Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Regulations

Chapter 4 Plumbing Fixtures and Fixture Fittings

Chapter 5 Water Heaters

Chapter 6 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 7 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 8 Indirect Wastes

Chapter 9 Vents

Chapter 10 Traps and Interceptors

Chapter 11 Storm Drainage

Chapter 12 Fuel Gas Piping

Chapter 13 Health Care Facilities and Medical Gas and Medical Vacuum Systems

Chapter 14 Firestop Protection

Chapter 15 Alternate Water Sources for Nonpotable Applications

Chapter 16 Nonpotable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Chapter 16A Non-Potable Water Reuse Systems

Chapter 17 Referenced Standards

Appendices [PDF]

Appendix A Recommended Rules for Sizing the Water Supply System

Appendix B Explanatory Notes on Combination Waste and Vent Systems

Appendix C Alternate Plumbing Systems

Appendix D Sizing Storm Water Drainage Systems

Appendix E Manufactured/Mobile Home Parks and Recreational Vehicle Parks

Appendix F Firefighter Breathing Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix G Sizing of Venting Systems

Appendix H Private Sewage Disposal Systems

Appendix J Combination of Indoor and Outdoor Combustion and Ventilation Opening Design

Appendix K Potable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Appendix L Sustainable Practices

The purpose of this appendix is to provide a comprehensive set of technically sound provisions that encourage sustainable practices and works towards enhancing the design and construction of plumbing systems that result in a positive long-term environmental impact. This appendix is not intended to circumvent the health, safety, and general welfare requirements of this code.
For the purposes of this code, the definitions in Section L 201.0 shall apply to this appendix.

        No attempt is made to define ordinary words, which are used in accordance with their established dictionary meanings, except where a word has been used loosely and it is necessary to define its meaning as used in this appendix to avoid misunderstanding.

        The definitions of terms are arranged alphabetically according to the first word of the term.
Catch Can Test. Method to measure the precipitation rate of an irrigation system by placing catchment containers at various random positions in the irrigation zone for a prescribed amount of time during irrigation application. The volumes of water in the containers are measured, averaged, and calculated to determine precipitation rate. Tests are conducted using irrigation industry accepted practices.

Combination Ovens. A device that combines the function of hot air convection (oven mode) and saturated and superheated steam heating (steam mode), or both, to perform steaming, baking, roasting, rethermalizing, and proofing of various food products. In general, the term combination oven is used to describe this type of equipment, which is self contained. The combination oven is also referred to as a combination oven/steamer, combi or combo.

Energy Star. A joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. Energy Star is a voluntary program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products and practices.

Evapotranspiration (ET). The combination of water transpired from vegetation and evaporated from the soil, water, and plant surfaces. Evapotranspiration rates are expressed in inches (mm) per day, week, month, or year. Evapotranspiration varies by climate and time of year. Common usage includes evapotranspiration as the base rate [water demand of 4 - 6 inch (102 mm - 152 mm) tall cool season grass], with coefficients for specific plant types. Evapotranspiration rates are used as a factor in estimating the irrigation water needs of landscapes. Local agriculture extension, state departments of agriculture, water agencies, irrigation professionals, and internet web sites are common sources for obtaining local evapotranspiration rates.

Food Steamers (Steam Cookers). A cooking appliance wherein heat is imparted to food in a closed compartment by direct contact with steam. The compartment can be at or above atmospheric pressure. The steam can be static or circulated.

Gang Showers (Non-Residential). Shower compartments designed and intended for use by multiple persons simultaneously in non-residential occupancies.

Hydrozone. A grouping of plants with similar water requirements that are irrigated by the same irrigation zone.

Irrigation Emission Device. The various landscape irrigation equipment terminal fittings or outlets that emit water for irrigating vegetation in a landscape.

Irrigation Zone. The landscape area that is irrigated by a set of landscape irrigation emission devices installed on the same water supply line downstream of a single valve.

Kitchen and Bar Sink Faucets. A faucet that discharges into a kitchen or bar sink in domestic or commercial installations. Supply fittings that discharge into other type sinks, including clinical sinks, floor sinks, service sinks and laundry trays are not included.

Lavatory. (1) A basin or vessel for washing. (2) A plumbing fixture, as defined in (1), especially placed for use in personal hygiene. Principally not used for laundry purposes and never used for food preparation, or utensils, in food services. (3) A fixture designed for the washing of the hands and face. Sometimes called a wash basin.

Lavatory Faucet. A faucet that discharges into a lavatory basin in a domestic or commercial installation.

Low Application Rate Irrigation. A means of irrigation using low precipitation rate sprinkler heads or low flow emitters in conjunction with cycling irrigation schedules to apply water at a rate less than the soil absorption rate.

Low Flow Emitter. Low flow irrigation emission device designed to dissipate water pressure and discharge a small uniform flow or trickle of water at a constant flow rate. To be classified as a low flow emitter: drip emitters shall discharge water at less than 4 gallons (15 L) per hour per emitter; micro-spray, micro-jet and misters shall discharge water at a maximum of 30 gallons (114 L) per hour per nozzle.

Low Precipitation Rate Sprinkler Heads. Landscape irrigation emission devices or sprinkler heads with maximum precipitation rate of 1 inch per hour (25.4 mm/h) over the applied irrigation area.

Maintenance. The upkeep of property or equipment by the owner of the property in compliance with the requirements of this appendix.

Metering Faucet. A self-closing faucet that dispenses a specific volume of water for each actuation cycle. The volume or cycle duration can be fixed or adjustable.

Multi-Occupant Spaces. Indoor spaces used for presentations and training, including classrooms and conference rooms.

Precipitation Rate. The sprinkler head application rate of water applied to landscape irrigation zone, measured as inches per hour (mm/h). Precipitation rates of sprinkler heads are calculated according to the flow rate, pattern, and spacing of the sprinkler heads.

Pre-Rinse Spray Valve. A handheld device for use with commercial dishwashing and ware washing equipment that sprays water on dishes, flatware, and other food service items for the purpose of removing food residue before cleaning and sanitizing the items.

Recirculation System. A system of hot water supply and return piping with shutoff valves, balancing valves, circulating pumps, and a method of controlling the circulating system.

Run Out. The developed length of pipe that extends away from the circulating loop system to a fixture(s).

Self Closing Faucet. A faucet that closes itself after the actuation or control mechanism is deactivated. The actuation or control mechanism can be mechanical or electronic.

Single Occupant Spaces. Private offices, workstations in open offices, reception workstations, and ticket booths.

Soil Absorption Rate. The rate of the soil's ability to allow water to percolate or infiltrate the soil and be retained in the root zone of the soil, expressed as inches per hour (mm/h).

Sprinkler Head. Landscape irrigation emission device discharging water in the form of sprays or rotating streams, not including low flow emitters.

Storage Tank. The central component of the rainwater, stormwater, or dry weather runoff catchment system. Also known as a cistern or rain barrel.

Stormwater. Natural precipitation that has contacted a surface at grade or below grade and has not been put to beneficial use.

Stormwater Catchment System. A system that collects and stores stormwater for a beneficial use.

Submeter. A meter installed subordinate to a site meter. Also known as a dedicated meter.

WaterSense. A voluntary program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency designed to identify and promote water-efficient products and practices.

Water Closet. A fixture with a water-containing receptor that receives liquid and solid body waste and on actuation conveys the waste through an exposed integral trap into a drainage system. Also referred to as a toilet.

Water Factor (WF). A measurement and rating of appliance water efficiency, most often used for residential and light commercial clothes washers, as follows:

Water Factor (WF), Clothes Washer. The quantity of water in gallons used to complete a full wash and rinse cycle per measured cubic foot capacity of the clothes container.
Plumbing systems covered by this appendix shall be installed in accordance with this code, other applicable codes, and the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Where permits are required, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to require contractors, installers, or service technicians to demonstrate competency. Where determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the contractor, installer or service technician shall be licensed to perform such work.
It shall be unlawful for a person to cause, suffer, or permit the disposal of sewage, human excrement, or other liquid wastes, in a place or manner, except through and by means of an approved drainage system, installed and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this code.
Equipment and appliances, used to receive or discharge liquid wastes or sewage, shall be connected properly to the drainage system of the building or premises, in accordance with the requirements of this code.
An abandoned system or part thereof covered under the scope of this appendix shall be disconnected from remaining systems, drained, plugged, and capped in an approved manner.
The provisions of this section establish the means of conserving potable and non-potable water used in and around a building.
The maximum water consumption of fixtures fittings shall comply with the flow rates specified in table L 402.1, and Section L 402.2 through Section L 402.9.




