CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2015 (IBC 2015)

Copyright

Preface

Acknowledgements

California Code of Regulations, Title 24

How to Distinguish Between Model Code Language and California Amendments

Code Development Committee Responsibilities (Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers)

Effective Use of the International Building Code

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 7A [Sfm] Materials and Construction Methods for Exterior Wildfire Exposure

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Reserved

Chapter 11A Housing Accessibility

Division I APPLICATION, GENERAL PROVISIONS, AND DEFINITIONS
Division II EXTERIOR FACILITIES
Division III BUILDING FEATURES
Division IV DWELLING UNIT FEATURES
Division V FEATURES COMMON TO EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR OF BUILDINGS
Division VI SITE IMPRACTICALITY TESTS
Division VII FIGURES

Chapter 11B Accessibility to Public Buildings, Public Accommodations, Commercial Buildings and Public Housing

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

History Note Appendix

NOTE 1: Covered multifamily dwellings may be subject to the requirements of more than one jurisdiction or law, which would require compliance with each law. Where federal, state, or local laws differ, the more stringent requirements apply. For additional information, see the Joint Statement of the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Department of Justice issued April 30, 2013 (www.hud.gov).

NOTE 2: Dwelling units constructed as senior citizen housing may also be subject to the Unruh Civil Rights Act. Refer to Division I, Part 2 of the California Civil Code. For additional information regarding application, interpretation and enforcement, contact the California Department of Fair Employment and Housing.

Division I APPLICATION, GENERAL PROVISIONS, AND DEFINITIONS

Division I Table of Contents

  • Section 1101A Application
  • Section 1102A Building Accessibility
  • Section 1103A Design and Construction
  • Section 1104A Covered Multifamily Dwellings
  • Section 1105A Garages, Carports and Parking Facilities
  • Section 1106A Site and Building Characteristics
  • Section 1107A Definitions

The application and authority of this chapter are identified and referenced in Sections 1.8.2.1.2 and 1102A for the Department of Housing and Community Development. Applicable sections are identified in the Matrix Adoption Tables of this code under the abbreviation HCD 1-AC.The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the following:

  1. All newly-constructed covered multifamily dwellings.
  2. New common use areas serving existing covered multifamily dwellings.
  3. Additions to existing buildings, where the addition alone meets the definition of a covered multifamily dwelling.
  4. New common-use areas serving new covered multifamily dwellings.
  5. Where any portion of a building’s exterior is preserved, but the interior of the building is removed, including all structural portions of floors and ceilings, the building is considered a new building for determining the application of this chapter.

Chapter 11A generally does not apply to public accommodations such as hotels and motels, and public housing. Public use areas, public accommodations, and public housing as defined in Chapter 2 of this code are subject to provisions of the Division of the State Architect (DSA-AC) in Chapter 11B, and are referenced in Section 1.9.1.

Newly constructed covered multifamily dwellings, which can also be defined as public housing, shall be subject to the requirements of Chapter 11A and Chapter 11B.

Buildings or portions of buildings and facilities within the scope of this chapter shall be accessible to persons with disabilities. Each building on a building site shall be considered separately when determining the requirements contained in this chapter, except when calculating the number of units which must comply with Section 1102A.3.1. Dwelling units within a single structure separated by firewalls do not constitute separate buildings.

Newly-constructed covered multifamily dwellings as defined in this chapter, include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. Apartment buildings with 3 or more dwelling units including timeshare apartments not considered a place of public accommodation or transient lodging as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 19955 (a), and Chapter 2 of the California Building Code.
  2. Condominiums with 4 or more dwelling units including timeshare condominiums not considered a place of public accommodation or transient lodging as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 19955 (a), and Chapter 2 of the California Building Code.
  3. Lodging houses, as defined in Chapter 2 of the California Building Code, used as a residence with more than 3 but not more than 5 guest rooms.
  4. Congregate residences, as defined in Chapter 2 of the California Building Code, with 3 or more sleeping units.
  5. Dwellings with 3 or more efficiency units, as defined in Chapter 2 of this code, or Section 17958.1 of the California Health and Safety Code.
  6. Shelters for homeless persons, not otherwise subject to the disabled access provisions of the Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance (DSA-AC).
  7. Dormitories, as defined in Chapter 2 of this code, with 3 or more guest rooms as defined in Chapter 2 of the California Building Code.
  8. Timeshare dwellings with 3 or more units, not considered a place of public accommodations or transient lodging as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 19955 (a), and Chapter 2 of the California Building Code.
  9. Other Group R occupancies in covered multifamily dwellings which are regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal. See Section 1.11.
  10. Public housing as defined in Chapter 2 of this code is subject to provisions of the Division of the State Architect (DSA-AC) in Chapter 11B. Newly constructed covered multifamily dwellings, which can also be defined as public housing, shall be subject to the requirements of Chapter 11A and Chapter 11B.

The building standards contained in this chapter do not apply to the alteration, repair, rehabilitation or maintenance of multifamily dwellings constructed for first occupancy prior to March 13, 1991.

Covered multifamily dwellings shall be maintained in compliance with the accessibility standards in effect at the time of construction. Apartments constructed prior to March 13, 1991 shall be maintained in compliance with the accessibility standards in effect at the time of construction.

Additions shall be subject to the requirements of this chapter, provided the addition, when considered alone, meets the definition of a covered multifamily dwelling, as defined in Chapter 2. New common use spaces serving existing covered multifamily dwellings shall be subject to the requirements of this chapter.

Note: For all existing public use areas, public accommodations, and public housing, see Chapter 11B for provisions of the Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance (DSA-AC).

This section shall apply to multistory dwelling units on the ground floor of buildings without elevators for which an application for a construction permit is submitted on or after July 1, 2005.

Exception: Carriage units as defined in Chapter 2 and regulated only by the Department of Housing and Community Development as referenced in Section 1.8.2.1.2.

At least 10 percent but not less than one of the multistory dwellings in apartment buildings with 3 or more dwelling units and/or condominiums with 4 or more dwelling units shall comply with the following:

  1. The primary entry to the dwelling unit shall be on an accessible route unless exempted by site impracticality tests in Section 1150A.
  2. At least one powder room or bathroom shall be located on the primary entry level, served by an accessible route and shall comply with the provisions in Division IV.
  3. All rooms or spaces located on the primary entry level shall be served by an accessible route and shall comply with the provisions in Division IV. Rooms and spaces located on the primary entry level and subject to this chapter may include but are not limited to kitchens, powder rooms, bathrooms, living rooms, bedrooms or hallways.
  4. Common use areas covered by this section shall be accessible as required by this chapter. Public use areas as defined in Chapter 2 of this code are subject to provisions of the Division of the State Architect (DSA-AC) and are referenced in Section 1.9.1.1.

The minimum number of multifamily dwelling units which must comply with this section shall be calculated using the total number of all multistory dwelling units in buildings on a site which are subject to this section. Any fraction thereof shall be rounded to the next highest whole number.

Multistory dwelling units contained in buildings with elevators shall comply with this section. For multistory dwelling units in buildings with elevators, the story of the unit that is served by the building elevator is considered a ground floor and the primary entry floor to the unit and shall comply with the following:

  1. At least 1 powder room or bathroom shall be located on the primary entry level.
  2. At least 1 kitchen shall be located on the primary entry level.
  3. All rooms or spaces located on the primary entry level shall be served by an accessible route and shall comply with Division IV.

During periods of partial or restricted use of a building or facility, the entrances used for primary access shall be accessible to and usable by persons with disabilities.

When buildings are required to be accessible, they shall be designed and constructed as provided in this chapter.

All ground-floor dwelling units in nonelevator buildings shall be adaptable and on an accessible route, unless an accessible route is not required as determined by site impracticality provisions in Section 1150A. For buildings with elevators, see Section 1106A.

Multistory dwelling units shall comply with Section 1102A.3.

Where the first floor containing dwelling units in a building is above grade, all units on that floor shall be served by an accessible route. This floor will be considered a ground floor and all dwelling units are considered covered multifamily dwelling units.

Exception: Carriage units as defined in Chapter 2 and regulated only by the Department of Housing and Community Development as referenced in Section 1.8.2.1.2.

Multistory dwelling units shall comply with Section 1102A.3.

Garages, carports and other parking facilities, which are accessory to covered multifamily dwelling units, shall be accessible as required in Section 1109A.

Covered multifamily dwellings with elevators shall be designed and constructed to provide at least one accessible entrance on an accessible route, regardless of terrain or unusual characteristics of the site. Covered multifamily dwellings without elevators shall be designed and constructed to provide at least one accessible entrance on an accessible route unless terrain or unusual characteristics of the site prevent an accessible route based on the conditions listed below:

  1. Accessible entrance. Regardless of site considerations described in Section 1150A, an accessible entrance on an accessible route is required when there is an elevator connecting the parking area with the dwelling units on a ground floor. (In this case, those dwelling units on the ground floor served by an elevator, and at least one of each type of public- and common-use areas, would be subject to these requirements.)
  2. Elevator building. When a building elevator or elevators are provided as a means of access to dwelling units other than dwelling units on a ground floor (see Section 1104A.2), the building is an elevator building. All dwelling units become covered multifamily dwellings in that building. The elevator in that building must provide accessibility to all dwelling units in the building, regardless of the slope of the natural terrain. For multistory dwelling units in buildings with one or more elevators, see Section 1102A.3.2.

    Note: Where a building elevator is provided only as means of creating an accessible route to covered multifamily dwelling units on a ground floor, the building is not considered to be an elevator building, only dwelling units located on the ground floor shall be required to comply with this chapter.

  3. Elevated walkway. When an elevated walkway is planned between a building entrance and a vehicular or pedestrian arrival point, and the planned walkway has a slope no greater than 10 percent (1 unit vertical in 10 units horizontal), the floor being served by the elevated walkway becomes a ground floor and accessibility to all dwellings on that ground floor is required.

    Note: Since the planned walkway meets the 10 percent slope criterion, it is required to provide an accessible route to the entrance, and the slope of the walkway must be reduced to 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.33 percent slope) maximum.

For tests to determine site impracticality due to terrain considerations in nonelevator buildings, see Section 1150A.

All definitions are located in Chapter 2.

Division II EXTERIOR FACILITIES

Division II Table of Contents

  • Section 1108A General Requirements for Accessible Parking and Exterior Routes of Travel
  • Section 1109A Parking Facilities
  • Section 1110A Exterior Accessible Routes
  • Section 1111A Changes in Level on Accessible Routes
  • Section 1112A Curb Ramps on Accessible Routes
  • Section 1113A Walks and Sidewalks on Accessible Routes
  • Section 1114A Exterior Ramps and Landings on Accessible Routes
  • Section 1115A Exterior Stairways
  • Section 1116A Hazards on Accessible Routes

Note: In addition to provisions of this division, exterior routes of travel that provide access to, or egress from, buildings for persons with disabilities shall also comply with Chapter 10.

Each parking facility provided for covered multifamily dwellings and facilities (e.g., swimming pools, club houses, recreation areas and laundry rooms) that serve covered multifamily dwellings shall provide accessible parking as required by this section.

Parking facilities shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  1. Garages
  2. Private garages
  3. Carports
  4. Off-street parking (parking lots/spaces)

Private garages accessory to covered multifamily dwelling units, shall be accessible as required in Section 1109A. Private garages include individual garages and multiple individual garages grouped together.

Exception: A private garage attached to and directly serving a single covered multifamily dwelling unit providing at least one of the following options:

  1. A door leading directly from the covered dwelling unit, which immediately enters the garage. The door shall comply on both sides with Sections 1132A.3 through 1132A.9.
  2. An accessible route of travel from the covered dwelling unit to an exterior door entering the garage. See Section 1132A.1 for requirements at both exit doors.
  3. An accessible route of travel from the dwelling unit’s primary entry door to the vehicular entrance at the garage. See Section 1132A.1 for requirements at the primary entry door.

Accessible parking spaces shall be provided at a minimum rate of 2 percent of the covered multifamily dwelling units. At least one space of each type of parking facility shall be made accessible even if the total number exceeds 2 percent.

When assigned parking spaces are provided for a resident or a group of residents, at least 2 percent of the assigned parking spaces serving covered multifamily dwelling units shall be accessible in each type of parking facility. At least one space of each type of parking facility shall be made accessible even if the total number exceeds 2 percent. When assigned parking is provided, signage as required by Section 1109A.8.8 shall not be required.

When parking is provided for covered multifamily dwellings and is not assigned to a resident or a group of residents at least 5 percent of the parking spaces shall be accessible and provide access to grade-level entrances of covered multifamily dwellings and facilities (e.g., swimming pools, club houses, recreation areas, and laundry rooms) that serve covered multifamily dwellings. Accessible parking spaces shall be provided with signage as required by Section 1109A.8.8. Such signage shall not be blocked from view by a vehicle parked in the space.

When assigned parking is provided, designated accessible parking for the dwelling unit shall be provided on request of residents with disabilities on the same terms and with the full range of choices (e.g., off-street parking, carport or garage) that are available for other residents.

The location of accessible parking spaces shall comply with the following:

  1. Accessible parking spaces shall be located on the shortest possible accessible route to an accessible building, or covered multifamily dwelling unit entrance. All van accessible spaces may be grouped on one level of a multilevel parking facility.
  2. When parking facilities are located adjacent to a building with multiple accessible entrances, accessible parking spaces shall be dispersed and located near the accessible building entrances.
  3. When practical, the accessible route shall not cross lanes for vehicular traffic. When crossing vehicle traffic lanes is necessary, the accessible route shall be designated and marked as a crosswalk.
  4. Parking facilities that do not serve a particular building shall have accessible parking spaces located on the shortest possible accessible route to an accessible pedestrian entrance of the parking facility.
  5. Accessible parking spaces shall be located so that persons with disabilities are not compelled to wheel or walk behind parked cars other than their own.

    Exception: When the enforcement agency determines that compliance with this section or providing equivalent facilitation would create an unreasonable hardship, parking spaces may be provided which would require a person with physical disabilities to wheel or walk behind other than accessible parking spaces.

Accessible parking required by this section shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 1109A.

All entrances, exits and vehicular passageways to and from required accessible parking spaces within parking facilities, shall have a minimum vertical clearance of 8 feet 2 inches (2489 mm) from the floor to the lowest projection of the ceiling. Reflective warning signs complying with Section 1143A for character height shall be installed at transitions from the 8 feet 2 inch ceiling to lower ceiling heights in vehicular passageways in the same parking level.

Parking spaces shall be arranged to comply with the following:

  1. In each parking area, a bumper or curb shall be provided and located to prevent encroachment of cars over the required width of walkways.
  2. Ramps, including curb ramps, shall not encroach into any accessible parking space or the adjacent loading and unloading access aisle.

Surface slopes of accessible parking spaces and access aisles shall be the minimum possible and shall not exceed 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) per foot (2.083-percent gradient) in any direction.

Accessible parking spaces shall comply with Sections 1109A.8.5 and 1109A.8.6.

Where accessible single spaces are provided, they shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

  1. Single spaces shall be 14 feet (4267 mm) wide minimum, and shall provide a 9-foot (2743 mm) wide parking area and a 5-foot (1524 mm) wide loading and unloading access aisle. Access aisles shall be permitted to be located on either side of the vehicle, and shall extend the full required length of the parking spaces they serve.
  2. When more than one space is provided, two 9-foot (2743 mm) wide parking spaces may be lined on each side of a 5-foot (1524 mm) wide loading and unloading access aisle.
  3. The minimum length of each parking space shall be 18 feet (5486 mm).
  4. The loading and unloading access aisle shall be marked by a border painted blue. Within the blue border, hatched lines a maximum of 36 inches (914 mm) on center shall be painted a color contrasting with the parking surface, preferably blue or white. The words “NO PARKING” shall be painted on the ground within each 5-foot (1524 mm) wide loading and unloading access aisle. This notice shall be painted in white letters no less than 12 inches (305 mm) high and located so that it is visible from the adjacent vehicular way.

    Note: See Figures 11A-2A, 11A-2B and 11A-2C.

One in every eight accessible spaces, but not less than one, shall be van accessible and shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

  1. Each van-accessible parking space shall be 17 feet (5181 mm) wide minimum, and shall provide either of the following:

    1. 1.1. A 12-foot (3658 mm) wide minimum parking area and a 5-foot (1524 mm) wide minimum loading and unloading access aisle.
    2. 1.2. A 9-foot (2743 mm) wide minimum parking area and an 8-foot (2438 mm) wide minimum loading and unloading access aisle.

    Access aisles shall be located on the passenger side of the vehicle with the vehicle parked in the forward position, and shall extend the full required length of the parking spaces they serve.

  2. The minimum length of each space shall be 18 feet (5486 mm).
  3. Each space shall be designated “van accessible” as required by Section 1109A.8.8.
  4. All van accessible spaces may be grouped on one level of a multilevel parking facility.
  5. The loading and unloading access aisle shall be marked by a border painted blue. Within the blue border, hatched lines a maximum of 36 inches (914 mm) on center shall be painted a color contrasting with the parking surface, preferably blue or white. The words “NO PARKING” shall be painted on the ground within each loading and unloading access aisle. This notice shall be painted in white letters no less than 12 inches (305 mm) high and located so that it is visible from the adjacent vehicular way.

    Note: See Figures 11A-2A, 11A-2B and 11A-2C.

Parking spaces adjacent to accessible parking spaces shall not be considered as loading and unloading access aisles.

Each accessible parking space shall be identified with signage and surface marking in accordance with Sections 1109A.8.8.1 and 1109A.8.8.2.

Each accessible parking space reserved for persons with disabilities shall be identified by a reflective sign consisting of the “International Symbol of Accessibility” complying with Section 1143A.8. The sign shall not be smaller than 70 square inches (4516 mm2) in area, and shall be posted 60 inches minimum above the finish floor or ground surface, measured to the bottom of the sign. Signs located on accessible routes shall be posted at a minimum height of 80 inches (2032 mm) above the finish floor or ground surface of the accessible route, measured to the bottom of the sign.

