CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2018 (IBC 2018)

Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE — MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 24 — GLASS AND GLAZING

(Matrix Adoption Tables are nonregulatory, intended only as an aid to the code user.
See Chapter 1 for state agency authority and building applications.)
Adopting agency BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD BSCC DPH AGR DWR CEC CA SL SLC
1 2 1/AC AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
Adopt entire chapter X X X X X
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) X X X X X X
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
Chapter / Section
2401.1.1 X X X X X X X
2401.1.2 X X
2401.1.2, Exception 1 X X X X X
2403.2.1 X X X X X X X
Table 2403.2.1 X X X X X X X
2410.1, Exception X
2410 X X X X X X X
2411 X X X X X
The state agency does not adopt sections identified with the following symbol:
The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.


User notes:

About this chapter: Chapter 24 establishes regulations for glass and glazing used in buildings and structures. Engineering and design requirements are included in the chapter for glazing that is subjected to wind and snow loads. Another concern of this chapter is glass and glazing used in areas where it is likely to be impacted by the occupants. Section 2406 identifies hazardous locations where glazing must either be safety glazing or protected to prevent impacts by occupants. Safety glazing must meet stringent standards and be appropriately marked or identified. Additional requirements are provided for glass and glazing in guards, handrails, elevator hoistways and elevator cars, as well as in athletic facilities.

Code development reminder: Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IBC—Structural Code Development Committee during the 2019 (Group B) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page ix.

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and quality of glass, light-transmitting ceramic and light-transmitting plastic panels for exterior and interior use in both vertical and sloped applications in buildings and structures.

2401.1.1 Application

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
[DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD] The scope of application of Chapter 24 is as follows:
  1. Applications listed in Sections 1.10.1, 1.10.2, 1.10.4 and 1.10.5 regulated by the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). These applications include hospitals, hospital buildings removed from general acute care service, skilled nursing facility buildings, intermediate care facility buildings, correctional treatment centers and acute psychiatric hospital buildings.
  2. Applications listed in Sections 1.9.2.1 and 1.9.2.2, regulated by the Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety (DSA-SS and DSA-SS/CC). These applications include public elementary and secondary schools, community colleges and state-owned or state-leased essential services buildings.

2401.1.2 Amendments in This Chapter

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
[DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD] DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD adopt this chapter and all amendments.

Exception: Amendments adopted by only one agency appear in this chapter preceded with the appropriate acronym of the adopting agency, as follows:
  1. OSHPD amendments appear in this chapter preceded with the appropriate acronym, as follows:

    [OSHPD 1] - For applications listed in Section 1.10.1.

    [OSHPD 1R] - For applications listed in Section 1.10.1.

    [OSHPD 2] - For applications listed in Section 1.10.2.

    [OSHPD 4] - For applications listed in Section 1.10.4.

    [OSHPD 5] - For applications listed in Section 1.10.5.
  2. Division of the State Architect - Structural Safety:

    [DSA-SS] - For applications listed in Section 1.9.2.1.

    [DSA-SS/CC] - For applications listed in Section 1.9.2.2.
The installation of replacement glass shall be as required for new installations.

Each pane shall bear the manufacturer's mark designating the type and thickness of the glass or glazing material. The identification shall not be omitted unless approved and an affidavit is furnished by the glazing contractor certifying that each light is glazed in accordance with approved construction documents that comply with the provisions of this chapter. Safety glazing shall be identified in accordance with Section 2406.3.

Each pane of tempered glass, except tempered spandrel glass, shall be permanently identified by the manufacturer. The identification mark shall be acid etched, sand blasted, ceramic fired, laser etched, embossed or of a type that, once applied, cannot be removed without being destroyed.

Tempered spandrel glass shall be provided with a removable paper marking by the manufacturer.

Where one or more sides of any pane of glass are not firmly supported, or are subjected to unusual load conditions, detailed construction documents, detailed shop drawings and analysis or test data ensuring safe performance for the specific installation shall be prepared by a registered design professional.