TABLE L 402.1
MAXIMUM FIXTURE AND FIXTURE FITTINGS FLOW RATES
FIXTURE TYPE FLOW RATE
Showerheads 2.0 gpm at 80 psi1
Kitchen faucets residential5 1.8 gpm at 60 psi
Lavatory faucets residential 1.5 gpm at 60 psi
Lavatory faucets other than residential 0.5 gpm at 60 psi
Metering faucets 0.25 gallons/cycle
Metering faucets for wash fountains One 0.25 gallons/cycle fixture fitting for each 20 inches rim space
Wash fountains One 2.2 gpm at 60 psi fixture fitting for each 20 inches rim space
Water Closets - other than remote locations4 1.28 gallons/flush2
Water Closets - remote locations4 1.6 gallons/flush
Urinals 0.5 gallons/flush3
Commercial Pre-Rinse Spray Valves 1.3 gpm at 60 psi
For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L

Notes:
1   For multiple showerheads serving one shower compartment see Section L 402.6.1.
2   Shall be listed to EPA WaterSense Tank-Type Toilet Specification.
3   Shall be listed to EPA WaterSense Flushing Urinal Specification. Nonwater urinals shall comply with specifications listed in Section L 402.3.1.
4   Remote location is where a water closet is located not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) upstream of the nearest drain line connections or fixtures, and is located where less than 1.5 drainage fixture units are upstream of the water closet drain line connection.
5   See Section L 402.4.
No water closet shall have a flush volume exceeding 1.6 gallons per flush (gpf) (6.0 Lpf).
Gravity, pressure assisted, and electro-hydraulic tank type water closets shall have a maximum effective flush volume of not more than 1.28 gallons (4.8 Lpf) of water per flush in accordance with ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1 or ASME A112.19.14 and shall be listed to the EPA WaterSense Tank-Type Toilet Specification. The effective flush volume for dual flush toilets is defined as the composite, average flush volume of two reduced flushes and one full flush.
Flushometer-valve activated water closets shall have a maximum flush volume of not more than 1.6 gallons (6.0 Lpf) of water per flush in accordance with ASME A 112.19.2/CSA B45.1.
Urinals shall have a maximum flush volume of not more than 0.5 gallon (1.9 Lpf) of water per flush in accordance with ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124. Flushing urinals shall be listed to the EPA WaterSense Flushing Urinal Specification.
Nonwater urinals shall comply with ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4, ASME A112.19.19, or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124. Nonwater urinals shall be cleaned and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions after installation. Where nonwater urinals are installed they shall have a water distribution line roughed-in to the urinal location at a height not less than 56 inches (1422 mm) to allow for the installation of an approved backflow prevention device in the event of a retrofit. Such water distribution lines shall be installed with shutoff valves located as close as possible to the distributing main to prevent the creation of dead ends. Where nonwater urinals are installed, not less than one water supplied fixture rated at not less than 1 water supply fixture unit (WSFU) shall be installed upstream on the same drain line to facilitate drain line flow and rinsing.
The maximum flow rate of residential kitchen faucets shall not exceed 1.8 gallons per minute (gpm) (6.8 L/m) at 60 pounds-force per square inch (psi) (414 kPa). Kitchen faucets are permitted to temporarily increase the flow above the maximum rate, but not to exceed 2.2 gpm (8.3 L/m) at 60 psi (414 kPa), and shall revert to a maximum flow rate of 1.8 gpm (6.8 L/m) at 60 psi (414 kPa) upon valve closure.
The maximum water flow rate of faucets shall comply with Section L 402.5.1 and Section L 402.5.2.
The flow rate for lavatory faucets installed in residences, apartments, and private bathrooms in lodging, hospitals, and patient care facilities (including skilled nursing and long-term care facilities) shall not exceed 1.5 gpm (5.7 L/m) at 60 psi (414 kPa) in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1 and shall be listed to the EPA WaterSense High Efficiency Lavatory Faucet Specification.
Lavatory faucets installed in bathrooms of buildings or occupancies other than those specified in Section L 402.5.1 shall be in accordance with Section L 402.5.2.1 or Section L 402.5.2.2.
The flow rate shall not exceed 0.5 gpm (1.9 L/m) at 60 psi (414 kPa) in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
Metering faucets shall deliver not more than 0.25 gallons (1.0 L) of water per cycle.
Showerheads shall comply with the requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, except that the flow rate shall not exceed 2.0 gpm (7.6 L/m) at 80 psi (552 kPa), where listed to ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
The total allowable flow rate of water from multiple showerheads flowing at a given time, with or without a diverter, including rain systems, waterfalls, bodysprays, and jets, shall not exceed 2.0 gpm (7.6 L/m) per shower compartment, where the floor area of the shower compartment is less than l800 square inches (1.161 m2). For each increment of 1800 square inches (1.161 m2) of floor area thereafter or part thereof, additional showerheads are allowed, provided the total flow rate of water from flowing devices shall not exceed 2.0 gpm (7.6 L/m) for each such increment.

Exceptions:
  1. Gang showers in non-residential occupancies. Singular showerheads or multiple shower outlets serving one showering position in gang showers shall not have more than 2.0 gpm (7.6 L/m) total flow.
  2. Where provided, accessible shower compartments shall not be permitted to have more than 4.0 gpm (15 L/m) total flow, where one outlet is the hand shower. The hand shower shall have a control with a nonpositive shutoff feature.
The rate of leakage out of the tub spout of bath and shower diverters while operating in the shower mode shall not exceed 0.1 gpm (0.4 L/m) in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
Shower valves shall comply with the temperature control performance requirements of ASSE 1016 or ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1 where tested at 2.0 gpm (7.6 L/m).
The flow rate for a pre-rinse spray valve installed in a commercial kitchen to remove food waste from cookware and dishes prior to cleaning shall not be more than 1.3 gpm (4.9 L/m) at 60 psi (414 kPa). Where pre-rinse spray valves with maximum flow rates of 1.0 gpm (3.8 L/m) or less are installed, the static pressure shall be not less than 30 psi (207 kPa). Commercial kitchen pre-rinse spray valves shall be equipped with an integral automatic shutoff.
Emergency safety showers and emergency eye wash stations shall not be limited in their water supply flow rates.
Drinking fountains shall be self-closing.
Residential and commercial dishwashers shall comply with the Energy Star program requirements .
Residential clothes washers shall comply with the Energy Star program requirements. Commercial clothes washers shall comply with Energy Star program requirements, where such requirements exist.
Commercial food service facilities shall comply with the water efficiency requirements in Section L 404.2 through Section L 404.6.
Ice makers shall be air cooled and shall be in accordance with Energy Star for commercial ice machines.
Steamers shall consume not more than 5.0 gallons (19 L) per hour per steamer pan in the full operational mode.
Combination ovens shall not consume more than 3.5 gallons per hour (gph) (13.2 L/h) per pan in the full operational mode.
Grease interceptor maintenance procedures shall not include post-pumping/cleaning refill using potable water. Refill shall be by connected appliance accumulated discharge only.
Where dipper wells are installed, the water supply to a dipper well shall have a shutoff valve and flow control. The flow of water into a dipper well shall be limited by not less than one of the following methods:
  1. Water flow shall not exceed the water capacity of the dipper well in one minute at supply pressure of 60 psi (414 kPa), and the maximum flow shall not exceed 2.2 gpm (8.3 L/m) at a supply pressure of 60 psi (414 kPa). The water capacity of a dipper well shall be the maximum amount of water that the fixture can hold before water flows into the drain.
  2. The volume of water dispensed into a dipper well in each activation cycle of a self closing fixture fitting shall not exceed the water capacity of the dipper well, and the maximum flow shall not exceed 2.2 gpm (8.3 L/m) at a supply pressure of 60 psi (414 kPa).
Medical and laboratory facilities shall comply with the water efficiency requirements in Section L 404.8 through Section L 404.10.
Controls shall be installed to limit the discharge temperature of condensate or water from steam sterilizers to 140°F (60°C) or less. A venturi-type vacuum system shall not be utilized with vacuum sterilizers.
Processors for X-ray film exceeding 6 inches (152 mm) in any dimension shall be equipped with water recycling units.
Liquid scrubber systems for exhaust hoods and ducts shall be of the recirculation type. Liquid scrubber systems for perchloric acid exhaust hoods and ducts shall be equipped with a timer-controlled water recirculation system. The collection sump for perchloric acid exhaust systems shall be designed to automatically drain after the wash down process has completed.
Where installed, leak detection and control devices shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Leak detection and control devices help protect property from water damage and also conserve water by shutting off the flow when leaks are detected.
Special water features such as ponds and water fountains shall be provided with reclaimed (recycled) water, rainwater, or on-site treated nonpotable water where the source and capacity is available on the premises and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
A water meter shall be required for buildings connected to a public water system, including municipally supplied reclaimed (recycled) water. In other than single-family houses, multi-family structures of three stories or fewer above grade, and modular houses, a separate meter or sub meter shall be installed in the following locations:
  1. The water supply for irrigated landscape with an accumulative area exceeding 2500 square feet (232.3 m2).
  2. The water supply to a water-using process where the consumption exceeds 1000 gallons per day (gal/d) (0.0438 L/s), except for manufacturing processes.
  3. The water supply to each building on a property with multiple buildings where the water consumption exceeds 500 gal/d (0.021 L/s).
  4. The water supply to an individual tenant space on a property where one or more of the following applies:

