CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2015 (IBC 2015)

Copyright

Preface

Acknowledgements

California Code of Regulations, Title 24

How to Distinguish Between Model Code Language and California Amendments

Code Development Committee Responsibilities (Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers)

Effective Use of the International Building Code

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 7A [Sfm] Materials and Construction Methods for Exterior Wildfire Exposure

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Reserved

Chapter 11A Housing Accessibility

Chapter 11B Accessibility to Public Buildings, Public Accommodations, Commercial Buildings and Public Housing

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

History Note Appendix

User note: Code change proposals to sections preceded by the designation [F] will be considered by the International Fire Code Development Committee during the 2016 (Group B) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page ix.

The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation and operation of fire protection systems.

Fire protection systems shall be installed, repaired, operated and maintained in accordance with this code and the California Fire Code.

Any fire protection system for which an exception or reduction to the provisions of this code has been granted shall be considered to be a required system.

Exception: Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed for partial or complete protection provided that such system meets the requirements of this code.

No person shall remove or modify any fire protection system installed or maintained under the provisions of this code or the California Fire Code without approval by the building official.
Threads provided for fire department connections to sprinkler systems, standpipes, yard hydrants or any other fire hose connection shall be compatible with the connections used by the local fire department.
Fire protection systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of this code and the California Fire Code. When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of the building official. Tests required by this code, the California Fire Code and the standards listed in this code shall be conducted at the expense of the owner or the owner's authorized agent. It shall be unlawful to occupy portions of a structure until the required fire protection systems within that portion of the structure have been tested and approved.
Where required, fire protection systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station.

Exceptions:

  1. A supervising station is not required for automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
  2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.

Fire alarm systems required by the provisions of Section 907.2 of this code and Sections 907.2 and 907.9 of the California Fire Code shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with Section 907.6.6.

Exceptions:

  1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11.
  2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.
  3. Supervisory service is not required for automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings.
Supervision and monitoring of emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems in Group H occupancies shall be in accordance with the California Fire Code.
Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10.
Where provided, fire pump rooms and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working room around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with a door(s) and unobstructed passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment.

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

  • [F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
  • [F] ALARM SIGNAL.
  • [F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE.
  • [F] ANNUNCIATOR.
  • [F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
  • [F] AUTOMATIC.
  • [F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
  • [F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM.
  • [F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM.
  • [F] AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM.
  • [F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL.
  • [F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS.
  • [F] CEILING LIMIT.
  • [F] CLEAN AGENT.
  • [F] COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE.
  • [F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION.
  • [F] DELUGE SYSTEM.
  • [F] DETECTOR, HEAT.
  • [F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.
  • [F] ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE SYSTEM.
  • [F] ELEVATOR GROUP.
  • [F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM.
  • [F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.
  • [F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.
  • [F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT.
  • [F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL.
  • [F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM.
  • FIRE APPLIANCE
  • FIRE AREA.
  • [F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER.
  • [F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC.
  • [F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.
  • [F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS.
  • [F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
  • [F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
  • [F] INITIATING DEVICE.
  • [F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX.
  • [F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE.
  • [F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.
  • [F] NOTIFICATION ZONE.
  • [F] NUISANCE ALARM.
  • PRIVATE GARAGE.
  • [F] RECORD DRAWINGS.
  • [F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.
  • [F] SMOKE ALARM.
  • [F] SMOKE DETECTOR.
  • [F] SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE.
  • [F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF.

    • Class I system.
    • Class II system.
    • Class III system.
  • [F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF.

    • Automatic dry.
    • Automatic wet.
    • Manual dry.
    • Manual wet.
    • Semiautomatic dry.
  • [F] SUPERVISING STATION.
  • [F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE.
  • [F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL.
  • [F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE.
  • [F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF.
  • [F] TROUBLE SIGNAL.
  • [F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
  • [F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
  • [F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM.
  • [F] ZONE.
  • [F] ZONE, NOTIFICATION.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.
Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.
Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the story where the fire area containing the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and throughout all stories from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the levels of exit discharge serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-1 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
  4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-2 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464.5 m2);
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more; or
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
  4. The structure exceeds 5,000 square feet (465 m2), contains more than one fire area containing a Group A-2 occupancy, and is separated into two or more buildings by fire walls of less than four-hour fire-resistance rating without openings.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-3 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; or
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
  4. The structure exceeds 12,000 square feet (1155 m2), contains more than one fire area containing exhibition and display rooms, and is separated into two or more buildings by fire walls of less than four-hour fire-resistance rating without openings.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-4 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; or
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2).

Where an occupied roof has an assembly occupancy with an occupant load exceeding 100 for Group A-2 and 300 for other Group A occupancies, all floors between the occupied roof and the level of exit discharge shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

Exception: Open parking garages of Type I or Type II construction.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided where multiple fire areas of Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancies share exit or exit access components and the combined occupant load of theses fire areas is 300 or more.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor containing an ambulatory care facility where either of the following conditions exist at any time:

  1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.
  2. One or more care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility.

In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided as well as all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:

  1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area.
  2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.

    Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has at least one exterior exit door at ground level.

  3. In rooms or areas with special hazards such as laboratories, vocational shops and other such areas where hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity are used or stored.
  4. Throughout any Group E structure greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area, which contains more than one fire area, and which is separated into two or more buildings by fire walls of less than four hour fire resistance rating without openings.
  5. For public school state funded construction projects see Section 903.2.19.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group F-1 occupancy used for the manufacture of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area which generate finely divided combustible waste or use finely divided combustible materials.

[SFM] A fire wall of less than four-hour fire-resistance rating without openings, or any fire wall with openings, shall not be used to establish separate fire areas.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required by this code for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2.

Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

[F] TABLE 903.2.5.2

GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA

LOCATIONOCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSIFICATION
Fabrication areasOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Service corridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms without dispensingOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms with dispensingExtra Hazard Group 2
CorridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).

The fire sprinkler system shall be designed and zoned to provide separate indication upon waterflow for each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier above the 10th story.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.

Exceptions:

  1. Those areas exempted by Section 407.6 of the California Building Code.
  2. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13113(d), Group I-2 occupancies, or any alterations thereto, located in Type IA construction in existence on March 4, 1972.

In an existing, unsprinklered Group I-2, nurses’ station open to fire-resistive exit access corridors shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system located directly above the nurses’ station. It shall be permitted to connect the automatic sprinkler system to the domestic water service.

Every building, or portion thereof, where inmates or persons are in custody or restrained shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system conforming to NFPA 13. The main sprinkler control valve or valves and all other control valves in the system shall be locked in the open position and electrically supervised so that at least an audible and visual alarm will sound at a constantly attended location when valves are closed. The sprinkler branch piping serving cells may be embedded in the concrete construction.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
  5. The structure exceeds 24,000 square feet (465 m2), contains more than one fire area containing a Group M occupancy, and is separated into two or more buildings by fire walls of less than 4-hour fire resistance rating without openings.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with the California Fire Code in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.

An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area.

Exceptions:

  1. Existing Group R-3 occupancies converted to Group R-3.1 occupancies not housing bedridden clients, not housing nonambulatory clients above the first floor and not housing clients above the second floor.
  2. Existing Group R-3 occupancies converted to Group R-3.1 occupancies housing only one bedridden client and complying with Section 435.8.3.3.
  3. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13113 occupancies housing ambulatory children only, none of whom are mentally ill children or children with intellectual disabilities, and the buildings or portions thereof in which such children are housed are not more than two stories in height, and buildings or portions thereof housing such children have an automatic fire alarm system activated by approved smoke detectors.
  4. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6 occupancies licensed for protective social care which house ambulatory clients only, none of whom is a child (under the age of 18 years), or who is elderly (65 years of age or over).

    When not used for height increases or for area increases, an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be allowed in Group R-2.1 occupancies.

