Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Regulations

Chapter 4 Plumbing Fixtures and Fixture Fittings

Chapter 5 Water Heaters

Chapter 6 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 7 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 8 Indirect Wastes

Chapter 9 Vents

Chapter 10 Traps and Interceptors

Chapter 11 Storm Drainage

Chapter 12 Fuel Gas Piping

Chapter 13 Health Care Facilities and Medical Gas and Medical Vacuum Systems

Chapter 14 Firestop Protection

Chapter 15 Alternate Water Sources for Nonpotable Applications

Chapter 16 Nonpotable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Chapter 16A Non-Potable Water Reuse Systems

Chapter 17 Referenced Standards

Appendices [PDF]

Appendix A Recommended Rules for Sizing the Water Supply System

Appendix B Explanatory Notes on Combination Waste and Vent Systems

Appendix C Alternate Plumbing Systems

Appendix D Sizing Storm Water Drainage Systems

Appendix E Manufactured/Mobile Home Parks and Recreational Vehicle Parks

Appendix F Firefighter Breathing Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix G Sizing of Venting Systems

Appendix H Private Sewage Disposal Systems

Appendix J Combination of Indoor and Outdoor Combustion and Ventilation Opening Design

Appendix K Potable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Appendix L Sustainable Practices

This chapter shall govern the materials, design, and installation of water supply systems, including methods and devices used for backflow prevention.
Except where not deemed necessary for safety or sanitation by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, each plumbing fixture shall be provided with an adequate supply of potable running water piped thereto in an approved manner, so arranged as to flush and keep it in a clean and sanitary condition without danger of backflow or cross-connection. Water closets and urinals shall be flushed by means of an approved flush tank or flushometer valve.

Exceptions:
  1. Listed fixtures that do not require water for their operation and are not connected to the water supply.
  2. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] For limited-density owner-built rural dwellings, potable water shall be available to the dwelling site, although such water need not be pressurized. Where water is not piped from a well, spring, cistern or other source, there shall be a minimum reserve of 50 gallons (189 L) of potable water available. Where water delivery is pressurized, piping shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.
  3. [HCD 1, HCD 2, DWR] For all residential occupancies, alternate water sources may be allowed as specified in Chapter 15 of this code in addition to potable water.
  4. [BSC-CG, DWR] For non-residential occupancies, alternate water sources may be allowed as specified in Chapter 15 of this code.
  5. [BSC-CG, DWR] Where a public agency requires a building to use recycled water to flush water closets and urinals in accordance with California Water Code 13554.
    In occupancies where plumbing fixtures are installed for private use, hot water shall be required for bathing, washing, laundry, cooking purposes, dishwashing or maintenance. In occupancies where plumbing fixtures are installed for public use, hot water shall be required for bathing and washing purposes. This requirement shall not supersede the requirements for individual temperature control limitations for public lavatories and public and private bidets, bathtubs, whirlpool bathtubs, and shower control valves.
In buildings where potable water and nonpotable water systems are installed, each system shall be clearly identified in accordance with Section 601.3.1 through Section 601.3.5.
Green background with white lettering.
Each system shall be identified with a colored pipe or band and coded with paints, wraps, and materials compatible with the piping.

    Except as required in Section 601.3.3, nonpotable water systems shall have a yellow background with black uppercase lettering, with the words "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER, DO NOT DRINK." Each nonpotable system shall be identified to designate the liquid being conveyed, and the direction of normal flow shall be clearly shown. The minimum size of the letters and length of the color field shall comply with Table 601.3.2. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] An international symbol of a glass in a circle with a slash through it shall be provided similar to that shown in Figure 601 for all nonpotable water systems.
FIGURE 601
INTERNATIONAL SYMBOL
    The background color and required information shall be indicated every 20 feet (6096 mm) but not less than once per room, and shall be visible from the floor level.