2403.2.1 Additional Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
[DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC and OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 4 & 5] In addition to the requirements of Section 2403.2, glass supports shall comply with the following:
  1. The construction documents and analysis or test data required per Section 2403.2 shall be submitted to the enforcement agency for approval.
  2. Glass firmly supported on all four edges shall be glazed with minimum laps and edge clearances set forth in Table 2403.2.1.
    Exception: Single-story Type V skilled nursing or intermediate care facilities utilizing wood-frame or light-steel-frame construction.
TABLE 2403.2.1
MINIMUM GLAZING REQUIREMENTS
FIXED WINDOWS AND OPENABLE WINDOWS OTHER THAN HORIZONTAL SIDING
Glass Area Up to 6 sq. ft. 6 to 14 sq. ft. 14 to 32 sq. ft. 32 to 50 sq. ft. Over 50 sq. ft.
× 0.0929 for m2, × 25.4 for mm
1. Minimum Frame Lap 1/4" 1/4" 5/16" 3/8" 1/2"
2. Minimum Glass Edge Clearance 1/81,2 1/81,2 3/161 1/4" 1/41
3. Continuous Glazing Rabbet and Glass Retainer3 Required
4. Resilient Setting Material4 Not Required Required
SLIDING DOORS AND HORIZONTAL SLIDING WINDOWS
Glass Area Up to 14 sq. ft. 14 to 32 sq. ft. 32 to 50 sq. ft. Over 50 sq. ft.
× 0.0929 for m2, × 25.4 for mm
5. Minimum Glass Frame Lap 1/4" 5/16" 3/8" 1/2"
6. Minimum Glass Edge Clearance 1/82 3/16" 1/4" 1/4"
7. Continuous Glazing Rabbet and Glass Retainer3 Required above third story Required
8. Resilient Setting Material4 Not Required Required
  1. Glass edge clearance in fixed openings shall not be less than required to provide for wind and earthquake drift.
  2. Glass edge clearance at all sides of pane shall be a minimum of 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) where height of glass exceeds 3 feet (914 mm).
  3. Glass retainers such as metal, wood or vinyl face stops, glazing beads, gaskets, glazing clips and glazing channels shall be of sufficient strength and fixation to serve this purpose.
  4. Resilient setting material shall include preformed rubber or vinyl plastic gaskets or other materials which are proved to the satisfaction of the building official to remain resilient.
To be considered firmly supported, the framing members for each individual pane of glass shall be designed so the deflection of the edge of the glass perpendicular to the glass pane shall not exceed 1/175 of the glass edge length or 3/4 inch (19.1 mm), whichever is less, when subjected to the larger of the positive or negative load where loads are combined as specified in Section 1605.
Where interior glazing is installed adjacent to a walking surface, the differential deflection of two adjacent unsupported edges shall be not greater than the thickness of the panels when a force of 50 pounds per linear foot (plf) (730 N/m) is applied horizontally to one panel at any point up to 42 inches (1067 mm) above the walking surface.

Float, wired and patterned glass in louvered windows and jalousies shall be not thinner than nominal 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) and not longer than 48 inches (1219 mm). Exposed glass edges shall be smooth.

Wired glass with wire exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used in louvered windows or jalousies.

Where other glass types are used, the design shall be submitted to the building official for approval.

Glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads due to basic design wind speed, V, in Section 1609 for components and cladding. Glass in glazed curtain walls, glazed storefronts and glazed partitions shall meet the seismic requirements of ASCE 7, Section 13.5.9. The load resistance of glass under uniform load shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E1300.

The design of vertical glazing shall be based on Equation 24-1.

0.6FgwFga (Equation 24-1)
where:
Fgw = Wind load on the glass due to basic design wind speed, V, computed in accordance with Section 1609.
Fga = Short duration load on the glass as determined in accordance with ASTM E1300.
Glass sloped more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from vertical in skylights, sunrooms, sloped roofs and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the most critical combinations of loads determined by Equations 24-2, 24-3 and 24-4.

Fg = 0.6WoD (Equation 24-2)

Fg = 0.6Wi + D + 0.5 S (Equation 24-3)

Fg = 0.3 Wi + D + S (Equation 24-4)

where:
D = Glass dead load psf (kN/m2).
For glass sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from horizontal, = 13 tg (For SI: 0.0245 tg).
For glass sloped more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from horizontal, = 13 tg cos θ (For SI: 0.0245 tg cos θ).
Fg = Total load, psf (kN/m2) on glass.
S = Snow load, psf (kN/m2) as determined in Section 1608.
tg = Total glass thickness, inches (mm) of glass panes and plies.
Wi = Inward wind force, psf (kN/m2) due to basic design wind speed, V, as calculated in Section 1609.
Wo = Outward wind force, psf (kN/m2) due to basic design wind speed, V, as calculated in Section 1609.
θ = Angle of slope from horizontal.
Exception: The performance grade rating of unit skylights and tubular daylighting devices shall be determined in accordance with Section 2405.5.

The design of sloped glazing shall be based on Equation 24-5.

FgFga (Equation 24-5)
where:
Fg = Total load on the glass as determined by Equations 24-2, 24-3 and 24-4.
Fga = Short duration load resistance of the glass as determined in accordance with ASTM E1300 for Equations 24-2 and 24-3; or the long duration load resistance of the glass as determined in accordance with ASTM E1300 for Equation 24-4.
Wired glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads in Section 1609 for components and cladding according to the following equation:

0.6Fgw < 0.5 Fge (Equation 24-6)

where:
Fgw = Wind load on the glass due to basic design wind speed, V, computed in accordance with Section 1609.
Fge = Nonfactored load from ASTM E1300 using a thickness designation for monolithic glass that is not greater than the thickness of wired glass.

2404.3.2 Sloped Wired Glass

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Wired glass sloped more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from vertical in skylights, sun-spaces, sloped roofs and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the most critical of the combinations of loads from Section 2404.2.

For Equations 24-2 and 24-3:
Fg < 0.5 F ge (Equation 24-7)


For Equation 24-4:
Fg < 0.3 Fge (Equation 24-8)


Where
Fg = Total load on the glass as determined by Equations
24-2, 24-3 and 24-4.
Fge = Nonfactored load in accordance with ASTM E1300.
Patterned glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads in Section 1609 for components and cladding according to Equation 24-9.