    An automatic sprinkler system designed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall not be utilized in Group R-2.1 or R-4 occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group R-4 occupancies. Attics shall be protected in accordance with Section 903.2.8.3.1 or 903.2.8.3.2.
Attics used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.

Attics not used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Attics protected throughout by a heat detector system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with Section 907.2.10.
  2. Attics constructed of noncombustible materials.
  3. Attics constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood framing complying with Section 2303.2.
  4. The automatic sprinkler system shall be extended to provide protection throughout the attic space.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3.1 occupancies with six or fewer individuals in a single-family dwelling.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
  5. A Group S-1 occupancy used for the storage of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406, as shown:

  1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).
  2. Buildings no more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.
  4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.4 as follows:

  1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2); or
  2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
In all occupancies other than Group U, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basements, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m2) and where there is not provided not fewer than one of the following types of exterior wall openings:

  1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
  2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling not less than 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The height of the bottom of the clear opening shall not exceed 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor.
Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner such that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, or openings as specified above shall be provided on not fewer than two sides of the story.
Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, or where walls, partitions or other obstructions are installed that restrict the application of water from hose streams, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes shall have additional sprinkler heads installed at alternate floors and at the lowest intake. Where a rubbish chute extends through a building more than one floor below the lowest intake, the extension shall have sprinklers installed that are recessed from the drop area of the chute and protected from freezing in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Such sprinklers shall be installed at alternate floors, beginning with the second level below the last intake and ending with the floor above the discharge. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings that have one or more stories with an occupant load of 30 or more located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, measured to the finished floor.

Exceptions:

  1. Open parking structures.
  2. Occupancies in Group F-2.

Where required by the California Mechanical Code, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying hazardous exhaust or flammable or combustible materials.

Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct systems where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.

In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

[F] TABLE 903.2.11.6

ADDITIONAL REQUIRED SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

SECTIONSUBJECT
402.5, 402.6.2Covered and open mall buildings
403.3High-rise buildings and Group I-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access
404.3Atriums
405.3Underground structures
407.6Group I-2
410.7Stages
411.4Special amusement buildings
412.3.6Airport traffic control towers
412.4.6, 412.4.6.1, 412.6.5Aircraft hangars
415.11.11Group H-5 HPM exhaust ducts
416.5Flammable finishes
417.4Drying rooms
419.5Live/work units
424.3Children’s play structures
440Horse racing stables
441Pet kennels
449Public libraries
507Unlimited area buildings
509.4Incidental uses
1029.6.2.3Smoke-protected assembly seating
CFCSprinkler system requirements as set forth in Section 903.2.11.6 of the California Fire Code

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.23 m3.

Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 33 of the California Fire Code.

All existing sound stages and approved production facilities equipped with an automatic fire sprinkler system shall be maintained in accordance with the provisions of California Fire Code Chapter 9.

All new sound stages shall be equipped with an approved automatic fire sprinkler system. The system shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of the California Fire Code Chapter 9 and shall meet the minimum design requirements of an Extra Hazard, Group 2 system.

See California Fire Code Chapter 11 and California Existing Building Code.

See California Fire Code Chapter 11 and California Existing Building Code.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings housing Group L occupancies. Sprinkler system design for research laboratories and similar areas of a Group L occupancy shall not be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard Group 2 with a design area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

In mixed occupancies, portions of floors or buildings not classified as Group L occupancies shall be provided with sprinkler protection designed of not less than that required for Ordinary Hazard Group 1 with a design area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

The automatic sprinkler system shall be designed and zoned to provide separate indication upon water-flow for each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier above the 10th story.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in all stations of fixed guideway transit systems.

Exceptions:

  1. Guideways when the closest sprinkler heads to the guideway are within 3 feet (914 mm) of the edge, over the platform, and spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) on center parallel to the guideway
  2. Station agent booths not exceeding 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area, when provided with an approved smoke detector connected to the building fire alarm system
  3. Power substations
  4. Machinery rooms, electrical rooms and train control rooms protected by an approved automatic fixed fire-extinguishing system
  5. Open stations
  6. Station platform areas open to three or more sides

Underground stations and stations in open cuts with walls 5 feet (1524 mm) above he top of the running rail and with a raised platform shall be provided with an under-vehicle guideway manually activated deluge sprinkler system. In open cut stations, such system shall be provided in guideways which are situated between a raised platform edge and a retaining wall.

Systems shall be provided along the entire length of track at each station platform.

Deluge nozzles with caps shall be located in the approximate center of track with spacing designed to completely wet the undersides of the vehicle at the applied density.

System density shall be a minimum of 0.19 gallon per minute (gpm) per square foot (0.72 L/m per m2) for the design area. When more than one zone is provided, two adjacent zones are required to be considered operating for calculating purposes.

Deluge systems shall be directly connected to a water supply capable of supplying the required flow rate for a minimum 30-minute duration.

Controls or manually operable valves shall be in a location acceptable to the Fire Code Official. All deluge systems shall be monitored by the station fire alarm system.

Each valve shall be monitored by a separate circuit. The alarm panel shall be located in an area normally occupied by station personnel or signals shall be transmitted to the operations control center (OCC).

Carports with habitable space above and attached garages, accessory to Group R-3 occupancies, shall be protected by residential fire sprinklers in accordance with this section. Residential fire sprinklers shall be connected to, and installed in accordance with, an automatic residential fire sprinkler system that complies with Section R313 of the California Residential Code or with NFPA 13D. Fire sprinklers shall be residential sprinklers or quick-response sprinklers, designed to provide a minimum density of 0.05 gpm/ft2 (2.04 mm/min) over the area of the garage and/or carport, but not to exceed two sprinklers for hydraulic calculation purposes. Garage doors shall not be considered obstructions with respect to sprinkler placement.

Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall not be required when additions or alterations are made to existing carports and/or garages that do not have an automatic residential fire sprinkler system installed in accordance with this section.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in all occupancies. The provisions of this section shall apply to any public school project consisting of one or more buildings on a new school campus and receiving state funds pursuant to Leroy F. Greene School Facilities Act of 1998, California Education Code sections 17070.10 through 17079. For purposes of this section, new campus refers to a school site, where an application for construction of original buildings was made to DSA on or after July 1, 2002.

Exceptions:

  1. A relocatable building that is sited with the intent that it be at the site for less than three years and is sited upon a temporary foundation in a manner that is designed to permit easy removal. Also see CCR, Title 24, Part 1, California Administrative Code, Section 4-314 for definition of relocatable building.
  2. Detached buildings designed and used for non-instructional purposes that meet the applicable requirements for that occupancy. Buildings would include, but not be limited to:

    • Concession
    • Stand Press Box
    • Restroom Facilities
    • Shade Structure
    • Snack Bar
    • Storage Building
    • Ticket Booth

Sprinklers shall be installed in spaces where the ceiling creates a “ceiling-plenum” or space above the ceiling is utilized for environmental air.

A new public school campus shall be entitled to include in the design and construction documents all of the applicable fire-resistive construction substitutions as permitted by this code.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.9.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2 and 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as applicable.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 as amended in Chapter 35 except as provided in Sections 903.3.1.1.1 and 903.3.1.1.2.

In other than Group I-2, I-2.1 and I-3 occupancies automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from a room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.

  1. Any room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.
  2. Any room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, where approved by the fire code official.
  3. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.
  4. Machine rooms, machinery spaces, control rooms and control spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008.
  5. Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, and associated electrical power distribution equipment, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
  6. Solar photovoltaic panel structures with no use underneath. Signs may be provided, as determined by the enforcing agency prohibiting any use underneath including storage.
  7. Solar photovoltaic (PV) panels supported by framing that have sufficient uniformly distributed and unobstructed openings throughout the top of the array (horizontal plane) to allow heat and gases to escape, as determined by the enforcing agency.

Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height in buildings not exceeding 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height above grade plane shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R as amended in Chapter 35.

The number of stories of Group R occupancies constructed in accordance with Sections 510.2 and 510.4 shall be measured from the horizontal assembly creating separate buildings.

Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units and sleeping units where the building is of Type V construction, provided there is a roof or deck above. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.
Sprinkler protection shall be provided in open-ended corridors and associated exterior stairways and ramps as specified in Section 1027.6, Exception 3.
Automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- and two-family dwellings, Group R-3, and townhouses shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D as amended in Chapter 35.

Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in all of the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:

  1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with this code.
  2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.
  3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R occupancies.
  4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.

Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.
Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the Health and Safety Code Section 13114.7. For connections to public waterworks systems, the water supply test used for design of fire protection systems shall be adjusted to account for seasonal and daily pressure fluctuations based on information from the water supply authority and as approved by the fire code official.
Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.
A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R.
Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.
Fire department connections for automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 912.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with the standards listed in Section 903.3.1 except as provided in Sections 903.3.8.1 through 903.3.8.5.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall not exceed six sprinklers in any single fire area.
Only areas classified by NFPA 13 as Light Hazard or Ordinary Hazard Group 1 shall be permitted to be protected by limited area sprinkler systems.
Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building with an automatic wet standpipe system, sprinklers shall be supplied by the standpipe system. Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building without an automatic wet standpipe system, water shall be permitted to be supplied by the plumbing system provided that the plumbing system is capable of simultaneously supplying domestic and sprinkler demands.
Control valves shall not be installed between the water supply and sprinklers unless the valves are of an approved indicating type that are supervised or secured in the open position.
Hydraulic calculations in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be provided to demonstrate that the available water flow and pressure are adequate to supply all sprinklers installed in any single fire area with discharge densities corresponding to the hazard classification.

Floor control valves and waterflow detection assemblies shall be installed at each floor where any of the following occur:

  1. Buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access
  2. Buildings that are four or more stories in height
  3. Buildings that are two or more stories below the highest level of fire department vehicle access

    Exception: Group R-3 and R-3.1 occupancies floor control valves and waterflow detection assemblies shall not be required.

Valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.

Exceptions:

  1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
  2. Limited area sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.3.8.
  3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.
  4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.

Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, where approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

Exceptions:

  1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.
  2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.
One exterior approved audible device, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required except when required by Section 907.
Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings and Group I-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the California Fire Code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code official.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed for automatic sprinkler systems or by other requirements of this code.
Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 of the California Fire Code or Chapter 5 of the California Mechanical Code to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with the California Electrical Code.

Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved.

Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously.

Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible and visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.

Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, the following items shall be inspected:

  1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.
  2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.
  3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.
  4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.
  5. Identification of devices with proper designations.
  6. Operating instructions.
Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.
The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.
Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 17A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 17 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5, NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 12 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 12A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 2001 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Automatic water mist systems shall be permitted in applications that are consistent with the applicable listing or approvals and shall comply with Sections 904.11.1 through 904.11.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 904.11.1.1 through 904.11.1.4.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 750 and the manufacturer's instructions.
Automatic water mist systems shall be automatically actuated.
Connections to a potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the California Plumbing Code.
Where a secondary water supply is required for an automatic sprinkler system, an automatic water mist system shall be provided with an approved secondary water supply.
Supervision and alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.
Monitoring shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.1.
Alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.2.
Floor control valves shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and the California Fire Code.

Commercial cooking equipment that produces grease-laden vapors shall be provided with a Type I Hood, in accordance with the California Mechanical Code, and an automatic fire extinguishing system that is listed and labeled for its intended use as follows:

  1. Wet chemical extinguishing system, complying with UL 300.
  2. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems.
  3. Automatic fire sprinkler systems.

All existing dry chemical and wet chemical extinguishing systems shall comply with UL 300.

Exception: Public schools kitchens, without deep-fat fryers, shall be upgraded to a UL 300-compliant system during state-funded modernization projects that are under the jurisdiction of the Division of the State Architect.

All systems shall be installed in accordance with the California Mechanical Code, appropriate adopted standards, their listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 of the California Mechanical Code.

A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) or less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.

The actuation of the fire suppression system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.
When carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect against all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.
Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide-extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.
Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.
Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.

Manual actuation and system interconnection for the hood suppression system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 904.12.1 and 904.12.2, respectively.

Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 905.2 through 905.10. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with the California Fire Code.
Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14 as amended in Chapter 35. Fire department connections for standpipe systems shall be in accordance with Section 912.

Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.11.1. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.

In other than Group R-3 and R-3.1 occupancies, Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout at each floor where any of the following occur:

  1. Buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
  2. Buildings that are four or more stories in height.
  3. Buildings where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.
  4. Buildings that are two or more stories below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:

  1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
  3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.
  4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
  5. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider:

    1. 5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less; and
    2. 5.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.

Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.

Exceptions:

  1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.
  2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings that are not high-rise buildings.

Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed to not exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:

  1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.
  2. At each floor-level landing within interior exit stairways opening directly on the mall.
  3. At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building.
  4. At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.
  5. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.

Stages greater than 1,000 square feet in area (93 m2) shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 11/2-inch and 21/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.

The 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack.
Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.
Buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 2007.5 of the California Fire Code.
Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36 of the California Fire Code.
Buildings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located.

For smokeproof enclosures see Section 909.20.

Housing units within cell complexes where 50 or more inmates are restrained, shall be provided with Class I wet standpipes. In addition, Class I wet standpipes shall be located so that it will not be necessary to extend hose lines through interlocking security doors and any doors in smoke-barrier walls, horizontal fire walls or fire barrier walls. Standpipes located in cell complexes may be placed in secured pipe chases.

Fixed-guideway and passenger rail transit systems shall be provided with a Class 1 standpipe system in accordance with this section.

Underground stations shall be provided with an automatic Class I standpipe system.

All other stations shall be provided with a Class I.

Exception: Open at-grade stations with unrestricted fire department access need not be provided with a standpipe system.

Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:

  1. In every required interior exit stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each story above and below grade. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate landing between stories, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official. See Section 909.20.2.3 for additional provisions in smokeproof enclosures.
  2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.

    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connections by a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose as measured along the path of travel, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.

  3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.

    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.

  4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.
  5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of an interior exit stairway with access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1011.12.
  6. Where the most remote portion of a floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations. The distances from a hose connection shall be measured along the path of travel.

Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an interior exit stairway shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an interior exit stairway are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.

In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a listed variable stream fog nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose.
In Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies having occupant loads exceeding 1,000 persons, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony and on each tier of dressing rooms.
Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.
A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be permitted to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.
Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.
In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment such as standpipes, fire hoses, fire extinguishers or fire department valves shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.

Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.

Exceptions:

  1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.
  2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.

Cabinets shall be unlocked.

Exceptions:

  1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.
  2. Approved locking arrangements.
  3. Group I-3 and in mental health areas of Group I-2 occupancies.

Dry standpipes shall not be installed.

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.

Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted to the control unit.

Exceptions:

  1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.
  2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.
Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3311.

Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in all of the following locations:

  1. In Group A, B, E, F, H, I, L, M, R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R.3.1, R-4 and S occupancies.

    Exception: In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C.

  2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.
  3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.
  4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1 of the California Fire Code.
  5. Where required by the California Fire Code sections indicated in Table 906.1.
  6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.
  7. Large and small family day-care homes shall be equipped with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum 2A10BC rating.
  8. Where required by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.
  9. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of domestic cooking equipment located in a Group I-2.