Signs identifying accessible parking spaces shall be visible from each parking space they serve, and shall be permanently posted immediately adjacent to the parking space or within the projected parking space width at the head end of the parking space. Signs may also be permanently posted on a wall at the interior end of the parking space.

Van accessible spaces shall comply with Section 1109A.8.6 and shall have an additional sign or additional language stating “Van Accessible” below the symbol of accessibility.

An additional sign shall also be posted in a conspicuous place at each entrance to off-street parking facilities or immediately adjacent to and visible from each accessible stall or space. The sign shall not be less than 17 inches (432 mm) by 22 inches (559 mm) in size with lettering not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) in height, and shall clearly and conspicuously state the following:

“Unauthorized vehicles parked in designated accessible spaces not displaying distinguishing placards or special license plates issued for persons with disabilities will be towed away at the owner’s expense. Towed vehicles may be reclaimed at ____________________ or by telephoning__________.”

Blank spaces are to be filled in with appropriate information as a permanent part of the sign.

In addition to the signage requirements, each accessible parking space shall have a surface identification complying with either of the following:

  1. The parking space shall be outlined or painted blue, and shall be marked with the “International Symbol of Accessibility” in white or a suitable contrasting color. The “International Symbol of Accessibility” shall be 36 inches (914 mm) wide by 36 inches (914 mm) high minimum, with the centerline 6 inches (152 mm) maximum from the centerline of the parking space, its sides parallel to the length of the parking space, and its lower side aligned with the end of the parking space.
  2. The parking space shall be marked with the “International Symbol of Accessibility”, in white on a blue background, 36 inches (914 mm) wide by 36 inches (914 mm) high minimum in size. The centerline of the “International Symbol of Accessibility” shall be 6 inches (152 mm) maximum from the centerline of the parking space, its sides shall be parallel to the length of the parking space, and its lower side shall be aligned with the end of the parking space length.

Note: See Figures 11A-2A, 11A-2B and 11A-2C.

When a building or portion of a building is required to be accessible or adaptable, an accessible route shall be provided to all portions of the building, accessible building entrances and between the building and the public way. The accessible route shall be the most practical direct route and to the maximum extent feasible, coincide with the route for the general public and building residents.

Exterior accessible routes shall be provided as follows:

  1. At least one accessible route within the boundary of the site shall be provided from public transportation stops, accessible parking and accessible passenger loading and unloading zones, and public streets or sidewalks to the accessible building entrance they serve. Where more than one route of travel is provided, all routes shall be accessible.
  2. At least one accessible route shall connect accessible buildings, facilities, elements and spaces that are on the same site. Accessible routes shall be provided between accessible buildings and accessible site facilities when more than one building or facility is located on a site.
  3. At least one accessible route shall connect accessible building or facility entrances with all accessible spaces, elements, and covered multifamily dwelling units.
  4. An accessible route shall connect at least one accessible entrance of each covered multifamily dwelling unit with exterior spaces and facilities that serve the dwelling unit.
  5. Where elevators are provided for vertical access, all elevators shall be accessible. See Section 1124A.

    Note: If the slope of the finished grade between covered multifamily dwellings and site arrival points, public use or common use facilities (including parking) exceeds 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.33-percent slope), or where other physical barriers (natural or artificial) or legal restrictions, all of which are outside the control of the owner, prevent the installation of an accessible route, an acceptable alternative is to provide access by a vehicular route, provided:

    1. There is accessible parking on an accessible route for at least 2 percent of the covered multifamily dwelling units, and
    2. Necessary site provisions such as parking spaces and curb ramps are provided at the public use or common use facility.

At every primary public entrance and at every major junction where the accessible route diverges from the circulation path along or leading to an accessible route, entrance or facility, there shall be a sign displaying the “International Symbol of Accessibility.” Signs shall indicate the direction to accessible building entrances and facilities and shall comply with the requirements found in Section 1143A.

Floor and ground surfaces shall be stable, firm, and slip resistant. If carpet or carpet tile is used in a common-use area or public-use area on a ground or floor surface, it shall have firm backing or no backing. Carpet or carpet tile shall have a level loop, textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile texture. The maximum pile height shall be 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to floor surfaces and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge. Carpet edge trim shall comply with Section 1111A requirements for changes in level.

Recessed doormats shall be adequately anchored to prevent interference with wheelchair traffic.

Exterior accessible routes that exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) in length shall comply with Section 1138A.1.2. (See Figure 11A-1L)

Abrupt changes in level along any accessible route shall not exceed 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). When changes in level do occur, they shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50-percent slope). Changes in level not exceeding 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) may be vertical.

Changes in level greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) shall be made by means of a sloped surface not greater than 1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), or a curb ramp, ramp, elevator or platform (wheelchair) lift. Stairs shall not be part of an accessible route. When stairs are located along or adjacent to an accessible route they shall comply with Section 1115A for exterior stairways.

Curb ramps within the boundary of the site shall be constructed at each corner of street intersections and where a pedestrian way crosses a curb. The preferred and recommended location for curb ramps is in the center of the crosswalk of each street corner. Where it is necessary to locate a curb ramp in the center of the curb return, the street surfaces shall be marked to identify pedestrian crosswalks, and the lower end of the curb ramp shall terminate within such crosswalk areas. Curb ramps do not require handrails.

Curb ramps shall be located or protected to prevent obstruction by parked cars. Built-up curb ramps shall be located so that they do not project into vehicular traffic lanes, parking spaces, or the adjacent loading and unloading access aisle.

Curb ramps shall be a minimum of 48 inches (1219 mm) in width.

If diagonal (or corner-type) curb ramps have returned curbs or other well-defined edges, such edges shall be parallel to the direction of pedestrian flow. The bottom of diagonal curb ramps shall have a 48-inch (1219 mm) minimum clear space as shown in Figures 11A-3A through 11A-3M. If diagonal curb ramps are provided at marked crossings, the 48-inch (1219 mm) clear space shall be within the markings (see Figures 11A-3A through 11A-3M). If diagonal curb ramps have flared sides, they shall also have at least a 24-inch-long (610 mm) segment of straight curb located on each side of the curb ramp and within the marked crossing. See Figures 11A-3A through 11A-3M.

The slope of curb ramps shall not exceed 1 unit vertical to 12 units horizontal (8.33-percent slope) and shall lie, generally, in a single sloped plane. Transitions from ramps to walks, gutters or streets shall be flush and free of abrupt changes. Maximum slopes of adjoining gutters, road surface immediately adjacent to the curb ramp, or accessible route shall not exceed 1 unit vertical to 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope) within 4 feet (1219 mm) of the top and bottom of the curb ramp.

If a curb ramp is located where pedestrians must walk across the ramp, then it shall have flared sides; the maximum slope of the flare shall be 1 unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). Curb ramps with returned curbs may be used where pedestrians would not normally walk across the ramp. See Figures 11A-3A through 11A-3M.

A level landing 48 inches (1219 mm) deep shall be provided at the upper end of each curb ramp over its full width to permit safe egress from the ramp surface, or the slope of the fanned or flared sides of the curb ramp, shall not exceed 1 unit vertical to 12 units horizontal (8.33-percent slope).

The surface of each curb ramp and its flared sides shall be stable, firm and slip-resistant and shall be of contrasting finish from that of the adjacent sidewalk.

All curb ramps shall have a grooved border 12 inches (305 mm) wide at the level surface of the sidewalk along the top and each side approximately 3/4 inch (19 mm) on center. All curb ramps constructed between the face of the curb and the street shall have a grooved border at the level surface of the sidewalk. See Figures 11A-3A through 11A-3K.

See Chapter 11B.

Walks and sidewalks subject to this chapter shall have a continuous common surface, not interrupted by steps or by abrupt changes in level exceeding 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). (See Section 1111A).

Walking surfaces shall be stable, firm, and slip resistant, and shall comply with Section 1110A.3.

Walks and sidewalks shall be a minimum of 48 inches (1219 mm) in width, except that walks serving an individual dwelling unit in covered multifamily buildings may be reduced to 36 inches (914 mm) in clear width except at doors.

Surface cross slopes shall not exceed 1 unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2.083-percent slope).

All walks on an accessible route with continuous gradients shall have level areas at least 60 inches (1524 mm) in length at intervals of at least every 400 feet (122 m).

When the slope in the direction of travel of any walk on an accessible route exceeds 1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), it shall comply with the ramp provisions of Section 1114A.

Walks on an accessible route shall be provided with a level area at each side of a door or gate. Level areas shall comply with the applicable requirements for maneuvering clearances in Section 1126A.3.

Walks, sidewalks and pedestrian ways on an accessible route shall be free of gratings whenever possible. Gratings located in the surface of any of these areas, grid openings in gratings shall be limited to 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in the direction of traffic. Elongated openings in gratings shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the dominant direction of traffic.

Exceptions:

  1. Where the enforcement agency determines that compliance with this section would create an unreasonable hardship, an exception may be granted when equivalent facilitation is provided.
  2. This section shall not apply in those conditions where, due to legal or physical constraints, all or portions of the site of the project will not allow compliance with these building standards or equivalent facilitation on all or portions of one site without creating an unreasonable hardship.

Handrails provided along walking surfaces with running slopes not steeper than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope) shall comply with Section 1114A.6.

The clear width of ramps shall be consistent with the requirements in Chapter 10 of this code, but in no case shall be less than 48 inches (1219 mm)

Handrails may project into the required clear width of the ramp at each side 31/2 inches (89 mm) maximum at the handrail height. Curbs, wheel guides and/or appurtenances shall not project into the required clear width of ramps.

Exception: The clear width of ramps serving accessible entrances to covered multifamily dwellings with an occupant load of 10 or less may be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum between handrails.

Note: See Section 1114A.6.2.4 for handrail projections.

The maximum slope of ramps on an accessible route shall be no greater than 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.33-percent slope). Transitions from ramps to walks, gutters or streets shall be flush and free of abrupt changes.

Exception: Ramps serving decks, patios or balconies as specified in Section 1132A.4.

The cross slope of ramp surfaces shall be no greater than 1 unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2.083-percent slope).

Outdoor ramps, ramp landings and their approaches shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on the walking surface.

Ramp landings shall be level and comply with this section.

Landings shall be provided at the top and bottom of each ramp. Intermediate landings shall be provided at intervals not exceeding 30 inches (762 mm) of vertical rise and at each change of direction. Landings are not considered in determining the maximum horizontal distance of each ramp.

Note: Examples of ramp dimensions are:

SLOPE (Grading %)MAXIMUM RISE (Inches)MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL PROJECTION (Feet)
(× 25.4 for mm)(× 304.8) for mm)
1:12 (8.33%)3030
1:15 (6.67%)3037.5
1:16 (6.25%)3040
1:20 (5.00%)3050

Top landings shall not be less than 60 inches (1524 mm) wide. Top landings shall have a minimum length of not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) in the direction of the ramp run. See Section 1126A.3 for maneuvering clearances at doors.

The minimum width of bottom and intermediate landings shall not be less than the width of the ramp.

Intermediate landings shall have a length in the direction of ramp run of not less than 60 inches (1524 mm). Bottom landings shall have a length in the direction of ramp run of not less than 72 inches (1829 mm).

Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of the landing to less than 42 inches (1067 mm) and shall not reduce the required width by more than 3 inches (76.2 mm) when fully open. (See Figure 11A-6D).

The width of the landing shall comply with Section 1126A.3 for strike edge extension and maneuvering clearance at doors.

Where doorways are located adjacent to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearance required by Section 1126A.3 shall be permitted to overlap the required landing area.

Intermediate landings at a change of direction shall be sized to provide 60 inches turning space complying with Section 1138A.1.3. Intermediate landings at a change of direction in excess of 30 degrees shall have a length in the direction of ramp run of not less than 72 inches (1829 mm). (See Figures 11A-6C and 11A-6D.)

Ramps more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the adjacent floor or ground and open on one or both sides shall be provided with guardrails as required by Section 1013. Guardrails shall be continuous from the top of the ramp to the bottom of the ramp.

Handrails shall be provided at each side of ramps when the slope exceeds 1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope).

Exceptions:

  1. Curb ramps.
  2. Ramps that serve an individual dwelling unit may have one handrail, except that ramps open on one or both sides shall have handrails provided on the open side or sides.
  3. Ramps at exterior door landings with less than 6 inches (152 mm) rise or less than 72 inches (1829 mm) in length.

The top of handrails shall be 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the ramp surface.

Handrails on all ramps shall be continuous within the full length of each ramp run. Inside handrails on switchback or dogleg ramps shall be continuous between ramp runs.

Handrails shall extend a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) horizontally above landings, beyond the top and bottom of the ramp runs. Extensions shall return to a wall, guard, or the walking surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent ramp run. Handrail extensions shall be in the same direction as the ramp runs. (See Figure 11A-5A.)

Handrails projecting from a wall shall have a space of 11/2 inches (38.1 mm) minimum between the wall and the handrail.

Handrails may be located in a recess if the recess is a maximum of 3 inches (76.2 mm) deep and extends at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the top of the rail. Any wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements. (See Figure 11A-6B.)

Handrail gripping surfaces shall be continuous along their length, and shall not be obstructed along their tops or sides. The bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall not be obstructed for more than 20 percent of their length. When provided, horizontal projections shall occur 11/2 inches (38 mm) minimum below the bottom of the handrail gripping surface. The distance between horizontal projections and the bottom of the gripping surface shall be permitted to be reduced by 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) for each 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension that exceeds 4 inches (102 mm).

Handrail gripping surfaces and any surfaces adjacent to them shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements, and shall have rounded edges.

Exception: Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces with slopes not steeper than 1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal, the bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall be permitted to be obstructed along their entire length where they are integral to crash rails or bumper guards.

Handrail gripping surfaces shall comply with this section, or the shape shall provide equivalent gripping surface.

  1. Circular cross section. The handrail gripping surfaces with a circular cross section shall not be less than 11/4 inches (31.75 mm) nor more than 2 inches (50.8 mm) in cross-sectional dimension.
  2. Noncircular cross section. Handrail gripping surfaces with a noncircular cross section shall have a perimeter dimension of 4 inches (102 mm) minimum and 61/4 inches (159 mm) maximum, and a cross-section dimension of 21/4 inches (57 mm) maximum.

Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

Ramps and ramp landings shall be provided with a continuous and uninterrupted barrier on each side along the entire length in compliance with Sections 1010.10 and 1010.10.1. (See Figure 11A-5A.)

Note: Extended floors or ground surfaces, as permitted in Section 1010.10.2, are not allowed for ramps and ramp landings part of an accessible route.

Exterior stairways serving buildings on a site containing covered multifamily dwelling units shall comply with this section.

Open risers are not permitted on exterior stairways.

Exceptions:

  1. An opening of not more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) may be permitted between the base of the riser and the tread.
  2. Risers constructed of grating containing openings of not more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) may be permitted.

All tread surfaces shall be stable, firm and slip resistant, and shall comply with Section 1110A.3. Treads shall have smooth, rounded or chamfered exposed edges, and no abrupt edges at the nosing (lower front edge).

Nosing shall not project more than 11/4 inches (31.8 mm) past the face of the riser below. Risers shall be sloped or the underside of the nosing shall have an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. (See Figure 11A-6A).

Exterior stairs serving buildings on a site containing multifamily dwelling units shall have the upper approach and all treads marked by a stripe providing clear visual contrast.

The stripe shall be a minimum of 2 inches (50.8 mm) wide to a maximum of 4 inches (101.6 mm) wide placed parallel to, and not more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) from, the nose of the step or upper approach. The stripe shall extend the full width of the step or upper approach and shall be of material that is at least as slip resistant as the other treads of the stair. A painted stripe shall be acceptable. Grooves shall not be used to satisfy this requirement.

Stairways shall have handrails on each side. Intermediate handrails shall be located equidistant from the sides of the stairway and comply with Section 1012.9.

Exception: Stairways serving an individual dwelling unit may have one handrail, except that stairways open on one or both sides shall have handrails on the open side or sides.

The top of handrails shall be 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the nosing of the treads.

Handrails on all stairways shall be continuous within the full length of each stair flight. Inside handrails on switchback or dogleg stairs shall be continuous between stair flights.

At the top of stair flights, handrails shall extend a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) horizontally above landings, beginning directly above the first riser nosing. Extensions shall return to a wall, guard, or the walking surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight.

At the bottom of stair flights, handrails shall extend at the slope of the stair flight for a distance equal to one tread depth beyond the last riser nosing. Such extension shall continue with 12 inches (305 mm) minimum horizontal extension, shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight, or shall return to a wall, guard, or the walking surface. Handrail horizontal extensions shall be in the same direction as the stair flights. (See Figures 11A-6A and 11A-6E.)

Handrails projecting from a wall shall have a space of 11/2 inches (38.1 mm) minimum between the wall and the handrail.

Handrails may be located in a recess if the recess is a maximum of 3 inches (76.2 mm) deep and extends at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the top of the rail. Any wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements. (See Figure 11A-6B.)

Handrail gripping surfaces shall be continuous along their length, and shall not be obstructed along their tops or sides. The bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall not be obstructed for more than 20 percent of their length. When provided, horizontal projections shall occur 11/2 inches (38.1 mm) minimum below the bottom of the handrail gripping surface. The distance between horizontal projections and the bottom of the gripping surface shall be permitted to be reduced by 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) for each 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension that exceeds 4 inches (102 mm).

Handrail gripping surfaces and any surfaces adjacent to them shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements, and shall have rounded edges.

Handrail gripping surfaces shall comply with this section, or the shape shall provide equivalent gripping surface.

  1. Circular cross section. Handrail gripping surfaces with a circular cross section shall not be less than 11/4 inches (31.75 mm) nor more than 2 inches (50.8 mm) in cross-sectional dimension.
  2. Noncircular cross section. Handrail gripping surfaces with a noncircular cross section shall have a perimeter dimension of 4 inches (102 mm) minimum and 61/4 inches (159 mm) maximum, and a cross-section dimension of 21/4 inches (57 mm) maximum.

Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

Abrupt changes in level exceeding 4 inches (101.6 mm) in vertical dimension, such as changes in level at planters or fountains located in or adjacent to walks, sidewalks or other pedestrian ways shall be identified by curbs or other approved barriers projecting at least 6 inches (152.4 mm) in height above the walk or sidewalk surface to warn the blind of a potential drop-off.

Exceptions:

  1. Between a walk or sidewalk and an adjacent street or driveway.
  2. When a guardrail or handrail is provided with edge protection in accordance with Section 1010.10.1.

Walks, pedestrian ways, and other circulation spaces, which are part of the required egress system, shall have a minimum clear headroom as required in Section 1003.2. Other walks, pedestrian ways, and circulation spaces shall have a minimum clear headroom of 80 inches (2032 mm). If the vertical clearance of an area adjoining an accessible route is reduced to less than 80 inches (2032 mm), a guardrail or other barrier having its leading edge at or below 27 inches (686 mm) above the finished floor shall be provided.

Exception: Doorways and archways less than 24 inches (610 mm) in depth may have a minimum clear headroom of 80 inches (2032 mm). (See Section 1126A for door requirements.)

Any obstruction that overhangs a pedestrian way shall be a minimum of 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface as measured from the bottom of the obstruction. (See Figure 11A-1B.) Where a guy support is used parallel to a path of travel, including, but not limited to, sidewalks, a guy brace, sidewalk guy or similar device shall be used to prevent an overhanging obstruction. (See Section 1116A.2 for required headroom clearance.)

Exception: Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1981 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

Wherever signs mounted on posts or pylons protrude from the post or pylons and the bottom edge of the sign is less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the finished floor or ground level, the edges of such signs shall be rounded or eased and the corners shall have a minimum radius of 0.125 inches (see Section 1116A.2 for required headroom clearance).

When a walk crosses or adjoins a vehicular way, the walking surface shall be separated from the vehicular area by curbs, railings or other elements, or the boundary between the pedestrian areas and the vehicular areas shall be defined by a continuous detectable warning 36 inches (914 mm) wide minimum, complying with Chapter 11B, Section 11B-705.

Division III BUILDING FEATURES

Division III Table of Contents

  • Section 1117A General Requirements for Accessible Entrances, Exits, Interior Routes of Travel and Facility Accessibility
  • Section 1118A Egress and Areas of Refuge
  • Section 1119A Interior Accessible Routes
  • Section 1120A Reserved
  • Section 1121A Changes in Level on Accessible Routes
  • Section 1122A Interior Ramps and Landings on Accessible Routes
  • Section 1123A Interior Stairways
  • Section 1124A Elevators and Platform (Wheelchair) Lifts
  • Section 1125A Hazards on Accessible Routes
  • Section 1126A Doors, Gates and Windows
  • Section 1127A Common Use Facilities

Note: In addition to provisions of this division, interior routes of travel that provide access to, or egress from, buildings for persons with disabilities shall also comply with Chapter 10.

When buildings are required to be accessible, building facilities shall be accessible as provided in this division. Where specific floors of a building are required to be accessible, the requirements of this division shall apply only to the facilities located on accessible floors.

All primary entrances and exterior ground floor exit doors to buildings and facilities on accessible routes shall be accessible to persons with disabilities.

When a ground-floor dwelling unit of a building has a separate entrance, each such ground-floor dwelling unit shall be served by an accessible route, except where the terrain or unusual characteristics of the site prohibit an accessible route (see Section 1150A for site impracticality tests).

Only one entrance to covered multifamily buildings is required to be accessible to any one ground floor of a building, except in cases where an individual dwelling unit has a separate exterior entrance. Where the building contains clusters of dwelling units with each cluster sharing a different exterior entrance, more than one entrance may be required to be accessible, as determined by analysis of the site. In every case, the accessible entrance shall be on an accessible route to the covered dwelling units it serves.

Where direct access for pedestrians is provided from a parking structure to a building or facility, each direct access to the building or facility entrance shall be accessible.

Where direct access for pedestrians is provided from a pedestrian tunnel or elevated walkway to a building or facility, all entrances to the building or facility from each tunnel or walkway shall be accessible.

Including but not limited to the requirements contained in this chapter for accessible routes, signage and emergency warning systems in buildings or portions of buildings required to be accessible shall be provided with accessible means of egress as required by Chapter 10. (See Section 1007.)

When a building or portion of a building is required to be accessible or adaptable, an accessible route shall be provided to all portions of the building, accessible building entrances and to covered multifamily dwelling units. The accessible route shall, to the maximum extent feasible, coincide with the route for the general public and other building residents. Accessible routes shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, restrooms, closets or other spaces used for similar purposes except within an individual dwelling unit.

Interior accessible routes shall be provided as follows:

  1. Where more than one route of travel is provided, all routes shall be accessible.
  2. At least one accessible route shall connect accessible building or facility entrances with all accessible spaces, elements and covered multifamily dwelling units.
  3. An accessible route shall connect at least one accessible primary entrance of each covered multifamily dwelling unit with interior and exterior spaces and facilities that serve the unit.
  4. Where elevators are provided for vertical access, all elevators shall be accessible.

Floor and ground surfaces shall be stable, firm, and slip resistant. If carpet or carpet tile is used in a common use area or public use area on a ground or floor surface, it shall have firm backing or no backing. Carpet or carpet tile shall have a level loop, textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile texture. The maximum pile height shall be 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to floor surfaces and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge. Carpet edge trim shall comply with Section 1121A requirements for changes in level.

Recessed doormats shall be adequately anchored to prevent interference with wheelchair traffic.

Interior accessible routes serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm) in width. Interior accessible routes serving an occupant load of less than 10 shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width.

If a person in a wheelchair must make a turn around a corner or an obstruction, the minimum clear width of the accessible route shall be as specified in Section 1138A.1.5.

Interior accessible routes that exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) in length shall comply with Section 1138A.1.2. (See Figure 11A-1L.)

Interior accessible routes which have changes in elevation shall be transitioned and comply with Sections 1121A or 1122A.

Exception: Doors and thresholds as provided in Section 1126A.

Abrupt changes in level along any accessible route shall not exceed 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). When changes in level do occur, they shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50-percent slope). Changes in level not exceeding 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) may be vertical.

Changes in level greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) shall be made by means of a sloped surface not greater than 1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), or a curb ramp, ramp, elevator or platform (wheelchair) lift. Stairs shall not be part of an accessible route. When stairs are located along or adjacent to an accessible route they shall comply with Section 1123A for interior stairways.

The clear width of ramps shall be consistent with the requirements in Chapter 10 of this code, but in no case shall be less than 48 inches (1219 mm).

Handrails may project into the required clear width of the ramp at each side 31/2 inches (89 mm) maximum at the handrail height. Curbs, wheel guides and/or appurtenances shall not project into the required clear width of ramps.

Exception: The clear width of ramps serving accessible entrances to covered multifamily dwellings with an occupant load of 10 or less may be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum between handrails.

Note: See Section 1122A.5.2.4 for handrail projections.

The maximum slope of ramps on an accessible route shall be no greater than 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.33-percent slope).

The cross slope of ramp surfaces shall be no greater than 1 unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2.083-percent slope).

Ramp landings shall be level and comply with this section. (See Figure 11A-6C.)

Landings shall be provided at the top and bottom of each ramp. Intermediate landings shall be provided at intervals not exceeding 30 inches (762 mm) of vertical rise and at each change of direction. Landings are not considered in determining the maximum horizontal distance of each ramp.

Note: Examples of ramp dimensions are:

SLOPE (Grading %)MAXIMUM RISE (Inches)MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL PROJECTION (Feet)
(× 25.4 for mm)(× 304.8) for mm)
1:12 (8.33%)3030
1:15 (6.67%)3037.5
1:16 (6.25%)3040
1:20 (5.00%)3050

Top landings shall not be less than 60 inches (1524 mm) wide. Top landings shall have a minimum length of not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) in the direction of the ramp run. See Section 1126A.3 for maneuvering clearances at doors. (See Figure 11A-6C.)

The minimum width of bottom and intermediate landings shall not be less than the width of the ramp.

Intermediate landings shall have a length in the direction of ramp run of not less than 60 inches (1524 mm).

Bottom landings shall have a length in the direction of ramp run of not less than 72 inches (1829 mm).

Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of the landing to less than 42 inches (1067 mm) and shall not reduce the required width by more than 3 inches (76.2 mm) when fully open. (See Figure 11A-6D.)

The width of the landing shall comply with Section 1126A.3 for maneuvering clearance at doors.

Where doorways are located adjacent to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearance required by Section 1126A.3 shall be permitted to overlap the required landing area.

Intermediate landings at a change of direction shall be sized to provide 60 inches turning space complying with Section 1138A.1.3. Intermediate landings at a change of direction in excess of 30 degrees shall have a length in the direction of ramp run of not less than 72 inches (1829 mm). (See Figures 11A-6C and 11A-6D.)

Ramps more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the adjacent floor or ground and open on one or both sides shall be provided with a guard as required by Section 1013. Guardrails shall be continuous from the top of the ramp to the bottom of the ramp.

Handrails shall be provided at each side of ramps when the slope exceeds 1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope).

Exceptions:

  1. Curb ramps.
  2. Ramps that serve an individual dwelling unit may have one handrail, except that ramps open on one or both sides shall have handrails provided on the open side or sides.

The top of handrails shall be 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the ramp surface.

Handrails on all ramps shall be continuous within the full length of each ramp run. Inside handrails on switchback or dogleg ramps shall be continuous between ramp runs.

Handrails shall extend a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) horizontally above landings, beyond the top and bottom of the ramp runs. Extensions shall return to a wall, guard, or the walking surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent ramp run. Handrail extensions shall be in the same direction as the ramp runs. (See Figure 11A-5A.)

Handrails projecting from a wall shall have a space of 11/2 inches (38.1 mm) minimum between the wall and the handrail.

Handrails may be located in a recess if the recess is a maximum of 3 inches (76.2 mm) deep and extends at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the top of the rail. Any wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements. (See Figure 11A-6B.)

Handrail gripping surfaces shall be continuous along their length, and shall not be obstructed along their tops or sides. The bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall not be obstructed for more than 20 percent of their length. When provided, horizontal projections shall occur 11/2 inches (38 mm) minimum below the bottom of the handrail gripping surface. The distance between horizontal projections and the bottom of the gripping surface shall be permitted to be reduced by 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) for each 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension that exceeds 4 inches (102 mm).

Handrail gripping surfaces and any surfaces adjacent to them shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements, and shall have rounded edges.

Exception: Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces with slopes not steeper than 1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal, the bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall be permitted to be obstructed along their entire length where they are integral to crash rails or bumper guards.

Handrail gripping surfaces shall comply with this section, or the shape shall provide equivalent gripping surface.

  1. Circular cross section. The handrail gripping surfaces with a circular cross section shall not be less than 11/4 inches (31.75 mm) nor more than 2 inches (50.8 mm) in cross-sectional dimension.
  2. Noncircular cross section. Handrail gripping surfaces with a noncircular cross section shall have a perimeter dimension of 4 inches (102 mm) minimum and 61/4 inches (159 mm) maximum, and a cross-section dimension of 21/4 inches (57 mm) maximum.

Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

Ramps and ramp landings shall be provided with a continuous and uninterrupted barrier on each side along the entire length in compliance with Sections 1010.10 and 1010.10.1. (See Figure 11A-5A.)

Note: Extended floors or ground surfaces, as permitted in Section 1010.10.2, are not allowed for ramps and ramp landings providing access to, or egress from, buildings or facilities where accessibility is required.

Interior stairways serving buildings containing covered multifamily dwelling units shall comply with this section.

Open risers shall not be permitted on interior stairways.

Exception: Stairways within an individual dwelling unit.

All tread surfaces shall be stable, firm and slip resistant, and shall comply with Section 1119A.2. Treads shall have smooth, rounded or chamfered exposed edges and no abrupt edges at the nosing (lower front edge).

Nosing shall not project more than 11/4 inches (31.8 mm) past the face of the riser below. Risers shall be sloped or the underside of the nosing shall have an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. (See Figure 11A-6A.)

Interior stairs shall have the upper approach and lower tread marked by a stripe providing clear visual contrast.

The stripe shall be a minimum of 2 inches (50.8 mm) wide to a maximum of 4 inches (101.6 mm) wide placed parallel to, and not more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) from, the nose of the step or upper approach. The stripe shall extend the full width of the step or upper approach and shall be of material that is at least as slip resistant as the other treads of the stair. A painted stripe shall be acceptable. Grooves shall not be used to satisfy this requirement.

Exception: Striping is not required for stairways within individual dwelling units.

Stairways shall have handrails on each side. Intermediate handrails shall be located equidistant from the sides of the stairway and comply with Section 1012.9.

Exception: Stairways serving an individual dwelling unit may have one handrail, except that stairways open on one or both sides shall have handrails on the open side or sides.

Handrail gripping surfaces shall comply with this section, or the shape shall provide equivalent gripping surface.

  1. Circular cross section. The handrail gripping surfaces with a circular cross section shall not be less than 11/4 inches (31.75 mm) nor more than 2 inches (50.8 mm) in cross-sectional dimension.
  2. Noncircular cross section. Handrail gripping surfaces with a noncircular cross section shall have a perimeter dimension of 4 inches (102 mm) minimum and 61/4 inches (159 mm) maximum, and a cross-section dimension of 21/4 inches (57 mm) maximum.

Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

The top of handrails shall be 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the nosing of the treads.

Handrails on all stairways shall be continuous within the full length of each stair flight. Inside handrails on switchback or dogleg stairs shall be continuous between stair flights.

At the top of stair flights, handrails shall extend a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) horizontally above landings, beginning directly above the first riser nosing. Extensions shall return to a wall, guard, or the walking surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight.

At the bottom of stair flights, handrails shall extend at the slope of the stair flight for a distance equal to one tread depth beyond the last riser nosing. Such extension shall continue with 12 inches (305 mm) minimum horizontal extension, shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight, or shall return to a wall, guard, or the walking surface. Handrail horizontal extensions shall be in the same direction as the stair flights. (See Figures 11A-6A and 11A-6E.)

Exception: Stairways within an individual dwelling unit.

Handrails projecting from a wall shall have a space of 11/2 inches (38.1 mm) minimum between the wall and the handrail.

Handrails may be located in a recess if the recess is a maximum of 3 inches (76.2 mm) deep and extends at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the top of the rail. Any wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements. (See Figure 11A-6B.)

Handrail gripping surfaces shall be continuous along their length, and shall not be obstructed along their tops or sides. The bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall not be obstructed for more than 20 percent of their length. When provided, horizontal projections shall occur 11/2 inches (38 mm) minimum below the bottom of the handrail gripping surface. The distance between horizontal projections and the bottom of the gripping surface shall be permitted to be reduced by 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) for each 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension that exceeds 4 inches (102 mm).

Handrail gripping surfaces and any surfaces adjacent to them shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements, and shall have rounded edges.

Elevators provided in covered multifamily buildings shall be accessible. Elevators required to be accessible shall comply with this chapter, ASME A17.1 (Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators), Title 8 of the California Code of Regulations, under “Elevator Safety Orders,” and any other applicable safety regulations of other administrative authorities having jurisdiction.

Exception: Private elevators serving only one dwelling unit.

Passenger elevators shall be located on a major accessible route and provisions shall be made to ensure that they remain accessible and usable at all times that the building is occupied.

Elevators serving covered multifamily buildings shall be sized to accommodate a wheelchair in accordance with this section.

Exception: When the enforcing agency determines that compliance with any requirement of this section would create an unreasonable hardship, an exception to the requirement shall be granted when equivalent facilitation is provided, and where it can be demonstrated that a person using a wheelchair can enter and operate the elevator.

The elevator car shall be designed to comply with one of the following:

  1. Door centered on the wall. When the door is centered on the car wall, it shall provide a clear width of 42 inches (1067 mm) minimum, and the clear distance between car side walls shall be 80 inches (2032 mm) minimum. The clear distance between the back wall and the return panel shall be 51 inches (1295 mm) minimum. The clear distance between the back wall and the inside face of the door shall be 54 inches (1372 mm) minimum.
  2. Door not centered on the wall. When the door is not centered on the car wall, it shall provide a clear width of 36 inches (914 mm) minimum, and the clear distance between car side walls shall be 68 inches (1727 mm) minimum. The clear distance between the back wall and the return panel shall be 51 inches (1295 mm) minimum. The clear distance between the back wall and the inside face of the door shall be 54 inches (1372 mm) minimum.
  3. Door at any location. An elevator door with 36 inches (914 mm) minimum clear width may be installed at any location if one of the following is met:

    1. 3.1. The car inside, with the door closed, shall provide a turning clear space at least 60 inches (1524 mm) in diameter to allow for the turning of a wheelchair.
    2. 3.2. The clear distance between car side walls shall be 54 inches (1372 mm) minimum. The clear distance between the back wall and the return panel shall be 80 inches (2032 mm) minimum. The clear distance between the back wall and the inside face of the door shall be 80 inches (2032 mm) minimum.

Note: See Table 1124A.3.2 and Figure 11A-7A.

TABLE 1124A.3.2

ELEVATOR CAR DIMENSIONS

MINIMUM DIMENSIONS
DOOR LOCATIONDOOR CLEAR WIDTHINSIDE CAR, SIDE TO SIDEINSIDE CAR, BACK WALL TO FRONT RETURNINSIDE CAR, BACK WALL TO INSIDE FACE OF DOOR
Centered42 inches
(1067 mm)
80 inches
(2032 mm)
51 inches
(1295 mm)
54 inches
(1372 mm)
Side (off-centered)36 inches
(914 mm)1
68 inches
(1727 mm)
51 inches
(1295 mm)
54 inches
(1372 mm)
Any36 inches
(914 mm)1
54 inches
(1372 mm)
80 inches
(2032 mm)
80 inches
(2032 mm)
Any36 inches
(914 mm)2
60 inches
(1524 mm)2
60 inches
(1524 mm)2
60 inches
(1524 mm)2
  1. A tolerance of minus 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) is permitted.
  2. Other car configurations that provide a turning space complying with Section 1138A.1.3 with the door closed shall be permitted.