Fgw < 1.0 Fge (Equation 24-9)

where:
Fgw = Wind load on the glass due to basic design wind speed, V, computed in accordance with Section 1609.
Fge = Nonfactored load in accordance with ASTM E1300. The value for patterned glass shall be based on the thinnest part of the glass. Interpolation between nonfactored load charts in ASTM E1300 shall be permitted.

Patterned glass sloped more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from vertical in skylights, sunspaces, sloped roofs and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the most critical of the combinations of loads from Section 2404.2.

For Equations 24-2 and 24-3:

(Equation 24-10)

For Equation 24-4:

(Equation 24-11)

where:

Fg = Total load on the glass as determined by Equations 24-2, 24-3 and 24-4.

Fge= Nonfactored load in accordance with ASTM E1300. The value for patterned glass shall be based on the thinnest part of the glass. Interpolation between the nonfactored load charts in ASTM E1300 shall be permitted.

Sandblasted glass sloped 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less from vertical in windows, curtain and window walls, doors, and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads in Section 1609 for components and cladding according to Equation 24-12.

0.6Fgw < 0.5 Fge (Equation 24-12)

where:
Fg = Wind load on the glass due to basic design wind speed, V, computed in accordance with Section 1609.
Fge = Nonfactored load in accordance with ASTM E1300. The value for sandblasted glass is for moderate levels of sandblasting.
For designs outside the scope of this section, an analysis or test data for the specific installation shall be prepared by a registered design professional.
This section applies to the installation of glass and other transparent, translucent or opaque glazing material installed at a slope more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from the vertical plane, including glazing materials in skylights, roofs and sloped walls.

Sloped glazing shall be any of the following materials, subject to the listed limitations.

  1. For monolithic glazing systems, the glazing material of the single light or layer shall be laminated glass with a minimum 30-mil (0.76 mm) polyvinyl butyral (or equivalent) interlayer, wired glass, light-transmitting plastic materials meeting the requirements of Section 2607, heat-strengthened glass or fully tempered glass.
  2. For multiple-layer glazing systems, each light or layer shall consist of any of the glazing materials specified in Item 1.

Annealed glass is permitted to be used as specified in Exceptions 2 and 3 of Section 2405.3.

For additional requirements for plastic skylights, see Section 2610. Glass-block construction shall conform to the requirements of Section 2110.1.

Where used in monolithic glazing systems, heat-strengthened and fully tempered glass shall have screens installed below the glazing material. The screens and their fastenings shall be: capable of supporting twice the weight of the glazing; firmly and substantially fastened to the framing members; and installed within 4 inches (102 mm) of the glass. The screens shall be constructed of a noncombustible material not thinner than No. 12 B&S gage (0.0808 inch) with mesh not larger than 1 inch by 1 inch (25 mm by 25 mm). In a corrosive atmosphere, structurally equivalent noncorrosive screen materials shall be used. Heat-strengthened glass, fully tempered glass and wired glass, where used in multiple-layer glazing systems as the bottom glass layer over the walking surface, shall be equipped with screening that conforms to the requirements for monolithic glazing systems.

Exception: In monolithic and multiple-layer sloped glazing systems, the following applies:

  1. Fully tempered glass installed without protective screens where glazed between intervening floors at a slope of 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from the vertical plane shall have the highest point of the glass 10 feet (3048 mm) or less above the walking surface.
  2. Screens are not required below any glazing material, including annealed glass, where the walking surface below the glazing material is permanently protected from the risk of falling glass or the area below the glazing material is not a walking surface.
  3. Any glazing material, including annealed glass, is permitted to be installed without screens in the sloped glazing systems of commercial or detached noncombustible greenhouses used exclusively for growing plants and not open to the public, provided that the height of the greenhouse at the ridge does not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) above grade.
  4. Screens shall not be required in individual dwelling units in Groups R-2, R-3 and R-4 where fully tempered glass is used as single glazing or as both panes in an insulating glass unit, and the following conditions are met:

    1. 4.1. Each pane of the glass is 16 square feet (1.5 m2) or less in area.
    2. 4.2. The highest point of the glass is 12 feet (3658 mm) or less above any walking surface or other accessible area.
    3. 4.3. The glass thickness is 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) or less.
  5. Screens shall not be required for laminated glass with a 15-mil (0.38 mm) polyvinyl butyral (or equivalent) interlayer used in individual dwelling units in Groups R-2, R-3 and R-4 within the following limits:

    1. 5.1. Each pane of glass is 16 square feet (1.5 m2) or less in area.
    2. 5.2. The highest point of the glass is 12 feet (3658 mm) or less above a walking surface or other accessible area.

In Type I and II construction, sloped glazing and skylight frames shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. In structures where acid fumes deleterious to metal are incidental to the use of the buildings, approved pressure-treated wood or other approved noncorrosive materials are permitted to be used for sash and frames. Framing supporting sloped glazing and skylights shall be designed to resist the tributary roof loads in Chapter 16. Skylights set at an angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the horizontal plane shall be mounted not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane of the roof on a curb constructed as required for the frame. Skylights shall not be installed in the plane of the roof where the roof pitch is less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the horizontal.