[F] TABLE 906.1

ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS IN THE CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE

IFC SECTIONSUBJECT
303.5Asphalt kettles
307.5Open burning
308.1.3Open flames—torches
309.4Powered industrial trucks
2005.2Aircraft towing vehicles
2005.3Aircraft welding apparatus
2005.4Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles
2005.5Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles
2005.6Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations
2007.7Heliports and helistops
2108.4Dry cleaning plants
2305.5Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2310.6.4Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2311.6Repair garages
2404.4.1Spray-finishing operations
2405.4.2Dip-tank operations
2406.4.2Powder-coating areas
2804.3Lumberyards/woodworking facilities
2808.8Recycling facilities
2809.5Exterior lumber storage
2903.5Organic-coating areas
3006.3Industrial ovens
3104.12Tents and membrane structures
3206.10High-piled storage
3315.1Buildings under construction or demolition
3317.3Roofing operations
3408.2Tire rebuilding/storage
3504.2.6Welding and other hot work
3604.4Marinas
3703.6Combustible fibers
5703.2.1Flammable and combustible liquids, general
5704.3.3.1Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
5704.3.7.5.2Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids
5705.4.9Solvent distillation units
5706.2.7Farms and construction sites—flammable and combustible liquids storage
5706.4.10.1Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids
5706.5.4.5Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments—fuel dispensing
5706.6.4Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids
5906.5.7Flammable solids
6108.2LP-gas

Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected and installed in accordance with this section and California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.

Exceptions:

  1. The distance of travel to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.
  2. In Group I-3 and in mental health areas of Group I-2, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.

The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4.

[F] TABLE 906.3(1)

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

LIGHT (Low) HAZARD OCCUPANCYORDINARY (Moderate) HAZARD OCCUPANCYEXTRA (High) HAZARD OCCUPANCY
Minimum rated single extinguisher2-Ac2-A4-Aa
Maximum floor area3,0001,5001,000
per unit of Asquare feetsquare feetsquare feet
Maximum floor area11,25011,25011,250
for extinguisherbsquare feetsquare feetsquare feet
Maximum distance of travel to extinguisher75 feet75 feet75 feet

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

  1. Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
  2. California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3 concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.
  3. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.

[F] TABLE 906.3(2)

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25 INCH

TYPE OF HAZARDBASIC MINIMUM EXTINGUISHER RATINGMAXIMUM DISTANCE OF TRAVEL TO EXTINGUISHERS (feet)
Light (Low)5-B30
10-B50
Ordinary (Moderate)10-B30
20-B50
Extra (High)40-B30
80-B50

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Note: For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.

The minimum sizes and distribution of portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards shall comply with Table 906.3(1).

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.

Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.11.5 of the California Fire Code.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.

Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.

Exceptions:

  1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.
  2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.
The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.
The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.
This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components.
Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the California Fire Code, and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.

Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following where applicable to the system being installed:

  1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.
  2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices.
  3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.
  4. Design minimum audibility level for occupant notification.
  5. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.
  6. Annunciators.
  7. Power connection.
  8. Battery calculations.
  9. Conductor type and sizes.
  10. Voltage drop calculations.
  11. Manufacturers’ data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.
  12. Details of ceiling height and construction.
  13. The interface of fire safety control functions.
  14. Classification of the supervising station.
  15. All plans and shop drawings shall use the symbols identified in NFPA 170, Standard for Fire Safety and Emergency Symbols.

Exception: Other symbols are allowed where approved by the enforcing agency.

Systems and components shall be California State Fire Marshal listed and approved in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1 for the purpose for which they are installed.

For the purpose of Section 907 fire walls and fire barrier walls shall not define separate buildings.

A fire alarm system shall not be used for any purpose other than fire warning or mass notification and where permitted by NFPA 72.

An approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code.

Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or waterflow detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, or automatic fire alarm systems, a single fire alarm box shall be installed at a location approved by the enforcing agency.

Exceptions:

  1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm control units dedicated to elevator recall control, supervisory service, and fire sprinkler monitoring.
  2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the public.
  3. The manual fire alarm box is not required to be installed when approved by the fire code official.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies where the occupant load due to the assembly occupancy is 300 or more. Group A occupancies not separated from one another in accordance with Section 707.3.9 shall be considered as a single occupancy for the purposes of applying this section. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 1,000, shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.

Every Group A building used for educational purposes shall be provided with a manual or automatic fire alarm system. This provision shall apply to, but shall not necessarily be limited to, every community college and university.

Exception: Privately owned trade or vocational schools or any firm or company which provides educational facilities and instructions for its employees.

Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 10,000 or more, see Section 907.2.1.3.

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.

Stadiums, arenas and grandstands required to caption audible public announcements shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.4.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13108.9, for all buildings or structures constructed on or after July 1, 1991, which are intended for public assemblies of 10,000 or more persons a public address system with an emergency backup power system shall be required.

A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 500 or more.
  2. The Group B occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
  3. The fire area contains an ambulatory care facility.
  4. Group B occupancies containing educational facilities, see Section 907.2.2.2.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.

Fire areas containing ambulatory care facilities shall be provided with an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system installed within the ambulatory care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies.

Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, provided the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.

Every Group B building used for educational purposes shall be provided with a manual or automatic fire alarm system. This provision shall apply to, but shall not necessarily be limited to, every community college and university.

Exception: Privately owned trade or vocational schools or any firm or company which provides educational facilities and instructions for its employees.

A manual and automatic fire alarm system that initiates the occupant notification signal utilizing an emergency voice/alarm communication system meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or more persons or containing more than one classroom or one or more rooms used for Group E or I-4 day care purposes in accordance with this section. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.

Exceptions:

  1. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall not be required in Group E occupancies with occupant loads of 100 or less, provided that activation of the manual fire alarm system initiates an approved occupant notification signal in accordance with Section 907.5.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:

    1. 2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors.
    2. 2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and similar areas are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
    3. 2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:

    1. 3.1. The building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
    2. 3.2. The emergency voice/alarm communication system will activate on sprinkler waterflow.
    3. 3.3. Manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.
    4. 3.4. The capability to activate the evacuation signal from a central point is provided.
  4. For public school state funded construction projects see Section 907.2.29.

Where more than one fire alarm control unit is used at the school campus, they shall be interconnected and shall operate all notification appliances.

Exception: Interconnection of fire alarm control units is not required when all the following are provided:

  1. Buildings that are separated a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) and in accordance with the California Building Code; and
  2. There is a method of two way communication between each classroom and the school administrative office approved by the fire enforcing agency; and
  3. A method of manual activation of each fire alarm system is provided.

Assembly occupancies with an occupant load of less than 1,000 and located within a Group E occupancy campus or building shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.

The fire alarm system notification shall comply with the requirements of Section 907.5.

Annunciation of the fire alarm system shall comply with the requirements of Section 907.6.3.1.

School fire alarm systems shall be monitored in accordance with Section 907.6.6.2.

Automatic detection shall be provided in accordance with this section.

Smoke detectors shall be installed at the ceiling of every room and in “ceiling-plenums” utilized for environmental air. Where the ceiling is attached directly to the underside of the roof structure, smoke detectors shall be installed on the ceiling only.

Exception: Where the environment or ambient conditions exceed smoke detector installation guidelines; heat detectors or fire sprinklers shall be used.

Heat detectors shall be installed in combustible spaces where sprinklers or smoke detectors are not installed.

An automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in new buildings of private schools.

Exception: Automatic detection devices are not required where an approved automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate on sprinkler water flow and manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.

An automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in all buildings used as or containing a Group E day-care.

Exception: Automatic detection devices are not required where an approved automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate on sprinkler water flow and manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.

Smoke detectors shall be installed in every room used for sleeping or napping.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group F occupancies where both of the following conditions exist:

  1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in height; and
  2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 60, 62 and 63, respectively, of the California Fire Code.

Manual fire alarm boxes shall be required on each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier and at each exit above the 10th story.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group I occupancies. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1, 907.2.6.2 and 907.2.6.3.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Large family day-care.
  2. Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official and staff evacuation responsibilities are included in the fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 of the California Fire Code.

A manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I-2 and I-2.1 occupancies. Where automatic fire suppression systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.

