LUMBER). The classification of lumber in regard to strength and utility in accordance with American Softwood Lumber Standard DOC PS 20 and the grading rules of an approved lumber rules-writing agency.
GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening.
GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located at or near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to a lower level.
GYPSUM BOARD. The generic name for a family of sheet products consisting of a noncombustible core primarily of gypsum with paper surfacing. Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheathing, gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum soffit board, predecorated gypsum board and water-resistant gypsum backing board complying with the standards listed in Tables 2506.2, 2507.2 and Chapter 35 are types of gypsum board.
GYPSUM PANEL PRODUCT. The general name for a family of sheet products consisting essentially of gypsum.
HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for recreation, working, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, incidental storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.
HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.
HELICAL PILE. Manufactured steel deep foundation element consisting of a central shaft and one or more helical bearing plates. A helical pile is installed by rotating it into the ground. Each helical bearing plate is formed into a screw thread with a uniform defined pitch.
HELIPAD. A structural surface that is used for the landing, taking off, taxiing and parking of helicopters.
HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or intended for use, for heliport buildings or other heliport facilities.
HIGHER EDUCATION LABORATORY. Laboratories in Group B occupancies used for educational purposes above the 12th grade. Storage, use and handling of chemicals in such laboratories shall be limited to purposes related to testing, analysis, teaching, research or developmental activities on a nonproduction basis.
HIGH-PRESSURE DECORATIVE EXTERIOR-GRADE COMPACT LAMINATE (HPL). Panels consisting of layers of cellulose fibrous material impregnated with thermosetting resins and bonded together by a high-pressure process to form a homogeneous nonporous core suitable for exterior use.
HIGH-PRESSURE DECORATIVE EXTERIOR-GRADE COMPACT LAMINATE (HPL) SYSTEM. An exterior wall covering fabricated using HPL in a specific assembly including joints, seams, attachments, substrate, framing and other details as appropriate to a particular design.
HORIZONTAL EXIT. An exit component consisting of fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives intended to compartmentalize portions of a building thereby creating refuge areas that afford safety from the fire and smoke from the area of fire origin.
HOSPITALS AND PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. Facilities that provide care or treatment for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, or surgical treatment of care recipients who are incapable of self-preservation.
HOTEL. A building kept, used, maintained as, advertised or held out to the public to be an inn, hotel, motel, family hotel, apartment hotel, boarding house, lodging house, dormitory or other place where sleeping or rooming accommodations are furnished for hire or rent on a transient basis, either with or without meals, excluding bed-and-breakfast establishments.
ICE-SENSITIVE STRUCTURE. A structure for which the effect of an atmospheric ice load governs the design of a structure or portion thereof. This includes, but is not limited to, lattice structures, guyed masts, overhead lines, light suspension and cable-stayed bridges, aerial cable systems (e.g., for ski lifts or logging operations), amusement rides, open catwalks and platforms, flagpoles and signs.
ILLINOIS ACCESSIBILITY CODE. Rules adopted by the State of Illinois pursuant to the Environmental Barriers Act, 410 ILCS 25.
INCAPABLE OF SELF-PRESERVATION. Persons who, because of age, physical limitations, mental limitations, chemical dependency or medical treatment, cannot respond as an individual to an emergency situation.
INTERIOR EXIT RAMP. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to the exit discharge or public way.
INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to the exit discharge or public way.
INTERIOR SURFACES. Surfaces other than weather exposed surfaces.
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The exposed interior surfaces of buildings, including but not limited to: fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room privacy partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, paneling or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation, structural fire resistance or similar purposes, but not including trim.
INTUMESCENT FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. Thin film liquid mixture applied to substrates by brush, roller, spray or trowel which expands into a protective foamed layer to provide fire-resistant protection of the substrates when exposed to flame or intense heat.
JOINT. The opening in or between adjacent assemblies that is created due to building tolerances, or is designed to allow independent movement of the building in any plane caused by thermal, seismic, wind or any other loading.
LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer that contains the name of the manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics of the product or material and the name and identification of an approved agency, and that indicates that the representative sample of the product or material has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency (see Section 1703.5, "Manufacturer's designation" and "Mark").
LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which has been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, approved agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LABORATORY SUITE. A fire-rated, enclosed laboratory area providing one or more laboratory spaces within a Group B educational occupancy that includes ancillary uses such as offices, bathrooms and corridors that are contiguous with the laboratory area, and are constructed in accordance with Section 428.
LIGHT-DIFFUSING SYSTEM. Construction consisting in whole or in part of lenses, panels, grids or baffles made with light-transmitting plastics positioned below independently mounted electrical light sources, skylights or light-transmitting plastic roof panels. Lenses, panels, grids and baffles that are part of an electrical fixture shall not be considered as a light-diffusing system.
LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. Structural plastic panels other than skylights that are fastened to structural members, or panels or sheathing and that are used as light-transmitting media in the plane of the roof.
LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. Plastic materials that are fastened to structural members, or to structural panels or sheathing, and that are used as light-transmitting media in exterior walls.
LIMIT STATE. A condition beyond which a structure or member becomes unfit for service and is judged to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state).
LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the building official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LIVE LOAD. A load produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure that does not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load.
LIVE LOAD, ROOF. A load on a roof produced:
LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). A method of proportioning structural members and their connections using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to appropriate load combinations. The term "LRFD" is used in the design of steel and wood structures.
LOAD FACTOR. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual load from the nominal load, for uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the probability that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously.
LOADS. Forces or other actions that result from the weight of building materials, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movement and restrained dimensional changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small magnitude, such as dead loads. All other loads are variable loads (see "Nominal loads").
LOT. As defined in Chapter 17-17 of the Chicago Zoning Ordinance.
LOT LINE. See "Property line."
LOT OF RECORD. See "Lot."
LOW-ENERGY POWER-OPERATED DOOR. A swinging, sliding or folding door that opens automatically upon an action by a pedestrian such as pressing a push plate or waving a hand in front of a sensor. The door closes automatically, and operates with decreased forces and decreased speeds (see "Power-assisted door" and "Power-operated door").
LOW-SLOPED ROOF. A roof with a slope of less than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17 percent slope).
MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. An assemblage of structural elements assigned to provide support and stability for the overall structure. The system generally receives wind loading from more than one surface.
MAILBOXES (for Chapter 11). Receptacles for the receipt of documents, packages or other deliverable matter. Mailboxes include, but are not limited to, post office boxes and receptacles provided by commercial mail-receiving agencies, apartment facilities or schools.
MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a product or material complies with a specified standard or set of rules (see "Label" and "Mark").
MARQUEE. A canopy that has a top surface which is sloped less than 25 degrees from the horizontal and is located less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from operable openings above or adjacent to the level of the marquee.
MASONRY. A built-up construction or combination of building units or materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum, stone or other approved units bonded together with or without mortar or grout or other accepted methods of joining.
MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupiable space in a building or structure to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge.
MEANS OF EGRESS (for Chapter 11). A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any point in a building or facility that provides an accessible route to an area of refuge, a horizontal exit, or a public way.
MEAN ROOF HEIGHT. The average of the eave height and the vertical distance from grade plane to the highest point for the highest roof surface, except that for roof slopes of less than 10 percent, the mean roof height is permitted to be taken as the eave height.
MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing parking machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public occupancy is prohibited above the street level.
MEDICAL CARE. Care involving medical or surgical procedures, nursing or for psychiatric purposes.
MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE. A nonpressurized structure in which a mast and cable system provides support and tension to the membrane weather barrier and the membrane imparts stability to the structure.
MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE. A nonpressurized building wherein the structure is composed of a rigid framework to support a tensioned membrane which provides the weather barrier.
MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A material, device or construction installed to resist for a prescribed time period the passage of flame and heat through openings in a protective membrane in order to accommodate cables, cable trays, conduit, tubing, pipes or similar items.
MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An assemblage consisting of a fire-resistance-rated floor-ceiling, roof-ceiling or wall assembly, one or more penetrating items installed into or passing through the breach in one side of the assembly and the materials or devices, or both, installed to resist the spread of fire into the assembly for a prescribed period of time.
MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for display of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as nonfixed and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions as indicated in Section 105.2 from which customers browse or shop.
METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM) SYSTEM. An exterior wall covering fabricated using MCM in a specific assembly including joints, seams, attachments, substrate, framing and other details as appropriate to a particular design.
METAL ROOF PANEL. An interlocking metal sheet having a minimum installed weather exposure of 3 square feet (0.279 m2) per sheet.
METAL ROOF SHINGLE. An interlocking metal sheet having an installed weather exposure less than 3 square feet (0.279 m2) per sheet.
MINERAL FIBER. Insulation composed principally of fibers manufactured from rock, slag or glass, with or without binders.
MINERAL WOOL. Synthetic vitreous fiber insulation made by melting predominately igneous rock or furnace slag, and other inorganic materials, and then physically forming the melt into fibers.
MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. One or more layers of polymer-modified asphalt sheets. The sheet materials shall be fully adhered or mechanically attached to the substrate or held in place with an approved ballast layer.
MULTILEVEL ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating that is arranged in distinct levels where each level is comprised of either multiple rows, or a single row of box seats accessed from a separate level.
MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate. A multiple-station alarm device can consist of one single-station alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire alarm box.
MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes the appropriate alarm signal to operate in all interconnected alarms.
MULTI-STORY HOUSING (for Chapter 11). Any building of four or more stories containing ten or more dwelling units or sleeping units constructed to be held out for sale or lease by any person to the public. Multi-story housing includes, but is not limited to, the following building types: apartment buildings, condominium buildings, convents, housing for the elderly and monasteries.
NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the following species except for the occasional piece with corner sapwood, provided 90 percent or more of the width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood.
Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black walnut.
Termite resistant. Redwood, Alaska yellow cedar, Eastern red cedar and Western red cedar.
NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER). The commercial size designation of width and depth, in standard sawn lumber and glued-laminated lumber grades; somewhat larger than the standard net size of dressed lumber, in accordance with DOCPS 20 for sawn lumber and with the ANSI/AWC NDS for glued-laminated lumber.
NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. A membrane structure in which the membrane and all component parts of the structure are noncombustible.
NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)].
NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be determined.
OCCUPIABLE SPACE. A room or enclosed space intended for human occupancy in which individuals reside; congregate for amusement, education or similar purposes; or are engaged at labor, and which is required to be equipped with means of egress and light and ventilation facilities by this code. All habitable spaces are occupiable spaces. A space which is only required by this code to be provided with means of access by maintenance and service personnel is not an occupiable space.
OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.5.2 on two or more sides that is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.5.3.
ORTHOGONAL. To be in two horizontal directions, at 90 degrees (1.57 rad) to each other.
OWNER. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
PARTICLEBOARD. A generic term for a panel primarily composed of cellulosic materials (usually wood), generally in the form of discrete pieces or particles, as distinguished from fibers. The cellulosic material is combined with synthetic resin or other suitable bonding system by a process in which the interparticle bond is created by the bonding system under heat and pressure.
PERMIT. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
PERMITTED CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
PERSON. As defined in Section 1-4-090 of the Municipal Code.
PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emitting light that continues for a length of time after excitation by visible or invisible light has been removed.
PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL. A collection of modules mechanically fastened together, wired and designed to provide a field-installable unit.
PLACE OF RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. See "Religious worship, place of."
PLASTIC, APPROVED. Any thermoplastic, thermosetting or reinforced thermosetting plastic material that conforms to combustibility classifications specified in the section applicable to the application and plastic type.
PLASTIC GLAZING. Plastic materials that are glazed or set in a frame or sash.
PLASTIC LUMBER. A manufactured product made primarily of plastic materials (filled or unfilled) which is generally rectangular in cross section.
PLATFORM. A raised area used for worship; the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers and speakers; boxing and wrestling rings; theater-in-the-round; and similar purposes wherein, other than horizontal sliding curtains, there are no overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or theatrical effects other than lighting and sound.