    1. Water consumption exceeds 500 gal/d (0.021 L/s) for that tenant.
    2. Tenant space is occupied by a commercial laundry, cleaning operation, restaurant, food service, medical office, dental office, laboratory, beauty salon, or barbershop.
    3. Total building area exceeds 50000 square feet (4645 m2).
  5. A makeup water supply to a swimming pool.
A means of communicating water consumption data from submeters to the water consumer shall be provided.
Meters and submeters shall be accessible.
Condensate is permitted to be used as onsite treated non-potable water when collected, stored, and I treated in accordance with Section 1504.0.
Sump pumps powered by potable or reclaimed (recycled) water pressure shall be used as an emergency backup pump. The water-powered pump shall be equipped with a battery powered alarm having a minimum rating of 85 dBa at 10 feet (3048 mm). Water-powered pumps shall have a water efficiency factor of pumping at least 1.4 gallons (5.3 L) of water to a height of 10 feet (3048 mm) for every gallon of water used to operate the pump, measured at a water pressure of 60 psi (414 kPa). Pumps shall be clearly labeled as to the gallons of water pumped per gallon of potable water consumed.

     Water-powered stormwater sump pumps shall be equipped with a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly.
Actuation of regeneration of water softeners shall be by demand initiation. Water softeners shall be listed to NSF 44. Water softeners shall have a rated salt efficiency exceeding 3400 grains (gr) (0.2199 kg) of total hardness exchange per pound (0.5 kg) of salt, based on sodium chloride (NaCI) equivalency, and shall not generate more than 5 gallons (19 L) of water per 1000 grains (0.0647 kg) of hardness removed during the service cycle.
In residential buildings, where the supplied potable water hardness is equal to or less than 8 grains per gallon (gr/gal) (137 mg/L) measured as total calcium carbonate equivalents, water softening equipment that discharges water into the wastewater system during the service cycle shall not be allowed, except as required for medical purposes.
Reverse osmosis water treatment systems installed in residential occupancies shall be equipped with automatic shutoff valves to prevent discharge when there is no call for producing treated water. Reverse osmosis water treatment systems shall be listed in accordance with NSF 58.
Where landscape irrigation systems are installed, they shall use low application irrigation methods and shall be in accordance with Section L 411.2 through Section L 411.12. Requirements limiting the amount or type of plant material used in landscapes shall be established by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

Exception: Plants grown for food production.
Potable water and supplies to landscape irrigation systems shall be protected from hackflow in accordance with this code and the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Where available by pre-existing treatment, storage, or distribution network, and where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, alternative water source(s) shall be utilized for landscape irrigation. Where adequate capacity and volumes of pre-existing alternative water sources are available, the irrigation system shall be designed to use a minimum of 75 perccnt of alternative watcr for the annual irrigation demand before supplemental potable water is used.
Where installed as part of a landscape irrigation system, irrigation control systems shall:
  1. Automatically adjust the irrigation schedule to respond to plant water needs determined by weather or soil moisture conditions.
  2. Utilize sensors to suspend irrigation during a rainfall.
  3. Utilize sensors to suspend irrigation where adequate soil moisture is present for plant growth.
  4. Have the capability to program multiple and different run times for each irrigation zone to enable cycling of watcr applications and durations to mitigate water flowing off of the intended irrigation zone.
  5. The site specific settings of the irrigation control system affecting the irrigation and shall be posted at the control system location. The posted data, where applicable to the settings of the controller, shall include:

    1. Precipitation rate for each zone.
    2. Plant evapotranspiration coefficients for each zone.
    3. Soil absorption rate for each zone.
    4. Rain sensor settings.
    5. Soil moisture setting.
    6. Peak demand schedule including run times for each zone and the number of cycles to mitigate runoff and monthly adjustments or percentage.
Irrigation zones using low flow irrigation shall be equipped with filters sized for the irrigation emission devices, and with a pressure regulator installed upstream of the irrigation emission devices as necessary to reduce thc operating water pressure in accordance with the manufacturers' equipment requirements.
Only low volume emitters are allowed to be installed in mulched planting areas with vegetation taller than 12 inches (305 mm).
The landscape irrigation system shall be designed and installed to:
  1. Prevent irrigation water from runoff out of the irrigation zone.
  2. Prevent water in the supply-line drainage from draining out between irrigation events.
  3. Not allow irrigation water to be applied onto or enter non-targeted areas including: adjacent property and vegetation areas, adjacent hydrozones not requiring the irrigation water to meet its irrigation demand, non-vegetative areas, impermeable surfaces, roadways, and structures.
Narrow or irregularly shaped landscape areas, less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in any direction across opposing boundaries, shall not be irrigated by an irrigation emission device except low flow emitters.
Where soil surface rises more than 1 foot (305 mm) per 4 feet (1219 mm) of length, the irrigation zone system average precipitation rate shall not exceed 0.75 inches (19 mm) per hour as verified through either of the following methods:
  1. Manufacturer documentation that the precipitation rate for the installed sprinkler head does not exceed 0.75 inches (19 mm) per hour where the sprinkler heads are installed not closer than the specified radius and where the water pressure of the irrigation system is not more than the manufacturer's recommendations.
  2. Catch can testing in accordance with the requirements of the Authority Having Jurisdiction and where emitted watcr volume is measured with a minimum of six catchment containers at random places within the irrigation zone for a minimum of 15 minutes to determine the average precipitation rate, expressed as inches per hour (mm/h).
Installed sprinkler heads shall be low precipitation rate sprinkler heads.
Sprinkler heads installed in irrigation zones served by a common valve shall be limited to applying water to plants with similar irrigation needs, and shall have matched precipitation rates (identical inches of water application per hour as rated or tested, plus or minus 5 percent).
Sprinkler heads shall utilize pressure regulating devices (as part of an irrigation system or integral to the sprinkler head) to maintain manufacturer's recommended operating pressure for each sprinkler and nozzle type.
Where pop-up type sprinkler heads are installed, thc sprinkler heads shall rise to a height of not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the soil level where emitting water.
Irrigation zones shall be designed and installed to ensure the average precipitation rate of the sprinkler heads over the irrigated area does not exceed 1 inch per hour (25.4 mm/h) as verified through either of the following methods:
  1. Manufacturer's documentation that the precipitation rate for the installed sprinkler head does not exceed 1 inch per hour (25.4 mm/h) where the sprinkler heads are installed not closer that the specified radius and where the water pressure of the irrigation system is not more than the manufacturer's recommendations.
  2. Catch can testing in accordance with the requirements of the Authority Having Jurisdiction and where emitted water volume is measured with a minimum of six catchment containers at random places within the irrigation zone for a minimum of 15 minutes to determine the average precipitation rate, expressed as inches per hour (mm/h).
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to require landscape irrigation contractors, installers, or designers to demonstrate competency. Where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the contractor, installer, or designer shall be certified to perform such work.
Water supplied trap primers shall be electronic or pressure activated and shall use not more than 30 gallons (114 L) per year per drain. Where an alternate water source, as defined by this code, is used for fixture flushing or other uses in the same room, the alternate water source shall be used for the trap primer water supply.

Exception:
Flushometer tailpiece trap primers in accordance with IAPMO PS 76.
Drainage type trap seal primer devices shall not be limited in the amount of water they discharge.
The maximum make-up water use for automobile washing shall not exceed 40 gallons (151 L) per vehicle for in-bay automatic car washes and 35 gallons (132 L) for conveyor and express type car washes. Spray wands and foamy brushes shall use not more than 3.0 gpm (0.19 L/s). Spot-free reverse osmosis discharge (reject) water shall be recycled. Towel ringers shall have a positive shutoff valve. Spray nozzles shall be replaced annually.