Exception: Where an entire facility is used for the housing of persons, none of whom are physically or mentally handicapped or nonambulatory, and are between the ages of 18 and 64, the buildings or structures comprising such facility shall be exempt from the provisions of this subsection relating to the installation of an automatic fire alarm system.

The fire alarm notification system shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.5.

Smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section.

  1. In patient and client sleeping rooms. Actuation of such detectors shall cause a visual display on the corridor side of the room in which the detector is located and shall cause an audible and visual alarm at the respective nurses’ station. A nurse call system listed for this function is an acceptable means of providing the audible and visual alarm at the respective nurses’ station and corridor room display. Operation of the smoke detector shall not include any alarm verification feature.

    Exception: In patient and client rooms equipped with existing automatic door closers having integral smoke detector, the integral detector is allowed to substitute for the room smoke detector, provided it meets all the required alerting functions.

  2. Group I-2 nurses’ stations. A minimum of one (1) smoke detector shall be installed at the nurses’ station and centrally located.
  3. In waiting areas and corridors onto which they open, in the same smoke compartment, in accordance with Section 407.2.1.

Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system and automatic smoke detection system installed for alerting staff.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required within temporary holding cells.

Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, automatic sprinkler system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal which automatically notifies staff.
Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4.2 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted.
Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.

An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally accessible to inmates.

Exceptions:

  1. Other approved smoke detection arrangements may be used to prevent damage or tampering or for other purposes provided the function of detecting any fire is fulfilled and the location of the detectors is such that the speed of detection will be equivalent to that provided by the spacing and location required in accordance with NFPA 72 as referenced in Chapter 35. This may include the location of detectors in return air ducts from cells, behind grilles or in other locations. Spot type, combination duct and open area smoke detectors may be used when located not more than 14 inches (356mm) from the return air grill. For initiation and annunciation purposes, these detectors may be combined in groups of four. The fire code official having jurisdiction, however, must approve the proposed equivalent performance of the design.
  2. For detention housing and/or mental health housing area(s), including correctional medical and mental health uses, automatic smoke detection system in sleeping units shall not be required when all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 2.1. All rooms, including the inmate cells are provided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
    2. 2.2. Building is continuously staffed by a correctional officer at all times.
  3. Smoke detectors are not required to be installed in inmate cells with two or fewer occupants in detention facilities which do not have a correctional medical and mental health use.
  4. Smoke detectors are not required to be installed in inmate day rooms of detention facilities where 24-hour direct visual supervision is provided by a correctional officer(s) and a manual fire alarm box is located in the control room.

A staff alerting fire alarm shall sound at all staff control stations on the floor of activation and an audible and visual signal shall be indicated on an annunciator at the facility control center upon activation of any automatic extinguishing system, automatic detection system, or any smoke detector or manual actuating or initiating device. In addition, where there are staff-control stations on the floor, an audible, visual and manual alarm shall be located in each staff control station.

Fire and trouble signals of fire alarm systems and sprinkler water-flow and supervisory signals of extinguishing systems shall be annunciated in an area designated as the facility control center which shall be constantly attended by staff personnel. All such signals shall produce both an audible signal and visual display at the facility control center indicating the building, floor zone or other designated area from which the signal originated in accordance with Section 907.6.4.

All local detention facilities within the scope of Section 6031.4 of the Penal Code shall have a automatic smoke detection system. A manual fire alarm-initiating device shall be installed in all guard control stations and shall be capable of alerting personnel in a central control point to the presence of fire or smoke within the facility.

Every large family day-care home shall be provided with at least one manual fire alarm box at a location approved by the authority having jurisdiction. Such device shall actuate a fire alarm signal, which shall be audible throughout the facility at a minimum level of 15 db above ambient noise level. These devices need not be interconnected to any other fire alarm device, have a control panel or be electrically supervised or provided with emergency power. Such device or devices shall be attached to the structure and must be a device that is listed and approved by the Office of the State Fire Marshal.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group M occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons.
  2. The Group M occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions:

  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered or open mall buildings complying with Section 402.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.
During times that the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box or from a waterflow switch shall not be required to activate the alarm notification appliances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly attended location from which evacuation instructions shall be initiated over an emergency voice/ alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R- 1 occupancies.

Exceptions:

  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2;
    2. 2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler waterflow; and
    3. 2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-2 and R-2.1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.9.1 and 907.2.9.4.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where:

  1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge;
  2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit; or
  3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.
  4. Congregate residences with more than 16 occupants.

Exceptions:

  1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler waterflow.
  3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1027.6, Exception 3.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing in all of the following locations:

  1. Common spaces outside of dwelling units and sleeping units.
  2. Laundry rooms, mechanical equipment rooms and storage rooms.
  3. All interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units and where each sleeping unit or dwelling unit either has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit or a means of egress door opening directly to an exit.

Required smoke alarms in dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing shall be interconnected with the fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.

Licensed Group R-2.1 occupancies housing more than six nonambulatory, elderly clients shall be provided with an approved manual and automatic fire alarm system.

Exceptions: Buildings housing nonambulatory clients on the first story only and which are protected throughout by the following:

  1. An approved and supervised automatic sprinkler system, as specified in Sections 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, which upon activation will initiate the fire alarm system to notify all occupants.
  2. A manual fire alarm system.
  3. Smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11.

Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies.

Exceptions:

  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when the following conditions are met:

    1. 2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2;
    2. 2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler waterflow; and
    3. 2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits where located at all nurses’ control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that the distances of travel required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens.

Exceptions:

  1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11.1 through 907.2.11.8 and NFPA 72.

Exception: For Group R occupancies. A fire alarm system with smoke detectors located in accordance with this section may be installed in lieu of smoke alarms. Upon actuation of the detector, only those notification appliances in the dwelling unit or guest room where the detector is actuated shall activate.

Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1:

  1. In sleeping areas.
  2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.
  3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

See Section 907.2.11.8 for specific location requirements.

Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-2.1, R-3, R-3.1 and R-4 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:

  1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.
  2. In each room used for sleeping purposes.
  3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
  4. In a Group R-3.1 occupancies, in addition to the above, smoke alarms shall be provided throughout the habitable areas of the dwelling unit except kitchens.

See Section 907.2.11.8 for specific location requirements.

Large family day-care homes shall be equipped with State Fire Marshal approved and listed single station residential type smoke alarms.

In all facilities housing a bedridden client, smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring when such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms shall be electrically interconnected so as to cause all smoke alarms to sound a distinctive alarm signal upon actuation of any single smoke alarm. Such alarm signal shall be audible throughout the facility at a minimal level of 15 db above ambient noise level. These devices need not be interconnected to any other fire alarm device, have a control panel, or be electrically supervised or provided with emergency power.

Smoke alarms shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Smoke alarms that no longer function shall be replaced.

See Section 907.2.11.8.

See Section 907.2.11.8.

Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R occupancies, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.

In new construction, and in newly classified Group R-3.1 occupancies, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery backup shall be connected to an emergency electrical system in accordance with Section 2702. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup where they are connected to an emergency electrical system that complies with Section 2702.

Smoke detectors listed in accordance with UL 268 and provided as part of the building fire alarm system shall be an acceptable alternative to single- and multiple-station smoke alarms and shall comply with the following:

  1. The fire alarm system shall comply with all applicable requirements in Section 907.
  2. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall initiate alarm notification in the dwelling unit or sleeping unit in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
  3. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall not activate alarm notification appliances outside of the dwelling unit or sleeping unit, provided that a supervisory signal is generated and monitored in accordance with Section 907.6.6.

Extract from NFPA 72 Section 29.8.3.4 Specific Location Requirements*.