Elevator floor buttons shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in Section 1138A.3. Except for photoelectric tube bypass switches, emergency controls, including the emergency stop and alarm, shall be grouped in or adjacent to the bottom of the panel and shall be no lower than 35 inches (889 mm) from the floor. For multiple controls, only one set must comply with these height requirements. Floor buttons shall be provided with visual indicators to show when each call is registered. The visual indicators shall be extinguished when each call is answered.

Passenger elevator car controls shall have a minimum dimension of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) and shall be raised 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) plus or minus 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) above the surrounding surface.

Control buttons shall be illuminated, shall have square shoulders and shall be activated by a mechanical motion that is detectable.

All control buttons shall be designated by a 5/8-inch-minimum (15.9 mm) raised characters and standard raised symbols that comply with Sections 1143A.6 and 1143A.7 immediately to the left of the control button. Contracted Grade 2 Braille that conforms to Section 1143A.7 shall be located immediately below the numeral, character or symbol. A minimum clear space of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) or other suitable means of separation shall be provided between rows of control buttons. (See Figure 11A-7B.)

The raised characters and symbols shall be white on a black background. Controls and emergency equipment identified by raised symbols shall include, but not be limited to, “door open,” “door close,” “alarm bell,” “emergency stop” and “telephone.” The call button for the main entry floor shall be designated by a raised star at the left of the floor designation.

When an emergency telephone system is installed, the emergency telephone handset shall be positioned no higher than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the floor, and the handset cord shall be a minimum of 29 inches (737 mm) in length. If the telephone system is located in a closed compartment, the compartment door hardware shall conform to the provisions of Section 1138A.4.4. Emergency intercommunication shall not require voice communication.

Call operation buttons and keypads shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in Section 1138A.3, measured to the centerline of the highest operable part. Buttons shall have square shoulders, shall be a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) in size, and shall be raised 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) plus or minus 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) above the surrounding surface. The button designating the “Up” direction shall be on top. A clear floor or ground space complying with Section 1138A.1.4 shall be provided at call controls.

Visual indication shall be provided to show each call registered and extinguished when answered. Objects adjacent to, and below, hall call buttons shall not project more than 4 inches (101.6 mm) from the wall. Hall call buttons shall be internally illuminated with a white light over the entire surface of the button.

The minimum illumination at the car controls threshold and the landing when the car and landing doors are open shall not be less than 5 foot-candles (54 lx).

A visual and audible signal shall be provided at each hoistway entrance indicating to the prospective passenger the car answering the call and its direction of travel as follows:

  1. The visual signal for each direction shall be a minimum of 21/2 inches (63.5 mm) high by 21/2 inches (63.5 mm) wide, and visible from the proximity of the hall call button.
  2. The audible signal shall sound once for the “up” direction and twice for the “down” direction or of a configuration which distinguishes between up and down elevator travel. Audible signals shall have a frequency of 1500 Hz maximum. Verbal annunciators shall have a frequency of 300 Hz minimum and 3000 Hz maximum. The audible signal and verbal annunciator shall be 10 dB minimum above ambient, but shall not exceed 80 dB, measured at the hall call button.
  3. The center line of the fixture shall be located a minimum of 6 feet (1829 mm) in height above the finish floor.
  4. The use of in-car lanterns, located in or on the car doorjambs, visible from the proximity of the hall call buttons and conforming to the above requirements of this section, shall be acceptable.

Note: The use of arrow shapes are preferred for visible signals.

The minimum acceptable time from notification that a car is answering a call (lantern and audible signal) until the doors of the car start to close shall be calculated by the following equations, but shall be no less than 5 seconds:

Where T is the total time in seconds and D is the distance from a point in the lobby or landing area 60 inches (1524 mm) directly in front of the farthest call button controlling that car to the centerline of its hoistway door (see Figure 11A-7D). For cars with in-car lanterns, T begins when the lantern is visible from the vicinity of hall call buttons and an audible signal is sounded.

The minimum acceptable time for the door to remain fully open after receiving a call shall not be less than 5 seconds.

The floor level at all elevator hoistway entrances shall be designated by raised characters provided on both jambs. Characters shall be 2 inches (50.8 mm) in height located 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum above the finish floor, measured from the baseline of the lowest Braille cells, and 60 inches (1524 mm) maximum above the finish floor, measured from the baseline of the highest line of raised characters.

On the main entry level, a raised five-pointed star shall be placed to the left of the raised character. The outside diameter of the star shall be 2 inches (50.8 mm) and all points shall be of equal length. The raised characters and the star shall be white on a black background. Contracted Grade 2 Braille, conforming to Section 1143A.7, shall be placed below the corresponding raised characters and the star. The Braille translation for the star shall state “MAIN”. The raised characters shall comply with Section 1143A.6. (See Figure 11A-7C.)

Doors closed by automatic means shall be provided with a door-reopening device that will function to stop and reopen a car door and adjacent hoistway door in case the car door is obstructed while closing.

This reopening device shall also be capable of sensing an object or person in the path of a closing door without requiring contact for activation at a nominal 5 inches and 29 inches (127 mm and 737 mm) above the floor.

Door-reopening devices shall remain effective for a period of not less than 20 seconds. After such an interval, the doors may close in accordance with the requirements of ASME A17.1.

The elevator shall be automatic and be provided with a self-leveling feature that will automatically bring the car to the floor landings within a tolerance of plus or minus 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) under rated loading to zero loading conditions. This self-leveling shall, within its zone, be entirely automatic and independent of the operating device and shall correct the overtravel or under-travel. The car shall also be maintained approximately level with the landing, irrespective of load.

The clearance between the car platform sill and the edge of the hoistway landing shall be no greater than 11/4 inches (31.75 mm).

Platform (wheelchair) lifts may be provided between levels, in lieu of passenger elevators, when the vertical distance between landings, as well as the structural design and safeguards are as allowed by ASME A18.1 (Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and Stairway Chair Lifts), California Code of Regulations, Title 8 (Elevator Safety Orders), and any applicable safety regulations of other administrative authorities having jurisdiction.

If lifts are provided, they shall be designed and constructed to facilitate unassisted entry, operation and exit from the lift, and shall comply with restrictions and enhancements of this section in conjunction with Title 8 of the California Code of Regulations.

Platform (wheelchair) lifts shall be of sufficient size to accommodate a wheelchair in accordance with Section 1138A.1.4.

There shall be a level and clear floor area or landing at each floor or level served by platform (wheelchair) lifts. Clear floor areas or landings shall meet the applicable “accessible route” requirements.

To ensure continued operation in case of primary power loss, platform (wheelchair) lifts shall be provided with standby power or with self-rechargeable battery power that provides sufficient power to operate all platform lift functions for a minimum of five upward and downward trips.

Platform (wheelchair) lifts on an accessible means of egress shall not be installed in a fully enclosed hoistway.

Lifts shall have low energy power-operated doors or gates, which shall remain open for 20 seconds minimum. End doors shall have 32 inches (813 mm) minimum clear opening width. Side doors clear opening width shall be 42 inches (1067 mm) minimum.

Exception: Lifts having doors or gates on opposite sides shall be permitted to have self-closing manual doors or gates.

A sign complying with Section 1143A shall be securely fastened in a conspicuous place at each landing and on the platform. The sign shall state “No Freight” in letters not less than 5/8 inch (16 mm) high and include the “International Symbol of Accessibility.”

Abrupt changes in level exceeding 4 inches (101.6 mm) in vertical dimension, such as changes in level at planters or fountains located in or adjacent to walks, halls, corridors, passageways, aisles, pedestrian ways and other circulation spaces shall be identified by curbs projecting at least 6 inches (152.4 mm) in height above the walk or sidewalk surface to warn the blind of a potential drop-off.

Exception: When a guardrail or handrail is provided with edge protection in accordance with Section 1010.10.1.

Walks, halls, corridors, passageways, aisles, pedestrian ways and other circulation spaces which are part of the required egress system shall have a minimum clear headroom as required in Section 1003.2. Other walks, pedestrian ways and circulation spaces shall have a minimum clear headroom of 80 inches (2032 mm). If the vertical clearance of an area adjoining an accessible route is reduced to less than 80 inches (2032 mm), a guardrail or other barrier having its leading edge at or below 27 inches (686 mm) above the finished floor shall be provided.

Exception: Doorways and archways less than 24 inches (610 mm) in depth may have a minimum clear headroom of 80 inches (2032 mm). (See Section 1126A for door requirements.)

Any obstruction that overhangs a pedestrian way shall be a minimum of 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface as measured from the bottom of the obstruction. (See Figure 11A-1B.) Where a guy support is used parallel to a path of travel, including, but not limited to, sidewalks, a guy brace, sidewalk guy or similar device shall be used to prevent an overhanging obstruction (see Section 1125A.2 for required headroom clearance).

Exception: Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1981 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

Wherever signs mounted on posts or pylons protrude from the posts or pylons and the bottom edge of the sign is less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the finished floor or ground level, the edges of such signs shall be rounded or eased and the corners shall have a minimum radius of 0.125 inches. (See Section 1125A.2 for required headroom clearance).

Doorways which provide access to common use areas or covered multifamily dwellings shall comply with the following:

  1. Permit the installation of a door or gate not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width, not less than 80 inches (2032 mm) in height, and provide a clear opening of not less than 32 inches (813 mm), measured with the door positioned at an angle of 90 degrees from its closed position.
  2. Doors or gates shall be capable of opening at least 90 degrees.
  3. A pair of doors or gates, manual or automatic, shall have at least one leaf which provides a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 mm), measured with the door or gate positioned at an angle of 90 degrees from its closed position.
  4. The width of any component in the egress system shall not be less than the minimum width required by Section 1005.
  5. Revolving doors or gates shall not be used as required entrances for persons with disabilities, and shall not be part of an accessible route.

The floor or landing on each side of an exit door or gate shall be level. (See Chapter 10.)

The floor or landing shall not be more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) lower than the top of the threshold of the doorway. (See Figure 11A-8I.)

Changes in level between 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) and 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50-percent slope). Changes in level greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) shall be accomplished by means of a ramp. (See Section 1122A.)

The minimum maneuvering clearance at doors or gates shall comply with Sections 1126A.3.2, 1126A.3.3, and 1126A.3.4. The floor or landing area within the required maneuvering clearance shall be level and clear. The required length shall be measured at right angles to the plane of the door or gate in its closed position. Maneuvering clearances shall extend the full width of the doorway and the required latch side or hinge side clearances (strike edge maneuvering clearances).

The following provisions shall apply to swinging doors or gates with front approach:

  1. Pull side approach. The level floor or landing shall extend in the direction of the door or gate swing at least 60 inches (1524 mm). (See Figure 11A-8A(a).)
  2. Push side approach. The level floor or landing shall extend in the direction of the door or gate swing at least 48 inches (1219 mm). (See Figure 11A-8A(a).)
  3. Doors and gates with push side approach having both a closer and a latch. Doors or gates with push side approach having both a closer and a latch shall be provided with a clear and level area extending a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) past the strike edge on the approach side of the door or gate. (See Figure 11A-8A(a).)
  4. Strike edge maneuvering space. The width of the level area on the side to which the door or gate swings shall extend at least 24 inches (610 mm) past the strike edge for exterior doors or gates and at least 18 inches (457 mm) past the strike edge for interior doors or gates. (See Figure 11A-8A(a).)

Note: See Section 1132A.5 for maneuvering clearances at primary entry doors and all required exit doors to covered multifamily dwellings.

The following provisions shall apply to swinging doors or gates with hinge side approach:

  1. Pull side approach. Doors or gates with pull side approach shall be provided with a level floor or landing not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) in depth. A clear and level area shall extend a minimum of 36 inches (914 mm) past the strike edge on the approach side of the door or gate. (See Figure 11A-8A(b).)
  2. Push side approach. Doors or gates with push side approach shall have a level floor or landing not less than 44 inches (1118 mm) in depth, and shall be provided with a clear and level area extending a minimum of 54 inches (1372 mm) from the strike edge of the door or gate jamb past the hinge side of the door or gate. Doors or gates with a latch and closer shall have a level floor or landing not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) depth at the push side of the door or gate. (See Figure 11A-8A(b).)

The following provisions shall apply to swinging doors or gates with latch side approach:

  1. Pull side approach. Doors or gates with pull side approach shall have a level floor or landing not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) in depth, and shall be provided with a clear and level area extending a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) past the strike edge on the approach side of the door or gate. (See Figure 11A-8A(c).)
  2. Push side approach. Doors or gates with push side approach shall have a level floor or landing not less than 44 inches (1118 mm) in depth, and shall be provided with a clear and level area extending a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) past the strike edge on the approach side of the door or gate. Doors or gates with a closer shall have a level floor or landing not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) depth at the push side of the door or gate. (See Figure 11A-8A(c).)

The minimum space between two hinged or pivoted doors or gates in series, serving other than a required exit stairway, shall provide a minimum of 48 inches (1219 mm) plus the width of the door or gate swinging into the space. Doors or gates in a series shall swing either in the same direction or away from the space between the doors or gates. (See Figures 11A-8G and 11A-8H.)

Where the door or gate opens into a stair or smokeproof enclosure, the landing need not have a minimum length of 60 inches (1524 mm). (See Figure 11A-8H.)

Doorways less than 36 inches (914 mm) wide without doors or gates, sliding doors, or folding doors shall have maneuvering clearances complying with this section.

The level floor or landing shall extend at least 48 inches (1219 mm) on each side, perpendicular to the doorway. Strike edge maneuvering clearance for front approach is not required. (See Figure 11A-8B(a).)

Doorways without doors or gates, and side approach, shall be provided with level floor or landing extending 42 inches (1067 mm) minimum on each side, perpendicular to the doorway. Strike edge maneuvering clearance is not required. (See Figure 11A-8B(d).)

Doors with pocket or hinge approach shall be provided with a level floor or landing not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) in depth. The level floor or landing shall extend a minimum of 22 inches (559 mm) beyond the pocket/hinge side. (See Figure 11A-8B(b).)

Doors with stop or latch approach shall have a level floor or landing not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) in depth. The level floor or landing shall extend a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) beyond the stop/latch side. (See Figure 11A-8B(c).)

Maneuvering clearances for forward approach shall be provided when any obstruction within 18 inches (457 mm) of the latch side of an interior doorway, or within 24 inches (610 mm) of the latch side of an exterior doorway, projects more than 8 inches (203 mm) beyond the face of the door or gate, measured perpendicular to the face of the door or gate. (See Figure 11A-8C.)

Maximum effort to operate doors or gates shall not exceed 81/2 pounds (38 N) for exterior doors or gates and 5 pounds (22 N) for interior doors or gates, such pull or push effort being applied at right angles to hinged doors or gates and at the center plane of sliding or folding doors. Compensating devices or automatic door or gate operators may be utilized to meet these standards. When fire doors are required, the maximum effort to operate the door may be increased to the minimum allowable by the appropriate enforcement agency, not to exceed 15 pounds (66.7 N).

If a door or gate has a closer, the sweep period of the closer shall be adjusted so that from an open position of 90 degrees, the door or gate will take 5 seconds minimum to move to a position of 12 degrees from the latch.

Spring hinges shall be adjusted so that from the open position of 70 degrees, the door or gate shall move to the closed position in 1.5 seconds minimum.

The type of latch and lock required for all doors or gates shall be in accordance with Section 1126A.6 and Chapter 10, Section 1008.

Hand-activated door or gate latching, locking and opening hardware shall be centered between 30 inches (762 mm) and 44 inches (1118 mm) above the floor. Latching and locking doors or gates that are hand-activated and on an accessible route shall be operable with a single effort by lever type hardware, panic bars, push-pull activating bars or other hardware designed to provide passage without requiring the ability to grasp the opening hardware. Locked exit doors or gates shall operate consistent with Section 1126A.4, in the direction of egress. When sliding doors are in the fully open position, operating hardware shall be exposed and usable from both sides.

Exception: Access gates in barrier walls and fences protecting pools, spas, and hot tubs shall be permitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on self-latching devices at 54 inches (1372 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground provided the self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices operated by means of a key, electronic opener, or integral combination lock.

The lever or lever of actuated latches or locks shall be curved with a return to within 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of the door or gate to prevent catching on the clothing of persons during egress.

Exception: Group R and U occupancies with an occupant load of 10 or less.

Swinging door or gate surfaces within 10 inches (254 mm) of the finish floor or ground measured vertically shall have a smooth surface on the push side extending the full width of the door or gate. Parts creating horizontal or vertical joints in these surfaces shall be within 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) of the same plane as the other and be free of sharp or abrasive edges. Cavities created by added kick plates shall be capped.

Exceptions:

  1. Automatic doors or gates.
  2. Tempered glass doors without stiles and having a bottom rail or shoe with the top leading edge tapered at 60 degrees minimum from the horizontal.
  3. Doors or gates that do not extend to within 10 inches (254 mm) of the finish floor or ground.

Where glazed openings are provided in accessible rooms or spaces for operation by occupants, at least one opening shall comply with Section 1138A.4.

Each glazed opening required by the enforcing agency to be operable shall comply with Section 1138A.4.

Note: For public use facilities, see Chapter 11B of this code.