Exception: Bus and large commercial vehicle washes.
The provisions of this appendix shall apply to the installation, construction, alteration, and repair of potable rainwater catchment systems. Alternate water source systems for nonpotable applications shall comply with Chapter 15.
Potable rainwater catchment systems in accordance with this appendix shall be designed by a registered design professional or person deemed competent by the Authority Having Jurisdiction to perform potable rainwater catchment system design work.
It shall be unlawful for a person to construct, install, or alter, or cause to be constructed, installed, or altered potable rainwater catchment systems in a building or on a premise without first obtaining a permit to do such work from the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
No permit for a rainwater catchment system requiring a permit shall be issued until complete plumbing plans, with data satisfactory to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, have been submitted and approved. No changes or connections shall be made to either the rainfall catchment or the potable water system within a site containing a rainwater catchment water system without approval by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
No changes or connections shall be made to either the rainwater catchment system or the potable water system within a site containing a rainwater catchment system requiring a permit without approval by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
System components shall be identified as to the manufacturer.
Pipe, pipe fittings, traps, fixtures, material, and devices used in a potable rainwater system shall be listed or labeled (third-party certified) by a listing agency (accredited conformity assessment body) and shall be in accordance with approved applicable recognized standards referenced in this appendix and this code, and shall be free from defects. Unless otherwise provided for in this appendix, materials, fixtures, or devices used or entering into the construction of plumbing systems, or parts thereof, shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction for approval.
Potable rainwater catchment systems and components shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with Section L 501.5.1 through Section L 501.5.3.
Potable rainwater catchment systems and components shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with Table L 501.5.1 unless more frequent inspection and maintenance is required by the manufacturer.

TABLE L501.5.1
MINIMUM POTABLE RAINWATER CATCHMENT SYSTEM TESTING, INSPECTION, AND MAINTENANCE FREQUENCY
DESCRIPTION MINIMUM FREQUENCY
Inspect and clean filters and screens, and replace (where necessary). Every 3 month
Inspect and verify that disinfection, filters and water quality treatment devices
and systems are operational. Perform water quality tests in accordance with the
Authority Having Jurisdiction.
In accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Perform applicable water quality tests to verify compliance with Section L504.2 Every 3 month
Perform a water quality test for E. Coli, Total Coliform, and Heterotrophic bacIteria. For a system where 25 different people consume water from the systemi over a 60 day period, a water quality test for cryptosporidium shall also be performed. After initial installation and every 12 months thereafter,or as directed by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Inspect and-clear debris from rainwater gutters, downspouts, and roof washers. Every 6 months
Inspect and clear debris from roof or other aboveground rainwater collection surface. Every 6 months
Remove tree branches and vegetation overhanging roof or other aboveground rainwater collection surface. As needed
Inspect pumps and verify operation. After initial installation and every 12 months thereafter
Inspect valves and verify operation. After initial installation and every 12 months thereafter
Inspect pressure tanks and verify operation. After initial installation and every 12 months thereafter
Clear debris and inspect storage tanks, locking devices, and verify operation. After initial installation and every 12 months thereafter
Inspect caution labels and marking. After initial installation and every 12 months thereafter
A maintenance log for potable rainwater catchment systems shall be maintained by the property owner and be available for inspection. The property owner or designated appointee shall ensure that a record of testing, inspection, and maintenance in accordance with Table L 501.5.1 is maintained in the log. The log will indicate the frequency of inspection, and maintenance for each system. A record of the required water quality tests shall be retained for not less than 2 years.
The required maintenance and inspection of potable rainwater catchment systems shall be the responsibility of the property owner, unless otherwise required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
An operation and maintenance manual for potable rainwater catchment systems shall be supplied to the building owner by the system designer. The operating and maintenance manual shall include the following:
  1. Detailed diagram of the entire system and the location of system components.
  2. Instructions on operating and maintaining the system.
  3. Details on maintaining the required water quality as determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
  4. Details on deactivating the system for maintenance, repair, or other purposes.
  5. Applicable testing, inspection, and maintenance frequencies in accordance with Table L 501.5.1.
  6. A method of contacting the manufacturer(s).
The minimum water quality for potable rainwater catchment systems shall comply with the applicable water quality requirements as determined by the public health Authority Having Jurisdiction.
In addition to the requirements of this appendix, potable rainwater catchment systems shall be constructed of materials that are compatible with the type of pipe and fitting materials and water conditions in the system.
Controls for pumps, valves, and other devices that contain mercury that come in contact with the water supply shall not be permitted.
No water piping supplied by a potable rainwater catchment system shall be connected to any other source of supply without the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, Health Department, or other department having jurisdiction.
Potable rainwater catchment systems shall have no direct connection to a public or private potable water supply or alternate water source system. Potable water from a public or private potable water system is permitted to be used as makeup water to the rainwater storage tank provided the public or private potable water supply connection is protected by an air gap or reduced-pressure principle backflow preventer in accordance with this code.
The potable rainwater catchment system shall be protected against backflow in accordance with this code.
The collection surface for potable applications shall be constructed of a hard, impervious material and shall be approved for potable water use. Roof coatings, paints, and liners shall comply with NSF Protocol P151.
Roof paints and coatings with lead, chromium, or zinc shall not be permitted. Wood roofing material and lead flashing shall not be permitted.
Materials used in rainwater catchment drainage systems, including gutters, downspouts, conductors, and leaders shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code for storm drainage.
Rainwater storage shall comply with Section L 504.4.
Potable rainwater supply and distribution materials shall comply with the requirements of this code for potable water supply and distribution systems.
Rainwater shall be collected from roof or other cleanable aboveground surfaces specifically designed for rainwater catchment. A rainwater catchment system shall not collect rainwater from:
  1. Vehicular parking surfaces
  2. Surface water runoff
  3. Bodies of standing water
Overflows, condensate, and bleed-off pipes from roof-mounted equipment and appliances shall not discharge onto roof surfaces that are intended to collect rainwater.
Upon initial system startup, the quality of the water for the intended application shall be verified at the point(s) of use as determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. In the absence of water quality requirements determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the minimum water quality shall be in accordance with Table L 504.2(1).

     Normal system maintenance will require system testing every 3 months. Systems shall comply with Table L 504.2(2).


TABLE L 504.2(1)
MINIMUM WATER QUALITY1, 2
Escherichia coli (fecal coliform) 99.9% reduction
Protozoan Cysts 99.99% reduction
Viruses 99.99% reduction
Turbidity <0.3 NTU
Notes:
1  Upon failure of the fecal coliform test, the system shall be re-commissioned involving cleaning and retesting in accordance with Section L 504.2.
2  One sample shall be analyzed for applications serving up to 1000 persons. Where the treated water shall serve 1000 - 2500 persons two samples shall be analyzed, and for 2501 - 3300 persons three samples shall be analyzed.