This extract has been provided by NFPA as amended by the Office of the State Fire Marshal and adopted by reference as follows:

29.8.3.4 Specific location requirements. The installation of smoke alarms and smoke detectors shall comply with the following requirements:

  1. Smoke alarms and smoke detectors shall not be located where ambient conditions, including humidity and temperature, are outside the limits specified by the manufacturer's published instructions.
  2. Smoke alarms and smoke detectors shall not be located within unfinished attics or garages or in other spaces where temperatures can fall below 40°F (4°C) or exceed 100°F (38°C).
  3. Where the mounting surface could become considerably warmer or cooler than the room, such as a poorly insulated ceiling below an unfinished attic or an exterior wall, smoke alarms and smoke detectors shall be mounted on an inside wall.
  4. Smoke alarms or smoke detectors shall be installed a minimum of 20 feet horizontal distance from a permanently installed cooking appliance.

    Exceptions:

    1. Ionization smoke alarms with an alarm-silencing switch or photoelectric smoke alarms shall be permitted to be installed 10 feet (3 m) or greater from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
    2. Photoelectric smoke alarms shall be permitted to be installed greater than 6 feet (1.8 m) from a permanently installed cooking appliance where the kitchen or cooking area and adjacent spaces have no clear interior partitions and the 10 ft distances would prohibit the placement of a smoke alarm or smoke detector required by other sections of the code.
    3. Smoke alarms listed for use in close proximity to a permanently installed cooking appliance.
  5. Installation near bathrooms. Smoke alarms shall be installed not less than a 3-foot (0.91 m) horizontal distance from the door or opening of a bathroom that contains a bathtub or shower unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm required by other sections of the code.
  6. Smoke alarms and smoke detectors shall not be installed within a 36 in. (910 mm) horizontal path from the supply registers of a forced air heating or cooling system and shall be installed outside of the direct airflow from those registers.
  7. Smoke alarms and smoke detectors shall not be installed within a 36 in. (910 mm) horizontal path from the tip of the blade of a ceiling-suspended (paddle) fan.
  8. Where stairs lead to other occupied levels, a smoke alarm or smoke detector shall be located so that smoke rising in the stairway cannot be prevented from reaching the smoke alarm or smoke detector by an intervening door or obstruction.
  9. For stairways leading up from a basement, smoke alarms or smoke detectors shall be located on the basement ceiling near the entry to the stairs.
  10. For tray-shaped ceilings (coffered ceilings), smoke alarms and smoke detectors shall be installed on the highest portion of the ceiling or on the sloped portion of the ceiling within 12 in. (300 mm) vertically down from the highest point.
  11. Smoke alarms and detectors installed in rooms with joists or beams shall comply with the requirements of 17.7.3.2.4 of NFPA 72.
  12. Heat alarms and detectors installed in rooms with joists or beams shall comply with the requirements of 17.6.3 of NFPA 72.
* For additional requirements or clarification see NFPA 72.

See the California Residential Code for existing Group R-3 occupancies or Chapter 11 of the California Fire Code for all other existing Group R occupancies.

An automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in special amusement buildings in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.1 through 907.2.12.3.
Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately activate an audible and visible alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.

The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically:

  1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface level;
  2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions;
  3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency; and
  4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound which is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.

High-rise buildings and Group I-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, a fire department communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sections 412 and 907.2.22.
  2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.
  3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1.
  4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.
  5. In Group I-2, I-2.1 and R-2.1 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.
Automatic smoke detection in high-rise buildings and Group I-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be in accordance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 907.2.13.1.2.

Area smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall activate the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. In addition to smoke detectors required by Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.10, smoke detectors shall be located as follows:

  1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room which is not provided with sprinkler protection.
  2. In each elevator machine room, machinery space, control room and control space and in elevator lobbies.

Smoke detectors listed for use in air duct systems shall be provided in accordance with this section and the California Mechanical Code. The activation of any detector required by this section shall initiate a visable and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. Duct smoke detectors complying with Section 907.3.1 shall be located as follows:

  1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
  2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system.In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.
Where a wired communication system is approved in lieu of an emergency responder radio coverage system in accordance with Section 510 of the California Fire Code, the wired fire department communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 911, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside interior exit stairways. The fire department communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the interior exit stairway.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke detection installed in locations required by a rational analysis in Section 909.4 and in accordance with the system operation requirements in Section 909.17. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Such occupancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system complying with the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where required by Section 3206.5 of the California Fire Code.
Aerosol storage rooms and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where required by the California Fire Code.
Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual fire alarm system.
Where a smoke control system is installed in an underground building in accordance with this code, automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.18.1.

Not fewer than one smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed in all of the following areas:

  1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.
  2. Elevator lobbies.
  3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
  4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.
Activation of the smoke control system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location.
Where the lowest level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Where the total floor area exceeds 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/ alarm communication system shall be provided. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
A minimum of one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential aircraft hangar as defined in Chapter 2 and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm which will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in airport control towers in accordance with Sections 907.2.22.1 and 907.2.22.2.

Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed within the control tower cab.

Airport traffic control towers with multiple exits and equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be provided with smoke detectors in all of the following locations:

  1. Airport traffic control cab.
  2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.
  3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.
  4. Outside each opening into interior exit stairways.
  5. Along the single means of egress permitted from observation levels.
  6. Outside each opening into the single means of egress permitted from observation levels.

Airport traffic control towers with a single exit or where sprinklers are not installed throughout shall be provided with smoke detectors in all of the following locations:

  1. Airport traffic control cab.
  2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.
  3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.
  4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.
  5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.
  6. Means of egress.
  7. Accessible utility shafts.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing stationary storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L).

Where required by Chapter 48 of the California Fire Code, all interior solid-ceiling sets over 600 square feet (55.7 m2) in area, and platforms (when provided) over 600 square feet (55.7 m2) in area and which exceed 3 feet (914 mm) in height shall be protected by an approved heat detector system. Heat detectors shall be spaced 30 feet (9144 mm) on center or as required by the manufacturer's installation instructions. The fire alarm system shall be connected to an approved supervising station in accordance with Section 907.6.5 or a local alarm which will give an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

Where required by Chapter 48 of the California Fire Code in buildings with existing fire protection systems and where production intends to construct solid-ceiling sets over 600 square feet (55.7 m2) in area, and platforms over 600 square feet (55.7 m2) in area and which exceed 3 feet (914 mm) in height shall be protected by an approved heat detector system. Heat detectors shall be spaced 30 feet (9144 mm) on center or as required by the manufacturer's installation instructions. The fire alarm system shall be connected to an approved supervising station in accordance with Section 907.6.6 or a local alarm which will give an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

Fire alarm control units shall be California State Fire Marshal listed and shall be utilized in accordance with their listing. Control units are permitted to be temporarily supported by sets, platforms or pedestals.

Heat detection required by this section shall be defined as a portable system as it is intended to be reinstalled when platforms or sets are changed.

Heat detectors shall be secured to standard outlet boxes and are allowed to be temporarily supported by sets, platforms or pedestals.

Heat detectors shall be provided for solid-ceiling sets and platforms where required by Sections 4805.3 and 4811.14.

Every building and structure used or intended for sleeping purposes shall be provided with an automatic smoke-detection system.

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings and structures in existence and in operation prior to January 1, 1985.
  2. Tents, tent structures and buildings and structures that do not exceed 25 ft (7620 mm) in any lateral dimensions and where such building or structure is not more than one story.

Every organized camp shall provide and maintain audible appliances, or devices suitable for sounding a fire alarm. Such audible appliances or devices may be of any type acceptable to the enforcing agency provided they are distinctive in tone from all other signaling devices or systems and shall be audible throughout the camp premises. When an automatic fire alarm system is provided, as required by Section 450.6.6 of the California Building Code, all audible appliances required by this section shall be of the same type as that used in the automatic system.

Every fixed-guideway transit station shall be provided with an approved emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with NFPA 72. The emergency voice/alarm communication system, designed and installed so that damage to any one speaker will not render any paging zone of the system inoperative.

