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|Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)||X||X|
|Adopt only those sections that are listed below|
|Chapter / Section|
The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.
State of California amendments in these sections are shown in italics and underlined.
- Structures regulated by the Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety (DSA-SS), which include those applications listed in Section 22.214.171.124. These applications include public elementary and secondary schools, community colleges and state-owned or state-leased essential services buildings.
- Applications listed in Sections 1.10.1, and 1.10.4, regulated by the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). These applications include hospitals and correctional treatment centers.
- The specified compressive strength of concrete at the stated ages or stages of construction for which each concrete element is designed.
- The specified strength or grade of reinforcement.
- The size and location of structural elements, reinforcement and anchors.
- Provision for dimensional changes resulting from creep, shrinkage and temperature.
- The magnitude and location of prestressing forces.
- Anchorage length of reinforcement and location and length of lap splices.
- Type and location of mechanical and welded splices of reinforcement.
- Details and location of contraction or isolation joints specified for plain concrete.
- Minimum concrete compressive strength at time of posttensioning.
- Stressing sequence for posttensioning tendons.
- For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F, a statement if slab on grade is designed as a structural diaphragm.
- Openings larger than 12 inches (305 mm) in any dimension shall be detailed on the structural drawings.
- Normal weight aggregate: Aggregate shall be nonreactive as determined by one of the methods in ASTM C33 Appendix XI: Methods for Evaluating Potential for Deleterious Expansion Due to Alkali Reactivity of an Aggregate. Aggregates deemed to be deleterious or potentially deleterious may be used with the addition of a material that has been shown to prevent harmful expansion in accordance with Appendix XI of ASTM C33, when approved by the building official.
The maximum percentage of pozzolans, including fly ash and silica fume, and slag cement in concrete assigned to all exposure categories shall be in accordance with Table 126.96.36.199(b) and Section 188.8.131.52(b) Items (1) and (2).
Subject to prior approval of the enforcing agency, longitudinal holding wires, conforming to ASTM A1064 of maximum wire size W5, that are machine resistance welded to stirrup/tie cage (or spiral assemblies) consisting of low alloy steel reinforcing conforming to ASTM A706 are permitted when performed under continuous competent control in a fabrication shop. Tack welding of primary reinforcing bars together or to stirrups/ties is not permitted. Holding wire weld locations shall not occur on any longitudinal or primary reinforcing nor on any portion of a reinforcing bar that is or will be bent in accordance with ACI 318 Section 25.3 for the extents specified in AWS D1.4 Section 4.2.6.
[DSA-SS] Exception: Mat reinforcing for slabs or isolated footings shall be permitted to have holding wires located no more than six bar diameters from the free end of reinforcing. Such free ends shall not be associated with any welded splices, couplers, or other free-end modifications involving reinforcement development.
Quality control tests shall be performed on shop-welded specimens by the fabricator. Reinforcing steel specimens containing the holding wire shall be tested for yield and tensile strength at the frequency required by Section 1910A.2. Test reports shall be available on request to the approved agency, design professional and enforcement agency.
Where prestressed concrete elements are restrained from movement, an analysis of the stresses in the prestressed elements and loads in the adjoining structural system induced by the above-described effects shall be made in accordance with PCI Design Handbook.
For prestressed concrete members with recessed or dapped ends, an analysis of the connections shall be made in accordance with procedures given in PCI Design Handbook.
This section shall not be used for members that resist seismic loads, except that reinforcement provided for foundation elements for one-story wood-frame or one-story light steel buildings need not be more than one-third greater than that required by analysis for all loading conditions.
184.108.40.206 — Walls shall be anchored to intersecting elements such as floors or roofs; or to columns, pilasters, buttresses, of intersecting walls and footings with reinforcement at least equivalent to No. 4 bars at 12 inches (305 mm) on center for each layer of reinforcement.
11.7.6 — Reinforcement. Perimeters of precast walls shall be reinforced continuously with a minimum of one No. 5 bar extending the full height and width of the wall panel. Where wall panels do not connect to columns or other wall panels to develop at least 75 percent of the horizontal wall steel as noted below, vertical perimeter bars shall be retained by hooked wall bars.
A continuous tie or bond beam shall be provided at the roof line either as a part of the roof structure or part of the wall panels as described in the next paragraph below. This tie may be designed as the edge member of the roof diaphragm but, in any case, shall not be less than equivalent to two No. 6 bars continuous. A continuous tie equivalent to two No. 5 bars minimum shall also be provided either in the footing or with an enlarged section of the floor slab.