TABLE L 504.2(2)
MINIMUM SYSTEM MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS1, 2
Escherichia coli (fecal Coliform) 99.99% reduction
Turbidity <0.3 NTU
Notes:
1  Upon failure of the fecal coliform test, the system shall be re-commissioned involving cleaning and retesting in accordance with Section L 504.2.
2  One sample shall be analyzed for applications serving up to 1000 persons. Where the treated water shall serve 1000 - 2500 persons two samples shall be analyzed, and for 2501 - 3300 persons three samples shall be analyzed.
Potable water filters shall comply with NSF 53 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Chlorination, ozone, ultraviolet, or other disinfection methods approved by an Authority Having Jurisdiction, or the product is listed and certified according to a microbiological reduction performance standard for drinking water, shall be used to treat harvested rainwater to meet the required water quality permitted. The disinfection devices and systems shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and the conditions of listing. Disinfection devices and systems shall be located downstream of the storage tank.
Tree branches and vegetation shall not be located over the roof or other aboveground rainwater collection surface. Where existing tree branch and vegetation growth extends over the rainwater collection surface, it shall be removed in accordance with Section L 501.5.
Rainwater storage tanks shall be installed in accordance with Section L 504.4.1 through Section L 504.4.7.
Rainwater storage tanks shall be constructed of solid, durable materials not subject to excessive corrosion or decay and shall be watertight. Storage tanks shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction for potable water applications, provided such tanks are in accordance with approved applicable standards.
Rainwater storage tanks shall be permitted to be installed above or below grade.
Above grade storage tanks shall be of an opaque material, approved for aboveground use in direct sunlight, or shall be shielded from direct sunlight. Tanks shall be installed in an accessible location to allow for inspection and cleaning. The tank shall be installed on a foundation or platform that is constructed to accommodate loads in accordance with the building code.
Rainwater storage tanks installed below grade shall be structurally designed to withstand anticipated earth or other loads. Holding tank covers shall be capable of supporting an earth load of not less than 300 pounds per square foot (lb/ft2) (1465 kg/m2) where the tank is designed for underground installation. Below grade rainwater tanks installed underground shall be provided with manholes. The manhole opening shall be not less than 20 inches (508 mm) in diameter and located not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the surrounding grade. The surrounding grade shall be sloped away from the manhole. Underground tanks shall be ballasted, anchored, or otherwise secured, to prevent the tank from floating out of the ground where empty. The combined weight of the tank and hold down system shall meet or exceed the buoyancy force of the tank.
Rainwater storage tanks shall be provided with a means of draining and cleaning. The overflow drain shall not be equipped with a shutoff valve. The overflow outlet shall discharge in accordance with this code for storm drainage systems. Where discharging to the storm drainage system, the overflow drain shall be protected from backflow of the storm drainage system by a backwater valve or other approved method.
The overflow outlet shall be sized to accommodate the flow of the rainwater entering the tank and not less than the aggregate cross-sectional area of the inflow pipes.
Rainwater tank openings to the atmosphere shall be protected to prevent the entrance of insects, birds, or rodents into the tank.
Rainwater tank access openings exceeding 12 inches (305 mm) in diameter shall be secured to prevent tampering and unintended entry by either a lockable device or other approved method.
Rainwater tank openings shall not be exposed to direct sunlight.
A device or arrangement of fittings shall be installed at the inlet of the tank to prevent rainwater from disturbing sediment as it enters the tank.
The primary tank outlet shall be located not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the bottom of the tank, or shall be provided with a floating inlet to draw water from the cistern just below the water surface.
Where venting by means of drainage or overflow piping is not provided, or is considered insufficient, a vent shall be installed on each tank. The vent shall extend from the top of the tank and terminate not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above grade and shall be not less than 112 inches (40 mm) in diameter. The vent terminal shall be directed downward and covered with a 332 of an inch (2.4 mm) mesh screen to prevent the entry of vermin in and insects.
Pumps serving rainwater catchment systems shall be listed for potable water use. Pumps supplying water to water closets, urinals, and trap primers shall be capable of delivering not less than 15 pounds-force per square inch (psi) (103 kPa) residual pressure at the highest and most remote outlet served. Where the water pressure in the rainwater supply system within the building exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa), a pressure reducing valve reducing the pressure to 80 psi (552 kPa) or less to water outlets in the building shall be installed in accordance with this code.
Primary and secondary roof drains, conductors, leaders, overflows, and gutters shall be designed and installed in accordance with this code.
Devices and equipment used to treat rainwater to maintain the minimum water quality requirements determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be listed or labeled (third-party certified) by a listing agency (accredited conformity assessment body) and approved for the intended application.
Filtration and disinfection systems shall be located after the water storage tank. Where a chlorination system is installed, it shall be installed upstream of filtration systems. Where an ultraviolet disinfection system is installed, a filter not more than 5 microns (5 µm) shall be installed upstream of the disinfection system.
Tanks and piping installed in locations subject to freezing shall be provided with an approved means of freeze protection.
Collected rainwater shall pass through a roof washer or pre-filtration system before the water enters the rainwater storage tank. Roof washer systems shall comply with Section L 504.9.1 through Section L 504.9.4.
The roof washer shall be sized to direct a sufficient volume of rainwater containing debris that has accumulated on the collection surface away from the storage tank. ARCSA/ASPE 63 contains additional guidance on acceptable methods of sizing roof washers.
The inlet to the roof washer shall be provided with a debris screen or other approved means that protects the roof washer from the intrusion of debris and vermin. Where the debris screen is installed, the debris screen shall be corrosion resistant and shall have openings not larger than 12 of an inch (12.7 mm).
Water drained from the roof washer or pre-filter shall be diverted away from the storage tank and discharged to a disposal area that does not cause property damage or erosion. Roof washer drainage shall not drain over a public way.
Roof washing systems shall be provided with an automatic means of self draining between rain events.
Filtration and disinfection systems shall be located after the water storage tank. Where a chlorination system is installed, it shall be installed upstream of filtration systems. Where an ultraviolet disinfection system is installed, a filter not more than 5 microns (5 µm) shall be installed upstream of the disinfection system.
Gutters shall maintain a minimum slope and be sized in accordance with this code.
The design and size of rainwater drains, conductors, and leaders shall comply with this code.
Potable rainwater system distribution piping shall be sized in accordance with this code for sizing potable water piping.
The interior surfaces of tanks and equipment shall be clean before they are put into service.
Rainwater catchment systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code for testing of potable water and storm drainage systems. Storage tanks shall be filled with water to the overflow opening for a period of 24 hours, and during inspection, or by other means as approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Seams and joints shall be exposed during inspection and checked for water tightness.
The provisions of this section shall establish the means of conserving potable and nonpotable water and energy associated with the generation and use of hot water in a building. This includes provisions for the hot water distribution system, which is the portion of the potable water distribution system between a water heating device and the plumbing fixtures, including dedicated return piping and appurtenances to the water heating device in a recirculation system.
Hot water supply and return piping shall be thermally insulated. The wall thickness of the insulation shall be equal to the nominal diameter of the pipe up to 2 inches (50 mm). The wall thickness shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) for nominal pipe diameters exceeding 2 inches (50 mm). The conductivity of the insulation [k-factor (Btu•in/(h•ft2•°F))], measured radially, shall not be more than 0.28 [Btu•in/(h•ft2•°F)] [0.04 W/(m•k)]. Hot water piping to be insulated shall be installed such that insulation is continuous. Pipe insulation shall be installed to within 14 of an inch (6.4 mm) of appliances, appurtenances, fixtures, structural members, or a wall where the pipe passes through to connect to a fixture within 24 inches (610 mm). Building cavities shall be large enough to accommodate the combined diameter of the pipe, the insulation, and other objects in the cavity that the piping shall cross. Pipe supports shall be installed on the outside of the pipe insulation.

Exceptions:
  1. Where the hot water pipe is installed in a wall that is not of a width to accommodate the pipe and insulation, the insulation thickness shall be permitted to have the maximum thickness that the wall is capable of accommodating and not less than 12 of an inch (12.7 mm) thick.
  2. Hot water supply piping exposed under sinks, lavatories, and similar fixtures.
  3. Where hot water distribution piping is installed within an attic, crawlspace, or wall insulation.

    1. In attics and crawlspaces the insulation shall cover the pipe not less than 512 inches (140 mm) further away from the conditioned space.
    2. In walls, the insulation shall completely surround the pipe with not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) of insulation.
    3. Where burial within the insulation will not completely or continuously surround the pipe, then these exceptions do not apply.
Recirculation systems shall comply with Section L 601.3.1 and Section L 601.3.2.
Circulating hot water systems shall be arranged so that the circulating pump(s) are capable of being turned off (automatically or manually) where the hot water system is not in operation. [ASHRAE 90.2:7.2]
Where used to maintain storage tank water temperature, recirculating pumps shall be equipped with controls limiting operation to a period from the start of the heating cycle to a maximum of 5 minutes after the end of the heating cycle. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.4.4.4]
Pump controls shall include on-demand activation or time clocks combined with temperature sensing. Time clock controls for pumps shall not let the pump operate more than 15 minutes every hour. Temperature sensors shall stop circulation where the temperature set point is reached and shall be located on the circulation loop at or near the last fixture. The pump, pump controls, and temperature sensors shall be accessible. Pump operation shall be limited to the building's hours of operation.
Systems designed to maintain usage temperatures in hot-water pipes, such as recirculating hot-water systems or heat trace, shall be equipped with automatic time switches or other controls that are capable of being set to switch off the usage temperature maintenance system during extended periods where hot water is not required. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.4.4.2]
Systems with multiple recirculation zones shall be balanced to uniformly distribute hot water, or they shall be operated with a pump for each zone. The circulation pump controls shall comply with the provisions of Section L 601.4.
Flow balancing valves shall be a factory preset automatic flow control valve, a flow regulating valve, or a balancing valve with memory stop.
Provision shall be made for the elimination of air from the return system.
Gravity or thermosyphon systems are prohibited.
The service water heating system for single-family houses, multi-family structures of three stories or fewer above grade, and modular houses shall comply with Section L 602.2 through Section L 602.7.3. The service water heating system of all other buildings shall comply with Section L 603.0.
Residentialtype water heaters, pool heaters, and unfired water heater storage tanks shall comply with the minimum performance requirements specified by federal law.

     Unfired storage water heating equipment shall have a heat loss through the tank surface area of less than 6.5 British thermal units per square foot hour [Btu/(ft2•h)] (20.5 W/m2). [ASHRAE 90.2:7.1]
Recirculation systems shall comply with the provisions in Section L 601.3.
Service water heating equipment (central systems) that does not fall under the requirements for residential-type service water heating equipment addressed in Section L 602.0 shall comply with the applicable requirements for service waterheating equipment found in Section L 603.0. [ASHRAE 90.2:7.3]
Insulation for hot water and return piping shall comply with the provisions of Section L 601.2.
Where water has hardness equal to or exceeding 9 grains per gallon (gr/gal) (154 mg/L) measured as total calcium carbonate equivalents, the water supply line to water heating equipment in new one- and two family dwellings shall be roughed-in to allow for the installation of water treatment equipment.
The maximum volume of water contained in hot water distribution pipes shall be in accordance with Section L 602.7.1 or Section L 602.7.2. The water volume shall be calculated using Table L 602.7.