Exception: Installation of a skylight without a curb shall be permitted on roofs with a minimum slope of 14 degrees (three units vertical in 12 units horizontal) in Group R-3 occupancies. Unit skylights installed in a roof with a pitch flatter than 14 degrees (0.25 rad) shall be mounted not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane of the roof on a curb constructed as required for the frame unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer's installation instructions.

2405.5 Unit Skylights and Tubular Daylighting Devices

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Unit skylights and tubular daylighting devices shall be tested and labeled as complying with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440. The label shall state the name of the manufacturer, the approved labeling agency, the product designation and the performance grade rating as specified in AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440. Where the product manufacturer has chosen to have the performance grade of the skylight rated separately for positive and negative design pressure, then the label shall state both performance grade ratings as specified in AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 and the skylight shall comply with Section 2405.5.2. Where the skylight is not rated separately for positive and negative pressure, then the performance grade rating shown on the label shall be the performance grade rating determined in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 for both positive and negative design pressure and the skylight shall conform to Section 2405.5.1.

The design of skylights shall be based on Equation 24-13.

(Equation 24-13)

where:

Fg = Maximum load on the skylight determined from Equations 24-2 through 24-4 in Section 2404.2.

PG = Performance grade rating of the skylight.

The design of skylights rated for performance grade for both positive and negative design pressures shall be based on Equations 24-14 and 24-15.

FgiPGPos (Equation 24-14)

FgoPGNeg (Equation 24-15)

where:
PGPos = Performance grade rating of the skylight under positive design pressure;
PGNeg = Performance grade rating of the skylight under negative design pressure; and


Fgi and Fgo are determined in accordance with the following:

For 0.6WoD,

where:
Wo = Outward wind force, psf (kN/m2) due to basic design wind speed, V, as calculated in Section 1609.
D = The dead weight of the glazing, psf (kN/m2) as determined in Section 2404.2 for glass, or by the weight of the plastic, psf (kN/m2) for plastic glazing.
Fgi = Maximum load on the skylight determined from Equations 24-3 and 24-4 in Section 2404.2.
Fgo = Maximum load on the skylight determined from Equation 24-2.

For 0.6 Wo < D,

where:
Wo = The outward wind force, psf (kN/m2) due to basic design wind speed, V, as calculated in Section 1609.
D = The dead weight of the glazing, psf (kN/m2) as determined in Section 2404.2 for glass, or by the weight of the plastic for plastic glazing.
Fgi = Maximum load on the skylight determined from Equations 24-2 through 24-4 in Section 2404.2.
Fgo = 0.

Individual glazed areas, including glass mirrors, in hazardous locations as defined in Section 2406.4 shall comply with Sections 2406.1.1 through 2406.1.4.

Exception: Mirrors and other glass panels mounted or hung on a surface that provides a continuous backing support.

Except as provided in Sections 2406.1.2 through 2406.1.4, all glazing shall pass the impact test requirements of Section 2406.2.
Plastic glazing shall meet the weathering requirements of ANSI Z97.1.
Glass-block walls shall comply with Section 2110.
Louvered windows and jalousies shall comply with Section 2403.5.

Where required by other sections of this code, glazing shall be tested in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Category II, unless otherwise indicated in Table 2406.2(1).

Exception: Glazing not in doors or enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with ANSI Z97.1. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Class A, unless otherwise indicated in Table 2406.2(2).

TABLE 2406.2(1)

MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING CPSC 16 CFR PART 1201

EXPOSED SURFACE
AREA OF ONE SIDE OF
ONE LITE
GLAZING IN
STORM OR

COMBINATION

DOORS
(Category class)
GLAZING IN DOORS
(Category class)
GLAZED PANELS
REGULATED BY

SECTION 2406.4.3
(Category class)
GLAZED PANELS
REGULATED BY

SECTION 2406.4.2
(Category class)
DOORS AND
ENCLOSURES

REGULATED BY

SECTION 2406.4.5
(Category class)
SLIDING GLASS
DOORS PATIO TYPE
(Category class)
9 square feet or lessIINo requirementIIIII
More than 9 square feetIIIIIIIIIIII

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

TABLE 2406.2(2)

MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING ANSI Z97.1

EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE
SIDE OF ONE LITE
GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY
SECTION 2406.4.3 (Category class)
GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY
SECTION 2406.4.2 (Category class)
DOORS AND ENCLOSURES
REGULATED BY SECTION 2406.4.5a
(Category class)
9 square feet or lessNo requirementBA
More than 9 square feetAAA

For SI: square foot = 0.0929 m2.