Wall panels of shear wall buildings shall be connected to columns or to each other in such a manner as to develop at least 75 percent of the horizontal wall steel. No more than half of this continuous horizontal reinforcing shall be concentrated in bond or tie beams at the top and bottom of the walls and at points of intermediate lateral support. If possible, cast-in-place joints with reinforcing bars extending from the panels into the joint a sufficient distance to meet the splice requirements of ACI 318, Section 25.5.2, for Class A shall be used. The reinforcing bars or welded tie details shall not be spaced over eight times the wall thickness vertically nor fewer than four used in the wall panel height. Where wall panels are designed for their respective overturning forces, the panel connections need not comply with the requirements of this paragraph.
11.9 — Foundation walls. Horizontal reinforcing of concrete foundation walls for wood-frame or light-steel buildings shall consist of the equivalent of not less than one No. 5 bar located at the top and bottom of the wall. Where such walls exceed 3 feet (914 mm) in height, intermediate horizontal reinforcing shall be provided at spacing not to exceed 2 feet (610 mm) on center. Minimum vertical reinforcing shall consist of No. 3 bars at 24 inches (610 mm) on center.
Where concrete foundation walls or curbs extend above the floor line and support wood-frame or light-steel exterior, bearing or shear walls, they shall be doweled to the foundation wall below with a minimum of No. 3 bars at 24 inches (610 mm) on center. Where the height of the wall above the floor line exceeds 18 inches (457 mm), the wall above and below the floor line shall meet the requirements of ACI 318, Section 11.6 and 11.7.
220.127.116.11 — At least two No. 5 bars in diaphragms having two layers of reinforcement in both directions and one No. 5 bar in diaphragms having a single layer of reinforcement in both directions shall be provided around openings larger than 12 inches in any dimension in addition to the minimum reinforcement required by Section 12.6.
18.104.22.168.2 — Where the tensile component of the strength-level earthquake force applied to anchors exceeds 20 percent of the total factored anchor tensile force associated with the same load combination, anchors and their attachments shall be designed in accordance with 22.214.171.124.3. The anchor design tensile strength shall be determined in accordance with Section 126.96.36.199.4.
188.8.131.52.3(d) — The anchor or group of anchors shall be designed for the maximum tension obtained from design load combinations that include E, with E increased by Ω0. The anchor design tensile strength shall be calculated from 184.108.40.206.4.
220.127.116.11.2 — Where the shear component of the strength-level earthquake force applied to anchors exceeds 20 percent of the total factored anchor shear force associated with the same load combination, anchors and their attachments shall be designed in accordance with 18.104.22.168.3. The anchor design shear strength for resisting earthquake forces shall be determined in accordance with 17.5.
- For the calculation of the in-plane shear strength of anchor bolts attaching wood sill plates of bearing or nonbearing walls of light-frame wood structures to foundations or foundation stem walls, the in-plane design shear strength in accordance with 17.5.2 and 17.5.3 need not be computed and 22.214.171.124.3 shall be deemed to be satisfied, provided all of the following are met:
- The allowable in-plane shear strength of the anchor is determined in accordance with AWC NDS Table 12E for lateral design values parallel to grain.
- The maximum anchor nominal diameter is 5/8 inch (16 mm).
- Anchor bolts are embedded into concrete a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm).
- Anchor bolts are located a minimum of 13/4 inches (45 mm) from the edge of the concrete parallel to the length of the wood sill plate.
- Anchor bolts are located a minimum of 15 anchor diameters from the edge of the concrete perpendicular to the length of the wood sill plate.
- The sill plate is 2-inch or 3-inch nominal thickness.
- For the calculation of the in-plane shear strength of anchor bolts attaching cold-formed steel track of bearing or nonbearing walls of anchor bolts attaching cold-formed steel track of bearing or nonbearing walls of light-frame construction to foundations or foundation stem walls the in-plane design shear strength in accordance with 17.5.2 and 17.5.3 need not be computed and 126.96.36.199.3 shall be deemed to be satisfied, provided all of the following are met:
- The maximum anchor nominal diameter is 5/8 inch (16 mm).
- Anchors are embedded into concrete a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm).
- Anchors are located a minimum of 13/4 inches (45 mm) from the edge of the concrete parallel to the length of the track.
- Anchors are located a minimum of 15 anchor diameters from the edge of the concrete perpendicular to the length of the track.