TABLE L 602.7
WATER VOLUME FOR DISTRIBUTION PIPING MATERIALS*
OUNCES OF WATER PER FOOT LENGTH OF PIPING
NOMINAL
SIZE
(inch)
COPPER
M
COPPER
L
COPPER
K
CPVC
CTS SDR
11
CPVC
SCH 40
PEX-AL-
PEX
PE-AL-PE CPVC
SCH 80
PEX CTS
SDR 9
PE-RT
SDR 9
PP SDR 6 PP SDR
7.3
PP SDR
11
38 1.06 0.97 0.84 NA 1.17 0.63 0.63 NA 0.64 0.64 0.91 1.09 1.24
12 1.69 1.55 1.45 1.25 1.89 1.13 1.31 1.46 1.18 1.18 1.41 1.68 2.12
34 3.43 3.22 2.90 2.67 3.38 3.39 3.39 2.74 2.35 2.35 2.23 2.62 3.37
1 5.81 5.49 5.17 4.43 5.53 5.56 5.56 4.57 3.91 3.91 3.64 4.36 5.56
114 8.70 8.36 8.09 6.61 9.66 8.49 8.49 8.24 5.81 5.81 5.73 6.81 8.60
112 12.18 11.83 11.45 9.22 13.20 13.88 13.88 11.38 8.09 8.09 9.03 10.61 13.47
2 21.08 20.58 20.04 15.79 21.88 21.48 21.48 19.11 13.86 13.86 14.28 16.98 21.39
For SI units: 1 ounce = 29.573 mL
* NA: Not Applicable
The maximum volume of water contained in the hot water distribution pipe between the water heater and any fixture fitting shall not exceed 32 ounces (oz) (946 mL). Where a fixture fitting shutoff valve (supply stop) is installed ahead of the fixture fitting, the maximum volume of water is permitted to be calculated between the water heater and the fitting shutoff valve (supply stop).
The maximum volume of water contained in the branches between the recirculation loop or electrically heat traced pipe and the fixture fitting shall not exceed 16 oz (473 mL). Where a fixture fitting shutoff valve (supply stop) is installed ahead of the fixture fitting, the maximum volume of water is permitted to be calculated between the recirculation loop or electrically heat traced pipe and the fixture fitting shutoff valve (supply stop).

Exception: Whirlpool bathtubs or bathtubs that are not equipped with a shower are exempted from the requirements of Section L 602.7.
Where a hot water pipe from a circulation loop or electric heat trace line is equipped with a submeter, the hot water distribution system downstream of the submeter shall have either an end-of-line hot water circulation pump or shall be electrically heat traced. The maximum volume of water in a branch from the circulation loop or electric heat trace line downstream of the submeter shall not exceed 16 oz (473 mL).

     Where there is no circulation loop or electric heat traced line downstream of the submeter, the submeter shall be located within 2 feet (610 mm) of the central hot water system; or the branch line to the submeter shall be circulated or heat traced to within 2 feet (610 mm) of the submeter. The maximum volume from the submeter to each fixture shall not exceed 32 oz (946 mL).

     The circulation pump controls shall comply with the provisions of Section L 601.4.
The service hot water, other than single-family houses, multi-family structures of three stories or fewer above grade, and modular houses, shall comply with this section.
Service water heating systems and equipment shall comply with the requirements of this section as described in Section L 603.2. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.1.1.1]
Service water heating systems and equipment shall comply with the requirements of this section.

Exception: Where the service water heating to an addition is provided by existing service water heating systems and equipment, such systems and equipment shall not be required to be in accordance with this appendix. However, new systems or equipment installed shall be in accordance with specific requirements applicable to those systems and equipment. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.1.1.2]
Building service water heating equipment installed as a direct replacement for existing building service water heating equipment shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section L 603.0 applicable to the equipment being replaced. New and replacement piping shall comply with Section L 603.3.3.

Exception: Compliance shall not be required where there is insufficient space or access to meet these requirements. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.1.1.3]
Compliance shall be achieved in accordance with the requirements of Section L 603.1, Section L 603.3, Section L 603.4, and Section L 603.5. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.2.1]
Projects using the energy cost budget method of ASHRAE 90.1 for demonstrating compliance with the standard shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section L 603.3 in conjunction with the energy cost budget method of ASHRAE 90.1. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.2.2]
The mandatory provisions of Section L 603.3.1 through Section L 603.3.7 shall be followed.
Service water heating system design loads for the purpose of sizing systems and equipment shall be determined in accordance with manufacturer's published sizing guidelines or accepted engineering standards and handbooks acceptable to the adopting authority (e.g., ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Applications). [ASHRAE 90.1:7.4.1]
Water heating equipment, hot-water supply boilers used solely for heating potable water, pool heaters, and hot-water storage tanks shall comply with the criteria listed in Table L 603.3.2. Where multiple criteria are listed, all criteria shall be met. Omission of minimum performance requirements for certain classes of equipment does not preclude use of such equipment where appropriate. Equipment not listed in Table L 603.3.2 has no minimum performance requirements.

Exceptions: Water heaters and hot-water supply boilers having more than 140 gallons (530 L) of storage capacity are not required to meet the standby loss (SL) requirements of Table L 603.3.2 where:
  1. The tank surface is thermally insulated to R-12.5.
  2. A standing pilot light is not installed.
  3. Gas or oil fired storage water heaters have a flue damper or fan-assisted combustion. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.4.2]


TABLE L 603.3.2
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER HEATING EQUIPMENT5, 6
[ASHRAE 90.1: TABLE 7.8]
EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY SUBCATEGORY OR RATING
CONDITION (INPUT)
PERFORMANCE
REQUIRED1
TEST PROCEDURE2, 3
Electric table top water
heaters
≤12 kW Resistance≥20 gal 0.93-0.00035V EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
Electric water heaters ≤12 kW Resistance≥20 gal 0.97-0.00035V EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
>12 kW Resistance≥20 gal 0.3 + 27√Vm %/h Section G.2 of CSA
Z21.10.3
≤24 Amps and ≤250 Volts Heat Pump 0.93-0.00035V EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
Gas storage water heaters ≤75000 Btu/h ≥20 gal 0.67-0.00035V EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
>75000 Btu/h <4000 (Btu/h)/gal 80% Et (Q/799) +
16.6√V)SL, Btu/h
Sections G.1 and G.2 of
CSA Z21.10.3
Gas instantaneous water heaters >50000 Btu/h and <200000 Btu/h ≥4000 (Btu/h)/gal and <2 gal 0.62-0.0005V EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
≥200000 Btu/h4 ≥4000 (Btu/h)/gal and <10 gal 80% Et Sections G.1 and G.2 of CSA Z21.10.3
≥200000 Btu/h ≥4000 (Btu/h)/gal and <10 gal 80% Et (Q/799) + 16.6√V)
SL, Btu/h
Oil storage water heaters ≤105000 Btu/h ≥20 gal 0.59-0.0005V EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
>105000 Btu/h <4000 (Btu/h)/gal 80% Et (Q/799) + 16.6√V)
SL, Btu/h
Sections G.1 and G.2 of
CSA Z21.10.3
Oil instantaneous water
heaters
≤210000 Btu/h ≥4000 (Btu/h)/gal and <2 gal 0.59-0.0005V EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
>210000 Btu/h ≥4000 (Btu/h)/gal and <10 gal 80% Et Sections G.1 and G.2 of
CSA Z21.10.3
>210000 Btu/h ≥4000 (Btu/h)/gal and ≥10 gal 78% Et (Q/799) + 16.6√V)
SL, Btu/h
Hot-water supply boilers,
gas and oil
≥300000 Btu/h and
<12500000 Btu/h
≥4000 (Btu/h)/gal and <10 gal 80%Et Sections G.1 and G.2 of
CSA Z21.10.3
Hot-water supply boilers,
gas
- ≥4000 (Btu/h)/gal and ≥10 gal 80% Et (Q/799) + 16.6√V)
SL, Btu/h
Hot-water supply boilers,
oil
- ≥4000 (Btu/h)/gal and ≥10 gal 78% Et (Q/799) + 16.6√V)
SL, Btu/h
Pool heaters, oil and gas All - 78% Et ASHRAE 146
Heat pump pool heaters All - 4.0 COP AHRI 1160
Unfired storage tanks All - R-12.5 (none)
For SI units: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, °C = (°F-32)/1.8