When provided, common use areas and facilities in covered multifamily housing developments shall be accessible to persons with disabilities. Common use facilities include, but are not limited to, lobbies, toilet and bathing facilities, laundry facilities, community rooms, clubhouses, health and fitness facilities, game rooms and portions of common use tenant storage. All entrances, doors, fixtures and controls shall be on an accessible route. Facilities and fixtures required to be accessible shall comply with the following provisions:

  1. Doors. Doors to accessible bathrooms shall comply with Section 1126A. Doors shall not swing into the floor space required for any fixture.
  2. Clear floor space. All fixtures and controls shall be on an accessible route. Clear floor spaces at fixtures and controls, the accessible route and the turning space may overlap. This clear space shall comply with Sections 1138A.1.4 and 1138A.3.
  3. Water closets. Where a toilet stall is provided, it shall comply with Section 1127A.2.1 or 1127A.2.2, and its water closet shall comply with Section 1127A.2.3.
  4. Lavatory and mirrors. Where a lavatory and/or mirror is provided, it shall comply with Sections 1127A.3 and/or 1127A.8.3.
  5. Controls and dispensers. Where controls, dispensers, receptacles or other types of equipment are provided, at least one of each shall be on an accessible route and shall comply with Sections 1127A.8 and 1138A.3.
  6. Bathing and shower facilities. Where bathtubs or showers are provided, at least one fixture of each type provided shall be accessible per room. For bathtubs, see Section 1127A.5.2. For shower compartments, see Section 1127A.5.3.
  7. Toilet facilities. Toilet facilities shall comply with Section 1127A.2.
  8. Laundry facilities. Laundry facilities shall comply with Section 1127A.10.
  9. Storage facilities. Storage facilities shall comply with Section 1127A.11.
  10. Fixed or built-in seating, tables and counters. Fixed or built-in seating, tables and counters shall comply with Section 1127A.12.

When common use toilet facilities are provided for residents or guests, at least one percent of the total number of fixtures but not less than one of each type shall comply with this section.

Multiple-accommodation toilet facilities shall have the following:

Note: (See Figures 11A-9A and 11A-9B.)

  1. Wheelchair turning space. Turning space of sufficient size to inscribe a circle with a diameter not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) or a T-shaped space shall be provided within the toilet facility. The wheelchair turning space shall comply with Section 1138A.1.3. Other than the door to the accessible water closet compartment, a door, in any position, may encroach into this space by not more than 12 inches (305 mm).
  2. Clear space at fixtures. Doors shall not swing into the clear floor space required for any fixture. Required clear floor space, clearance at fixtures, and turning space shall be permitted to overlap.
  3. Accessible water closet compartment. Accessible water closet compartments shall be 60 inches (1524 mm) wide minimum measured perpendicular to the side wall, 56 inches (1422 mm) deep minimum for wall hung water closets and 59 inches (1499 mm) deep minimum for floor mounted water closets measured perpendicular to the rear wall. (See Figure 11A-9A(c).)

    Water closet fixtures located in accessible water closet compartments shall be positioned with a wall or partition to the rear and to one side. The centerline of the water closet shall be 17 inches (432 mm) minimum to 18 inches (457 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition.

    In ambulatory accessible toilet compartments specified in Item 6 of this section, the water closet shall be 17 inches (432 mm) minimum and 19 inches (483 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition. (See Figure 11A-9A (d).)

    Clearance around a water closet shall be 60 inches (1524 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the side wall and 56 inches (1422 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall. The required clearance around the water closet shall be permitted to overlap the water closet, associated grab bars, dispensers, sanitary napkin disposal units, coat hooks, shelves, accessible routes, clear floor space and clearances required at other fixtures, and the turning space. No other fixtures or obstructions shall be located within the required water closet clearance.

    A minimum 48 inches (1219 mm) deep and 60 inches (1524 mm) wide clear maneuvering space shall be provided in front of the water closet if the compartment has an end-opening door (facing the water closet). A minimum 60 inches (1524 mm) deep and 60 inches (1524 mm) wide clear maneuvering space shall be provided in a compartment with the door located at the side. (See Figure 11A-9A.)

  4. Grab bars. Grab bars shall be provided on the side wall closest to the water closet and on the rear wall. Grab bars shall comply with this section and Section 1127A.4.

    The side wall grab bar shall be 42 inches (1067 mm) long minimum, located 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the rear wall and extend 54 inches (1372 mm) minimum from the rear wall. The front end of the side grab bar shall be positioned 24 inches (610 mm) minimum in front of the water closet.

    The rear wall grab bar shall be 36 inches (914 mm) long minimum and extend from the centerline of the water closet 12 inches (305 mm) minimum on one side and 24 inches (610 mm) minimum on the other side.

    Exceptions:

    1. The rear grab bar shall be permitted to be 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum, centered on the water closet, when wall space does not permit a length of 36 inches (914 mm) minimum due to the location of a recessed fixture adjacent to the water closet.
    2. When the enforcing agency requires flush controls for flush valves to be located in a position that conflicts with the location of the rear grab bar, then the rear grab bar shall be permitted to be split or shifted to the open side of the toilet area.
  5. Compartment doors. Compartment doors shall comply with Section 1126A and the following:

    1. 5.1. The water closet compartment shall be equipped with a door that has an automatic-closing device, and shall have a clear, unobstructed opening width of 32 inches (813 mm) when located at the end and 34 inches (864 mm) when located at the side with the door positioned at an angle of 90 degrees from its closed position.
    2. 5.2. When standard compartment doors are used, with a minimum 9-inch (228.6 mm) clearance for footrests underneath and a self-closing device, clearance at the strike edge as specified in Section 1126A.3.2 is not required.
    3. 5.3. The inside and outside of the compartment door shall be equipped with a loop or U-shaped handle immediately below the latch. The latch shall be flip-over style, sliding or other hardware not requiring the user to grasp or twist.
    4. 5.4. Except for door-opening widths and door swings, a clear, unobstructed access of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be provided to water closet compartments designed for use by persons with disabilities, and the space immediately in front of a water closet compartment shall not be less than 48 inches (1219 mm) as measured at right angles to compartment door in its closed position.
    5. 5.5. Doors shall be located in the front or in the side wall or partition farthest from the water closet. Where located in the front partition, the door opening shall be 4 inches (102 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition. Where located in the side wall or partition, the door opening shall be 4 inches (102 mm) maximum from the front wall or partition.
  6. Ambulatory accessible compartments. When six or more toilet compartments are provided within a multiple-accommodation toilet room, or when the combination of urinals and water closets totals six or more fixtures, at least one compartment shall comply with Section 1127A.2.1, Items 2 and 3. At least one additional ambulatory compartment shall have a depth of 60 inches (1524 mm) minimum, and a width of 35 inches (890 mm) minimum and 37 inches (940 mm) maximum.

    The ambulatory accessible compartment shall have a self-closing door, which shall not swing into the minimum required compartment area. Grab bars, complying with Sections 1127A.4.2, 1127A.4.3, 1127A.4.4 and 1127A.4.5, shall be installed on each compartment side wall. (See Figure 11A-9A(d).)

Single-accommodation toilet facilities shall comply with the following:

Note: See Figures 11A-9A and 11A-9B.

  1. Wheelchair clearance. There shall be sufficient space in the toilet room for a wheelchair measuring 30 inches (762 mm) wide by 48 inches (1219 mm) long to enter the room and permit the door to close. There shall be in the room a clear turning space of at least 60 inches (1524 mm) in diameter or a T-shaped space complying with Section 1138A.1.3.

    Required clear floor space, clearance at fixtures, and turning space shall be permitted to overlap.

  2. Encroachment of doors. Doors shall not encroach into the turning space specified in Item 1 of this section by more than 12 inches (305 mm).
  3. Accessible water closet. A water closet fixture located in a single-accommodation toilet facility shall be positioned with a wall or partition to the rear and to one side. The centerline of the water closet shall be 17 inches (432 mm) minimum to 18 inches (457 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition.

    Clearance around a water closet shall be 60 inches (1524 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the side wall and 56 inches (1422 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall. The required clearance around the water closet shall be permitted to overlap the water closet, associated grab bars, dispensers, sanitary napkin disposal units, coat hooks, shelves, accessible routes, clear floor space and clearances required at other fixtures, and the turning space. No other fixtures or obstructions shall be located within the required water closet clearance.

    A minimum 48 inches (1219 mm) deep and 60 inches (1524 mm) wide clear maneuvering space shall be provided in front of the water closet.

  4. Grab bars. Grab bars shall be provided on the side wall closest to the water closet and on the rear wall. Grab bars shall comply with this section and Section 1127A.4.

    The side wall grab bar shall be 42 inches (1067 mm) long minimum, located 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the rear wall and extend 54 inches (1372 mm) minimum from the rear wall. The front end of the side grab bar shall be positioned 24 inches (610 mm) minimum in front of the water closet.

    The rear wall grab bar shall be 36 inches (914 mm) long minimum and extend from the centerline of the water closet 12 inches (305 mm) minimum on one side and 24 inches (610 mm) minimum on the other side.

    Exceptions:

    1. The rear grab bar shall be permitted to be 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum, centered on the water closet, when wall space does not permit a length of 36 inches (914 mm) minimum due to the location of a recessed fixture adjacent to the water closet.
    2. When the enforcing agency requires flush controls for flush valves to be located in a position that conflicts with the location of the rear grab bar, then the rear grab bar shall be permitted to be split or shifted to the open side of the toilet area.
  5. Accessible route. All doors, fixtures and controls shall be on an accessible route. The minimum clear width of an accessible route shall be 36 inches (914 mm) except at doors (See Section 1126A). If a person in a wheelchair must make a turn around an obstruction, the minimum clear width of the accessible route shall be as specified in Section 1138A.1.5.

Water closets required to be accessible shall comply with the following:

Note: See Figure 11A-9B.

  1. Height. The height of accessible water closets shall be a minimum of 17 inches (432 mm) to a maximum of 19 inches (483 mm) measured to the top of a maximum 2-inch-high (50.8 mm) toilet seat.
  2. Controls. Flush controls shall be hand operated or automatic. Hand operated controls shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching or twisting. Controls for the flush valves shall be mounted on the open side of the water closet no more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above the floor. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2 N).
  3. Toilet seats. Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted position.

When urinals are provided, at least one shall comply with the following:

  1. Height and wall projection. Urinals shall be floor mounted (stall type) or wall hung. The rim of the wall hung urinals shall be 17 inches (432 mm) maximum above the finish floor. Urinals (floor mounted and wall hung) shall be131/2 inches (343 mm) deep minimum measured from the outer face of the rim to the back of the fixture.
  2. Flush controls. Flush controls shall be hand operated or automatic. Hand operated controls shall be operable with one hand, shall not require tight grasping, pinching or twisting of the wrist and shall be mounted no more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above the floor. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2 N). Electronic automatic flushing controls are preferable.
  3. Clear floor space. A clear floor space 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) shall be provided in front of the urinal to allow forward approach. The clear floor space shall comply with Section 1138A.1.4.

When common use lavatories are provided for residents or guests, at least one, and not less than 1 percent of all lavatories, shall comply with the following:

  1. Location. Lavatories shall be installed with the centerline of the fixture a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) horizontally from an adjoining wall, partition or fixture. The top of the fixture rim shall be a maximum of 34 inches (864 mm) above the finished floor.
  2. Floor space. A clear floor space at least 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) shall be provided in front of accessible lavatories to allow forward approach. Such clear floor space shall adjoin or overlap an accessible route or another clear floor space.
  3. Knee and toe space. A clear and obstructed knee and toe space, complying with Section 1138A.2, shall be provided underneath the lavatory. The knee and toe space shall be centered on the fixture. The clear floor space required by Item 2 shall not extend into the knee and toe space more than 19 inches (483 mm). (See Figure 11A-9D.)
  4. Finished floor. The finished floor beneath the lavatory shall be extended to the wall.
  5. Plumbing protection. Water supply and drain pipes under lavatories shall be insulated or otherwise covered to protect against contact. There shall be no sharp or abrasive surfaces under lavatories.
  6. Lavatory faucet controls. Faucet controls and operation mechanisms shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2N). Lever operated, push type and electronically controlled mechanisms are examples of acceptable designs. Hand operated metering faucets are allowed if the faucet remains open for at least 10 seconds.

Grab bars, tub and shower seats, fasteners and mounting devices required by this chapter shall comply with this section.

Grab bars shall be installed in a horizontal position, 33 inches (838 mm) minimum and 36 inches (914 mm) maximum above the finish floor measured to the top of the gripping surface.

Exception: The height of the lower grab bar on the back wall of a bathtub shall comply with Section 1127A.5.2.

The diameter or width of the gripping surfaces of a grab bar shall comply with the following:

Note: See Figure 11A-9C.

  1. Circular cross section. Grab bars with circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of 11/4 inches (32 mm) minimum and 2 inches (51 mm) maximum.
  2. Noncircular cross section. Grab bars with noncircular cross section shall have a cross-section dimension of 2 inches (51 mm) maximum. The perimeter dimension of grab bars with non-circular cross section shall be 4 inches (102 mm) minimum and 4.8 inches (122 mm) maximum.
  3. Alternate configuration. L-shaped or U-shaped grab bars shall be permitted.

The structural strength of grab bars, tub and shower seats, fasteners and mounting devices shall meet the following specifications:

  1. Bending stress in a grab bar or seat induced by the maximum bending moment from the application of a 250-pound (1112 N) point load shall be less than the allowable stress for the material of the grab bar or seat.
  2. Shear stress induced in a grab bar or seat by the application of a 250-pound (1112 N) point load shall be less than the allowable shear stress for the material of the grab bar or seat, and if its mounting bracket or other support is considered to be fully restrained, then direct and torsional shear stresses shall not exceed the allowable shear stress.
  3. Shear force induced in a fastener or mounting device from the application of a 250-pound (1112 N) point load shall be less than the allowable lateral load of either the fastener or mounting device or the supporting structure, whichever is the smaller allowable load.
  4. Tensile force induced in a fastener by a direct tension force of a 250-pound (1112 N) point load, plus the maximum moment from the application of a 250-pound (1112 N) point load, shall be less than the allowable withdrawal load between the fastener and supporting structure.
  5. Grab bars shall not rotate within their fittings.

A grab bar and any wall or other surface adjacent to it shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements and shall have rounded edges.

When grab bars are mounted adjacent to a wall, the space between the wall and the grab bars shall be 11/2 inches (38 mm). (See Figure 11A-9C.) The space between the grab bar and projecting objects below and at the ends shall be 11/2 inches (38 mm) minimum. The space between the grab bar and projecting objects above shall be 12 inches (305 mm) minimum.

Exceptions:

  1. The space between the grab bars and shower controls, shower fittings, and other grab bars above shall be permitted to be 11/2 inches (38 mm) minimum.
  2. For L-shaped or U-shaped grab bars the space between the walls and the grab bar shall be 11/2 inches (38 mm) minimum for a distance of 6 inches (152 mm) on either side of the inside corner between two adjacent wall surfaces.

When common use bathing facilities are provided for residents or guests, including showers, bathtubs or lockers, at least one of each type of fixture in each facility, and not less than 1 percent of all fixtures, shall comply with this section.

Bathtubs required to be accessible shall comply with the following:

Clearance in front of bathtubs shall extend the length of the bathtub and shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) wide minimum for forward approach and 30 inches (762 mm) wide minimum for parallel approach. A lavatory complying with Section 1127A.3 shall be permitted at the control end of the clearance. When a permanent seat is provided at the head end of the bathtub, the clearance shall extend 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the wall at the head end of the bathtub. (See Figure 11A-9E.)

A removable in-tub seat or a permanent seat at the head end of the tub shall be provided. The structural strength of seats and their attachments shall comply with Section 1127A.4.4. Seats shall be mounted securely and shall not slip during use.

The top of bathtub seats shall be 17 inches (432 mm) minimum and 19 inches (483 mm) maximum above the bathroom finish floor. The depth of a removable in-tub seat shall be 15 inches (381 mm) minimum and 16 inches (406 mm) maximum. Permanent seats at the head end of the bathtub shall be 15 inches (381 mm) deep minimum and shall extend from the back wall to or beyond the outer edge of the bathtub. (See Figure 11A-9E.)

Grab bars complying with Section 1127A.4 shall be provided in accordance with this section. (See Figure 11A-9F.) When separate grab bars are required on adjacent walls at a common mounting height, an L-shaped or U-shaped grab bar meeting the dimensional requirements of this section shall be permitted.

  1. Bathtubs with permanent seats. Two horizontal grab bars shall be installed on the back wall. One shall be located 33 inches (838 mm) minimum and 36 inches (914 mm) maximum above the finish floor measured to the top of the gripping surface, and the other shall be located 8 inches (203 mm) minimum and 10 inches (254 mm) maximum above the rim of the bathtub. Each grab bar shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) long minimum, and shall be installed 15 inches (381 mm) maximum from the head end wall and 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the control end wall.

    A grab bar 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum shall be installed on the control end wall at the front edge of the bathtub.

  2. Bathtubs with removable seats. Two horizontal grab bars shall be installed on the back wall. One shall be located 33 inches (838 mm) minimum and 36 inches (914 mm) maximum above the finish floor measured to the top of the gripping surface, and the other shall be located 8 inches (203 mm) minimum and 10 inches (254 mm) maximum above the rim of the bathtub. Each grab bar shall be 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum and shall be installed 24 inches (610 mm) maximum from the head end wall and 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the control end wall.

    A grab bar 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum shall be installed on the control end wall at the front edge of the bathtub. A grab bar 12 inches (305 mm) long minimum shall be installed on the head end wall at the front edge of the bathtub.

Faucets and controls (other than drain stoppers) shall be located on an end wall between the bathtub rim and grab bar, and between the open side of the bathtub and the centerline of the width of the bathtub. (See Figure 11A-9F.)

Controls shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2 N).

A shower spray unit with a hose at least 59 inches (1524 mm) long that can be used both as a fixed shower head and as a hand-held shower shall be provided.

The shower spray unit shall have an on/off control with a non-positive shut-off. If an adjustable-height shower head on a vertical bar is used, the bar shall be installed so as not to obstruct the use of the grab bars.