  1. Use is only permitted by the exception to Section 2406.2.

Except as indicated in Section 2406.3.1, each pane of safety glazing installed in hazardous locations shall be identified by a manufacturer's designation specifying who applied the designation, the manufacturer or installer and the safety glazing standard with which it complies, as well as the information specified in Section 2403.1. The designation shall be acid etched, sand blasted, ceramic fired, laser etched, embossed or of a type that once applied, cannot be removed without being destroyed. A label meeting the requirements of this section shall be permitted in lieu of the manufacturer's designation.

Exceptions:

  1. For other than tempered glass, manufacturer's designations are not required, provided that the building official approves the use of a certificate, affidavit or other evidence confirming compliance with this code.
  2. Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identified by the manufacturer with a removable paper designation.
Multipane glazed assemblies having individual panes not exceeding 1 square foot (0.09 m2) in exposed areas shall have one pane or more in the assembly marked as indicated in Section 2406.3. Other panes in the assembly shall be marked "CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201" or "ANSI Z97.1," as appropriate.
The locations specified in Sections 2406.4.1 through 2406.4.7 shall be considered to be specific hazardous locations requiring safety glazing materials.

Glazing in all fixed and operable panels of swinging, sliding and bifold doors shall be considered to be a hazardous location.

Exceptions:

  1. Glazed openings of a size through which a 3-inch-diameter (76 mm) sphere is unable to pass.
  2. Decorative glazing.
  3. Glazing materials used as curved glazed panels in revolving doors.
  4. Commercial refrigerated cabinet glazed doors.

Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent to a door where the nearest vertical edge of the glazing is within a 24-inch (610 mm) arc of either vertical edge of the door in a closed position and where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the walking surface shall be considered to be a hazardous location.

Exceptions:

  1. Decorative glazing.
  2. Where there is an intervening wall or other permanent barrier between the door and glazing.
  3. Where access through the door is to a closet or storage area 3 feet (914 mm) or less in depth. Glazing in this application shall comply with Section 2406.4.3.
  4. Glazing in walls on the latch side of and perpendicular to the plane of the door in a closed position in one- and two-family dwellings or within dwelling units in Group R-2.

Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel that meets all of the following conditions shall be considered to be a hazardous location:

  1. The exposed area of an individual pane is greater than 9 square feet (0.84 m2).
  2. The bottom edge of the glazing is less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
  3. The top edge of the glazing is greater than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor.
  4. One or more walking surface(s) are within 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the plane of the glazing.

Exceptions:

  1. Decorative glazing.
  2. Where a horizontal rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in cross-sectional height.
  3. Outboard panes in insulating glass units or multiple glazing where the bottom exposed edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above any grade, roof, walking surface or other horizontal or sloped (within 45 degrees of horizontal) (0.79 rad) surface adjacent to the glass exterior.
Glazing in guards and railings, including structural baluster panels and nonstructural in-fill panels, regardless of area or height above a walking surface shall be considered to be a hazardous location.

Glazing in walls, enclosures or fences containing or facing hot tubs, spas, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs, showers and indoor or outdoor swimming pools where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) measured vertically above any standing or walking surface shall be considered to be a hazardous location. This shall apply to single glazing and all panes in multiple glazing.

Exception: Glazing that is more than 60 inches (1524 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, from the water's edge of a bathtub, hot tub, spa, whirlpool or swimming pool.

Glazing where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the plane of the adjacent walking surface of stairways, landings between flights of stairs and ramps shall be considered to be a hazardous location.

Exceptions:

  1. The side of a stairway, landing or ramp that has a guard complying with the provisions of Sections 1015 and 1607.8, and the plane of the glass is greater than 18 inches (457 mm) from the railing.
  2. Glazing 36 inches (914 mm) or more measured horizontally from the walking surface.

Glazing adjacent to the landing at the bottom of a stairway where the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the landing and within a 60-inch (1524 mm) horizontal arc that is less than 180 degrees (3.14 rad) from the bottom tread nosing shall be considered to be a hazardous location.

Exception: Glazing that is protected by a guard complying with Sections 1015 and 1607.8 where the plane of the glass is greater than 18 inches (457 mm) from the guard.

Fire department glass access panels shall be of tempered glass. For insulating glass units, all panes shall be tempered glass.

Glass used in a handrail or a guard shall be laminated glass constructed of fully tempered or heat-strengthened glass and shall comply with Category II or CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1. Glazing in railing in-fill panels shall be of an approved safety glazing material that conforms to the provisions of Section 2406.1.1. For all glazing types, the minimum nominal thickness shall be 1/4 inch (6.4 mm).

Exception: Single fully tempered glass complying with Category II of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1 shall be permitted to be used in handrails and guardrails where there is no walking surface beneath them or the walking surface is permanently protected from the risk of falling glass.

The panels and their support system shall be designed to withstand the loads specified in Section 1607.8. Glass guard elements shall be designed using a factor of safety of four.

Guards with structural glass baluster panels shall be installed with an attached top rail or handrail. The top rail or handrail shall be supported by not fewer than three glass baluster panels, or shall be otherwise supported to remain in place should one glass baluster panel fail.

Exception: An attached top rail or handrail is not required where the glass baluster panels are laminated glass with two or more glass plies of equal thickness and of the same glass type. The panels shall be tested to remain in place as a barrier following impact or glass breakage in accordance with ASTM E2353.

