Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Regulations

Chapter 4 Plumbing Fixtures and Fixture Fittings

Chapter 5 Water Heaters

Chapter 6 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 7 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 8 Indirect Wastes

Chapter 9 Vents

Chapter 10 Traps and Interceptors

Chapter 11 Storm Drainage

Chapter 12 Fuel Gas Piping

Chapter 13 Health Care Facilities and Medical Gas and Medical Vacuum Systems

Chapter 14 Firestop Protection

Chapter 15 Alternate Water Sources for Nonpotable Applications

Chapter 16 Nonpotable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Chapter 16A Non-Potable Water Reuse Systems

Chapter 17 Referenced Standards

Appendices [PDF]

Appendix A Recommended Rules for Sizing the Water Supply System

Appendix B Explanatory Notes on Combination Waste and Vent Systems

Appendix C Alternate Plumbing Systems

Appendix D Sizing Storm Water Drainage Systems

Appendix E Manufactured/Mobile Home Parks and Recreational Vehicle Parks

Appendix F Firefighter Breathing Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix G Sizing of Venting Systems

Appendix H Private Sewage Disposal Systems

Appendix J Combination of Indoor and Outdoor Combustion and Ventilation Opening Design

Appendix K Potable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Appendix L Sustainable Practices

The intent of this appendix is to provide clarification of procedures for the design and approval of engineered plumbing systems, alternate materials, and equipment not specifically covered in other parts of the code.
The provisions of this appendix apply to the design, installation, and inspection of an engineered plumbing system, alternate material, and equipment.
The Authority Having Jurisdiction has the right to require descriptive details of an engineered plumbing system, alternate material, or equipment including pertinent technical data to be filed.
Components, materials, and equipment shall comply with standards and specifications listed in Table 1701.1 of this code and other national consensus standards applicable to plumbing systems and materials.
Where such standards and specifications are not available, alternate materials and equipment shall be approved in accordance with the provisions of Section 301.3 of this code.
For the purposes of this code, these definitions shall apply to this appendix:
Branch Interval. A length of soil or waste stack corresponding in general to a story height, but in no case less than 8 feet (2438 mm), within which the horizontal branches from one floor or story of the building are connected to the stack.
Engineered Plumbing System. A system designed for a specific building project with drawings and specifications indicating plumbing materials to be installed, all as prepared by a registered design professional.
In other than one-and two-family dwellings, the designer of the system is to provide periodic inspection of the installation on a schedule approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Prior to the final approval, the designer shall verify to the Authority Having Jurisdiction that the installation is in accordance with the approved plans, specifications, and data and such amendments thereto. The designer shall certify to the Authority Having Jurisdiction that the installation is in accordance with the applicable engineered design criteria.
The designer of the system shall provide the building owner with information concerning the system, considerations applicable for subsequent modifications to the system, and maintenance requirements as applicable.
Heat exchangers used for heat transfer, heat recovery, or solar heating shall protect the potable water system from being contaminated by the heat-transfer medium.
Single-wall heat exchangers shall comply with the following requirements:
  1. The heat-transfer medium is either potable water or contains essentially nontoxic transfer fluids having a toxicity rating or class of 1 (see Section 207.0).
  2. The pressure of the heat-transfer medium is maintained at less than the normal minimum operating pressure of the potable water system.

    Exception: Steam in accordance with Section C 302.2(1) above.
  3. The equipment is permanently labeled to indicate that only additives recognized as safe by the FDA shall be used in the heat-transfer medium.
Other heat exchanger designs shall be permitted where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Table C 303.1(1) and Table C 303.1(2) reflect the fixture unit loads for the fixtures in bathrooms as groups, rather than as individual fixtures. Such fixtures include water closets, lavatories, and bathtubs or showers. The tables reflect diversity in the use of fixtures within a bathroom and between multiple bathrooms.