When provided, enclosures for bathtubs shall not obstruct controls, faucets, shower and spray units, or obstruct transfer from wheelchairs onto bathtub seats or into bathtubs. Enclosures on bathtubs shall not have tracks installed on the rim of the open face of the bathtub.

Shower compartments required to be accessible shall comply with this section. (See Figures 11A-9H, 11A-9I, 11A-9J and 11A-9K.)

  1. Standard roll-in shower compartments. Standard roll-in shower compartments shall meet one of the following:

    1. 1.1 30 inches (762 mm) minimum in depth and 60 inches (1524 mm) minimum in width between wall surfaces measured at center points of opposing sides, with a full opening width on the long side.

      A clear floor space 30 inches (914 mm) minimum by 60 inches (1524 mm) minimum shall be provided adjacent to the open face of the shower compartment.

    2. 1.2. 42 inches (1067 mm) in width between wall surfaces, and 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum in depth with an entrance opening of 42 inches (1067 mm).
  2. Alternate roll-in shower compartments. Alternate roll-in shower compartments shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum in depth and 60 inches (1524 mm) minimum in width between wall surfaces measured at center points of opposing sides. A 36-inch (914 mm) wide minimum entry shall be provided at one end of the long side of the compartment.

Thresholds in roll-in shower compartments shall be 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) maximum in height and shall be beveled with a slope no greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent slope). (See Figure 11A-1F.)

Exception: Changes in level not exceeding 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) shall be permitted to be vertical.

Enclosures, when provided for shower compartments, shall not obstruct controls, faucets, shower spray units, and transfer from wheelchairs onto shower seats.

Shower compartment floor surfaces shall be stable, firm and slip resistant. The maximum slope of the floor shall be 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) per foot (2.083 percent slope) in any direction. When drains are provided, grate openings shall be 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) maximum and located flush with the floor surface.

Controls, faucets and shower spray units in shower compartments shall be operable with one hand, and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate operable parts shall be 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum. All controls and faucets shall be of a single-lever design.

In standard roll-in shower compartments, operable parts of controls and faucets shall be installed on the back wall of the compartment adjacent to the seat wall, 19 inches (483 mm) minimum and 27 inches (686 mm) maximum from the seat wall.

Operable parts of controls and faucets shall be located above the grab bar, but no higher than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the shower floor, with their centerline at 39 inches (991 mm) minimum and 41 inches (1041 mm) maximum above the shower floor.

Operable parts of the shower spray unit, including the handle, shall be installed on the back wall adjacent to the seat wall, 19 inches (483 mm) minimum and 27 inches (686 mm) maximum from the seat wall.

Operable parts of the shower spray unit, including the handle, shall be located above the grab bar, but no higher than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the shower floor (measured to the top of the mounting bracket).

In alternate roll-in shower compartments, operable parts of controls and faucets shall be installed on the side wall of the compartment adjacent to the seat wall, 19 inches (483 mm) minimum and 27 inches (686 mm) maximum from the seat wall.

Operable parts of controls and faucets shall be located above the grab bar, but no higher than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the shower floor, with their centerline at 39 inches (991 mm) minimum and 41 inches (1041 mm) maximum above the shower floor.

Operable parts of the shower spray unit, including the handle, shall be installed on the following locations:

  1. On the side wall of the compartment adjacent to the seat wall, 17 inches (432 mm) minimum and 19 inches (483 mm) maximum from the seat wall; or
  2. On the back wall opposite the seat, 15 inches (381 mm) maximum, left or right, of the centerline of the seat.

    Operable parts of the shower spray unit, including the handle, shall be located above the grab bar, but no higher than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the shower floor.

A flexible hand-held shower spray unit with a hose at least 59 inches (1524 mm) long that can be used both as a fixed shower head and as a hand-held shower shall be provided.

The shower spray unit shall have an on/off control with a non-positive shut-off. If an adjustable-height shower head on a vertical bar is used, the bar shall be installed so as not to obstruct the use of grab bars.

When accessible shower facilities are provided in areas subject to excessive vandalism, in lieu of providing the fixed flexible hose, two wall-mounted shower heads shall be installed. Each shower head shall be installed so that it can be operated independently of the other and shall have swivel angle adjustments, both vertically and horizontally. One shower head shall be located at a height of 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum above the floor.

A seat in a standard roll-in shower compartment shall be a folding type, installed on the side wall adjacent to the controls.

The seat shall extend from the back wall to a point within 3 inches (76 mm) of the compartment entry. A seat in an alternate roll-in type shower compartment shall be a folding type, installed on the front wall opposite the back wall, and shall extend from the adjacent side wall to a point within 3 inches (76 mm) of the compartment entry.

Shower compartment seats shall comply with Section 1127A.4.4 and shall be located within 27 inches (686 mm) of the shower controls. The top of the seat shall be 17 inches (432 mm) minimum and 19 inches (483 mm) maximum above the bathroom finish floor. When folded, the seat shall not extend more than 6 inches (152 mm) from the mounting wall.

The rear edge of a rectangular seat shall be 21/2 inches (64 mm) maximum from the seat wall. The front edge of a rectangular seat shall be 15 inches (381 mm) minimum and 16 inches (406 mm) maximum from the seat wall. The side edge of the seat shall be 11/2 inches (38 mm) maximum from the adjacent wall.

The rear edge of an L-shaped seat shall be 2 1/2 inches (64 mm) maximum from the seat wall. The front edge of an L-shaped seat shall be 15 inches (381 mm) minimum and 16 inches (406 mm) maximum from the seat wall. The rear edge of the “L” portion of the seat shall be 11/2 inches (38 mm) maximum from the wall. The front edge shall be 14 inches (356 mm) minimum and 15 inches (381 mm) maximum from the wall. The end of the “L” shall be 22 inches (559 mm) minimum and 23 inches (584 mm) maximum from the main seat wall.

Accessible shower compartments shall be provided with grab bars, installed in accordance with Section 1127A.5.3.8.1 or Section 1127A.5.3.8.2. Grab bars shall also comply with Section 1127A.4.

When multiple grab bars are used, required horizontal grab bars shall be installed at the same height above the finish floor. When separate grab bars are required on adjacent walls at a common mounting height, L-shaped or U-shaped grab bars meeting the dimensional requirements of Section 1127A.5.3.8.1 or Section 1127A.5.3.8.2 shall be permitted. (See Figure 11A-9H or Figure 11A-9I.)

Grab bars shall be installed on the back wall and on the side wall opposite the seat. Grab bars above the seat are not permitted. Grab bars shall be installed 6 inches (152 mm) maximum from adjacent walls.

Grab bars shall be installed on the back wall and the side wall farthest from the compartment entry. Grab bars above the seat are not permitted. Grab bars shall be installed 6 inches (152 mm) maximum from adjacent walls.

When a soap dish is provided, it shall be located on the control wall at a maximum height of 40 inches (1016 mm) above the shower floor, and within the reach limits from the seat.

When no separate shower compartments are provided, the shower for persons with disabilities shall be located in a corner with L-shaped grab bars extending along two adjacent walls with a folding seat adjacent to the shower controls. (See Figure 11A-9J.)

When two or more accessible showers are provided within the same functional area, there shall be at least one shower constructed opposite hand from the other or others (i.e., one left-hand control versus right-hand controls).

Where lockers are provided for residents or guests, at least one locker and not less than 1 percent of all lockers shall be accessible to persons with disabilities. An accessible route not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in clear width shall be provided to these lockers. See Section 1138A for required clear space, allowable reach ranges and requirements for control and operating mechanisms.

All accessible toilet and bathing facilities shall be identified by the “International Symbol of Accessibility.” Signs need not be provided for facilities within a dwelling unit or guestroom.

Doorways leading to sanitary facilities (toilet or bathing rooms) shall be identified by a geometric symbol in compliance with this section. Geometric symbols shall be centered horizontally on the door at a height of 58 inches (1473 mm) minimum and 60 inches (1524 mm) maximum above the finish floor measured to the center of the symbol. When a door is provided, the symbol shall be mounted within 1 inch (25 mm) of the vertical centerline of the door. Directional signs indicating the location of the nearest accessible toilet or bathing rooms shall be provided. Such directional signs shall comply with Section 1143.5 and shall include the International Symbol of Accessibility.

Edges of accessibility signage shall be rounded, chamfered or eased. Corners shall have a minimum radius of 1/8 inch (3.2 mm). See Section 1143A for additional signage requirements applicable to sanitary facilities.

Men’s sanitary facilities shall be identified by an equilateral triangle, 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) thick with edges 12 inches (305 mm) long and a vertex pointing upward. The triangle symbol shall contrast with the door, either light on a dark background or dark on a light background.

Women’s sanitary facilities shall be identified by a circle, 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) thick and 12 inches (305 mm) in diameter. The circle symbol shall contrast with the door, either light on a dark background or dark on a light background.

Unisex sanitary facilities shall be identified by a circle, 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) thick and 12 inches (305 mm) in diameter with a 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) thick triangle superimposed on the circle and within the 12-inch (305 mm) diameter. The triangle symbol shall contrast with the circle symbol, either light on a dark background or dark on a light background. The circle symbol shall contrast with the door, either light on a dark background or dark on a light background.

Where towel, sanitary napkins, waste receptacles and other similar dispensing and disposal fixtures are provided, at least one of each type shall be located with all operable parts, including coin slots, within 40 inches (1016 mm) from the finished floor. Controls and operating mechanisms shall comply with Section 1138A.4.

Toilet tissue dispensers shall be located on the wall or partition closest to the water closet, 7 inches (180 mm) minimum and 9 inches (230 mm) maximum in front of the water closet measured to the centerline of the dispenser. The outlet of the dispenser shall be below the grab bar, 19 inches (483 mm) minimum above the finish floor. The outlet of the dispenser shall not be located behind grab bars. Dispensers shall not be of a type that controls delivery or that does not allow continuous paper flow. (See Figure 11A-9B.)

Where mirrors are provided, at least one shall be accessible. Mirrors located above lavatories or countertops shall be installed with the bottom edge of the reflecting surface 40 inches (1016 mm) maximum above the finish floor. Mirrors not located above lavatories or countertops shall be installed with the bottom edge of the reflecting surface 35 inches (889 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

Space allowances and reach ranges in common use areas shall comply with Section 1138A.

Where common use laundry rooms are provided, at least one of each type of appliance provided in each laundry area shall be accessible, shall be on an accessible route and shall comply with this section. Such appliances include clothes washing machines, dryers, soap dispensers and any related features such as wash sinks, tables and storage areas.

Where laundry rooms are provided on floors of an elevator building, each laundry room shall be accessible. Where there is one laundry room on a ground floor in each building, each laundry room shall be accessible. Where there is a laundry room on the ground floor of a building and another located in the basement, it is acceptable to have only the ground floor laundry room accessible.

There shall be a minimum clear space 30 inches perpendicular by 48 inches parallel (762 mm by 1219 mm) in front of clothes washers and dryers required to be accessible. There shall be a minimum clear space 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) provided for at least one of each type of fixture or appliance provided in the laundry room (e.g., soap dispensers, wash sinks, tables, storage areas).

Clothes washers and dryers including stacked clothes washers and dryers required to be accessible shall have controls and operating mechanisims (including doors, coin slots, lint screens, detergent and bleach compartments) within the reach range of a seated user. Controls and operating mechanisms shall be located no higher than 48 inches (1219 mm), and no lower than 15 inches (381 mm), above the finished floor measured to the center of the grip. If the reach is over an obstruction (for example, washer or dryer), operating mechanisms shall be located within the reach ranges specified in Section 1138A.3. Controls and operating mechanisms that do not satisfy these specifications are acceptable, provided that comparable mechanisms, controls or outlets that perform the same functions are provided within the same area and are accessible.

Controls and operating mechanisms shall be operable with one hand and not require tight grasping, pinching or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate controls and operating mechanisms shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2 N).

Washing machines and clothes dryers in accessible common use laundry rooms shall be front loading.

The bottom of the opening to the laundry compartment shall be located 15 inches (381 mm) minimum and 36 inches (914 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

If fixed storage facilities such as cabinets, shelves, closets or drawers are provided where access is required by Sections 1.8.2.1.2 and 1102A, at least one of each type of facility provided shall comply with this section. Additional storage may be provided outside of the reach ranges specified in Section 1138A.3.

A clear floor space at least 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) complying with Section 1138A.1.4 that allows either a forward or parallel approach by a person using a wheelchair shall be provided at accessible storage facilities.

Accessible storage spaces and clothes rods shall be within at least one of the reach ranges specified in Section 1138A.3. (See Figure 11A-1J and Figure 11A-1I.)

Hardware for accessible storage facilities shall comply with Section 1138A.4. Touch latches and U-shaped pulls are acceptable.

Where fixed or built-in seating, tables or counters are provided for residents or guests, 5 percent, but not less than one, shall be accessible as provided in this section.

When seating spaces for persons in wheelchairs are provided at fixed tables or counters, clear floor space complying with Section 1138A.1.4 positioned for a forward approach shall be provided. Such clear floor space shall not overlap the required knee and toe space by more than 19 inches (483 mm). (See Figure 11A-1K.)

When seating for persons in wheelchairs is provided at fixed tables or counters, knee and toe space complying with Section 1138A.2 shall be provided. (See Figure 11A-1K.)

The tops of tables and counters shall be 28 inches to 34 inches (711 mm to 864 mm) from the finish floor.

Exception: When food or drink is served for consumption at a counter exceeding 34 inches (864 mm) in height, only a portion of the main counter, 60 inches (1524 mm) minimum in length, shall be provided in compliance with this section.

Division IV DWELLING UNIT FEATURES

Division IV Table of Contents

  • Section 1128A Covered Dwelling Units
  • Section 1129A Reserved
  • Section 1130A Accessible Route within Covered Multifamily Dwelling Units
  • Section 1131A Changes in Level on Accessible Routes
  • Section 1132A Doors
  • Section 1133A Kitchens
  • Section 1134A Bathing and Toilet Facilities
  • Section 1135A Laundry Rooms
  • Section 1136A Electrical Receptacle, Switch and Control Heights

Covered multifamily dwelling units shall be adaptable and accessible into and throughout the dwelling unit as provided in this division.

Note: See Sections 1101A “Application” and 1102A “Building Accessibility” for dwelling units required to comply with this division.

An accessible route shall be provided through all rooms and spaces of the dwelling unit. The accessible route shall pass through the primary entry door, and shall connect with all additional exterior doors, required clear floor spaces at kitchen appliances and bathroom fixtures. For the purpose of this section, “accessible routes” may include hallways, corridors and ramps.

Exception: An accessible route is not required from the interior of the unit into a basement or garage, except as provided in Section 1105A.1.

The accessible route into and throughout covered multifamily dwelling units shall be at least 36 inches (914 mm) wide.

Abrupt changes in level along any accessible route shall not exceed 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). When changes in level do occur, they shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50-percent slope). Changes in level not exceeding 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) may be vertical.

Changes in level greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) shall be made by means of a sloped surface not greater than 1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), or a ramp, elevator or platform (wheelchair) lift. See Section 1122A for ramps and Section 1124A.11 for platform (wheelchair) lifts.

The width and height of primary entry doors and all required exit doors shall comply with Section 1126A.1. The requirements of Sections 1126A.3 shall apply to maneuvering clearances at the side of the door exposed to common or public use spaces (e.g., entry or exit doors which open from the covered multifamily dwelling unit into a corridor, hallway or lobby, or directly to the outside).

Except as allowed by Section 1109A.2, interior doors intended for user passage and secondary exterior doors shall comply with this section. The provisions of this section shall apply to the dwelling unit side of doors leading from the interior of the dwelling unit to an unfinished basement or an attached garage.

Doors shall comply with the following:

  1. Doors shall not be less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height.
  2. Swinging doors shall provide a net clear opening width of not less than 32 inches (813 mm), measured with the door or doors positioned at an angle of 90 degrees from the closed position.
  3. Swinging doors shall be capable of opening at least 90 degrees.
  4. A nominal 32-inch (813 mm) clear opening provided by a standard 6-foot wide (1829 mm) sliding patio door assembly is acceptable.
  5. A pair of doors, manual or automatic, must have at least one leaf which provides a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 mm), measured with the door positioned at an angle of 90 degrees from its closed position.
  6. The width of any component in the means of egress system shall not be less than the minimum width required by Section 1005.

See also Chapter 10. The floor or landing on each side of a door shall be level. Primary entry doors, required exit doors or secondary exterior doors with changes in height between the interior surface or floor level and the exterior surface or floor level shall comply with the following:

  1. Exterior landings of impervious construction (e.g., concrete, brick, flagstone) serving primary entry doors and required exit doors are limited to not more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of change in height between floor surfaces. Changes in level shall comply with Section 1131A.
  2. Exterior landings of pervious construction (e.g., wood decking with spaces) shall be the same level as the interior landing, except that secondary exterior doors may have no more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of change in height between floor surfaces. Changes in level shall comply with Section 1131A.
  3. Secondary exterior doors onto decks, patios or balcony surfaces constructed of impervious materials (e.g., concrete, brick, flagstone) may have a maximum change in height from the interior landing of 4 inches (101.6 mm). Changes in height greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) shall be accomplished by means of a ramp complying with Section 1114A or by means of a platform constructed to the level of the floor as illustrated in Figure 11A-8J.
  4. Secondary exterior doors onto decks, patios or balcony surfaces constructed of impervious materials (e.g., concrete, brick, flagstone) may have a maximum change in height from the interior landing of 1 inch (25.4 mm), provided a ramp with a maximum slope of 1:8 is permanently installed. (See Figure 11A-8K.)
  5. In buildings containing covered multifamily dwelling units, the floor or landing immediately outside the entry may be sloped up to 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) per foot (12 inches) (305 mm), in a direction away from the primary entrance of the dwelling unit for drainage.

Thresholds at the primary entry and required exit doors shall be no higher than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). Thresholds at secondary exterior doors, including sliding door tracks, shall be no higher than 3/4 inch (19.05 mm). Changes in height at interior door thresholds (e.g., floor material changes at door thresholds) shall not exceed 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). Thresholds shall comply with the following:

  1. Thresholds with a change in height of not more than 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) may be vertical.
  2. Thresholds with a change in height between 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) and 3/4 inch (19.05 mm) shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50-percent slope).