Glazing materials shall not be installed in handrails or guards in parking garages except for pedestrian areas not exposed to impact from vehicles.

2407.1.4 Glazing in Wind-Borne Debris Regions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Glazing installed in in-fill panels or balusters in wind-borne debris regions shall comply with the following:
Glass installed in exterior railing in-fill panels or balusters shall be laminated glass complying with Category II of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1.
Where the top rail is supported by glass, the assembly shall be tested according to the impact requirements of Section 1609.2. The top rail shall remain in place after impact.
Glazing in athletic facilities and similar uses subject to impact loads, which forms whole or partial wall sections or which is used as a door or part of a door, shall comply with this section.

Test methods and loads for individual glazed areas in racquetball and squash courts subject to impact loads shall conform to those of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or ANSI Z97.1 with impacts being applied at a height of 59 inches (1499 mm) above the playing surface to an actual or simulated glass wall installation with fixtures, fittings and methods of assembly identical to those used in practice.

Glass walls shall comply with the following conditions:

  1. A glass wall in a racquetball or squash court, or similar use subject to impact loads, shall remain intact following a test impact.
  2. The deflection of such walls shall be not greater than 11/2 inches (38 mm) at the point of impact for a drop height of 48 inches (1219 mm).

Glass doors shall comply with the following conditions:

  1. Glass doors shall remain intact following a test impact at the prescribed height in the center of the door.
  2. The relative deflection between the edge of a glass door and the adjacent wall shall not exceed the thickness of the wall plus 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) for a drop height of 48 inches (1219 mm).
Glazing in multipurpose gymnasiums, basketball courts and similar athletic facilities subject to human impact loads shall comply with Category II of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201 or Class A of ANSI Z97.1.
Glass installed as a part of a floor/ceiling assembly as a walking surface and constructed with laminated glass shall comply with ASTM E2751 or with the load requirements specified in Chapter 16. Such assemblies shall comply with the fire-resistance rating and marking requirements of this code where applicable.
Glass in elevator hoistway enclosures and hoistway doors shall be laminated glass conforming to ANSI Z97.1 or CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201.
Glass installed in hoistways and hoistway doors where the hoistway is required to have a fire-resistance rating shall comply with Section 716.
The glass in glass hoistway doors shall be not less than 60 percent of the total visible door panel surface area as seen from the landing side.
Glass in vision panels in elevator hoistway doors shall be permitted to be any transparent glazing material not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness conforming to Class A in accordance with ANSI Z97.1 or Category II in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201. The area of any single vision panel shall be not less than 24 square inches (15 484 mm2) and the total area of one or more vision panels in any hoistway door shall be not more than 85 square inches (54 839 mm2).
Glass in elevator cars shall be in accordance with this section.

Glass in elevator car enclosures, glass elevator car doors and glass used for lining walls and ceilings of elevator cars shall be laminated glass conforming to Class A in accordance with ANSI Z97.1 or Category II in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201.

Exception: Tempered glass shall be permitted to be used for lining walls and ceilings of elevator cars provided that:

  1. The glass is bonded to a nonpolymeric coating, sheeting or film backing having a physical integrity to hold the fragments when the glass breaks.
  2. The glass is not subjected to further treatment such as sandblasting; etching; heat treatment or painting that could alter the original properties of the glass.
  3. The glass is tested to the acceptance criteria for laminated glass as specified for Class A in accordance with ANSI Z97.1 or Category II in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1201.
The glass in glass elevator car doors shall be not less than 60 percent of the total visible door panel surface area as seen from the car side of the doors.

Section 2410 [DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 4 & 5] Structural Sealant Glazing (SSG)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

2410.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The requirements of this section address the use of structural sealant glazing (SSG). These requirements shall not be used for butt joint glazing, point supported glass and glass fins.

Design, construction, testing, and inspection shall satisfy the requirements of this code except as modified in Sections 2410.1.1 through 2410.1.4.

Exception: [OSHPD 2] Single-story Type V skilled nursing or intermediate care facilities utilizing wood-frame or light-steel-frame construction.

2410.1.1 Design

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Design of SSG shall satisfy the following requirements:
  1. SSG shall be weather tight and serviceable, as defined in AAMA 501.4, under design story drifts associated with the design earthquake and no glass fallout shall occur at the drifts determined by ASCE 7, Section 13.5.9.
  2. The sealant utilized in the insulated glass units used in SSG shall be designed in accordance with ASTM C1249. The insulated glass unit design shall be in accordance with ASTM C1249, Section 6.7.2.
  3. Allowable stress for SSG shall not exceed 20 psi and shall have a minimum factor of safety of 5 as required by ASTM C1401.
  4. Design methodology shall address seismic movement in accordance with ASTM C1401, Section 30.3.4.
  5. SSG systems shall be supported for self-weight and lateral loading at each floor level of the building.
  6. Unitized SSG framing shall be anchored to the building floor bearing plate by screws or bolts and shall not rely upon gravity or frictional forces for attachment.
  7. Framing shall satisfy the out-of-plane deflection requirements of this code.