TABLE C 303.1(1)
WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (WSFU) FOR BATHROOM GROUPS1,2
PRIVATE USE
BATHROOM GROUP
SERVING 3 OR MORE
PRIVATE USE
BATHROOM GROUPS
COLD HOT3 COLD HOT
Bathroom Groups Having up to 1.6 GPF Gravity-Tank Water Closets
     Half-Bath or Powder Room
3.5 0.8 2.5 0.5
     1 Bathroom Group 5.0 2.5 3.5 1.8
     1½ Bathrooms 6.0 2.5 - -
     2 Bathrooms 7.0 3.5 - -
     2½ Bathrooms 8.0 3.6 - -
     3 Bathrooms 9.0 4.5 - -
     Each Additional ½ Bath 0.5 0.1 - -
     Each Additional Bathroom Group 1.0 0.5 - -
Bathroom Groups Having up to 1.6 GPF Gravity-Tank Water Closets
     Half-Bath or Powder Room 3.5 0.8 2.5 0.5
     1 Bathroom Group 5.0 2.5 3.5 1.8
     1½ Bathrooms 6.0 2.5 - -
     2 Bathrooms 7.0 3.5 - -
     2½ Bathrooms 8.0 3.6 - -
     3 Bathrooms 9.0 4.5 - -
     Each Additional ½ Bath 0.5 0.1 - -
     Each Additional Bathroom Group 1.0 0.5
- -
     Bathroom Group (1.6 GPF Flushometer Value) 6.0 2.5 4.0 1.7
     Kitchen Group (Sink and Dishwasher) 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.5
     Laundry Group (Sink and Clothes washer)
5.0 5.0 3.0 3.0
Notes:
1   A bathroom group, for the purposes of this table, consists of one water closet, up to two lavatories, and either one bathtub or one shower.
2   A half-bath or powder room, for the purposes of this table, consists of one water closet and one lavatory.
3   Multi-unit dwellings with individual water heaters use the same WSFU as for individual dwellings.



TABLE C 303.1(2)
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT VALUES (DFU) FOR BATHROOM GROUPS1, 2
PRIVATE USE BATHROOM
GROUP
SERVING 3 OR MORE
PRIVATE USE BATHROOM
GROUPS
Bathroom Groups Having up to 1.6 GPF Gravity-Tank Water Closets
     Half-Bath or Powder Room 3.0 2.0
     1 Bathroom Group 5.0 3.0
     1½ Bathrooms 6.0 -
     2 Bathrooms 7.0 -
     2½ Bathrooms 8.0 -
     3 Bathrooms 9.0 -
     Each Additional ½ Bath 0.5 -
     Each Additional Bathroom Group 1.0 -
Bathroom Groups Having up to 1.6 GPF Pressure-Tank Water Closets
     Half-Bath or Powder Room 3.5 2.5
     1 Bathroom Group 5.5 3.5
     1½ Bathrooms 6.5 -
     2 Bathrooms 7.5 -
     2½ Bathrooms 8.5 -
     3 Bathrooms 9.5 -
     Each Additional ½ Bath 0.5 -
     Each Additional Bathroom Group 1.0 -
Bathroom Groups Having up to 3.5 GPF Gravity-Tank Water Closets
     Half-Bath or Powder Room 3.0 2.0
     1 Bathroom Group 6.0 4.0
     1½ Bathrooms 8.0 -
     2 Bathrooms 10.0 -
     2½ Bathrooms 11.0 -
     3 Bathrooms 12.0 -
     Each Additional ½ Bath 0.5 -
     Each Additional Bathroom Group 1.0 -
     Bathroom Group (1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve) 3.0 -
     Bathroom Group (3.5 GPF Flushometer Valve) 4.0 -
Note:
1   A bathroom group, for the purposes of this table, consists of not more than one water closet, up to two lavatories, and either one bathtub or one shower.
2   A half-bath or powder room, for the purposes of this table, consists of one water closet and one lavatory.
The listed water supply fixture unit values in Table C 303.1(1) reflect the load of entire bathroom groups on the cold water building supply. Individual hot and cold water branch piping to the fixtures shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Chapter 6 and Appendix A.
The listed drainage fixture unit values in Table C 303.1(2) reflect the load of entire bathroom groups on the sanitary drainage system. Where fixtures within bathrooms connect to different branches of the drainage system, the fixture unit values for the individual fixtures shall be used, as listed in Table 702.1 of this code.
Drainage fixture unit values shall be sized in accordance with Section 702.0 and Table 702.1
The maximum number of drainage fixture units allowed on the building drain or building sewer of a given size shall be in accordance with Table C 304.2. The size of a building drain or building sewer serving a water closet shall be not less than 3 inches (80 mm).

