Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Regulations

Chapter 4 Plumbing Fixtures and Fixture Fittings

Chapter 5 Water Heaters

Chapter 6 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 7 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 8 Indirect Wastes

Chapter 9 Vents

Chapter 10 Traps and Interceptors

Chapter 11 Storm Drainage

Chapter 12 Fuel Gas Piping

Chapter 13 Health Care Facilities and Medical Gas and Medical Vacuum Systems

Chapter 14 Firestop Protection

Chapter 15 Alternate Water Sources for Nonpotable Applications

Chapter 16 Nonpotable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Chapter 16A Non-Potable Water Reuse Systems

Chapter 17 Referenced Standards

Appendices [PDF]

Appendix A Recommended Rules for Sizing the Water Supply System

Appendix B Explanatory Notes on Combination Waste and Vent Systems

Appendix C Alternate Plumbing Systems

Appendix D Sizing Storm Water Drainage Systems

Appendix E Manufactured/Mobile Home Parks and Recreational Vehicle Parks

Appendix F Firefighter Breathing Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix G Sizing of Venting Systems

Appendix H Private Sewage Disposal Systems

Appendix J Combination of Indoor and Outdoor Combustion and Ventilation Opening Design

Appendix K Potable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Appendix L Sustainable Practices

This chapter covers minimum requirements for the installation of firefighter breathing air replenishment systems.
For purposes of this chapter, the following definitions shall apply:

High-Rise Building. A building where the floor of an occupiable story exceeds 75 feet (22860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. [NFPA 5000:3.3.69.10]

Interior Cylinder Fill Panels. Lockable interior panels that provide firefighters the ability to regulate breathing air pressure and refill self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) cylinders.

Interior Cylinder Fill Stations and Enclosures. Freestanding fill containment stations that provide firefighters the ability to regulate breathing air pressure and refill SCBA cylinders.

Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus. A SCBA in which exhalation is vented to the atmosphere and not rebreathed. [NFPA 1981:3.3.34]

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). An atmosphere-supplying respirator that supplies a respirable air atmosphere to the user from a breathing air source that is independent of the ambient environment and designed to be carried by the user. [NFPA 1981:3.3.46]

     For the purposes of this appendix, where this term is used without a qualifier, it indicates an open-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus or combination SCBA/SARs. For the purposes of this appendix, combination SCBA/SARs are encompassed by the terms self-contained breathing apparatus or SCBA.

Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). A written qualified welding procedure prepared to provide direction for making production welds to code requirements. [ASME B31.1:100.2]

