Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Regulations

Chapter 4 Plumbing Fixtures and Fixture Fittings

Chapter 5 Water Heaters

Chapter 6 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 7 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 8 Indirect Wastes

Chapter 9 Vents

Chapter 10 Traps and Interceptors

Chapter 11 Storm Drainage

Chapter 12 Fuel Gas Piping

Chapter 13 Health Care Facilities and Medical Gas and Medical Vacuum Systems

Chapter 14 Firestop Protection

Chapter 15 Alternate Water Sources for Nonpotable Applications

Chapter 16 Nonpotable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Chapter 16A Non-Potable Water Reuse Systems

Chapter 17 Referenced Standards

Appendices [PDF]

Appendix A Recommended Rules for Sizing the Water Supply System

Appendix B Explanatory Notes on Combination Waste and Vent Systems

Appendix C Alternate Plumbing Systems

Appendix D Sizing Storm Water Drainage Systems

Appendix E Manufactured/Mobile Home Parks and Recreational Vehicle Parks

Appendix F Firefighter Breathing Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix G Sizing of Venting Systems

Appendix H Private Sewage Disposal Systems

Appendix J Combination of Indoor and Outdoor Combustion and Ventilation Opening Design

Appendix K Potable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Appendix L Sustainable Practices

This chapter shall govern the materials, design, and installation of plumbing vent systems.
Each plumbing fixture trap, except as otherwise provided in this code, shall be protected against siphonage and backpressure, and air circulation shall be ensured throughout all parts of the drainage system by means of vent pipes installed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter and as otherwise required by this code.
The vent system shall be designed to prevent a trap seal from being exposed to a pressure differential that exceeds 1 inch water column (0.24 kPa) on the outlet side of the trap.
Vent piping shall be permitted to be omitted on an interceptor where such interceptor acts as a primary settling tank and discharges through a horizontal indirect waste pipe into a secondary interceptor. The second interceptor shall be properly trapped and vented.
Traps serving sinks that are part of the equipment of bars, soda fountains, and counters need not be vented where the location and construction of such bars, soda fountains, and counters is such as to make it impossible to do so. Where such conditions exist, said sinks shall discharge by means of approved indirect waste pipes into a floor sink or other approved type of receptor.
Vent pipe and fittings shall comply with the applicable standards referenced in Table 701.2, except that:
  1. No galvanized steel or 304 stainless steel pipe shall be installed underground and shall be not less than 6 inches (152 mm) aboveground.
  2. ABS and PVC DWV piping installations shall be in accordance with the applicable standards referenced in Table 1701.1, this code, and the California Building Code. Except for individual single-family dwelling units, materials exposed within ducts or plenums shall have a flame-spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 50 where tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
[HCD 1 & HCD 2] ABS or PVC installations are limited to not more than two stories of areas of residential accommodation.
[HCD 1] All malleable iron vents shall be galvanized.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] ABS and PVC installations are not allowed.
Copper or copper alloy tube for underground drainage and vent piping shall have a weight of not less than that of copper or copper alloy drainage tube type DWV.
Copper or copper alloy tube for aboveground drainage and vent piping shall have a weight of not less than that of copper or copper alloy drainage tube type DWV.
Copper or copper alloy tube shall not be used for chemical or industrial wastes as defined in Section 811.0.
Copper or copper alloy tubing, in addition to the required incised marking, shall be marked in accordance with either ASTM 8306 or ASTM 888 as listed in Table 1701.1. The colors shall be: Type K, green; Type L, blue; Type M, red; and Type DWV, yellow.
Changes in direction of vent piping shall be made by the appropriate use of approved fittings, and no such pipe shall be strained or bent. Burred ends shall be reamed to the full bore of the pipe.
The size of vent piping shall be determined from its length and the total number of fixture units connected thereto, in accordance with Table 703.2. The diameter of an individual vent shall be not less than 114 inches (32 mm) nor less than one-half the diameter of the drain to which it is connected. In addition, the drainage piping of each building and each connection to a public sewer or a private sewage disposal system shall be vented by means of one or more vent pipes, the aggregate cross-sectional area of which shall be not less than that of the largest required building sewer, as determined from Table 703.2. Vent pipes from fixtures located upstream from pumps, ejectors, backwater valves, or other devices that obstruct the free flow of air and other gases between the building sewer and the outside atmosphere shall not be used for meeting the cross-sectional area venting requirements of this section.

Exception: Where connected to a common building sewer, the drainage piping of two or more buildings located on the same lot and under one ownership shall be permitted to be vented by means of piping sized in accordance with Table 703.2, provided the aggregate cross-sectional area of vents is not less than that of the largest required common building sewer.
Not more than one-third of the total permitted length, in accordance with Table 703.2, of a minimum-sized vent shall be installed in a horizontal position.