TABLE 601.3.2
MINIMUM LENGTH OF COLOR FIELD AND SIZE OF LETTERS
OUTSIDE DIAMETER OF
PIPE OR COVERING
(inches)
MINIMUM LENGTH
OF COLOR FIELD
(inches)
MINIMUM SIZE OF
LETTERS
(inches)
12 to 114 8 12
112 to 2 8 34
212 to 6 12 114
8 to 10 24 212
Over 10 32 312
For SI units: 1 inch = 25.4 mm
Alternate water source systems shall have a purple (Pantone color No. 512, 522C, or equivalent) background with uppercase lettering and shall be field or factory marked as follows:
  1. Gray water systems shall be marked in accordance with this section with the words "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE GRAY WATER, DO NOT DRINK" in black letters.
  2. Reclaimed (recycled) water systems shall be marked in accordance with this section with the words: "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE RECLAIMED (RECYCLED) WATER, DO NOT DRINK" in black letters.
  3. On-site treated water systems shall be marked in accordance with this section with the words: "CAUTION: ON-SITE TREATED NONPOTABLE WATER, DO NOT DRINK" in black letters.
  4. Rainwater catchment systems shall be marked in accordance with this section with the words:
    “CAUTION: NONPOTABLE RAINWATER, DO NOT DRINK” in black letters
Exception: [DWR] For recycled water supply systems that are within or a part of a building, the provisions of Section 1503.7 shall apply.
Where vacuum breakers or backflow preventers are installed with fixtures listed in Table 1701.1, identification of the discharge side shall be permitted to be omitted.
Each outlet on the nonpotable water line that is used for special purposes shall be posted with black uppercase lettering as follows: "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER, DO NOT DRINK."
At least one sink with hot-and cold-running water shall be provided in each work area or workroom where hairdressing is performed in each school and establishment.
Each school and establishment shall provide adequate handwashing facilities, including hot-and cold-running water, located within or adjacent to the toilet room or rooms in accordance with Table 422.1.
Each school and establishment shall supply potable drinking water convenient to students, patrons and employees. Approved sanitary drinking fountains shall be installed and so regulated that a jet of at least 2 inches (51 mm) shall be constantly available.
Except as provided in Section 601.5.4, the water supply shall be ample and potable, with adequate pressure and facilities for its distribution in the plant, and its protection against contamination and pollution.

Note: A water report, issued under the authority of the state health agency, certifying to the potability of the water supply, shall be obtained by the applicant and furnished to the administrator whenever such report is required by the administrator.
A supply of hot water shall be available.
Hose connections with steam and water-mixing valves or hot-water hose connections shall be provided at locations throughout the plant.
The refuse rooms shall be provided with facilities for washing refuse cans and other equipment in the rooms.
Non-potable water is permitted only in those parts of official plants where no product is handled or prepared, and then only for limited purposes, such as on condensers not connected with the potable water supply, in vapor lines serving inedible product rendering tanks, and in sewer lines for moving heavy solids in the sewage. In all cases, non-potable water lines shall be clearly identified and shall not be cross connected with the potable water supply.

Exception: Cross connection is permitted if this is necessary for fire protection and such connection is of a type with a break to ensure against accidental contamination, and to be approved by local authorities and by the Department.
Equipment using potable water shall be so installed as to prevent back-siphonage into the potable water system.
All pipelines, reservoirs, tanks, cooling towers and like equipment employed in handling reused water shall be constructed and installed so as to facilitate their cleaning and inspection.
Hot water of such temperature as to accomplish a thorough cleanup shall be delivered under pressure to outlets.
An ample supply of water at not less than 180°F (82°C) shall be available when used for sanitizing purposes.
Pens, alleys, and runways shall have hose connections for cleanup purposes.
The water supply shall be ample with facilities for its distribution. An ample supply of water at not less than 180°F (82°C), or other suitable method.
The vehicle cleaning and sanitizing area shall be provided with adequate line steam, producing a temperature of at least 180°F (82°C), or other suitable method.
Hose connections with steam and water-mixing valves of hot-and cold-water hose connections shall be provided at locations throughout the building and at unloading and vehicle cleaning slabs.
This area shall be provided with live steam or other method of sanitizing vehicles.
The water supply shall be ample, clean and potable, with facilities for its distribution in the plant, and its protection against contamination and pollution.
Equipment using potable water shall be so installed as to prevent back-siphonage into the potable water system.
Non-potable water is permitted only in those parts of official plants where no edible product is handled or prepared, and then only for limited purposes, such as on ammonia condensers not connected with the potable water supply, in vapor lines serving inedible product rendering tanks, in connection with equipment used for washing and washing inedible products preparatory to tanking, and in sewer lines for moving heavy solids in selvage. In all cases, non-potable water lines shall be clearly identified and shall not be cross connected with the potable water supply.