Firefighter breathing air replenishment systems shall contain, as a minimum, the following components:
  1. Exterior fire department connection panel
  2. Interior fire department air fill panel or station
  3. Interconnected piping distribution system
  4. Pressure monitoring switch
A firefighter air system shall be installed in the following buildings:
  1. High-rise buildings.
  2. Underground structures that are three or more floors below grade with an area greater than 20000 square feet (1858 m2).
  3. Large area structures with an area greater than 200000 square feet (18580 m2) and where the travel distance from the building centerline to the closest exit is greater than 500 feet (152 m), such as warehouses, manufacturing complexes, malls, or convention centers.
  4. Underground transportation or pedestrian tunnels exceeding 500 feet (152 m) in length.
The exterior fire department connection panel shall provide the fire department's mobile air operator access to the system and shall be compatible with the fire department's mobile air unit.
Each building or structure shall have a minimum of two panels.
Each panel shall be attached to the building or on a remote monument at the exterior of the building with a minimum 6 foot (1829 mm) radius and 180-degree (3.14 rad) clear unobstructed access to the front of the panel. The panel shall be weather-resistant or secured inside of a weather-resistant enclosure. The panel shall be located on opposite sides of the building within 50 feet (15240 mm) of an approved roadway or driveway, or other locations approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
The fire department connection panel shall be installed in a metal cabinet constructed of not less than 18-gauge carbon steel or equivalent. The cabinet shall be provided with a coating or other means to protect the cabinet from corrosion.
Where the panel is located in an area subject to vehicle traffic, impact protection shall be provided.
The front of the enclosure shall be marked, "FIREFIGHTER AIR SYSTEM". The lettering shall be in a color that contrasts with the enclosure front and in letters that are not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high with a 38 of an inch (9.5 mm) brush stroke.
The exterior fire department connection panel shall contain the necessary gauges, isolation valves, pressure-relief valves, pressure-regulating valves, check valves, tubing, fittings, supports, connectors, adapters, and other necessary components as required to allow the fire department's mobile air unit to connect and augment the system with a constant source of breathing air. Each fire department connection panel shall contain not less than two inlet air connections.
Pressure-relief valves shall be installed downstream of the pressure regulator inlet. The relief valve shall meet the requirements of CGA S-1.3 and shall not be field adjustable. The relief valve shall have a set-to-open pressure not exceeding 1.1 times the design pressure of the system. Pressure-relief valve discharge shall terminate so that the exhaust air stream cannot impinge upon personnel in the area. Valves, plugs, or caps shall not be installed in the discharge of a pressure-relief valve. Where discharge piping is used, the end shall not be threaded.
The fire department connection panel enclosure shall be locked by an approved means.
Each cylinder fill panel shall be installed in a metal cabinet constructed of not less than 18-gauge carbon steel or equivalent. The depth of the cabinet shall not create an exit obstruction where installed in building stairwells. With the exception of the shutoff valve, pressure gauges, fill hoses, and ancillary components; no system components shall be visible and shall be contained behind a not less than 18-gauge interior panel.
The panel shall be located not less than 36 inches (914 mm) but not more than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the finished floor or a stairway landing. Clear unobstructed access shall be provided to each panel.
The door shall be arranged such that where the door is open, it does not reduce the required exit width or create an obstruction in the path of egress.
The front of each cylinder fill panel shall be marked, "FIREFIGHTER AIR SYSTEM". The lettering shall be in a color that contrasts with the cabinet front and in letters that are not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high with a 38 of an inch (9.5 mm) brush stroke.
The cabinet shall be of a size to allow for the installation of the components in Section F 601.5.1.
The cylinder fill panel shall contain the gauges, isolation valves, pressure-relief valves, pressure-regulating valves, check valves, tubing, fittings, supports, connectors, hoses, adapters, and other components to refill SCBA cylinders.
The design of the cabinet shall provide a means for storing the hose to prevent kinking. Where the hose is coiled, the brackets shall be installed so that the hose bend radius is maintained at 4 inches (102 mm) or greater. Fill hose connectors for connection to SCBA cylinders shall comply with the requirements of CGA V-1, number 346 or 347. No other SCBA cylinder fill connections shall be permitted.
Each panel cover shall be maintained and locked by an approved means.
The location of the closet or room for each air fill station shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the space shall be permitted to be utilized for other firefighting purposes. The door to each room enclosing the air filling station enclosure shall be readily accessible at all times. Not less than a 6 foot (1829 mm) radius and 180-degree (3.14 rad) clear unobstructed access to the front of the air filling station shall be provided. The enclosure shall have emergency lighting installed in accordance with NFPA 70.
Each air fill station shall be installed within a lockable enclosure, closet, or room by an approved means. Access to fill equipment and controls shall be restricted to authorized personnel by key or other means.