2410.1.2 Testing and Inspection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Testing and inspection of SSG shall satisfy the following requirements:
  1. The seismic drift capability of SSG shall be determined by tests in accordance with AAMA 501.6, AAMA 501.4 and ASCE 7, Section 13.5.9.2.
  2. The applicability of the specific AAMA 501.6 and AAMA 501.4 testing shall be subject to approval by the building official.
  3. The panel test specimens used in the AAMA 501.6 and AAMA 501.4 testing shall include all glass types (annealed, heat strengthened, laminated, tempered) and insulated glass units that comprise more than 5 percent of the total glass curtain wall area used in the building.
  4. AAMA 501.4 test specimen shall include the same materials, sections, connections, and attachment details to the test apparatus as used in the building.
  5. Serviceability tests of SSG test specimen shall be performed in accordance with AAMA 501.4 after seismic displacement tests to the design story drift.
  6. The window wall system using structural sealant by different manufacturer/product category shall be qualified in accordance with AAMA 501.6 and AAMA 501.4 testing for the seismic drift required. Analysis as an alternative to testing is not acceptable for the purposes of satisfying the seismic drift requirements of the SSG system.
  7. Where unitized SSG is used with horizontal stack joints at each floor level and split vertical mullions that can move independently, only a story height single unit need to be tested under AAMA 501.6. Where continuous horizontal bands of SSG are used in the building, either two or four sided, the aspect ratio (height-to-length) of the test specimen shall be less than 1.0, contain not less than two interior vertical joints and all joints (vertical in the case of two sided), including the perimeter of the glass, shall be glazed with SSG.
  8. Where SSG continues around corners, the AAMA 501.4 test specimen shall include one corner panel to verify the kinematics of the corner condition under seismic drift.
  9. Quality assurance and inspection requirements shall include formalized post-installation tests using the point load testing procedure in accordance with ASTM C1392. The point load tests shall be done after the initial installation.
  10. Where the SSG is field assembled, hand pull tab tests in accordance with ASTM C1401, Section X2.1, one test every 100 linear feet, but not less than one test for each building elevation view shall be required.
Existing AAMA 501.4 and 501.6 test results satisfying the requirements of this section shall be permitted, in lieu of project specific tests, when approved by the building official.

2410.1.3 Monitoring

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Short- and long-term periodic performance monitoring shall be provided in accordance with ASTM C1401, C1392 and C1394. Inspection frequencies recommended in ASTM C1392 Section 5.1 shall be followed.

2410.1.4 Construction Documents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Complete design of the SSG system for gravity, wind and seismic forces shall be subject to review by the enforcement agency. Construction documents shall show structural details of glass and curtain wall system including:
  1. A design narrative explaining how the SSG is supported by the building and the mechanism used to accommodate seismic racking.
  2. Type of SSG and whether field or shop built.
  3. The means of supporting the glass during structural sealant curing time.
  4. Typical curtain wall panel elevation, plan view and sections.
  5. Details of building corner joint to verify how the corner vertical mullion will move to accommodate the seismic drift.
  6. Joints between panel and floors at top and bottom.
  7. Joints between panels, including vertical and horizontal stack joints at intermediate and edge mullion.
  8. Member sizes for curtain wall panels.
  9. Glass pane sizes, thickness and type of glass.
  10. Contact width and thickness of structural sealant and sealant materials for shop and field installation/reglazing.
  11. Glass to aluminum joints (including primers, if any).
  12. Maximum roof/floor dead and live load deflection of the roof/floor framing members supporting the exterior curtain wall system.
  13. Required seismic separation or gap distance between the SSG curtain wall and other adjacent cladding units.
  14. Mitigation of galvanic reactions between the roof/floor slab anchors, steel screw connections of aluminum sections and the aluminum anchorage components, if any.

Section 2411 [OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 4 & 5] Thermal Barriers in Aluminum Mullion Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

2411.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The requirements of this section address the use of thermal barriers composite in aluminum mullion systems. The thermal barriers shall consist of either poured and debridged or mechanically locked pre-formed construction. The thermal barrier systems used shall be those tested and complying with AAMA TIR-A8. The thermal barrier manufacturer, formulation number or insulating strut size/material and aluminum extrusions shall be consistent between testing, design and construction.

Exception: Single-story Type V skilled nursing or intermediate care facilities utilizing wood-frame or light-steel-frame construction.