Exception: Open stations

Each station fire alarm system shall consist of:

  1. Fire alarm control unit at a location as permitted by the enforcing agency.
  2. An alarm annunciator(s). The annunciator(s) shall be located at a point acceptable to the enforcing agency. The annunciator(s) shall indicate the type of device and general location of alarm. All alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be transmitted to the local annunciator(s) and the operations control center.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be provided throughout passenger platforms and stations.

    Exception: Two-way emergency communication reporting devices (emergency telephones) are allowed to be used in lieu of manual fire alarm boxes as permitted by the enforcing agency. Such devices shall provide two-way communication between the operations control center and each device. Such devices shall be located as required for manual fire alarm boxes, and shall be distinctly identified by signs, coloring or other means acceptable to the enforcing agency.

  4. Automatic smoke detectors in all ancillary spaces.

    Exceptions:

    1. Ancillary spaces protected by an approved fixed automatic extinguishing system; or
    2. Ancillary spaces protected by quick-response sprinklers.
  5. Automatic control of exiting components.

Each station shall be provided with a an emergency voice/alarm communication system capable of transmitting voice, recorded or electronically generated textual messages to all areas of the station. The system(s) shall be configured such that the messages can be initiated from either the Emergency Management Panel (EMP) or the operations control center.

A dedicated twoway emergency communication phone system designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 shall be provided in all underground stations to facilitate direct communications for emergency response between remote locations and the EMP.

Remote emergency phones shall be located at ends of station platforms, each hose outlet connection and station valve rooms.

Provisions shall be made in the design of this two-way emergency communication phone system for extensions of the system to the next passenger station or guideway portal.

An approved manual fire alarm system conforming to the provisions of Section 907.2 shall be provided in all Type 3 winery caves.

A manual fire alarm system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group L occupancies. When Group L occupancies are located in mixed use buildings, at least one manual fire alarm shall be located in the Group L occupancy.

Manual fire alarm boxes shall be required on each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier and at each exit above the 10th story.

All occupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system signal utilizing an emergency voice/alarm communication system meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6. The provisions of this section shall apply to any public school project consisting of one or more buildings on a new school campus and receiving state funds pursuant to Leroy F. Greene School Facilities Act of 1998, California Education Code, Sections 17070.10 through 17079. For purposes of this section, new campus refers to a school site, where an application for construction of original buildings was made to the Division of the State Architect (DSA) on or after July 1, 2002.

Exceptions:

  1. A relocatable building that is sited with the intent that it be at the site for less than three years and is sited upon a temporary foundation in a manner that is designed to permit easy removal. Also see CCR, Title 24, Part 1, California Administrative Code, Section 4-314 for definition of relocatable building.
  2. Detached buildings designed and used for non-instructional purposes that meet the applicable requirements for that occupancy. Buildings would include, but not be limited to:

    • Concession stand
    • Press box
    • Restroom facilities
    • Shade structure
    • Snack bar
    • Storage building
    • Ticket booth
  3. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall not be required in Group E occupancies with occupant loads of 100 or less, provided that activation of the manual fire alarm system initiates an approved occupant notification signal in accordance with Section 907.5.

An automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in all occupancies. The provisions of this section shall apply to any public school project construction of a new building on an existing campus and receiving state funds pursuant to Leroy F. Green, School Facilities Act of 1998, California Education Code Sections 17070.10 through 17079. For purposes of this section, an existing campus refers to a school site, where an application for construction of original buildings was made to DSA prior to July 1, 2002.

Exceptions:

  1. A construction project that has an estimated total cost of less than $200,000.
  2. A relocatable building that is sited with the intent that it be at the site for less than three years and is sited upon a temporary foundation in a manner that is designed to permit easy removal. See California Administrative Code, Section 4-314 for definition of relocatable building.
  3. Detached buildings designed and used for non-instructional purposes that meet the applicable requirements for that occupancy. Buildings would include, but not be limited to:

    • Concession stand
    • Press box
    • Restroom facilities
    • Shade structure
    • Snack bar
    • Storage building
    • Ticket booth

An automatic fire alarm system shall be provided for all portions within the scope of an alteration project. The provisions of this section shall apply to any public school project on an existing campus and receiving state funds pursuant to Leroy F. Green, School Facilities Act of 1998, California Education Code Sections 17070.10 through 17079. For purposes of this section, an existing campus refers to a school site, where an application for construction of original buildings was made to DSA prior to July 1, 2002.

Exceptions:

  1. A construction project that has an estimated total cost of less than $200,000.
  2. A relocatable building that is sited with the intent that it be at the site for less than three years and is sited upon a temporary foundation in a manner that is designed to permit easy removal. See California Administrative Code, Section 4-314 for definition of relocatable building.
  3. Detached buildings designed and used for non-instructional purposes that meet the applicable requirements for that occupancy. Buildings would include, but not be limited to:

    • Concession
    • Stand Press Box
    • Restroom Facilities
    • Shade Structure
    • Snack Bar
    • Storage Building
    • Ticket Booth

An automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in all buildings used as or containing a Group E or Group I-4 day-care.

Automatic fire detectors utilized for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit where a fire alarm system is installed. Detectors shall, upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72.

Smoke detectors installed in ducts shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors shall be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit when a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Activation of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location and shall perform the intended fire safety function in accordance with this code and the California Mechanical Code. In facilities that are required to be monitored by a supervising station, duct smoke detectors shall report only as a supervisory signal and not as a fire alarm. They shall not be used as a substitute for required open area detection.

Exceptions:

  1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building's alarm notification appliances.
  2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble.
Where delayed egress locks or devices are installed on means of egress doors in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.7, an automatic smoke detection system shall be installed as required by that section and Section 1010.1.9.7.

In other than Groups I, R-2.1 and R-4 occupancies for single-story building, smoke detectors shall be installed at ceilings throughout all occupied areas and mechanical/electrical spaces. For multiple-story buildings, smoke detectors shall be installed throughout all occupied areas and mechanical/electrical spaces for the story where delayed egress devices are installed. Additional detectors are required on adjacent stories where occupants of those stories utilize the same means of egress.

Exception: Refer to Section 907.3.2.4 for Group A courthouse occupancies.

Smoke detectors shall be installed at ceilings throughout all occupied areas and mechanical/electrical spaces of smoke-compartments where delayed egress devices are installed. Additional detectors are required in adjacent smoke-compartments where occupants of those compartments utilize the same means of egress.

Occupancies licensed as residential care facilities for the elderly, and housing clients with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia residential facilities, smoke detectors shall be installed at ceilings throughout all occupiable rooms and areas and mechanical/electrical rooms and spaces.

An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed at ceilings in all occupied corridors and mechanical/electrical spaces of smoke-compartments where delayed egress devices are installed.

Automatic fire detectors installed for elevator emergency operation shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Division 1, Chapter 4, Subchapter 6, Elevator Safety Orders and NFPA 72.
The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the above fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72.
Where manual or automatic alarm initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the initiating devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 907.4.3.1.

In areas that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm control unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders, and supervising station transmitting equipment.

Exception: Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of a smoke detector, a heat detector shall be permitted.

Where a manual fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.2.1 through 907.4.2.6.

Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each exit. In buildings not protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so that the exit access travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

Exception: When individual dwelling units are served by a single exit stairway, additional boxes at other than the ground floor may be omitted.

The height of the manual fire alarm boxes shall be not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) and a not more than 48 inches (1219 mm) measured vertically, from the floor level to the highest point of the activating handle or lever of the box. Manual fire alarm boxes shall also comply with Section 11B-309.4.

Exception: [DSA-AC] In existing buildings there is no requirement to retroactively relocate existing manual fire alarm boxes to a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1219 mm) from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the box.

Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color.

Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT.

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box.

The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be accessible, unobstructed, unobscured and visible at all times.