PORCELAIN TILE. Tile that conforms to the requirements of ANSI A137.1.3, Section 3.0 for ceramic tile having an absorption of 0.5 percent or less in accordance with ANSI A137.1, Section 4.1 and Section 6.1 Table 10.
PORCH. An unheated roofed or covered structure, containing a stairway used for ingress and egress and additional floor space, that is separated from heated areas of the building by a fire-resistance rated exterior wall and unprotected openings.
POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in which consideration has been made for all loading deflections of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation.
POWER-ASSISTED DOOR. Swinging door which opens by reduced pushing or pulling force on the door-operating hardware. The door closes automatically after the pushing or pulling force is released and functions with decreased forces. See "Low-energy power-operated door" and "Power-operated door."
POWER-OPERATED DOOR. Swinging, sliding, or folding door which opens automatically when approached by a pedestrian or opens automatically upon an action by a pedestrian. The door closes automatically and includes provisions such as presence sensors to prevent entrapment. See "Low energy power-operated door" and "Power-assisted door."
PREFABRICATED WOOD I-JOIST. Structural member manufactured using sawn or structural composite lumber flanges and wood structural panel webs bonded together with exterior exposure adhesives, which forms an "I" cross-sectional shape.
PRIVATE GARAGE. A building or portion of a building in which not more than five motor vehicles used by the occupants of the building or buildings on the premises are stored or kept, without provisions for repairing or servicing such vehicles for profit, inclusive of any attached enclosed walkway.
PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. See "Hospitals."
PUBLIC (for Chapter 11). Any group of people who are users of the building or employees of the building. The term "public" does not include those people who are employed by the owner of a building for the sole purpose of construction or alteration of a building during the time in which the building is being constructed or altered.
RADIANT BARRIER. A material having a low-emittance surface of 0.1 or less installed in building assemblies.
RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope).
RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing a series of continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power from and to the street level.
REFLECTIVE PLASTIC CORE INSULATION. An insulation material packaged in rolls, that is less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) thick, with not less than one exterior low-emittance surface (0.1 or less) and a core material containing voids or cells.
REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
REGISTERED GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
REPAIR GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof used for servicing or repairing motor vehicles.
RESTRICTED ENTRANCE. An entrance that is made available for common use on a controlled basis, but not public use, and that is not a service entrance. Such entrances shall include, but are not limited to, employee-only entrances.
RISK-TARGETED MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE (MCER) GROUND MOTION RESPONSE ACCELERATIONS. The most severe earthquake effects considered by this code, determined for the orientation that results in the largest maximum response to horizontal ground motions and with adjustment for targeted risk.
ROOF ASSEMBLY (For application to Chapter 15 only). A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly can include an underlayment, a thermal barrier, insulation or a vapor retarder.
ROOF DECK. The flat or sloped surface constructed on top of the exterior walls of a building or other supports for the purpose of enclosing the story below, or sheltering an area, to protect it from the elements, not including its supporting members or vertical supports.
ROOF DRAINAGE, POSITIVE. See "Positive roof drainage."
ROOF VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, attics, cathedral ceilings or other enclosed spaces over which a roof assembly is installed.
SALLYPORT. A security vestibule with two or more doors or gates where the intended purpose is to prevent continuous and unobstructed passage by allowing the release of only one door or gate at a time.
SCAFFOLDING. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. That part of the structural system that has been considered in the design to provide the required resistance to the prescribed seismic forces.
SELF-PRESERVATION, INCAPABLE OF. See "Incapable of self-preservation."
SELF-SERVICE STORAGE FACILITY. Real property designed and used for the purpose of renting or leasing individual storage spaces to customers for the purpose of storing and removing personal property on a self-service basis.
SHINGLE FASHION. A method of installing roof or wall coverings, water-resistive barriers, flashing or other building components such that upper layers of material are placed overlapping lower layers of material to provide for drainage via gravity and moisture control.
SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE. A roofing membrane that is field applied using one layer of membrane material (either homogeneous or composite) rather than multiple layers.
SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, the control equipment and the alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.
SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof.
SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Unit skylights, tubular daylighting devices, glazing materials, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls are included in this definition.
SLEEPING UNIT. A single unit that provides rooms or spaces for one or more persons, includes permanent provisions for sleeping and can include provisions for living, eating and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are part of a dwelling unit occupied by a single household are not sleeping units.
SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.
SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.
SMOKE PARTITION. A wall assembly that extends from the top of the foundation or floor below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above or to the underside of the ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed to limit the transfer of smoke.
SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E84.
SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway or ramp designed and constructed so that the movement of the products of combustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building into the enclosure is limited.
SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumulation within or under a structure for a specified design time by means of passive design or by mechanical ventilation.
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A special amusement building is any temporary or permanent building or portion thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or educational purposes and that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction so arranged that the means of egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or is intentionally confounded or is not readily available because of the nature of the attraction or mode of conveyance through the building or structure.
SPECIAL INSPECTION. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
SPECIAL INSPECTOR. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY, f´m. Minimum compressive strength, expressed as force per unit of net cross-sectional area, required of the masonry used in construction by the permitted construction documents, and upon which the project design is based. Whenever the quantity f´m is under the radical sign, the square root of numerical value only is intended and the result has units of pounds per square inch (psi) (MPa).
SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. Cementitious or fibrous materials that are sprayed to provide fire-resistant protection of the substrates.
STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers.
STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another.
STANDBY POWER SYSTEM. A source of automatic electric power of a required capacity and duration to operate required building, hazardous materials or ventilation systems in the event of a failure of the primary power. Standby power systems are required for electrical loads where interruption of the primary power could create hazards or hamper rescue or fire-fighting operations.
STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows:
Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a device, such as dry pipe valve, to admit water into the system piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.
Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water supply that is capable of supplying the system demand automatically.
Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire department connection in order to meet the system demand.
Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the system but does not have a water supply capable of delivering the system demand attached to the system. Manual-wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to meet the system demand.
Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a remote control device located at a hose connection. A remote control activation device shall be provided at each hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.
STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe classes are as follows:
Class II system. A system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the building occupants or by the fire department during initial response.
Class III system. A system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants and 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger volume of water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.
START OF CONSTRUCTION. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD-FORMED. That type of construction made up entirely or in part of steel structural members cold formed to shape from sheet or strip steel such as roof deck, floor and wall panels, studs, floor joists, roof joists and other structural elements.
STEEL ELEMENT, STRUCTURAL. Any steel structural member of a building or structure consisting of rolled shapes, pipe, hollow structural sections, plates, bars, sheets, rods or steel castings other than cold-formed steel or steel joist members.
STEEL JOIST. Any steel structural member of a building or structure made of hot-rolled or cold-formed solid or open-web sections, or riveted or welded bars, strip or sheet steel members, or slotted and expanded, or otherwise deformed rolled sections.
STEEP SLOPE. A roof slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope).
STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials in closed containers, tanks, cylinders, or similar vessels; or vessels supplying operations through closed connections to the vessel.
STORAGE RACKS. Cold-formed or hot-rolled steel structural members which are formed into steel storage racks, including pallet storage racks, movable-shelf racks, rack-supported systems, automated storage and retrieval systems (stacker racks), push-back racks, pallet-flow racks, case-flow racks, pick modules and rack-supported platforms. Other types of racks, such as drive-in or drive-through racks, cantilever racks, portable racks or racks made of materials other than steel, are not considered storage racks for the purpose of this code.
STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above (see "Attic," "Basement," "Building height," "Grade plane," "Loft" and "Mezzanine").
For purposes of Chapters 16 and 23, a story is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.
Nominal strength. The capacity of a structure or member to resist the effects of loads, as determined by computations using specified material strengths and dimensions and equations derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of scaled models, allowing for modeling effects and differences between laboratory and field conditions.
Strength design. A method of proportioning structural members such that the computed forces produced in the members by factored loads do not exceed the member design strength [also called "load and resistance factor design" (LRFD)]. The term "strength design" is used in the design of concrete and masonry structural elements.