The air fill station shall contain the gauges, isolation valves, pressure-relief valves, pressure regulating valves, check valves, tubing, fittings, supports, connectors, hoses, adapters, and other components to refill SCBA cylinders.
Where hoses are used, the design of the cabinet shall provide a means for storing the hose to prevent kinking. Where the hose is coiled, the brackets shall be installed so that the hose bend radius is maintained at 4 inches (102 mm) or greater. Fill hose connectors for connection to SCBA cylinders shall comply with the requirements of CGA V-1, no. 346 or 347. For high-pressure SCBA cylinders of 4500 pounds-force per square inch (psi) (31026 kPa), no. 347 connectors shall be used. For low-pressure SCBA cylinders of 3000 psi (20684 kPa) and 2200 psi (15168 kPa), no. 346 connectors shall be used. No other SCBA cylinder fill connections shall be permitted.
Each enclosure, closet, or room shall be marked, "FIREFIGHTERS AIR SYSTEM." The lettering shall be in a color that contrasts with the cabinet front and in letters that are not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high with a 38 of an inch (9.5 mm) brush stroke.
Pressurized components shall be compatible for use with high-pressure breathing air equipment and self-contained breathing air apparatus. Pressurized breathing air components shall be rated for not less than a working pressure of 5000 psi (34474 kPa).
Tubing shall be stainless steel in accordance with ASTM A269, or other approved materials that are compatible with breathing air at the system pressure. Routing of tubing and bends shall be such as to protect the tubing from mechanical damage.
Fittings shall be constructed of stainless steel in accordance with ASTM A479, or other approved materials that are compatible with breathing air at the system pressure.
The use of nonmetallic materials, carbon steel, iron pipe, malleable iron, high strength gray iron, or alloy steel shall be prohibited for breathing air pipe and tubing materials.
An electric low- pressure monitoring switch shall be installed in the piping system to monitor the air pressure. The pressure switch shall transmit a supervisory signal to the central alarm monitoring station where the pressure of the breathing air system is less than 80 percent of the system operating pressure. Activation of the pressure switch shall also activate an audible alarm and visual strobe located at the building annunciator panel. A weather-resistant sign shall be provided in conjunction with the audible alarm stating, "FIREFIGHTER AIR SYSTEM LOW AIR PRESSURE ALARM." Where not part of a building annunciator panel, the lettering shall be in a contrasting color, and the letters shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high with a 38 of an inch (9.5 mm) brush stroke.
A system isolation valve shall be installed downstream of each air fill station and shall be located in the panel or within 3 feet (914 mm) of the station. The isolation valve shall be marked with its function in letters that are not less than 316 of an inch (4.8 mm) high with a 116 of an inch (1.6 mm) brush stroke.
Components of the firefighter breating air replenishment system installed in a building or structure shall be protected by not less than a 2 hour fire-resistive construction. Components shall be protected from physical damage.
Components shall be clearly identified by means of stainless steel or plastic labels or tags indicating their function. This shall include not less than all fire department connection panels, air fill stations, air storage system, gauges, valves, air connections, air outlets, enclosures, and doors.
Tubing shall be clearly marked, "FIREFIGHTERS AIR SYSTEM" and "HIGH PRESSURE BREATHING AIR" by means of signs or self adhesive labels. Signs shall be 1 inch (25.4 mm) high and shall be secured to the tubing. Signs shall be made of copper alloy, stainless steel, or plastic and engraved with a 38 of an inch (9.5 mm) letters with a 116 of an inch (1.6 mm) stroke lettering. Signs or labels shall be placed at not less than 20 foot (6096 mm) intervals and at each fitting, whether the tubing is concealed or in plain view. Tubing shall have a sign or label at an accessible point.
Pipe and tubing shall be supported at intervals not less than that shown in Table 313.3 of this code. Pipe and tubing shall be supported in accordance with Section 313.0 of this code.
The system shall be designed to fill, at the most remote fill station or panel, not less than two 66 cubic foot (ft3) (1.87 m3) compressed breathing air cylinders to a pressure not to exceed 4500 psi (31026 kPa) simultaneously in 3 minutes or less. Where greater capacity is required, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall specify the required system capacity.
Cylinder fill panels or stations shall be installed in the interior of buildings in accordance with Section F 1001.2.1 through Section F 1001.2.3.
An interior cylinder fill panel or station shall be installed commencing on the third floor and every third floor thereafter above grade. For underground floors in buildings with more than five underground floors, an interior cylinder fill panel or station shall be installed commencing on the third floor below grade and every three floors below grade thereafter, except for the bottom-most floor.
For underground floors in buildings with more than five underground floors, an interior cylinder fill panel or station shall be installed commencing on the third floor below grade and every three floors below grade thereafter, except for the bottom-most floor.
The specific location or locations on each floor shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
The system shall be an all-welded system except where the tubing joints are readily accessible and at the individual air fill panels or stations. Where mechanical high-pressure tube fittings are used, they shall be approved for the type of materials to be joined and rated for the maximum pressure of the system.