Exception: Where a minimum-sized vent is increased one pipe size for its entire length, the maximum length limitation shall not apply.
Vent and branch vent pipes shall be free from drops or sags, and each such vent shall be level or shall be so graded and connected as to drip back by gravity to the drainage pipe it serves.
Where vents connect to a horizontal drainage pipe, each vent pipe shall have its invert taken off above the drainage centerline of such pipe downstream of the trap being served.
Unless prohibited by structural conditions, each vent shall rise vertically to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood-level rim of the fixture served before offsetting horizontally, and where two or more vent pipes converge, each such vent pipe shall rise to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) in height above the flood- level rim of the plumbing fixture it serves before being connected to any other vent. Vents less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood-level rim of the fixture shall be installed with approved drainage fittings, material, and grade to the drain.
Vent pipes shall extend undiminished in size above the roof, or shall be reconnected with a soil or waste vent of proper size.
The vent pipe opening from a soil or waste pipe, except for water closets and similar fixtures, shall not be below the weir of the trap.
Two fixtures shall be permitted to be served by a common vertical pipe where each such fixture wastes separately into an approved double fitting having inlet openings at the same level.
Each vent pipe or stack shall extend through its flashing and shall terminate vertically not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the roof nor less than 1 foot (305 mm) from a vertical surface.
Each vent shall terminate not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from, or not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above, an openable window, door, opening, air intake, or vent shaft, or not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in every direction from a lot line, alley and street excepted.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Each vent pipe shall terminate not less than twenty-five (25) feet (7620 mm) from any air intake or vent shaft.
Vent pipes shall be extended separately or combined, of full required size, not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the roof or fire wall. Flagpoling of vents shall be prohibited except where the roof is used for assembly purposes or parking. Vents within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a part of the roof that is used for assembly purposes or parking shall extend not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above such roof and shall be securely stayed.
Vent pipes for outdoor installations shall extend not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above the surrounding ground and shall be securely supported.
Joints at the roof around vent pipes shall be made watertight by the use of approved flashings or flashing material.
(See Table 1701.1) Sheet lead shall comply with the following:
  1. For safe pans - not less than 4 pounds per square foot (lb/ft2) (19 kg/m2) or 116 of an inch (1.6 mm) thick.
  2. For flashings or vent terminals - not less than 3 lb/ft2 (15 kg/m2).
  3. Lead bends and lead traps shall be not less than 18 of an inch (3.2 mm) in wall thickness.
Where frost or snow closure is likely to occur in locations having minimum design temperature below 0°F (-17.8°C), vent terminals shall be not less than 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter, but in no event smaller than the required vent pipe. The change in diameter shall be made inside the building not less than 1 foot (305 mm) below the roof in an insulated space and terminate not less than 10 inches (254 mm) above the roof, or in accordance with the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Each drainage stack that extends 10 or more stories shall be served by a parallel vent stack, which shall extend undiminished in size from its upper terminal and connect to the drainage stack at or immediately below the lowest fixture drain. Each such vent stack shall also be connected to the drainage stack at each fifth floor, counting down from the uppermost fixture drain, by means of a yoke vent, the size of which shall be not less in diameter than either the drainage or the vent stack, whichever is smaller.
The yoke vent connection to the vent stack shall be placed not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor level, and the yoke vent connection to the drainage stack shall be by means of a wye-branch fitting placed below the lowest drainage branch connection serving that floor.
Wet venting is limited to vertical drainage piping receiving the discharge from the trap arm of one and two fixture unit fixtures that also serves as a vent not exceeding four fixtures. Wet-vented fixtures shall be within the same story; provided, further, that fixtures with a continuous vent discharging into a wet vent shall be within the same story as the wet-vented fixtures. No wet vent shall exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in developed length.
The vertical piping between two consecutive inlet levels shall be considered a wet-vented section. Each wet-vented section shall be not less than one pipe size exceeding the required minimum waste pipe size of the upper fixture or shall be one pipe size exceeding the required minimum pipe size for the sum of the fixture units served by such wet-vented section, whichever is larger, but in no case less than 2 inches (50 mm).
Common vent sizing shall be the sum of the fixture units served but, in no case, smaller than the minimum vent pipe size required for a fixture served, or by Section 904.0.
A bathroom group located on the same floor level shall be permitted to be vented by a horizontal wet vent where all of the conditions of Section 908.2.1 through Section 908.2.5 are met.
The dry vent connection to the wet vent shall be an individual vent for the bidet, shower, or bathtub. One or two vented lavatory(s) shall be permitted to serve as a wet vent for a bathroom group. Only one wet-vented fixture drain or trap arm shall discharge upstream of the dry-vented fixture drain connection. Dry vent connections to the horizontal wet vent shall be in accordance with Section 905.2 and Section 905.3.
The wet vent shall be sized based on the fixture unit discharge into the wet vent. The wet vent shall be not less than 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter for 4 drainage fixture units (dfu) or less, and not less than 3 inches (80 mm) in diameter for 5 dfu or more. The dry vent shall be sized in accordance with Table 702.1 and Table 703.2 based on the total fixture units discharging into the wet vent.
The length of the trap arm shall not exceed the limits in Table 1002.2. The trap size shall be in accordance with Section 1003.3. The vent pipe opening from the horizontal wet vent, except for water closets and similar fixtures, shall not be below the weir of the trap.
The water closet fixture drain or trap arm connection to the wet vent shall be downstream of fixture drain or trap arm connections to the horizontal wet vent.
Additional fixtures shall discharge downstream of the wet vent system and be conventionally vented. Only the fixtures within the bathroom group shall connect to the wet-vented horizontal branch.
Traps for island sinks and similar equipment shall be roughed in above the floor and shall be permitted to be vented by extending the vent as high as possible, but not less than the drainboard height and then returning it downward and connecting it to the horizontal sink drain immediately downstream from the vertical fixture drain. The return vent shall be connected to the horizontal drain through a wye-branch fitting and shall, in addition, be provided with a foot vent taken off the vertical fixture vent by means of a wye branch immediately below the floor and extending to the nearest partition and then through the roof to the open air, or shall be permitted to be connected to other vents at a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood-level rim of the fixtures served. Drainage fittings shall be used on the vent below the floor level, and a slope of not less than 14 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) back to the drain shall be maintained. The return bend used under the drainboard shall be a one piece fitting or an assembly of a 45 degree (0.79 rad), a 90 degree (1.57 rad), and a 45 degree (0.79 rad) elbow in the order named. Pipe sizing shall be as elsewhere required in this code. The island sink drain, upstream of the returned vent, shall serve no other fixtures. An accessible cleanout shall be installed in the vertical portion of the foot vent.
Combination waste and vent systems shall be permitted where structural conditions preclude the installation of conventional systems as otherwise prescribed by this code.
Construction documents for each combination waste and vent system shall first be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction before a portion of such system is installed.
Each combination waste and vent system, as defined in Chapter 2, shall be provided with a vent or vents adequate to ensure free circulation of air. A branch exceeding 15 feet (4572 mm) in length shall be separately vented in an approved manner. The area of a vent installed in a combination waste and vent system shall be not less than one-half the inside cross-sectional area of the drain pipe served. The vent connection shall be downstream of the uppermost fixture.
Each waste pipe and each trap in such a system shall be not less than two pipe sizes exceeding the sizes required by Chapter 7 of this code, and not less than two pipe sizes exceeding a fixture tailpiece or connection.
No vertical waste pipe shall be used in such a system, except the tailpiece or connection between the outlet of a plumbing fixture and the trap. Such tailpieces or connections shall be as short as possible, and in no case shall exceed 2 feet (610 mm).