Laminated strand lumber (LSL). A composite of wood strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member, where the least dimension of the wood strand elements is 0.10 inch (2.54 mm) or less and their average lengths not less than 150 times the least dimension of the wood strand elements.
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). A composite of wood veneer sheet elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member, where the veneer element thicknesses are 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) or less.
Oriented strand lumber (OSL). A composite of wood strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member, where the least dimension of the wood strand elements is 0.10 inches (2.54 mm) or less and their average lengths not less than 75 times and less than 150 times the least dimension of the strand elements.
Parallel strand lumber (PSL). A composite of wood strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member where the least dimension of the wood strand elements is 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) or less and their average lengths not less than 300 times the least dimension of the wood strand elements.
STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. An engineered, stress-rated product of a timber laminating plant, comprised of assemblies of specially selected and prepared wood laminations in which the grain of all laminations is approximately parallel longitudinally and the laminations are bonded with adhesives.
STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.
SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An initiation device, such as a valve supervisory switch, water-level indicator or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler system, whose change of state signals an off-normal condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety system, or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fire suppression systems or equipment or maintenance features of related systems.
SUSCEPTIBLE BAY. A roof or portion thereof with either of the following:
A roof surface with a slope of 1/4-inch per foot (0.0208 rad) or greater towards points of free drainage is not a susceptible bay.
SWIMMING POOL. Any structure intended for swimming, recreational bathing or wading that contains water over 24 inches (610 mm) deep. This includes in-ground, above-ground and on-ground pools; hot tubs; spas and fixed-in-place wading pools.
T RATING. The time period that the penetration firestop system, including the penetrating item, limits the maximum temperature rise to 325°F (163°C) above its initial temperature through the penetration on the nonfire side when tested in accordance with ASTM E814 or UL 1479.
TECHNICAL PRODUCTION AREA. Open elevated areas or spaces intended for entertainment technicians to walk on and occupy for servicing and operating entertainment technology systems and equipment. Galleries, including fly and lighting galleries, gridirons, catwalks, and similar areas are designed for these purposes.
TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT AREA. An area or enclosed room within a building where electronic equipment used for the transmission of audio, video and data, power equipment (e.g., dc converters, inverters and batteries), technical support equipment (e.g., computers) and conductors dedicated solely to the operation of the equipment are located, including support rooms served by the same ventilation system.
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE. A building or portion of a building that primarily houses communications switching equipment and that is owned or operated by a person whose primary business is the providing of communication services other than radio or television.
TEMPORARY. As defined in Chapter 2 of the Chicago Construction Codes Administrative Provisions.
TEMPORARY (for Chapter 11). A building or element of a building which is not permanent and is designed to be used only for a short period of time for some special purpose. Temporary buildings or facilities include, but are not limited to, reviewing stands, temporary classrooms, bleacher areas, stages, platforms and daises, fixed furniture systems, wall systems, exhibit areas, temporary banking facilities and temporary health screening facilities.
TEMPORARY OVERNIGHT SHELTER. A building, or portion thereof, in which sleeping accommodations are provided for no more than 12 hours per day, for three or more individuals who are not related to the owner, operator, manager or other occupants by blood or by marriage, without provisions for medical care.
TENSILE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. A membrane structure having a shape that is determined by tension in the membrane and the geometry of the support structure. Typically, the structure consists of both flexible elements (e.g., membrane and cables), nonflexible elements (e.g., struts, masts, beams and arches) and the anchorage (e.g., supports and foundations). This includes frame-supported tensile membrane structures.
TENT. A structure, enclosure, umbrella structure or shelter, with or without sidewalls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material supported in any manner except by air or the contents it protects (see "Umbrella structure").
THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. A plastic material that is capable of being repeatedly softened by increase of temperature and hardened by decrease of temperature.
THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. A plastic material that is capable of being changed into a substantially nonreformable product when cured.
THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An assemblage consisting of a fire-resistance-rated floor, floor-ceiling, or wall assembly, one or more penetrating items passing through the breaches in both sides of the assembly and the materials or devices, or both, installed to resist the spread of fire through the assembly for a prescribed period of time.