- The track is 33 to 68 mil designation thickness.
Allowable in-plane shear strength of exempt anchors, parallel to the edge of concrete shall be permitted to be determined in accordance with AISI S100, Section J3.3.1.
- In light-frame construction, bearing or nonbearing walls, shear strength of concrete anchors less than or equal to 1 inch (16 mm) in diameter of sill plate or track to foundation or foundation stem wall need not satisfy 188.8.131.52.3 (a) through (c) when the design strength of the anchors is determined in accordance with 184.108.40.206(c).
For concrete designed and constructed in accordance with this chapter, f 'c , shall not be less than 3,000 psi (20.7 MPa). Reinforced normal weight concrete with specified compressive strength higher than 8,000 psi (55 MPa) shall require prior approval of structural design method and acceptance criteria by the enforcement agency.
220.127.116.11 — In connections between wall panels, yielding shall be restricted to steel elements or reinforcement. In connections between wall panels and the foundation, they shall be designed per Section 1617A.1.16.
18.104.22.168 — Connections that are designed to yield shall be capable of maintaining 80 percent of their design strength at deformation induced by the design displacement or shall use type 2 mechanical splices.
22.214.171.124 — Elements of the connection that are not designed to yeild shall develop at least 1.5 Sy.
126.96.36.199 — In structures assigned to SDC D, E or F, wall piers shall be designed in accordance with 18.10.8 or 18.14 in ACI 318.
(c) Where boundary members are not required by ACI 318 Section 188.8.131.52 or 184.108.40.206 minimum reinforcement parallel to the edges of all structural walls and the boundaries of all openings shall consist of twice the cross-sectional area of the minimum shear reinforcement required per lineal foot of wall. Horizontal extent of boundary element shall be in accordance with ACI 318 Section 220.127.116.11 (a), (b) and (c).
|NET TENSILE STRAIN εt||CLASSIFICATION||Φ|
Type of transverse reinforcement
Spirals conforming to 25.7.3
εt ≤ εty
εty < εt < 0.005
εt ≥ 0.005
- For sections classified as transition, it shall be permitted to use Φ corresponding to compression-controlled sections.
- εt* is the greater of net tensile strain calculated for Pn = 0.1Agf'c and 0.005.
- For sections with factored axial compression force Pu ≥ 0.1Ag f'c, Φ shall be calculated using equation (c) or (d) for sections classified as transition, as applicable.
18.104.22.168 — Span to depth ratio. Prestressed beam and slab span to depth ratios for continuous prestressed concrete members shall not exceed the following, except when calculations of deflections and vibration effects prove that greater values may be used without adverse effects:
One-way slabs .........................40
Two-way floor slabs ................40
Two-way roof slabs .................44
These ratios should be decreased for special conditions such as heavy loads and simple spans.
Maximum deflection criteria shall be in accordance with ACI 318 Section 24.2.2.
22.214.171.124(a) Samples for strength tests of each class of concrete placed each day shall be taken not less than once a day, or not less than once for each 50 cubic yards (345 m3) of concrete, or not less than once for each 2,000 square feet (186 m2) of surface area for slabs or walls. Additional samples for 7-day compressive strength tests shall be taken for each class of concrete at the beginning of the concrete work or whenever the mix or aggregate is changed.
- For detached structures accessory to occupancies in Group R-3, such as garages, utility buildings or other unheated facilities.
- For unheated storage rooms having an area of less than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) and carports attached to occupancies in Group R-3.
- For buildings of other occupancies where migration of moisture through the slab from below will not be detrimental to the intended occupancy of the building.
- For driveways, walks, patios and other flatwork that will not be enclosed at a later date.
- Where approved based on local site conditions.
[DSA-SS] Exception: The reference to ACI 506R shall be to ACI 506.2, unless otherwise approved by the enforcing agent.
Concrete or masonry to receive shotcrete shall have the entire surface thoroughly cleaned and roughened by a mechanical method acceptable to the enforcement agency, and just prior to receiving shotcrete shall be thoroughly cleaned of all debris, dirt and dust. Concrete and masonry shall be wetted before shotcrete is deposited, but not so wet as to overcome suction.
The following samples of materials and tendons selected by the engineer or the designated testing laboratory from the prestressing steel at the plant or jobsite shall be furnished by the contractor and tested by an approved independent testing agency:
- For wire, strand or bars, 7-foot-long (2134 mm) samples shall be taken of the coil of wire or strand reel or rods. A minimum of one random sample per 5,000 pounds (2270 kg) of each heat or lot used on the job shall be selected.