Notes:
1  Energy factor (EF) and thermal efficiency (Et) are minimum requirements, while standby loss (SL) is maximum Btu/h (kW) based on a 70°F (39°C) temperature difference between stored water and ambient requirements. In the EF equation, V is the rated volume in gallons. In the SL equation, V is the rated volume in gallons and Q is the nameplate input rate in Btu/h (kW). Vm is the measured volume in the tank.
2   ASHRAE 90.1 contains a complete specification, including the year version, of the referenced test procedure.
3   Section G.1 is titled "Test Method for Measuring Thermal Efficiency" and Section G.2 is titled "Test Method for Measuring Standby Loss."
4   Instantaneous water heaters with input rates below 200000 Btu/h (58.6 kW) shall be in accordance with these requirements where the water heater is designed to heat water to temperatures of 180°F (82°C) or higher.
5   Electric water heaters with input rates less than 40946 Btu/h (12 kW) shall be in accordance with these requirements where the water heater is designed to heat water to temperatures of 180°F (82°C) or higher.
6   Refer to Section L 603.4.2.1 for additional requirements for gas storage and instantaneous water heaters and gas hot-water supply boilers.
The following piping shall be insulated in accordance with Table L 603.3.3:
  1. Recirculating system piping, including the supply and return piping of a circulating tank type water heater.
  2. The first 8 feet (2438 mm) of outlet piping for a constant temperature nonrecirculating storage system.
  3. The inlet piping between the storage tank and a heat trap in a nonrecirculating storage system.
  4. Piping that is externally heated (such as heat trace or impedance heating). [ASHRAE 90.1 :7.4.3]


TABLE L 603.3.3
MINIMUM PIPE INSULATION THICKNESS FOR HEATING AND HOT WATER SYSTEMS
(STEAM, STEAM CONDENSATE, HOT WATER HEATING, AND DOMESTIC WATER SYSTEMS)1, 2, 3, 4, 5
[ASHRAE 90.1: TABLE 6.8.3-1]
FLUID DESIGN
OPERATING
TEMPERATURE
RANGE AND
USAGE(°F)
INSULATION CONDUCTIVITY ≥NOMINAL PIPE SIZE OR TUBE SIZE (inches)
CONDUCTIVITY
Btu•inch/(h•ft2°F)
MEAN RATING
TEMPERATURE
(°F)
<1 1 to 112 112 to <4 4 to <8 ≥8
INSULATION THICKNESS (inches)
>350 0.32-0.34 250 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
251-350 0.29-0.32 200 3.0 4.0 4.5 4.5 4.5
201-250 0.27-0.30 150 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0
141-200 025-0.29 125 1.5 1 1.5 2.0 2.0
105-140 0.22-0.28 100 1.0 1.0 I 1.5 1.5
For SI units: °C=(°F-32)/1.8, 1 British thermal unit inch per hour square foot degree Fahrenheit = [0.1 W/(m•K)], 1 inch = 25 mm

Notes:
1   For insulation outside the stated conductivity range. the minimum thickness (T) shall be determined as follows: T= r{(1 + t/r)K/k - 1}
Where:
T = minimum insulation thickness (inches) (mm).
r = actual outside radius of pipe (inches) (mm).
t = insulation thickness listed in this table for applicable fluid temperature and pipe size.
K = conductivity of alternate material at mean rating temperature indicated for the applicable fluid temperature [Btu•in/(h•ft2°F)] [W/(m•K)].
k = the upper value of the conductivity range listed in this table for the applicable fluid temperature.
2   These thicknesses are based on energy efficiency considerations only. Additional insulation is sometimes required relative to safety issues or surface temperature.
3   For piping 112 inches (40 mm) or less, and located in partitions within conditioned spaces, reduction of insulation thickness by 1 inch (25.4 mm) shall be permitted before thickness adjustment required in Footnote 1, but not a thickness less than 1 inch (25.4 mm).
4   For direct-buried heating and hot water system piping. reduction of insulation thickness by 112 inch (38 mm) shall be permitted before thickness adjustment required in Footnote 1, but not a thickness less than 1 inch (25.4 mm).
5   Table L 603.3.3 is based on steel pipe. Non-metallic pipes, less than schedule 80 thickness shall use the table values. For other non-metallic pipes having a thermal resistance more than that of steel pipe, reduced insulation thicknesses shall be permitted where documentation is provided showing that the pipe with the proposed insulation has less heat transfer per foot (mm) than a steel pipe of the same size with the insulation thickness shown in Table L 603.3.3.
Hot water systems shall comply with Section L 603.3.4.1 and Section L 603.3.4.2.
Recirculation systems shall comply with the provisions in Section L 601.3.
The maximum volume of water contained in hot water distribution lines between the water heater and the fixture stop or connection to showers, kitchen faucets, and lavatories shall be detennined in accordance with Section L 602.7.
Service water heating system controls shall comply with Section L 603.3.5.1 and Section L 603.3.5.2.
Temperature controls shall be provided that allow for storage temperature adjustment from 120°F (49°C) or lower to a maximum temperature compatible with the intended use.

Exception: Where the manufacturer's installation instructions specify a higher minimum thermostat setting to minimize condensation and resulting corrosion. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.4.4.1]
Temperature controlling means shall be provided to limit the maximum temperature of water delivered from lavatory faucets in public facility restrooms to 110°F (43°C). [ASHRAE 90.1:7.4.4.3]
Pool heating systems shall comply with Section L 603.3.6.1 through Section L 603.3.6.3.
Pool heaters shall be equipped with a readily accessible ON/OFF switch to allow shutting off the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Pool heaters fired by natural gas shall not have continuously burning pilot lights. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.4.5.1]
Heated pools shall be equipped with a vapor retardant pool cover on or at the water surface. Pools heated to more than 90°F (32°C) shall have a pool cover with a minimum insulation value of R-12.

Exception: Pools deriving over 60 percent of the energy for heating from site-recovered energy or solar energy source. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.4.5.2]
Time switches shall be installed on swimming pool heaters and pumps.

Exceptions:
  1. Where public health standards require 24-hour pump operation.
  2. Where pumps are required to operate solar and waste heat recovery pool heating systems. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.4.5.3]
Vertical pipe risers serving storage water heaters and storage tanks not having integral heat traps and serving a nonrecirculating system shall have heat traps on both the inlet and outlet piping as close as practical to the storage tanle A heat trap is a means to counteract the natural convection of heated water in a vertical pipe run. The means is either a device specifically designed for the purpose or an arrangement of tubing that forms a loop of 360 degrees (6.28 rad) or piping that from the point of connection to the water heater (inlet or outlet) includes a length of piping directed downward before connection to the vertical piping of the supply water or hot-water distribution system, as applicable. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.4.6]
The prescriptive path for space or water heating efficiency shall comply with Section L 603.4.1 through Section L 603.4.3.1.
The use of a gas-fired or oil-fired space-heating boiler system, otherwise in accordance with Section L 603.0, to provide the total space heating and water heating for a building is allowed where one of the following conditions is met:
  1. The single space-heating boiler, or the component of a modular or multiple boiler system that is heating the service water, has a standby loss in Btu/h (kW) not exceeding (13.3 × pmd + 400)/n, where (pmd) is the probable maximum demand in gallons per hour, determined in accordance with the procedures described in generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks, and (n) is the fraction of the year where the outdoor daily mean temperature exceeds 64.9°F (18.28°C).

         The standby loss is to be determined for a test period of 24 hours duration while maintaining a boiler water temperature of not less then 90°F (32°C) above ambient, with an ambient temperature between 60°F (16°C) and 90°F (32°C). For a boiler with a modulating burner, this test shall be conducted at the lowest input.
  2. It is demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Authority Having Jurisdiction that the use of a single heat source will consume less energy than separate units.
  3. The energy input of the combined boiler and water heater system is less than 150000 British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) (44 kW). [ASHRAE 90.1:7.5.1]
Service water heating equipment used to provide the additional function of space heating as part of a combination (integrated) system shall satisfy stated requirements for the service water heating equipment. [ASHRAE 90.1:7.5.2]
New buildings with gas service hot-water systems with a total installed gas water-heating input capacity of 1000000 Btu/h (293 kW) or more, shall have gas service water-heating equipment with a thermal efficiency (Et) of not less than 90 percent. Multiple units of gas water-heating equipment shall be permitted to comply with this requirement where the water-heating input provided by the equipment, with thermal efficiency (Et) of more or less than 90 percent, provides an input capacityweighted average thermal efficiency of not less than 90 percent. The requirements of Section L 603.4.2.1 are effective on July 30, 2015.