Exception: Cross connection is permitted if this is necessary for fire protection, and such connection is of a type with a break to ensure against accidental contamination, and is approved by local authorities or by the Department.
All pipelines, reservoirs, tanks, cooling towers, and like equipment employed in handling reused water shall be constructed and installed so as to facilitate their cleaning and inspection.
Hot water for cleaning rooms and equipment shall be delivered under pressure to outlets and shall be of such temperature as to accomplish a thorough cleanup.
An ample supply of water at not less than 180°F (82°C) shall be available when used for sanitizing purposes.
Pens, alleys, and runways shall have hose connections for cleanups purposes.
No installation of potable water supply piping, or part thereof, shall be made in such a manner that it will be possible for used, unclean, polluted, or contaminated water, mixtures, or substances to enter a portion of such piping from a tank, receptor, equipment, or plumbing fixture by reason of backsiphonage, suction, or other cause, either during normal use and operation thereof, or where such tank, receptor, equipment, or plumbing fixture is flooded or subject to pressure exceeding the operating pressure in the hot or cold water piping.
No person shall make a connection or allow one to exist between pipes or conduits carrying domestic water supplied by a public or private building supply system, and pipes, conduits, or fixtures containing or carrying water from any other source or containing or carrying water that has been used for a purpose whatsoever, or piping carrying chemicals, liquids, gases, or substances whatsoever, unless there is provided a backflow prevention device approved for the potential hazard and maintained in accordance with this code. Each point of use shall be separately protected where potential cross-contamination of individual units exists.
No plumbing fixture, device, or construction shall be installed or maintained, or shall be connected to a domestic water supply, where such installation or connection provides a possibility of polluting such water supply or cross-connection between a distributing system of water for drinking and domestic purposes and water that becomes contaminated by such plumbing fixture, device, or construction unless there is provided a backflow prevention device approved for the potential hazard.
No water piping supplied by a private water supply system shall be connected to any other source of supply without the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, Health Department, or other department having jurisdiction.
Cross-connection control shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

    No person shall install a water-operated equipment or mechanism, or use a water-treating chemical or substance, where it is found that such equipment, mechanism, chemical, or substance causes pollution or contamination of the domestic water supply. Such equipment or mechanism shall be permitted where equipped with an approved backflow prevention device or assembly.
Before a device or an assembly is installed for the prevention of backflow, it shall have first been approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Devices or assemblies shall be tested in accordance with recognized standards or other standards acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Backflow prevention devices and assemblies shall comply with Table 603.2, except for specific applications and provisions as stated in Section 603.5.1 through Section 603.5.20.

    Devices or assemblies installed in a potable water supply system for protection against backflow shall be maintained in good working condition by the person or persons having control of such devices or assemblies. Such devices or assemblies shall be tested at the time of installation, repair, or relocation and not less than on an annual schedule thereafter, or more often where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Where found to be defective or inoperative, the device or assembly shall be repaired or replaced. No device or assembly shall be removed from use or relocated or other device or assembly substituted, without the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

    Testing or maintenance shall be performed by a certified backflow assembly tester or repairer in accordance with ASSE Series 5000 or otherwise approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

TABLE 603.2
BACKFLOW PREVENTION DEVICES, ASSEMBLIES, AND METHODS
DEGREE OF HAZARD
DEVICE, ASSEMBLY
OR METHOD1
APPLICABLE
STANDARDS
POLLUTION
(LOW HAZARD)
CONTAMINATION
(HIGH HAZARD)
INSTALLATION2,3
BACK-
SIPHONAGE
BACK-
SIPHONAGE
BACK-
SIPHONAGE
BACK-
SIPHONAGE
Air Gap ASME
A112.1.2
X - X - See Table 603.3.1 in this chapter.
Air-gap-fittings for use
with plumbing fixtures,
appliances and
appurtenances
ASME
A112.1.3
X - X - Air gap fitting is a device with an
internal air gap and typical installation
includes plumbing fixtures, appliances
and appurtenances. The critical level
shall not be installed below the flood
level rim.
Atmospheric vacuum
breaker (consists of a
body, checking member
and atmospheric port)
ASSE 1001 or
CSA B64.1.1
X - X - Upright position. No valve downstream.
Minimum of 6 inches or listed distance
above all downstream piping and flood-level rim of receptor.4,5
Antisiphon fill valve (ball-
cocks) for gravity water
closet flush tanks and urinal
tanks
ASSE 1002 or
CSA B125.3
X - X - Installation on gravity water closet flush tank and urinal tanks with the fill valve installed with the critical level not less than 1 inch above the opening of the overflow pipe.4,5
Vacuum breaker wall
hydrants, hose bibbs
freeze resistant, automatic
draining type
ASSE 1019 or
CSA B64.2.1.1
X - X - Installation includes wall hydrants and