- For prefabricated prestressing tendons other than bars, one completely fabricated tendon 10 feet (3048 mm) in length between grips with anchorage assembly at one end shall be furnished for each size and type of tendon and anchorage assembly.
Variations of the bearing plate size need not be considered.
The anchorages of unbonded tendons shall develop at least 95 percent of the minimum specified ultimate strength of the pre-stressing steel. The total elongation of the tendon under ultimate load shall not be less than 2 percent measured in a minimum gage length of 10 feet (3048 mm).
Anchorages of bonded tendons shall develop at least 90 percent of the minimum specified strength of the prestressing steel tested in an unbonded state. All couplings shall develop at least 95 percent of the minimum specified strength of the prestressing steel and shall not reduce the elongation at rupture below the requirements of the tendon itself.
- If the prestressing tendon is a bar, one 7-foot (2134 mm) length complete with one end anchorage shall be furnished and, in addition, if couplers are to be used with the bar, two 4-foot (1219 mm) lengths of bar fabricated to fit and equipped with one coupler shall be furnished.
- Mill tests of materials used for end anchorages shall be furnished. In addition, at least one Brinnell hardness test shall be made of each thickness of bearing plate.
Exception: [OSHPD 1 & 4] Torque-controlled post-installed anchors shall be permitted to be tested using torque based on an approved evaluation report using criteria adopted in this code.
Exception: [DSA-SS] Torque-controlled post-installed anchors and screw type anchors shall be permitted to be tested using torque based on an approved evaluation report using criteria adopted in this code.
Alternatively, manufacturer's recommendation for testing may be approved by the enforcement agency, based on an approved test report using criteria adopted in this code.
When post-installed anchors are used for other structural applications, all such anchors shall be tested.
When post-installed anchors are used for nonstructural components, such as equipment anchorage, 50 percent or alternate bolts in a group, including at least one-half the anchors in each group, shall be tested.
The testing of the post-installed anchors shall be done in the presence of the special inspector and a report of the test results shall be submitted to the enforcement agency.
- Undercut anchors that allow visual confirmation of full set shall not require testing.
- Where the design tension on anchors is less than 100 lbs and those anchors are clearly noted on the approved construction documents, only 10 percent of those anchors shall be tested.
- Where adhesive anchor systems are used to install reinforcing dowel bars in hardened concrete, only 25 percent of the dowels shall be tested if all of the following conditions are met:
- The dowels are used exclusively to transmit shear forces across joints between existing and new concrete.
- The number of dowels in any one member equals or exceeds 12.
- The dowels are uniformly distributed across seismic force resisting members (such as shear walls, collectors and diaphragms).
- Testing of shear dowels across cold joints in slabs on grade, where the slab is not part of the lateral force-resisting system shall not be required.
- Testing is not required for power actuated fasteners used to attach tracks of interior non-shear wall partitions for shear only, where there are at least three fasteners per segment of track.
- Twice the maximum allowable tension load or one and a quarter (11/4) times the maximum design strength of anchors as provided in an approved evaluation report using criteria adopted in this code or determined in accordance with Chapter 17 of ACI 318.
- The manufacturer's recommended installation torque based on an approved evaluation report using criteria adopted in this code.
- Hydraulic ram method:
Anchors tested with a hydraulic jack or spring loaded apparatus shall maintain the test load for a minimum of 15 seconds and shall exhibit no discernible movement during the tension test, e.g., as evidenced by loosening of the washer under the nut.
For adhesive anchors, where other than bond is being tested, the testing apparatus support shall not be located within 1.5 times the anchor's embedment depth to avoid restricting the concrete shear cone type failure mechanism from occurring.
- Torque wrench method:
Torque-controlled post-installed anchors tested with a calibrated torque wrench shall attain the specified torque within 1/2 turn of the nut; or one-quarter (1/4) turn of the nut for a 3/8 inch sleeve anchor only.
[DSA-SS] Screw-type anchors tested with a calibrated torque wrench shall attain the specified torque within one-quarter (1/4) turn of the screw after initial seating of the screw head.
Design capacities, reliability, serviceability of FRP materials shall be permitted to be established in accordance with ICC-ES AC 125. Minimum inspection requirements of FRP composite systems shall be in accordance with ICC-ES AC 178.