The floor or landing on the dwelling unit side of the primary entry door and any required exit door shall have a minimum length of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm). Section 1126A.3 shall apply to maneuvering clearances at the side of the door exposed to common or public use spaces.

Manuevering clearances at interior doors shall provide a minimum length on both sides of the door of at least 42 inches (1067 mm) measured at a right angle to the plane of the door in its closed position.

Exception: A 39-inch (991 mm) length is acceptable at interior doors when a minimum clear opening width of 34 inches (864 mm) is provided.

The width of the level area on the side to which the door swings shall extend 18 inches (457 mm) past the strike edge for all doors. The width of the level area at the exterior side of the primary entry door and any required exit doors shall comply with Section 1126A.

Notes:

  1. See Section 1134A for bathrooms that are required to be accessible.
  2. Twenty-four inches (610 mm) is preferred for strike edge clearance.

Maximum effort to operate doors shall not exceed 8 1/2 pounds (38 N) for exterior doors and 5 pounds (22 N) for interior doors, such pull or push effort being applied at right angles to hinged doors and at the center plane of sliding or folding doors. Compensating devices or automatic door operators may be utilized to meet these standards. When fire doors are required, the maximum effort to operate the door may be increased to the minimum allowable by the appropriate enforcement agency, not to exceed 15 pounds (66.7 N).

The type of latch and lock required for all doors shall be in accordance with Section 1132A.8 and Chapter 10, Section 1008.

Hand-activated door latching, locking and opening hardware shall be centered between 30 inches (762 mm) and 44 inches (1118 mm) above the floor. Latching and locking doors that are hand-activated and on an accessible route shall be operable with a single effort by lever-type hardware, panic bars, push-pull activating bars or other hardware designed to provide passage without requiring the ability to grasp the opening hardware. Locked exit doors shall operate consistent with Section 1132A.6, in the direction of egress.

The lever or lever of actuated latches or locks shall be curved with a return to within 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of the door to prevent catching on the clothing of persons during egress in Group R and U occupancies with an occupant load greater than 10.

Swinging door or gate surfaces within 10 inches (254 mm) of the finish floor or ground measured vertically shall have a smooth surface on the push side extending the full width of the door or gate. Parts creating horizontal or vertical joints in these surfaces shall be within 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) of the same plane as the other and be free of sharp or abrasive edges. Cavities created by added kick plates shall be capped.

Exceptions:

  1. Automatic doors.
  2. Tempered glass doors without stiles and having a bottom rail or shoe with the top leading edge tapered at 60 degrees minimum from the horizontal.
  3. Doors or gates that do not extend to within 10 inches (254 mm) of the finish floor.

Every primary entrance to a covered multifamily dwelling unit shall be provided with a door buzzer, bell, chime or equivalent. The activating mechanism shall be mounted a maximum of 48 inches (1219 mm) above the floor and connected to permanent wiring.

Kitchens shall be on an accessible route and shall comply with this section. (See Figure 11A-10A.)

Clear floor space at kitchens shall comply with the following:

  1. A clear floor space at least 30 inches (762 mm) by 48 inches (1219 mm) that allows a parallel approach by a person in a wheelchair shall be provided at the range or cooktop.
  2. A clear floor space at least 30 inches (762 mm) by 48 inches (1219 mm) that allows either a parallel or forward approach shall be provided at the kitchen sink and all other fixtures or appliances including the oven, dishwasher, refrigerator/freezer and trash compactor.
  3. A clear floor space at least 30 inches (762 mm) by 48 inches (1219 mm) that allows either a parallel or a forward approach shall be provided at the work surface required by Section 1133A.4.
  4. The centerline of the 30-inch (762 mm) by 48-inch (1219 mm) clear floor space provided for parallel or forward approach shall be aligned with the centerline of the work space, appliance or fixture.

Kitchens shall have a minimum clear width measured between any cabinet, countertop or the face of any appliance (excluding handles and controls) that projects into the kitchen and the opposing cabinet, countertop, appliance or wall as follows:

  1. U-shaped kitchens, designed with parallel approach at a range or cooktop located at the base of the U, shall have a minimum clear width of at least 60 inches (1524 mm). (See Figure 11A-10A.)
  2. U-shaped kitchens, designed with a cooktop or sink located at the base of the U, which provides a knee and toe space in accordance with Section 1133A.7 to allow for a forward approach, shall have a clear width of at least 48 inches (1219 mm). (See Figure 11A-10A.)
  3. All other kitchen designs shall provide a minimum clear width of at least 48 inches (1219 mm). (See Figure 11A-10A.)

Sinks and work surfaces required by Section 1133A.4 (see Item 1 and Item 2) shall be provided with knee and toe space complying with Section 1133A.7. Base cabinets (including toeboard and shelving) directly under kitchen sinks and work surfaces shall be removable without the use of specialized tools or specialized knowledge in order to provide knee and toe space. The finish floor beneath kitchen sinks and work surfaces shall be extended to the wall.

Kitchen countertops shall comply with this section and shall be provided with the following:

  1. A minimum linear length of 30 inches (762 mm) of countertop shall be provided for the kitchen sink installation.
  2. A minimum linear length of 30 inches (762 mm) of countertop shall be provided for a work surface.
  3. Sinks and work surfaces may be a single integral unit a minimum of 60 inches (1524 mm) in length, or be separate components.

    Exception: Two 15-inch (381 mm) wide minimum breadboards may be provided in lieu of the required 30 inches (762 mm) of countertop work surface.

Repositionable countertops shall be provided in a minimum of 5 percent of the covered multifamily dwelling units. Repositionable countertops shall comply with the following:

  1. Sinks and work surfaces required by Section 1133A.4 shall be designed to enable repositioning to a minimum height of 28 inches (711 mm).
  2. Base cabinets directly under sinks and work surfaces shall be removable as required in Section 1133A.3.
  3. The sides of adjacent cabinets and the back wall, which may become exposed to moisture or food handling when a countertop is lowered, shall be constructed of durable, nonabsorbent materials appropriate for such uses.
  4. Finished flooring shall be extended to the wall beneath the sink and work surface.

    Exceptions:

    1. Stone, cultured stone and tiled countertops may be used without meeting the repositioning requirements.
    2. Two 15-inch (381 mm) wide minimum breadboards may be provided in lieu of the required 30 inches (762 mm) of countertop work surface, and used without meeting the repositioning requirements.

Lower shelving and/or drawer space shall be provided in the kitchen at a height of no more than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the floor.

Faucet controls and operating mechanisms shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching or twisting of the wrist.

The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2N). Lever-operated, push-type and electronically controlled mechanisms are examples of acceptable designs. Self-closing valves are allowed if the faucet remains open for at least 10 seconds.

Knee and toe space, when required by Section 1133A, shall comply with Section 1138A.2 and the following:

  1. The knee and toe space shall be clear and unobstructed, or removable base cabinets in compliance with Section 1133A.3 shall be provided.
  2. The knee and toe space shall be 30 inches (762 mm) wide minimum, centered on the sink, countertop or appliance.
  3. A clear floor space shall not extend into the knee and toe space more than 19 inches (483 mm).

Water supply and drain pipes under kitchen sinks shall be insulated or otherwise covered to protect against contact. There shall be no sharp or abrasive surfaces under kitchen sinks.

All bathrooms, bathing and toilet facilities within covered multifamily dwelling units shall comply with this section.

Bathrooms shall be designed to comply with one of the following options:

Option 1 .

All bathrooms within the dwelling unit shall be designed to comply with the following:

  1. Toilet, bathing and shower facilities shall comply with Section 1134A.4.
  2. Bathtubs shall comply with Section 1134A.5.
  3. Showers shall comply with Section 1134A.6.
  4. Water closets shall comply with Section 1134A.7.
  5. Lavatories, vanities, mirrors and towel fixtures shall comply with Section 1134A.8.
  6. Bathrooms shall be provided with an accessible route into and through the bathroom.
  7. If a door is provided, it shall comply with the requirements of Section 1132A.5.
  8. A minimum 18-inch (457 mm) clear maneuvering space shall be provided on the swing side of the door at the strike edge of the door.
  9. Switches, outlets and controls shall comply with Section 1142A.
  10. Reinforced walls to allow for the future installation of grab bars around the toilet, tub and shower shall comply with Sections 1134A.5 for bathtubs, 1134A.6 for showers and 1134A.7 for water closets. Grab bars shall comply with Sections 1127A.4- and 1127A.2.2, Item 4.
Option 2 .

Only one bathroom within the dwelling unit shall be designed to comply with the following:

  1. Toilet, bathing and shower facilities shall comply with Section 1134A.4.
  2. Bathtubs shall comply with Section 1134A.5.
  3. Showers shall comply with Section 1134A.6.
  4. Water closets shall comply with Section 1134A.7.
  5. Lavatories, vanities, mirrors and towel fixtures shall comply with Section 1134A.8.
  6. Where both a tub and shower are provided in the bathroom, at least one shall be made accessible. Additional requirements apply to dwelling units containing two or more bathrooms when a bathtub is provided as the accessible bathing fixture.

    Where two or more bathrooms are provided within the same dwelling unit and a bathtub is installed to comply with Option 2, Item 6 in one bathroom and a shower stall is provided in a subsequent bathroom, both the bathtub selected to comply with Option 2, Item 6 and at least one shower stall within the dwelling unit shall meet all the applicable accessibility requirements provided in Section 1134A. (See Section 1134A.5 for bathtubs, or Section 1134A.6 for showers.)

  7. When two or more lavatories are provided, at least one shall be made accessible and comply with Section 1134A.8.
  8. Bathrooms shall be provided with an accessible route into and through the bathroom.
  9. If a door is provided, it shall comply with the requirements of Section 1132A.5.
  10. A minimum 18-inch (457 mm) clear maneuvering space shall be provided on the swing side of the door at the strike edge of the door.
  11. Switches, outlets and controls shall comply with Section 1142A.
  12. Reinforced walls to allow for the future installation of grab bars around the toilet, tub and shower shall comply with Sections 1134A.5 for bathtubs, 1134A.6 for showers and 1134A.7 for water closets. Grab bars shall comply with Sections 1127A.4 and 1127A.2.2, Item 4.

When Option 2 is used, all additional bathrooms must comply with Items 8 through 12 above.

All powder rooms shall be designed to comply with Section 1134A.2, Option 2, Items 8 through 12. When the powder room is the only toilet facility located on an accessible level, it shall comply with the Option 2 items listed above, plus all additional requirements located in Sections 1134A.4, 1134A.7 and 1134A.8.

Bathing and toilet facilities required to be adaptable shall provide sufficient maneuvering space for a person using a wheelchair or other mobility aid to enter and close the door, use the fixtures, reopen the door and exit.

Where the door swings into the bathroom or powder room, there shall be a clear maneuvering space outside the swing of the door of at least 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) within the room. The clear maneuvering space shall allow the user to position a wheelchair or other mobility aid clear of the path of the door as it is closed and to permit use of fixtures.

Doors may swing into the required clear space at any fixture when a clear maneuvering space is provided outside the swing arc of the door so it can be closed.

Maneuvering spaces may include any knee space or toe space available below bathroom fixtures.

Bathtubs required to be accessible shall comply with this section.

  1. Floor space. There shall be a minimum clear floor space 48 inches parallel by 30 inches perpendicular (1219 mm by 762 mm) to the side of a bathtub or bathtub-shower combination to provide for the maneuvering of a wheelchair and transfer to and from the bathing facilities. The controls shall be on the wall at the foot of the bathtub. The edge of the clear floor space shall be flush with the control wall surface. The area under a lavatory, located at the control end of the tub, may be included in the clear floor space provided the lavatory is 19 inches (483 mm) maximum deep, and the knee and toe space comply with Section 1134A.8. Cabinets under lavatories and toilets shall not encroach into the clear floor space.
  2. Reinforced walls for grab bars. A bathtub installed without surrounding walls shall provide reinforced areas for the installation of floor-mounted grab bars.

    Where a bathtub is installed with surrounding walls, grab bar reinforcement shall be located on each end of the bathtub, 32 inches to 38 inches (813 mm to 965 mm) above the floor, extending a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) from the front edge of the bathtub toward the back wall of the bathtub. The grab bar reinforcement shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152.4 mm) nominal in height. (See Figure 11A-9G.)

    Grab bar reinforcement shall be installed on the back wall of the bathtub a maximum of 6 inches (152.4 mm) above the bathtub rim extending upward to at least 38 inches (965 mm) above the floor. Grab bar backing shall be installed horizontally to permit the installation of a 48-inch (1219 mm) grab bar with each end a maximum of 6 inches (152.4 mm) from the end walls of the bathtub. The grab bar reinforcement shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152.4 mm) nominal in height.

  3. Bathtub controls. Faucet controls and operation mechanisms shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching or twisting of the wrist.

    The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2 N). Lever operated, push type and electronically controlled mechanisms are examples of acceptable designs.

  4. Shower unit. A shower spray unit is not required in bathtubs.
  5. Bathtub enclosures. Doors and panels of bathtub enclosures shall be substantially constructed from approved, shatter-resistant materials. Hinged doors shall open outward. Glazing used in doors and panels of bathtub enclosures shall be fully tempered, laminated safety glass or approved plastic. When glass is used, it shall have minimum thickness of not less than 1/8 inch (3.17 mm) when fully tempered, or 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) when laminated, and shall pass the test requirements of this part, Chapter 24, Glass and Glazing. Plastics used in doors and panels of bathtub enclosures shall be of a shatter-resistant type.

Showers required to be accessible shall comply with this section.

  1. Size. When one or more shower stalls are provided within the same dwelling units, at least one shower stall comply with one of the following requirements.

    1. 1.1. The shower stall shall measure at least 42 inches wide by 48 inches deep (1067 mm by 1219 mm) with an entrance opening of at least 36 inches (914 mm); or
    2. 1.2. The shower stall shall measure at least 30 inches deep by 60 inches wide (762 mm by 1524 mm) with an entrance opening of at least 60 inches (1524 mm). A water closet may project a maximum of 12 inches (305 mm) into the opening, provided that a minimum of 36 inches (914 mm) clear space is maintained between the water closet and the shower wall as illustrated in Figure 11A-9L or;
    3. 1.3. Other shower stall configurations shall measure at least 36 inches deep by 60 inches wide (914 mm by 1524 mm) with an entrance opening of at least 36 inches (914 mm) when a wall is installed on the opening side.
  2. Slope. The maximum slope of the shower floor shall be 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) per foot in any direction and shall slope to a drain. The floor surfaces shall be of Carborundum or grit-faced tile or of material providing equivalent slip resistance.
  3. Floor space. A clear maneuvering space at least 30 inches in width by 48 inches in length (762 mm by 1219 mm) shall be located outside the shower, flush and parallel to the control wall.
  4. Reinforced walls for grab bars. Grab bar reinforcement shall be installed continuous in the walls of showers 32 inches to 38 inches (813 mm to 965 mm) above the floor. The grab bar reinforcement shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152.4 mm) nominal in height.

    Glass-walled shower stalls shall provide reinforcement for installation of floor-mounted or ceiling-mounted grab bars.

  5. Thresholds. When a threshold is used, it shall be a maximum of 2 inches (50.8 mm) in height and have a beveled or sloped angle not exceeding 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (26.6 degrees from the horizontal). Thresholds 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) or less in height may have a beveled or sloped angle not exceeding 1 unit vertical in 1 unit horizontal (45 degrees from the horizontal).
  6. Shower controls. Faucet controls and operation mechanisms shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2 N). Lever operated, push-type and electronically controlled mechanisms are examples of acceptable designs.
  7. Shower enclosures. Doors and panels of shower enclosures shall be substantially constructed from approved, shatter-resistant materials. Hinged shower doors shall open outward. Glazing used in doors and panels of shower enclosures shall be fully tempered, laminated safety glass or approved plastic. When glass is used, it shall have minimum thickness of not less than 1/8 inch (3.17 mm) when fully tempered, or 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) when laminated, and shall pass the test requirements of this part, Chapter 24, Glass and Glazing. Plastics used in doors and panels of shower enclosures shall be of a shatter-resistant type.

Water closets in bathrooms or powder rooms required to be accessible shall comply with this section.

  1. Floor space and location. The minimum floor space provided at a water closet shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) in clear width. The clear floor space shall extend past the front edge of the water closet at least 36 inches (914 mm). See Figure 11A-9M.

    Exception: The 48-inch (1219 mm) minimum clear width may be reduced to 36 inches (914 mm) for lavatories, cabinets, wing walls or privacy walls located immediately adjacent to a water closet which extend no more than 24 inches (610 mm) in depth.

Water closets shall be located within bathrooms in a manner that permits a grab bar to be installed on at least one side of the fixture. The centerline of the water closet shall be 17 inches (432 mm) minimum to 18 inches (457 mm) maximum from a grab bar wall or partition. In locations where water closets are adjacent to non-grab bar walls, vanities, lavatories or bathtubs, the centerline of the fixture shall be a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) from the obstacle.

  1. 2. Reinforced walls for grab bars. Where the water closet is not placed adjacent to a side wall capable of accommodating a grab bar, the bathroom shall have provisions for installation of floor-mounted, foldaway or similar alternative grab bars.

Where the water closet is placed adjacent to a side wall, reinforcement shall be installed on both sides or one side and the back. If reinforcement is installed at the back, it shall be installed between 32 inches (813 mm) and 38 inches (965 mm) above the floor. The grab bar reinforcement shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152.4 mm) nominal in height. The backing shall be a minimum of 40 inches (1016 mm) in length.

Reinforcement installed at the side of the water closet shall be installed 32 inches to 38 inches (813 mm to 965 mm) above the floor. The reinforcement shall be installed a maximum of 12 inches (305 mm) from the rear wall and shall extend a minimum of 26 inches (660 mm) in front of the water closet. The grab bar reinforcement shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152.4 mm) nominal in height.