TABLE C 304.2
BUILDING DRAINS AND BUILDING SEWERS1
DIAMETER
OF PIPE
(Inches)
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR SANITARY BUILDING DRAINS AND RUNOUTS FROM STACKS
SLOPE (inches per foot)
116 ¼ ½
2
- - 21 26
- - 24 31
3 - 20 422 502
4 - 180 216 250
5 - 390 480 575
6 - 700 840 1000
8 1400 1600 1920 2300
10 2500 2900 3500 4200
12 3900 4600 5600 6700
15 7000 8300 10000 12000
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m
Notes:
1  On-site sewers that serve more than one building shall be permitted to be sized according to the current standards and specifications of the administrative authority for public sewers.
2  A maximum of two water closets or two bathroom groups, except in single-family dwellings, where a maximum of three water closets or three bathroom groups shall be permitted to be installed.
The maximum number of drainage fixture units allowed on a horizontal branch or vertical soil or waste stack of a given size shall be in accordance with Table C 304.3. Stacks shall be sized based on the total accumulated connected load at each story or branch interval.

TABLE C 304.3
HORIZONTAL FIXTURE BRANCHES AND STACKS
DIAMETER
OF PIPE
(inches)
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS
HORIZONTAL FIXTURE
BRANCH1
ONE STACK OF THREE
OR FEWER BRANCH
INTERVALS
STACKS WITH MORE THAN THREE BRANCH INTERVALS
TOTAL FOR STACK TOTAL AT ONE BRANCH
INTERVAL
3 4 8 2
2 6 10 24 6
12 20 42
9
3 202 482 722 202
4 160 240 500 90
5 360 540 1100 200
6 620 960 1900 350
8 1400 2200 3600 600
10 2500 3800 5600
1000
12 3900 6000 8400 1500
15 7000 6000 8400 1500
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm

Note:
1 Does not include branches of the building drain.
2 A maximum of two water closets or bathroom groups within each branch interval or more than six water closets or bathroom groups on the stack.
Horizontal stack offsets shall be sized in accordance with Table C 304.2 as required for building drains.
Vertical stack offsets shall be sized in accordance with Table C 304.3 as required for stacks.
Horizontal branch connections shall not connect to a horizontal stack offset or within 2 feet (610 mm) above or below the offset where such horizontal offset is located more than four branch intervals below the top of the stack.
The size of vent piping shall be detemined from the developed length and the total number of drainage fixture units connected in accordance with Table C 401.1. Vents shall be not less than one-half the required size of the drainage pipe size served as detemined by Table C 304.3 for horizontal fixture branches and stacks nor less than ¼ inches (32 mm) in diameter. The drainage system shall be vented by not less than one vent pipe which shall be not less than one-half the size of the required building drain and which shall extend from the building drain or extension of building drain to the outdoors. Vents shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 9.