Exception: Branch lines shall be permitted to have 45 degree (0.79 rad) vertical offsets.
An accessible cleanout shall be installed in each vent for the combination waste and vent system. Cleanouts shall not be required on a wet-vented branch serving a single trap where the fixture tailpiece or connection is not less than 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter and provides ready access for cleaning through the trap.
No water closet or urinal shall be installed on such a system. Other one, two, or three unit fixtures remotely located from the sanitary system and adjacent to a combination waste and vent system shall be permitted to be connected to such system in the conventional manner by means of waste and vent pipes of regular sizes, providing that the two pipe size increase required in Section 910.4 is based on the total fixture unit load connected to the system.

    See Appendix B of this code for explanatory notes on the design of combination waste and vent systems.
A maximum of eight fixtures connected to a horizontal branch drain shall be permitted to be circuit vented. Each fixture drain shall connect horizontally to the horizontal branch being circuit vented. The horizontal branch drain shall be classified as a vent from the most downstream fixture drain connection to the most upstream fixture drain connection to the horizontal branch.
Circuit-vented horizontal branch drains are permitted to be connected together. Each group of a maximum of eight fixtures shall be considered a separate circuit vent and shall be in accordance with the requirements of this section.
The circuit vent shall be not less than 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter and the connection shall be located between the two most upstream fixture drains. The vent shall connect to the horizontal branch on the vertical. The circuit vent pipe shall not receive the discharge of a soil or waste.
The slope of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain shall be not more than 1 inch per foot (83.3 mm/m). The entire length of the vented section of the horizontal branch drain shall be sized for the total drainage discharge to the branch.
Multiple circuit vented branches shall be permitted to connect on the same floor level. Each separate circuit-vented horizontal branch that is interconnected shall be sized independently in accordance with Section 911.3. The downstream circuit-vented horizontal branch shall be sized for the total discharge into the branch, including the upstream branches and the fixtures within the branch.
A 2 inch (50 mm) relief vent shall be provided for circuit-vented horizontal branches receiving the discharge of four or more water closets and connecting to a drainage stack that receives the discharge of soil or waste from upper horizontal branches.
The relief vent shall connect to the horizontal branch drain between the stack and the most downstream fixture drain of the circuit vent. The relief vent shall be installed on the vertical to the horizontal branch.
The relief vent is permitted to be a fixture drain or fixture branch for a fixture located within the same branch interval as the circuit-vented horizontal branch. The discharge to a relief vent shall not exceed 4 fixture units.
Fixtures, other than the circuit-vented fixtures, are permitted to discharge to the horizontal branch drain. Such fixtures shall be located on the same floor as the circuit-vented fixtures and shall be either individually or common vented.
The design and sizing of a vent system shall be permitted to be determined by accepted engineering practices. The system shall be designed by a registered design professional and approved in accordance with Section 301.5.
An engineered vent system shall provide protection of the trap seal in accordance with Section 901.3.
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