  1. 3. Seat height. The minimum height of water closet seats shall be 15 inches (381 mm) above the floor.
  2. 4. Water closet controls. Water closet controls shall be mounted no more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above the floor. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2 N).

Bathrooms or powder rooms required to be accessible shall have at least one accessible lavatory. Where mirrors and towel fixtures are provided, at least one of each shall be accessible.

  1. Location. Vanities and lavatories shall be installed with the centerline of the fixture a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) horizontally from an adjoining wall or fixture to allow for forward approach. When parallel approach is provided, lavatories shall be installed with the centerline of the fixture a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) horizontally from an adjoining wall or fixture. The top of the fixture rim shall be a maximum of 34 inches (864 mm) above the finished floor.
  2. Floor space. A clear maneuvering space at least 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) shall be provided at lavatories and shall be centered on the lavatory.
  3. Cabinets. Cabinets under lavatories are acceptable provided the bathroom has space to allow a parallel approach by a person in a wheelchair and the lavatory cabinets are designed with adaptable knee and toe space.
  4. Knee and toe space. Knee and toe space shall be provided by one of the following:

    1. 4.1. The space beneath the lavatory shall be left clear and unobstructed;
    2. 4.2. Any cabinet beneath the lavatory shall be removable without the use of specialized knowledge or specialized tools; or
    3. 4.3. Doors to the cabinet beneath the lavatory shall be removable or openable to provide the required unobstructed knee and toe space.

    The knee and toe space shall be centered on the fixture, and shall comply with Section 1138A.2. The clear floor space required by Item 2 shall not extend into the knee and toe space more than 19 inches (483 mm). (See Figure 11A-9D.)

  5. Finished floor. The finished floor beneath the lavatory shall be extended to the wall.
  6. Plumbing protection. Water supply and drain pipes under lavatories shall be insulated or otherwise covered to protect against contact. There shall be no sharp or abrasive surfaces under lavatories.
  7. Lavatory faucet controls. Faucet controls and operation mechanisms shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching or twisting of the wrist.

    The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2 N). Lever operated, push-type and electronically controlled mechanisms are examples of acceptable designs. Self-closing valves are allowed if the faucet remains open for at least 10 seconds.

  8. Mirrors and towel fixtures. Where mirrors or towel fixtures are provided they shall be mounted with the bottom edge no higher than 40 inches (1016 mm) from the floor.

If clothes washing machines and clothes dryers are provided in covered multifamily dwelling units, one of each type of appliance shall be provided. Where front-loading clothes washers are not provided, management shall provide assistive devices, on request of the occupant, to permit the use of top-loading clothes washers.

Electrical receptacle outlets on branch circuits of 30 amperes or less and communication system receptacles shall be located no more than 48 inches (1219 mm) measured from the top of the receptacle outlet box nor less than 15 inches (381 mm) measured from the bottom of the receptacle outlet box to the level of the finished floor or working platform. If the reach is over a physical barrier or an obstruction (for example, a kitchen base cabinet), receptacles shall be located within the reach ranges specified in Section 1138A.3. Physical barriers and obstructions shall not extend more than 25 inches (635 mm) from the wall beneath the receptacle.

Receptacle outlets that do not satisfy these specifications are acceptable provided that comparable receptacle outlets, that perform the same functions, are provided within the same area and are accessible.

Exceptions:

  1. Receptacle outlets installed as part of permanently installed baseboard heaters are exempt.
  2. Required receptacle outlets shall be permitted in floors when adjacent to sliding panels or walls.
  3. Baseboard electrical outlets used in relocatable partitions, window walls or other electrical convenience floor outlets are not subject to the minimum height requirements.
  4. This section shall not apply to existing buildings when the enforcing agency determines that compliance with these standards would create an unreasonable hardship.

Controls or switches intended to be used by the occupant of the room or area to control lighting and receptacle outlets, appliances, alarms or cooling, heating and ventilating equipment shall be located no more than 48 inches (1219 mm) measured from the top of the outlet box nor less than 15 inches (381 mm) measured from the bottom of the outlet box to the level of the finished floor or working platform. If the reach is over a physical barrier or an obstruction (for example, a kitchen base cabinet) switches and controls shall be located within the reach ranges specified in Section 1138A.3. Physical barriers or obstructions shall not extend more than 25 inches (635 mm) from the wall beneath a control.

Switches and controls that do not satisfy these specifications are acceptable provided that comparable controls or outlets, that perform the same functions, are provided within the same area and are accessible.

Exception: Appliances (e.g,. kitchen stoves, dishwashers, range hoods, microwave ovens and similar appliances) which have controls located on the appliance.

Division V FEATURES COMMON TO EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR OF BUILDINGS

Division V Table of Contents

  • Section 1137A Other Features and Facilities
  • Section 1138A Space Allowances and Reach Ranges
  • Section 1139A Accessible Drinking Fountains
  • Section 1140A Accessible Telephones
  • Section 1141A Accessible Swimming Pools
  • Section 1142A Electrical Receptacle, Switch and Control Heights
  • Section 1143A Signage
  • Section 1144A through 1149A Reserved

This division shall apply to features and facilities of common use areas on accessible floors or sites.

Note: The provisions in this division are not applicable to dwelling units, unless otherwise specified.

The minimum clear width for single wheelchair passage shall be 36 inches (914 mm) continuously. (See Figure 11A-1E.)

See Section 1113A for minimum clear width of sidewalks, and Section 1120A for minimum clear width of interior accessible routes.

Exception: 32 inches (813 mm) in width is acceptable at a point not to exceed 24 inches (610 mm) in length. The segments with reduced width shall be separated by segments that are 48 inches (1219 mm) long minimum and 36 inches (914 mm) wide minimum.

The minimum width for two wheelchairs to pass is 60 inches (1524 mm) (See Figure 11A-1E).

An accessible route (exterior and interior) with a clear width less than 60 inches (1524 mm) shall provide passing spaces at intervals of 200 feet (60 960 mm) maximum. Passing spaces shall be either: a space 60 inches (1524 mm) minimum by 60 inches (1524 mm) minimum; or, an intersection of two walking surfaces providing a T-shaped space complying with Section 1138A.1.3.1, where the base and arms of the T-shaped space extend 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum beyond the intersection. (See Figure 11A-1L.)

The space required for a wheelchair to make a 180-degree turn shall be a circular clear space of 60 inches (1524 mm) diameter minimum (See Figure 11A-1D(a)); or a T-shaped space complying with Section 1138A.1.3.1. The circular turning space shall be permitted to include knee and toe clearance complying with Section 1138A.2

If a person in a wheelchair must make a turn around an obstruction, the minimum clear width of the accessible route shall be as required in Section 1138A.1.5.

A T-shaped turning space shall be within a 60 inch (1524 mm) square minimum with arms and base 36 inches (914 mm) wide minimum. Each arm of the T shall be clear of obstructions 12 inches (305 mm) minimum in each direction, and the base shall be clear of obstructions 24 inches (610 mm) minimum. The space shall be permitted to include knee and toe clearance complying with Section 1138A.2 only at the end of either the base or one arm. (See Figure 11A-1D(b).)

Turning spaces for wheelchairs shall be stable, firm, slip resistant, and shall comply with Section 1110A.3 or Section 1119A.2. Changes in level are not permitted. Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted

The minimum clear floor or ground space shall be 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm). The minimum clear floor or ground space may be positioned for forward or parallel approach to an object (See Figure 11A-1G). Clear floor or ground space may be part of the knee and toe space required under some objects unless otherwise specified.

One full unobstructed side of the clear floor or ground space for a wheelchair shall adjoin an accessible route or adjoin another wheelchair clear floor space.

If a clear floor space is located in an alcove or otherwise confined on all or a part of three sides, additional maneuvering clearances shall be provided in accordance with the following: (See Figure 11A-1H).

  1. Forward approach. Alcoves shall be 36 inches (914 mm) wide minimum when the depth exceeds 24 inches (610 mm).
  2. Parallel approach. Alcoves shall be 60 inches (1524 mm) wide minimum when the depth exceeds 15 inches (381 mm)

Clear floor or ground spaces for wheelchairs shall be stable, firm, slip resistant, and shall comply with Section 1110A.3 or Section 1119A.2. Changes in level are not permitted. Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

Gratings located in ground and floor surfaces along accessible routes shall be limited to spaces no greater than 1/2-inch (12.7mm) wide in one direction. If gratings have elongated openings, they shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the dominant direction of traffic.

When the accessible route makes a 180 degree turn around an element which is less than 48 inches (1219 mm) wide, clear width shall be 42 inches (1067 mm) minimum approaching the turn, 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum at the turn and 42 inches (1067 mm) minimum leaving the turn. When the clear width at the turn is 60 inches (1524 mm) minimum, the clear width when approaching and when leaving the turn shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum. (See Figure 11A-1C (b).)

When the accessible route makes a 90 degree turn around an element which is more than 48 inches (1219 mm) wide, clear width shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum approaching the turn, at the turn and leaving the turn. (See Figure 11A-1C (a).)

When space beneath an accessible element is included as part of a clear floor space, or turning space, the space shall comply with this section. Additional space shall not be prohibited beneath an element but shall not be considered as part of the clear floor space or turning space. (See Figure 11A-9D.)

Space under an element between 9 inches (229 mm) and 27 inches (686 mm) above the finish floor shall be considered knee space. The knee space shall be clear and unobstructed.

Exceptions:

  1. For lavatories required to be accessible, the knee space shall be at least 29 inches (737 mm) high at the front face and reducing to not less than 27 inches (686 mm) at a point 8 inches (203.2 mm) back from the front edge.
  2. For lavatories and sinks required to be accessible, the dip of the overflow shall not be considered in determining knee and toe clearances.

Knee space shall be 30 inches (762 mm) wide minimum.

Knee space shall extend 25 inches (635 mm) maximum under an element at 9 inches (229 mm) above the finish floor.

When knee space is required under an element as part of a clear floor space, the knee space shall be 11 inches (279 mm) deep minimum at 9 inches (229 mm) above the finish floor, and 8 inches (203 mm) deep minimum at 27 inches (686 mm) above the finish floor, measured from the front edge of the element.

Exceptions:

  1. Combined knee and toe space shall extend 19 inches (483 mm) minimum under sinks required to be accessible.
  2. Combined knee and toe space shall extend 19 inches (483 mm) minimum under built-in dining and work surfaces required to be accessible.

Between 9 inches (229 mm) and 27 inches (686 mm) above the finish floor, the knee space shall be permitted to be reduced at a rate of 1 inch (25 mm) in depth for each 6 inches (152 mm) in height.

Space under an element between the finish floor and 9 inches (229 mm) above the finish floor shall be considered toe space.

Toe space shall be 30 inches (762 mm) wide minimum.

Toe space shall extend 25 inches (635 mm) maximum under an element.

When toe space is required under an element as part of a clear floor space, the toe space shall extend 17 inches (432 mm) minimum under the element, measured from the front edge of the element.

Exceptions:

  1. Combined knee and toe space shall extend 19 inches (483 mm) minimum under sinks required to be accessible.
  2. Combined knee and toe space shall extend 19 inches (483 mm) minimum under build-in dining and work surfaces required to be accessible.

Space extending greater than 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the available knee space at 9 inches (229 mm) above the finish floor shall not be considered toe space.

  1. Unobstructed. When the clear floor space allows only forward approach to an object, the maximum high forward reach allowed shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) and the minimum low forward reach shall be no less than 15 inches (381 mm) above the finish floor. (See Figure 11A-1I(a)).
  2. Obstructed high reach. When the high forward reach is over an obstruction, the clear floor space shall extend beneath the element for a distance not less than the reach depth over the obstruction.

The high forward reach shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum when the reach depth is 20 inches (508 mm) maximum. When the reach depth exceeds 20 inches (508 mm), but is not more than 25 inches (635 mm), the high forward reach shall be 44 inches (1118 mm) maximum. (See Figure 11A-1I(b).)

  1. Unobstructed. When a clear floor space allows a parallel approach to an element, and the side reach is unobstructed, the high side reach shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum, and the low side reach shall be 15 inches (381 mm) minimum above the finish floor. (See Figures 11A-1J(a) and 11A-1J(b).)

    Exceptions:

    1. An obstruction shall be permitted between the clear floor space and the element when the depth of the obstruction is 10 inches (254 mm) maximum.
    2. Bookshelves shall be permitted to be 54 inches (1372 mm) maximum above the finish floor. Bookshelves may be greater than 54 inches (1372 mm) above the finish floor when an attendant is available to assist persons with disabilities.
  2. Obstructed high reach. When a clear floor space allows a parallel approach to an element and the high side reach is over an obstruction, the height of the obstruction shall be 34 inches (864 mm) maximum and the depth of the obstruction shall be 24 inches (610 mm) maximum.

    The high side reach shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum for a reach depth of 10 inches (254 mm) maximum. When the reach depth exceeds 10 inches (254 mm), but no more than 24 inches (610 mm), the high side reach shall be 46 inches (1168 mm) maximum. (See Figure 11A-1J(c).)

    Exception: Kitchen countertops in dwelling units, and the top of washing machines and clothes dryers shall be permitted to be 36 inches (914 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

Note: See also Section 1142A for receptacle, switch and control installation.

Controls and operating mechanisms in accessible spaces, along accessible routes or as part of accessible elements shall comply with this section.

Clear floor space complying with Section 1138A.1.4 that allows a forward or parallel approach by a person using a wheelchair shall be provided at all controls and operating mechanisms.

Controls and operating mechanisms shall be located no higher than 48 inches (1219 mm), and no lower than 15 inches (381 mm), above the finished floor measured to the center of the grip. If the reach is over an obstruction (for example, washer or dryer), controls and operating mechanisms shall be located within the reach ranges specified in Section 1138A.3. Controls and operating mechanisms that do not satisfy these specifications are acceptable, provided that comparable mechanisms, controls or outlets, that perform the same functions, are provided within the same area and are accessible.

Controls and operating mechanisms shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate controls and operating mechanisms shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2 N).

Drinking fountains and water coolers in common use areas and/or sites shall comply with this section. A side approach drinking fountain is not acceptable. (See Figure 11A-11A.)

Drinking fountains and water coolers shall be on an accessible route.

Drinking fountains shall be a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) and a maximum of 19 inches (483 mm) in depth.

Drinking fountains shall be provided with 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) clear floor space, centered on the unit. The clear floor space shall be positioned for a forward approach.

Drinking fountains shall be provided with a clear and unobstructed knee and toe space. Knee and toe space shall comply with Section 1138A.2.

The spout shall be located 15 inches (381 mm) minimum from the vertical support and 5 inches (127 mm) maximum from the front edge of the drinking fountain, including bumpers. Spout outlets shall be 36 inches (914 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

The spout shall provide a flow of water at least 4 inches (101.6 mm) high to allow the insertion of a cup or glass under the flow of water. The angle of the water stream shall be measured horizontally relative to the front face of the unit. When spouts are located less than 3 inches (76 mm) from the front of the unit, the angle of the water stream shall be 30 degrees maximum. When spouts are located between 3 inches (76 mm) and 5 inches (127 mm) maximum from the front of the unit, the angle of the water stream shall be 15 degrees maximum.

The flow of water shall be activated by manually or electronically operated controls. The manually operated controls shall be front mounted or side mounted, located within 6 inches (152 mm) of the front edge of the fountain. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2 N).

Drinking fountains shall be located completely within alcoves, between wing walls or otherwise positioned so as not to encroach into pedestrian ways. The alcove or otherwise protected area in which the drinking fountain is located shall not be less than 32 inches (813 mm) in width and 18 inches (457 mm) in depth. When the depth of the protected area where the drinking fountain is located exceeds 24 inches (610 mm), additional maneuvering clearance shall be provided in accordance with Section 1138A.1.4.2 and Figure 11A-1H.

When provided, wing walls shall project out from the supporting wall at least as far as the drinking fountain to within 6 inches (152.4 mm) vertically from the finish floor.

Protruding objects located in alcoves or otherwise positioned so as to limit encroachment into pedestrian ways are permitted to project 4 inches (101.6 mm) into walks, halls, corridors, passageways or aisles. (See Figure 11A-11A.)

When public telephones are provided, they shall comply with this section. On floors where public telephones are provided, at least one telephone shall be accessible. On any floor where two or more banks of multiple telephones are provided, at least one telephone in each bank shall be accessible.

A clear floor or ground space at least 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) that allows either a forward or parallel approach by a person using a wheelchair shall be provided at telephones. The clear floor or ground space shall comply with Section 1138A.1.4. Bases, enclosures and fixed seats shall not impede approaches to telephones by people who use wheelchairs. (See Figure 11A-11B.)

Clear floor or ground space for wheelchairs may be part of the knee space required under some objects.

One full unobstructed side of the clear floor or ground space for a wheelchair shall adjoin another wheelchair clear floor space. If a clear floor space is located in an alcove or otherwise confined on all or part of three sides, additional maneuvering clearances shall be provided. (See Section 1138A.1.4.)

The highest operable part of the telephone shall be within the reach ranges specified in Section 1138A.3 (See Figure 11A-11B.)

If telephone enclosures are provided, they shall comply with Sections 1140A.5.1 and 1140A.5.2. (See Figure 11A-11B.)

Where a parallel approach is provided, the distance from the edge of the telephone enclosure to the face of the telephone unit shall be 10 inches (254 mm) maximum.

Where a forward approach is provided, the counter may extend beyond the face of the telephone 20 inches (508 mm) maximum into the required clear floor or ground space and the enclosure may extend beyond the face of the telephone 24 inches (610 mm) maximum. If an additional 6 inches (152 mm) in width of clear floor space is provided, creating a clear floor space of 36 inches by 48 inches (914 mm by 1219 mm), the enclosure may extend more than 24 inches (610 mm) beyond the face of the telephone.