TABLE C 401.1
SIZE AND LENGTH OF VENTS
SIZE OF SOIL
OR WASTE
STACK
(inches)
FIXTURE
UNITS
CONNECTED
DIAMETER OF VENT REQUIRED (inches)
2 3 4 5 6 8
MAXIMUM LENGTH OF VENT (feet)
8 50 150 - - - - - - -
2 12 30 75 200 - - - - - -
2 20 26 50 150 - - - - - -
42 - 30 100 300 - - - - -
3 10 - 30 100 100 600 - - - -
3 30 - - 60 200 500 - - - -
3 60 - - 50 80 400 - - - -
4 100
- - 35 100 260 1000 - - -
4 200 - - 30 90 250 900 - - -
4 500 - - 20 70 180 700 - - -
5 200 - - - 35 80
350 1000 - -
5
500 - - - 30 70 300 900 - -
5 1100 - - - 20 50 200 700 - -
6 350 - - - 25 50 200 400 1300 -
6 620 - - - 15 30 125
300
1100 -
6 960 - - - - 24 100 250 1000 -
6 1900 - - - - 20 70 200 700 -
8 600 - - - - - 50 150 500 1300
8 1400 - - - - - 40 100 400 1200
8 2200 - - - - - 30 80 350 1100
8 3600 - - - - - 25 60 250 800
10 1000 - - - - - - 75 125 1000
10 2500 - - - - - - 50 100 500
10 3800 - - - - - - 30 80 350
10
5600 - - - - - - 25 60 250
          For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
A vent stack shall be required for a drainage stack that extends five or more branch intervals above the building drain or horizontal branch. The developed length of the vent stack shall be measured from the lowest connection of a branch vent to the termination outdoors.
Where branch vents exceed 40 feet (12192 mm) in developed length, such vent shall be increased by one pipe size for the entire developed length of the vent pipe.
Drainage stacks with horizontal offsets shall be vented where five or more branch intervals are located above the offset. The upper and lower section of the horizontal offset shall be vented in accordance with Section C 401.4.1 and Section C 401.4.2.
The vent for the upper section of the stack shall be vented as a separate stack with a vent stack connection installed at the base of the drainage stack. Such vent stack shall connect below the lowest horizontal branch or building drain. Where vent stack connects to the building drain, the connection shall be located downstream of the drainage stack and within a distance of 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack.
The vent for the lower section of the stack shall be vented by a yoke vent connecting between the offset and the next lower horizontal branch by means of a wye-branch fitting. The size of the yoke vent and connection shall be not less in diameter than the required size for the vent serving the drainage stack. The yoke vent connection shall be permitted to be a vertical extension of the drainage stack
This section regulates the design and installation provisions for vacuum waste drainage systems. Plans for vacuum waste drainage systems shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction for approval and shall be considered an engineered designed system. Such plans I shall be prepared by a registered design professional to perform plumbing design work. Details are necessary to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section, together with a full description of the complete installation including quality, grade of materials, equipment, construction, and methods of assembly and installation. Components, materials, and equipment shall comply with standards and specifications listed in Table 1701.1 of this code or approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction and other national consensus standards applicable to plumbing systems and materials. Where such standards and specifications are not available, alternate materials and equipment shall be approved in accordance with Section 301.3.
Vacuum waste drainage systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. A vacuum waste drainage system shall include a vacuum generating system, waste collection center, piping network, vacuum valve, and control components used to isolate the vacuum piping network from atmospheric pressure and to collect waste at its point of origin. Where a vacuum system provides the only means of sanitation, duplicate vacuum generating equipment set to operate automatically shall be installed to allow the system to continue in operation during periods of maintenance.
The vacuum generating station shall include vacuum pumps to create a constant vacuum pressure within the piping network and storage tanks. Operation of pumps, collection tanks, and alarms shall be automated by controls. The vacuum pumps shall be activated on demand and accessible for repair or replacement. The vent from the vacuum pump shall be provided for vacuum pump air exhaust, and shall be of a size capable of handling the total air volume of the vacuum pump.
Vacuum collection center or storage tanks shall be of such capacity as to provide storage of waste to prevent fouling of the system. Such collection or storage tank shall be capable of withstanding 150 percent of the rated vacuum (negative pressure) created by the vacuum source without leakage or collapse.Waste collection center or storage tanks shall be accessible for adjustment, repair, or replacement.
The piping network shall be under a continuous vacuum and shall be designed to withstand 150 percent of the vacuum (negative pressure) created by the vacuum source within the system without leakage or collapse. Sizing the piping network shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The water closet outlet fitting shall connect with a piping network having not less than a 1½ inch (40 mm) nominal inside diameter.
A closed vacuum interface valve shall be installed to separate the piping network vacuum from atmospheric pressure. A control device shall open the vacuum interface valve where a signal is generated to remove waste from the plumbing fixture.
Where a pneumatic signal is generated at the controller, a vacuum from the system to open the extraction valve shall be designed to operate where vacuum pressure exists to remove the accumulated waste. Each tank shall incorporate a level indicator switch that automatically controls the discharge pump and warns of malfunction or blockage as follows:
  1. Start discharge.
  2. Stop discharge.
  3. Activate an audible alarm where the level of effluent is usually high.
  4. Warning of system shutdown where tank is full.
Fixtures utilized in a vacuum waste drainage system shall be in accordance with referenced standards listed in Table 1701.1. Components shall be of corrosion resistant materials. The water closet outlet shall be able to pass a 1 inch (25.4 mm) diameter ball and shall have a smooth, impervious surface. The waste outlet and passages shall be free of obstructions, recesses, or chambers that are capable of permitting fouling. The mechanical valve and its seat shall be of such materials and design to provide a leak-free connection where at atmospheric pressure or under vacuum. The flushing mechanism shall be so designed as to ensure proper cleansing of the interior surfaces during the flushing cycle at a minimum operating flow rate. Mechanical seal mechanisms shall withdraw completely from the path of the waste discharge during flushing operation. Each mechanical seal vacuum water closet shall be equipped with a listed vacuum breaker. The vacuum breaker shall be mounted with the critical level or marking not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the flood-level rim of the fixture. Vacuum breakers shall be installed on the discharge side of the last control valve in the potable water supply line and shall be located so as to be protected from physical damage and contamination.
Drainage fixture units shall be determined by the manufacturer's instructions. The pump discharge load from the collector tanks shall be in accordance with this appendix.
Water supply fixture units shall be determined by the manufacturer's instructions.
Materials used for water distribution pipe and fittings shall be in accordance with Table 604.1. Materials used for aboveground drainage shall be in accordance with Table 701.2 and shall have a smooth bore, and be constructed of non-porous material.
Traps and cleanouts shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 7 and Chapter 10.
The entire vacuum waste system shall be subjected to a vacuum test of 29 inches of mercury (98 kPa) or not less than the working pressure of the system for 30 minutes. The system shall be gaslight and watertight at all points. Verification of test results shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Manufacturer's instructions shall be provided for the purpose of providing information regarding safe and proper operating instructions whether or not as part of the condition of listing in order to detennine compliance. Such instructions shall be submitted and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Single-stack venting shall be designed by a registered design professional as an engineered design. A drainage stack shall be permitted to serve as a single-stack vent system where sized and installed in accordance with Section C 601.2 through Section C 601.9. The drainage stack and branch piping in a single-stack vent system shall provide for the flow of liquids, solids, and air without the loss of fixture trap seals.
Drainage stacks shall be sized in accordance with Table C 601.2. Not more than two water closets shall be permitted to discharge to a 3 inch (80 mm) stack. Stacks shall be uniformly sized based on the total connected drainage fixture unit load, with no reductions in size.
TABLE C 601.2
SINGLE STACK SIZE*
MAXIMUM CONNECTED DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS
STACK SIZE
(inches)
STACKS LESS THAN
75 FEET IN HEIGHT
STACK 75 FEET TO LESS THAN
160 FEET IN HEIGHT
STACK 160 FEET OR GREATER IN HEIGHT
3 24 NP NP
4 225 24 NP
5 480 225 24
6 1015 480 225
8 2320 1015 480
10 4500 2320 1015
12 8100 4500 2320
15 13660 8100 4500
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
* NP = Not permitted
The drainage stack vent shall have a stack vent of the same size terminating to the outdoors.
Horizontal branches connecting to a single-stack vent system shall be sized in accordance with Table 703.2.