Exceptions:
  1. Where 25 percent of the annual service waterheating requirement is provided by site-solar or site-recovered energy.
  2. Water heaters installed in individual dwelling units.
  3. Individual gas water heaters with input capacity not more than 1000000 Btu/h (293 kW). [ASHRAE 90.1:7.5.3]
Condenser heat recovery systems shall be installed for heating or preheating of service hot water provided the following are true:
  1. The facility operates 24 hours a day.
  2. The total installed heat rejection capacity of the water-cooled systems exceed 6000000 Btu/h (1758 kW) of heat rejection.
  3. The design service water heating load exceeds 1000000 Btu/h (293 kW). [ASHRAE 90.1:6.5.6.2.1]
The required heat recovery system shall have the capacity to provide the smaller of:
  1. Sixty percent of the peak heat rejection load at design conditions.
  2. Preheat of the peak service hot water draw to 85°F (29°C).
Exceptions:
  1. Facilities that employ condenser heat recovery for space heating with a heat recovery design exceeding 30 percent of the peak water-cooled condenser load at design conditions.
  2. Facilities that provide 60 percent of their service water heating from site-solar or siterecovered energy or from other sources. [ASHRAE 90.1:6.5.6.2.2]
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall require submittal of compliance documentation and supplemental information in accordance with Section 104.3.1 of this code.
The erection, installation, alteration, addition to, use or maintenance of solar water heating systems shall be in accordance with this section and the Uniform Solar Energy and Hydronics Code.
Solar energy systems that utilize a heat transfer fluid shall be inspected annually, unless inspections are required on a more frequent basis by the solar energy system manufacturer.
Where water has a hardness equal to or exceeding 10 gr/gal (171 mg/L) measured as total calcium carbonate equivalents, the water supply line to water heating equipment and the circuit of boilers shall be softened or treated to prevent accumulation of lime scale and consequent reduction in energy efficiency.
Drain water heat exchangers shall comply with IAPMO PS 92. The heat exchanger shall be accessible.
The provisions of this section address minimum qualifications of installers of plumbing and mechanical systems covered within the scope of this appendix.
Where permits are required, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to require contractors, installers, or service technicians to demonstrate competency. Where determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the contractor, installer, or service technician shall be licensed to perform such work.
The purpose of this section is to provide a means of estimating the water savings where installing plumbing and fixture fittings that use less water than the maximum required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and 2005 and this code.
Table L 801.2(1) and Table L 801.2(2) shall be permitted to be used to establish a water use baseline in calculating the amount of water saved as a result of using plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings that use less water than the required maximum. Water use is determined by the following equation:

Water use = (flow rate or consumption) × (duration) × (occupants) × (daily uses)

TABLE L 801.2(1)
WATER USE BASELINE5
FIXTURE TYPE MAXIMUM FLOW-RATE
CONSUMPTION2
DURATION ESTIMATED DAILY USES
PER PERSON
OCCUPANTS3, 4
Showerheads 2.5 gpm at 80 psi 8 minutes 1 -
Private or Private Use
Lavatory Faucets
2.2 gpm at 60 psi 0.25 minutes 4 -
Residential Kitchen Faucets 2.2 gpm at 60 psi 4 minutes 1 -
Wash Fountains One 2.2 gpm at 60 psi
fixture fitting for each 20
inches rim space
- - -
Lavatory Faucets in other than
Residences, Apartments, and
Private Bathrooms in Lodging Facilities
0.5 gpm 0.25 minutes 4 -
Metering Faucets 2 5 gallons /cycle - 3 -
Metering Faucets for Wash
Fountains
One 0.25 gallons per cycle
fixture fitting for each 20 inches space
- - -
Water Closets 1.6 gallons per flush 1 flush 1 male1 -
3 female -
Urinals 1.0 gallons per flush 1 flush 2 male -
For SI units: 1 gallon per mmute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 inch = 25.4 mm

Notes:
1  The daily use number shall be increased to three where urinals are not installed in the room.
2  The maximum flow rate or consumption is from the Energy Policy Act.
3  For residential occupancies, the number of occupants shall be based on two persons for the first bedroom and one additional person for each additional bedroom.
4  For non-residential occupancies, refer to Table 422.1 for occupant load factors.
5  Where determining calculations, assume one use per person for metering or self closing faucets.


TABLE L 801.2(2)
WATER SAVINGS CALCULATOR1, 2, 3
NON-RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
BASELINE CHANGE OCCUPANT VALUES TO REFLECT ANTICIPATED OCCUPANCY
FIXTURE TYPE CONSUMPTION
(gallons per minute)
DAILY
USES
DURATION
(minutes)
OCCUPANTS DAILY WATER
USES (gallons)
1.6 gpf (gallons per flush) toilet-male 1.6 1 1 150 240
1.6 gpf toilet - female 1.6 3 1 150 720
1.0 gpf urinal - male 1 2 1 150 300
Commercial lavatory faucet - 0.5 gpm 0.5 3 0.25 300 113
Kitchen sink - 2.2 gpm 2.2 1 0.25 300 165
Showerhead - 2.5 gpm 2.5 0.1 8 300 600
Total Daily Volume 2138
Annual Work Days 260
Total Annual Usage 555750


FIXTURE TYPE CONSUMPTION
(gallons per minute)
DAILY USES DURATION
(minutes)
OCCUPANTS DAILY WATER
USES (gallons)
1.6 gpf toilet-male 1.28 1 1 150 192
1.6 gpf toilet - female 1.28 3 1 150 576
1.0 gpf urinal - male 0.5 2 1 150 150
Commercial lavatory faucet - 0.5 gpm 0.5 3 0.25 300 113
Kitchen sink - 2.2 gpm 2.2 1 0.25 300 165
Showerhead - 2.5 gpm 2.5 0.1 8 300 600
Total Daily Volume 1796
Annual Work Days 260
Total Annual Usage 466830
Annual Savings 88920
% Reduction -16.0 percent
For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 gallon = 3.785 L

Notes:
1  Consumption values shown as underlined reflect the maximum consumption values associated with the provisions called out in the IAPMO Green Plumbing & Mechanical Code Supplement.
2  Where metering faucets are used, insert the flow rate of the faucet in the "Consumption" column and insert the cycle time in the "Duration" column (assume 1 cycle per use).
3  To determine estimated savings, insert occupant values (same as Baseline) and consumption values based on fixtures and fixture fittings installed.


BASELINE CASE: CHANGE OCCUPANT VALUES BASED ON NUMBER OF BEDROOM (EXAMPLE SHOWN IS FOR 3 BEDROOMS)
TABLE L 801.2(2)
WATER SAVINGS CALCULATOR (continued)1, 2
1.6 gpf toilets 1.6 5 1 4 32
Lavatory faucet-2.2 gpm 2.2 8 0.25 4 18
Kitchen sink - 2.2 gpm 2.2 6 0.25 4 13
Showerhead - 2.5 gpm 2.5 0.75 8 4 60
Total Daily Volume 123
Annual Work Days 44822


FIXTURE TYPE CONSUMPTION
(gallons per minutes)
DAILY USES DURATION
(minutes)
OCCUPANTS DAILY WATER USES (gallons)
1.6 gpf toilets - male 1.28 5 1 4 26
Lavatory faucet - 1.5 gpm 1.5 8 0.25 4 12
Kitchen sink - 2.2 gpm 2.2 6 0.25 4 13
Showerhead - 2.5 gpm 2.5 0.75 8 4 60
Total Daily Volume 111
Annual Usage 40442
Annual Savings 4380
%Reduction -9.8 percent
For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 gallon = 3.785 L

Notes:
1  Consumption values shown as underlined reflect the maximum consumption values associated with the provisions called out in the IAPMO Green Plumbing & Mechanical Code Supplement
2  To determine estimated savings, insert occupant values (same as Baseline) and consumption values based on fixtures and fixture fittings installed.

Notes and instructions for Table L 801.2(2):
Table L 801.2(2) is an example of a calculator that is capable of helping estimate water savings in residential and nonresidential structures. The "Duration" of use and "Daily Uses" values that appear in the table are estimates and based on previous studies. The first example shown below is for a commercial office building with 300 occupants, 150 females, and 150 males. The second example is for a 3 bedroom residential building. To obtain and use a working copy of this calculator, follow the download and use instructions below.

Instructions for download:
  1. Go to the IAPMO web site at www.iapmogreen.org in order to download the water-savings calculator. The calculator is a Microsoft Office Excel file (1997 or later), your computer must be capable of running MS Excel.
  2. Follow the instructions for downloading and running the file.
Instructions for use:
  1. In the Baseline Case section, insel1 the number of total occupants, male occupants and female occupants that apply for the building in the "Occupants" column. Unless specific gender ratio values are provided, assume a 50/50 gender ratio.
  2. Copy and paste these same values in the "Occupants" column of the Calculator section.
  3. In the Calculator section, insert the consumption values (flow rates in gpm or gallons per flush or per cycle) in the "Consumption" column.
  4. Estimated water savings in terms of percent savings versus baseline values, gallons per day and gallons per year will be automatically calculated.
Resources