2411.1.1 Structural Design

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Structural design of thermal barrier mullions shall satisfy the following requirements:
  1. The allowable design stresses for thermal barrier materials composite with aluminum extrusions shall be determined by AAMA TIR-A8 testing for in-plane shear, tension and eccentric load at a minimum of ambient and high temperature using a factor of safety determined by AAMA TIR-A8 Section 6.7.
  2. The shear modulus, Gc, of the thermal barrier in similar composite aluminum extrusions shall be determined by AAMA TIR-A8 testing for flexure in AAMA TIR-A8 Section 7.2 at a minimum of ambient and high temperature.
  3. The aluminum extrusions used to determine allowable stresses in the thermal barriers and the shear modulus, Gc, shall be from a specific aluminum extrusion manufacturer and the aluminum sections used in the project. The similarity of the composite aluminum extrusions shall be subject to approval by the building official.
  4. The effective moment of inertia of the in-plane composite thermal barrier-aluminum section used in flexural design, based upon the tested Gc, shall not exceed 85 percent of the moment of inertia of the combined unbridged aluminum portions of the composite section, unless substantiated and approved by the building official.
  5. A high temperature of not less than 120°F shall be used for composite section flexure design for wind pressure where the historical high temperature exceeds 100°F. The minimum high temperature for in-plane shear, tension and eccentric load thermal barrier design shall be determined by AAMA TIR-A8 Section 6.5.
  6. The lowest allowable stress value and shear modulus, Gc, from the ambient and high temperature testing shall be used for design.
  7. Structural analysis and design for loads on pour and debridged thermal barriers with skip-debridging that has not been tested under AAMA TIR-A8 with skip-debridged test specimens for the specific actions or load direction shall be based upon the relative stiffness between the remaining aluminum bridge and the thermal barrier material and size.
  8. Reactions on supporting thermal barrier mullions where the thermal barrier resists the concentrated load, the load shall not be assumed to be distributed over a length greater than 12 inches (305 mm) on the supporting mullion.
  9. Mechanically locked, preformed thermal barriers shall be designed and used in pairs.

2411.2 Testing and Inspection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Testing and Inspection of thermal barrier mullions shall satisfy the following requirements:
  1. Thermal barrier material properties shall be tested in accordance with AAMA TIR-A8 Section 6.1 by the manufacturer. All other testing shall done by an approved testing laboratory or agency.
  2. Testing shall include AAMA TIR-A8 Section 7.2 for the flexural tests using the composite section under ambient and high temperature. Thermocouples shall be placed on the outside and interior surfaces and in the middle of the thermal barrier for high temperature testing. Test cycles shall be in accordance with AAMA TIR-A8 Section 7.2.3.
  3. Testing shall include AAMA TIR-A8 Section 7.3 for in-plane shear, tension and eccentric load using the composite section under ambient and high temperature.
  4. The flexural test for the composite section shall include a span length of 12 feet (3660 mm). The maximum P load in the test shall generate close to a L/175 deflection, where L is the span length, center to center of supports, but shall not exceed the allowable design stresses for the aluminum composite section in meeting that deflection. Permanent deflection shall not exceed the requirement in AAMA TIR-A8 Section 7.2.2.5.
  5. A minimum of two different simple span lengths shall be used to determine Gc under the flexural test. The span lengths tested shall include a short span.
  6. The shear modulus, Gc, of the thermal barrier shall be determined using the lowest average Iet from the flexural testing for each composite aluminum extrusion, temperature and span length tested.
  7. Each different composite aluminum extrusion in the project shall be tested to the requirements of AAMA TIR-A8. The magnitude of eccentricity of load on the thermal barrier shall be considered in selecting composite aluminum extrusions for testing.
  8. The applicability of existing AAMA TIR-A8 testing of thermal barrier mullions that satisfy the requirements of this section shall be permitted, in lieu of project-specific tests, when approved by the building official.
  9. Periodic special inspection to ensure compliance with the AAMA TIR-A8 processing for the thermal isolator material shall be performed. Inspections shall include tests of thermal barrier material properties per the manufacturer's recommendation and AAMA TIR-A8 Section 6.1 and composite performance requirements per AAMA TIR-A8 Sections 7.2 and 7.3.
  10. Periodic special inspection of pour and debridge thermal barrier shall include:
    1. Verification that the thermal barrier formulation being used matches that in the design and construction documents.
    2. Verification that poured wet or dry shrinkage as set forth in AAMA TIR-A8 Section 4.1.3.1 does not occur.
    3. Proper adhesion of poured thermal barrier material per AAMA TIR-A8 Section 4.2.1.
    4. Confirmation of proper manufacturing process per the manufacturer's recommendations and AAMA TIR-A8 Section 4.3.
    5. Inspection of fabrication and handling practices in accordance with AAMA TIR-A8 Sections 4.3 and 4.4.
    6. Testing for thermal barrier material properties per the manufacturer's recommendation and AAMA TIR-A8 Section 6.1.
    7. Periodic special inspection of the removal of the temporary thermal bridge shall be provided to ensure that no thermal barrier material is removed in the process.
  11. Periodic special inspection of mechanically locked, preformed thermal barriers shall include:
    1. Verification that the insulating struts being used match those in the design and construction documents.
    2. Verification that the mechanical lock cavity distortion and locking distortion does not exist as set forth in AAMA TIR-A8 Sections 4.1.3.3 and 4.1.3.4.
    3. Verification of proper knurling of the aluminum and crimping of the insulating struts per AAMA TIR-A8 Section 4.2.2.
    4. Confirmation of proper manufacturing process per the manufacturer's recommendations and AAMA TIR-A8 Section 4.5.
    5. Inspection of fabrication and handling practices in accordance with AAMA TIR-A8 Sections 4.5 and 4.6.
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