Exceptions:
  1. Not more than one water closet within 18 inches (457 mm) of the stack horizontally shall be permitted on a 3 inch (80 mm) horizontal branch.
  2. A water closet within 18 inches (457 mm) of a stack horizontally and one other fixture with up to ½ inch (40 mm) fixture drain size shall be permitted on a 3 inch (80 mm) horizontal branch where connected to the stack through a sanitary tee.
Water closets shall be not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) horizontally from the stack.

Exception: Water closets shall be permitted to be up to 8 feet (2438 mm) horizontally from the stack where connected to the stack through a sanitary tee.
Fixtures other than water closets shall be not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) horizontally from the stack.
The length of a vertical piping from a fixture trap to a horizontal branch shall not be considered in computing the fixture's horizontal distance from the stack.
Vertical drops from fixture traps to horizontal branch piping shall be one size larger than the trap size, but not less than 2 inch (50 mm) in diameter. Vertical drops shall be 4 feet (1219 mm) maximum length. Fixture drains that are not increased in size, or have a vertical drop exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) shall be individually vented.
Additional venting shall be provided where more than one water closet is on a horizontal branch and where the distance from a fixture trap to the stack exceeds the limits in Section C 601.4. Where additional venting is required, the fixture(s) shall be vented by individual vents, common vents, wet vents, circuit vents, or a combination waste and vent pipe. The dry vent extensions for the additional venting shall connect to a branch vent, vent stack, stack vent, or be extended outdoors and terminate to the open air.
Where there are no fixture drain connections below a horizontal offset in a stack, the offset does not need to be vented. Where there are fixture drain connections below a horizontal offset in a stack, the offset shall be vented. There shall be no fixture connections to a stack within 2 feet (610 mm) above and below a horizontal offset.
Where stacks are more than two stories high, a separate stack shall be provided for the fixtures on the lower two stories. The stack for the lower two stories shall be permitted to be connected to the branch of the building drain that serves the stack for the upper stories at a point that is not less than 10 pipe diameters downstream from the base of the upper stack.
In a single-stack vent system, the building drain and branches thereof shall be sized in accordance with Table 703.2, and the building sewer shall be sized in accordance with Table 717.1.
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