Prior to and during the welding of sections of tubing, a continuous, regulated dry nitrogen or argon purge at 3 psi (21 kPa) shall be maintained to eliminate contamination with products of the oxidation or welding flux. The purge shall commence not less than 2 minutes prior to welding operations and continue until the welded joint is at ambient temperature. Welding procedures shall comply with the following requirements:
  1. Qualification of the WPS to be used, and of the performance of welders and operators, is required.
  2. No welding shall be done where there is impingement of rain, snow, sleet, or high wind on the weld area.
  3. Tack welds permitted to remain in the finished weld shall be made by a qualified welder. Tack welds made by an unqualified welder shall be removed. Tack welds which remain shall be made with an electrode and WPS which is the same as or equivalent to the electrode and WPS to be used for the first pass. The stopping and starting ends shall be prepared by grinding or other means so that they are capable of being satisfactorily incorporated into the final weld. Tack welds which have cracked shall be removed.
  4. Arc strikes outside the area of the intended weld shall be avoided on a base metal. [ASME B31.1:127.4.1]
The system components shall not be exposed to contaminants, including but not limited to, oils, solvents, dirt, and construction materials. Where contamination of system components has occurred, the affected component shall not be installed in the system.
Following fabrication, assembly, and installation of the piping distribution system, exterior connection panel, and interior cylinder fill panels, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall witness the pneumatic testing of the complete system at a test pressure of not less than 7500 psi (51711 kPa) using oil-free dry air, nitrogen, or argon. A pneumatic test of not less than 24 hours shall be performed. During this test, all fittings, joints, and system components shall be inspected for leaks. A solution compatible with the system component materials shall be used on each joint and fitting. Defects in the system or leaks detected shall be documented on an inspection report, repaired or replaced. As an alternate, a pressure decay test in accordance with ASME B31.3 shall be permitted.
Upon successful completion of the 24 hour static pressure test, the system's low-pressure monitoring switch shall be calibrated to not less than 3000 psi (20684 kPa) descending, and tested to verify that the signal is annunciated at the building's main fire alarm panel and by means of an audible alarm and visual strobe located in a visible location.
Each air fill panel and station, and each exterior fire department connection panel, shall be tested for compatibility with the fire department's SCBA fill fittings.
The pipe or tubing material certifications shall be provided to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Before the system is placed into service, a minimum of two samples shall be taken from separate air fill panels and submitted to an independent certified gas analysis laboratory to verify the system's cleanliness and that the air is in accordance with the following requirements for breathing air:
  1. Breathing air shall have oxygen content not less than 19.5 percent and not greater than 23.5 percent by volume.
  2. Breathing air shall not have a concentration of carbon monoxide exceeding 5.0 parts per million (ppm) by volume.
  3. Breathing air shall not have a concentration of carbon dioxide exceeding 1000 ppm by volume.
  4. Breathing air shall not have a concentration of condensed oil and particulate exceeding 7.2 E-11 pounds per cubic inch (lb/in3) (2.0 mg/m3) at 72°C (22°C) and 30 inches of Hg (102 kPa).
  5. Where breathing air supply for respirators is stored at pressures exceeding 15 bar (1500 kPa), the breathing air shall not have a concentration of water exceeding 24 ppm by volume.
  6. Breathing air shall not have a nonmethane volatile organic compound (VOC) content exceeding 25 ppm as methane equivalents.
  7. Breathing air shall not have a pronounced or unusual odor.
  8. Breathing air shall have a concentration of nitrogen not less than 75 percent and not more than 81 percent. [NFPA 1989:5.6]
     The written report of the analysis shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, documenting that the breathing air is in accordance with this section.
During the period of air quality analysis, the air fill panel inlet shall be secured so that no air is capable of being introduced into the system and each air fill panel shall be provided with a sign stating, "AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS IN PROGRESS, DO NOT FILL OR USE ANY AIR FROM THIS SYSTEM." This sign shall be not less than 812 inches (216 mm) by 11 inches (279 mm) with not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) lettering.
The breathing air within the system shall be sampled and certified annually and inspected in accordance with the procedure in Section F 1201.5.
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall witness the filling of two empty 66 cubic foot (ft3) (1.87 m3) capacity SCBA cylinders in 3 minutes or less, using compressed air supplied by fire department equipment connected to the exterior fire department connection panel. The SCBA cylinders shall be filled at the air fill panel or station farthest from the exterior fire department connection panel. Following this, not less than two air samples shall then be taken from separate air filling stations and submitted to an independent certified gas analyst laboratory to verify the system's cleanliness and that the air is in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 1989. The written report shall be provided to the Authority Having Jurisdiction certifying that the air analysis is in accordance with the above requirements.
Resources