Manual fire alarm boxes shall be operable with one hand including boxes with protective covers.

Where an automatic smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be utilized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat detectors shall be permitted.
For conditions other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 907.3, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler system installed in such areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the fire alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat detection.

A fire alarm system shall annunciate at the fire alarm control unit and shall initiate occupant notification upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.5.1 through 907.5.2.3.4. Where a fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by:

  1. Automatic fire detectors.
  2. Automatic sprinkler system waterflow devices.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes.
  4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

Exception: Where notification systems are allowed elsewhere in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly attended location.

A presignal feature shall not be installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location approved by the fire department, in order that occupant notification can be activated in the event of fire or other emergency.
Alarm notification appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their purpose.

Audible alarm notification appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm. In Group I-2 occupancies, audible appliances located in patient areas shall be only chimes or similar sounding appliances for alerting staff. See Section 907.6.6.

Exceptions:

  1. Audible alarm notification appliances are not required in patient areas of Group I-2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.
  2. A visible alarm notification appliance installed in a nurses’ control station or other continuously attended staff location in a Group I-2 suite shall be an acceptable alternative to the installation of audible alarm notification appliances throughout the suite in Group I-2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.
  3. Where provided, audible notification appliances located in each occupant evacuation elevator lobby in accordance with Section 3008.9.1 shall be connected to a separate notification zone for manual paging only.
The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupiable space within the building.
The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notification appliances shall be 110 dBA at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be required.

The audible signal shall be the standard fire alarm evacuation signal, ANSI S3.41 Audible Emergency Evacuation Signal, “three pulse temporal pattern,” as described in NFPA 72.

Exception: The use of the existing evacuation signaling scheme shall be permitted where approved by the enforcing agency.

Emergency voice/alarm communication systems required by this code shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a general or staged evacuation in accordance with the building's fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404 of the California Fire Code. In high-rise buildings and Group I-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, the system shall operate on a minimum of the alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows:

  1. Elevator groups.
  2. Interior exit stairways.
  3. Each floor.
  4. Areas of refuge as defined in Chapter 2.

Exception: In Group I-2, I-2.1 and R-2.1 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page.

A manual override for emergency voice communication shall be provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall also have the capability to broadcast live voice messages by paging zones on a selective and all-call basis.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use.
Where stadiums, arenas and grandstands have 15,000 fixed seats or more and provide audible public announcements with prerecorded or real-time captions, the emergency/voice alarm communication system shall also be captioned. Prerecorded or live emergency captions shall be from an approved location constantly attended by personnel trained to respond to an emergency.
Emergency voice/alarm communications systems shall be provided with emergency power in accordance with Section 2702. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 24 hours, as required in NFPA 72.

Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.5.2.3.1 through 907.5.2.3.4.

Exceptions:

  1. In other than Group I-2 and I-2.1, visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.
  2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in enclosed exit stairways, enclosed exit ramps, exterior exit stairs and exterior exit ramps.
  3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.

Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in public use areas and common use areas, including but not limited to:

  1. Band rooms
  2. Classrooms
  3. Corridors
  4. Gymnasiums
  5. Lobbies
  6. Meeting rooms
  7. Multipurpose rooms
  8. Music practice rooms
  9. Occupational shops
  10. Occupied rooms where ambient noise impairs hearing of the fire alarm
  11. Sanitary facilities including restrooms, bathrooms and shower rooms

Exception: Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall be initially designed with not less than 20-percent spare capacity to account for the potential of adding visible notification appliances in the future to accommodate hearing-impaired employee(s).

Group R-1 and R-2.1 dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.5.2.3.2 shall be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm system.

[F] TABLE 907.5.2.3.2

VISIBLE ALARMS

NUMBER OF SLEEP UNITSSLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH VISIBLE ALARMS
6 to 252
26 to 504
51 to 757
76 to 1009
101 to 15012
151 to 20014
201 to 30017
301 to 40020
401 to 50022
501 to 1,0005% of total
1,001 and over50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000

[SFM] Also see Chapter 11B, Section 11B-224.4 and Table 11B-224.4.

In Group R-2 occupancies required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with NFPA 72. Such capability shall be permitted to include the potential for future interconnection of the building fire alarm system with the unit smoke alarms, replacement of audible appliances with combination audible/visible appliances, or future extension of the existing wiring from the unit smoke alarm locations to required locations for visible appliances.

Protective social care facilities which house persons who are hearing impaired, shall be provided with notification appliances for the hearing impaired installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and which shall activated upon initiation of the fire alarm system or the smoke alarms.

One audible alarm notification appliance shall be mounted on the exterior of a buildings to alert occupants at each playground area.

Audible appliances shall be used in nonpatient areas. Visible appliances are allowed to be used in lieu of audible appliances in patient occupied areas. Audible appliances located in patient areas shall be only chimes or similar sounding appliances for alerting staff.

In occupancies housing nonambulatory persons where restraint is practiced, staff and attendants shall be provided and housed or located in such a manner that such supervisory personnel will also be alerted upon activation of the fire alarm system or any detector required by this section.

A fire alarm system shall be installed and monitored in accordance with Sections 907.6.1 through 907.6.6.2 and NFPA 72.

Wiring shall comply with the requirements of the California Electrical Code and NFPA 72.

Wireless protection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72.

Wiring for fire alarm signaling line circuits, initiating circuits and notification circuits in high-rise buildings shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. Class A in accordance with NFPA 72.

    Exception: Initiating circuits which serve only a single initiating device.

  2. Enclosed in continuous metallic raceways in accordance with the California Electrical Code.

    Exception: Metallic cable (MC) shall be permitted for fire alarm notification circuits where continuous metallic raceways are not required for survivability.

The primary and secondary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Back-up power for single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 907.2.11.4.

The fire alarm system shall identify the specific initiating device address, location, device type, floor level where applicable and status including indication of normal, alarm, trouble and supervisory status, as appropriate.

Exceptions:

  1. Fire alarm systems in single-story buildings less than 22,500 square feet (2090 m2) in area.
  2. Fire alarm systems that only include manual fire alarm boxes, waterflow initiating devices and not more than 10 additional alarm-initiating devices.
  3. Special initiating devices that do not support individual device identification.
  4. Fire alarm systems or devices that are replacing existing equipment.
The initiating device status shall be annunciated at an approved on-site location.

Fire alarm systems shall be divided into zones where required by this section. For the purposes of annunciation and notification, zoning shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. Where the fire-protective signaling system serves more than one building, each building shall be considered as a separate zone.
  2. Each floor of a building shall be considered as a separate zone.
  3. Each section of floor of a building that is separated by fire walls or by horizontal exits shall be considered as a separate zone.
  4. Each zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m2). The length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direction.

    Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13.

  5. For Group I-3 occupancies each cell complex shall be considered a separate zone.
  6. For Group H and L occupancies above the 10th story, each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier shall be considered a separate zone.
  7. Annunciation shall be further divided into zones where deemed necessary by the enforcing agency.

Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be annunciated in the main control unit by means of an audible signal and a visual display in accordance with NFPA 72. Identification of the type of alarm and supervisory initiating devices, such as manual, automatic, sprinkler waterflow, sprinkler valve supervisory, fire-pump supervisory, etc., shall be separately indicated.

Exception: Group R-3 occupancies.

An annunciator panel complying with Section 907.6.4.1 and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved remote location where deemed necessary by the enforcing agency. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of an audible-alarm silencing switch.

In high-rise buildings and Group I-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for each of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where provided:

  1. Smoke detectors.
  2. Sprinkler waterflow devices.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes.
  4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection devices or suppression systems.

In high-rise buildings, a zoning annunciator panel shall be provided in the Fire Command Center. This panel shall not be combined with the Firefighter Smoke Control Panel unless approved. Panel shall be in matrix format or an approved equivalent configuration. All indicators shall be based upon positive confirmation. The panel sha