TOWNHOUSE. A dwelling unit constructed in a group of four or more attached dwelling units in which each dwelling unit extends from the foundation or a horizontal assembly with a fire-resistance rating of not less than 4 hours to the roof and with a public way, yard or outer court on at least two sides.
TREATED WOOD. Wood products that are conditioned to enhance fire-retardant or preservative properties.
Fire-retardant-treated wood. Wood products that, when impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process or other means during manufacture, exhibit reduced surface-burning characteristics and resist propagation of fire.
Preservative-treated wood. Wood products that, conditioned with chemicals by a pressure process or other means, exhibit reduced susceptibility to damage by fungi, insects or marine borers.
TUBULAR DAYLIGHTING DEVICE (TDD). A non-operable fenestration unit primarily designed to transmit daylight from a roof surface to an interior ceiling via a tubular conduit. The basic unit consists of an exterior glazed weathering surface, a light-transmitting tube with a reflective interior surface, and an interior-sealing device such as a translucent ceiling panel. The unit can be factory assembled, or field-assembled from a manufactured kit.
TYPE B UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit designed and constructed for accessibility in accordance with this code and the provisions for Type B units in ICC A117.1, consistent with the design and construction requirements of the federal Fair Housing Act.
VAPOR PERMEABLE. The property of having a moisture vapor permeance rating of 5 perms (2.9 × 10-10 kg/Pa × s × m2) or greater, when tested in accordance with the desiccant method using Procedure A of ASTM E96. A vapor permeable material permits the passage of moisture vapor.
VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of a material or assembly's ability to limit the amount of moisture that passes through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class shall be defined using the desiccant method with Procedure A of ASTM E96 as follows:
VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight.
WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively as a pedestrian trafficway.
Cavity wall. A wall built of masonry units or of concrete, or a combination of these materials, arranged to provide an airspace within the wall, and in which the inner and outer parts of the wall are tied together with metal ties.
Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall. A wall built of concrete masonry units where the units are stacked dry, without mortar on the bed or head joints, and where both sides of the wall are coated with a surface-bonding mortar.
WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. A material behind an exterior wall covering that is intended to resist liquid water that has penetrated behind the exterior covering from further intruding into the exterior wall assembly.
WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A solution of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potassium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, forming an extinguishing agent.
WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM, MAIN. See "Main windforce-resisting system."
WIND SPEED, V. Basic design wind speeds.
WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges.
WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid of wire.
WOOD/PLASTIC COMPOSITE. A composite material made primarily from wood or cellulose-based materials and plastic.
WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured from veneers, wood strands or wafers or a combination of veneer and wood strands or wafers bonded together with waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. Examples of wood structural panels are:
Oriented strand board (OSB). A mat-formed wood structural panel comprised of thin rectangular wood strands arranged in cross-aligned layers with surface layers normally arranged in the long panel direction and bonded with waterproof adhesive.
WORK-AREA EQUIPMENT. Any machine, instrument, engine, motor, pump, conveyor or other apparatus used to perform work. This term shall only apply to equipment that is permanently installed or built-in in employee work areas. Work-area equipment does not include passenger elevators and other accessible means of vertical transportation.
WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent principal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serving a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and other processing and scientific equipment.
ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of control can be executed.
ZONING LOT. See "Lot."
14B-2-203 The following language is adopted as a new Section 203:
Added Coun. J. 4-10-19, p. 100029.
Amended Coun J. 7-24-19, p. 3647.
Amended Coun. J. 2-19-20, p. 14474.
With respect to each building, grade plane shall be a reference plane representing the average finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the property line or, where the property line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) horizontally from the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1829 mm) horizontally from the building.
Building area shall be the sum of the horizontal area included within surrounding exterior walls, or exterior walls and fire walls, exclusive of courts, for each story above grade plane and the horizontal area of mezzanines, equipment platforms and lofts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls, such as patios and exterior balconies, shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof, floor or walking surface above. The floor area of basements shall be included in building area where required by Section 506.1.3.