hose bibbs. Such devices are not for
use under continuous pressure
conditions (means of shutoff
downstream of device is
prohibited).4,5
Hose connection vacuum
breakers
ASSE 1011 X - X - Such devices are not for use under
continuous pressure conditions. No
valve downstream.4,6
Hose connection backflow
preventers
ASSE 1052 X - X - Such devices are not for use under
continuous pressure conditions.4,6
Dual check backflow
preventer wall hydrants,
freeze resistant
ASSE 1053 X - X - Such devices are not for use under
continuous pressure conditions4
Freeze resistant sanitary
yard hydrants
ASSE 1057 X - X - Such devices are not for use under
continuous pressure conditions.4
Backflow preventer for
Carbonated Beverage
Dispensers (two
independent check valves
with a vent to the
atmosphere)
ASSE 1022 X - - - Installation includes
carbonated beverage machines or
dispensers. These devices operate
under intermittent or continuous
pressure conditions.
Spill-Resistant Pressure
Vacuum Breaker (single
check valve with air inlet
vent and means of field
testing)
ASSE 1056 X - X - Upright position. Minimum of 12 inches
or listed distance above all downstream
piping and flood-level rim of receptor5
Double Check Valve Back-
flow Prevention Assembly
(two independent check
valves and means of field
testing)
ASSE 1015;
AWWA C510;
CSA B64.5 or
CSA B64.5.1
X X - - Horizontal unless otherwise listed.
Access and clearance shall be in
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and not less than a 12 inch
clearance at bottom for maintenance.
May need platform/ladder for test and
repair. Does not discharge water.
Double Check Detector
Fire Protection Backflow
Prevention Assembly (two
independent check valves
with a parallel detector
assembly consisting of a
water meter and a double
check valve backflow
prevention assembly and
means of field testing)
ASSE 1048 X X - - Horizontal unless otherwise listed.
Access and clearance shall be in
accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions, and not less than a 12 inch
clearance at bottom for maintenance.
May need platform/ladder for test and
repair. Does not discharge water.
Installation includes a fire protection
system and is designed to operate
under continuous pressure conditions.
Pressure Vacuum Breaker
Backflow Prevention
Assembly (loaded air inlet
valve, internally loaded
check valve and means of
field testing)
ASSE 1020 or
CSA B64.1.2
X - X - Upright position. May have valves
downstream. Minimum of 12 inches
above all downstream piping and flood
-level rim of receptor. May discharge
water.
Reduced Pressure Principle
Backflow Prevention
Assembly (two
independently acting loaded
check valves, a differential
pressure relief valve and
means of field testing)
ASSE 1013;
AWWA C511;
CSA B64.4 or
CSA B64.4.1
X X X X Horizontal unless otherwise listed.
Access and clearance shall be in
accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions, and not less than a 12 inch
clearance at bottom for maintenance.
May need platform/ladder for test and
repair. May discharge water.
Reduced Pressure Detector
Fire Protection Backflow
Prevention Assembly (two
independently acting loaded
check valves, a differential
pressure relief valve, with a
parallel detector assembly
consisting of a water meter
and a reduced-pressure
principle backflow
prevention assembly, and
means of field testing)
ASSE 1047 X X X X Horizontal unless otherwise listed.
Access and clearance shall be in
accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions, and not less than a 12 inch
clearance at bottom for maintenance.
May need platform/ladder for test and
repair. May discharge water.
Installation includes a fire protection
system and is designed to operate
under continuous pressure conditions.
For SI units: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

Notes:
1   See description of devices and assemblies in this chapter.
2   Installation in pit or vault requires previous approval by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
3   Refer to general and specific requirement for installation.
4   Not to be subjected to operating pressure for more than 12 hours in a 24 hour period.
5   For deck-mounted and equipment-mounted vacuum breaker. see Section 603.5.13.
6   Shall be installed in accordance with Section 603.5.7.
Backflow prevention devices, assemblies, and methods shall comply with Section 603.3.1 through Section 603.3.9.
The minimum air gap to afford backflow protection shall be in accordance with Table 603.3.1.

TABLE 603.3.1
MINIMUM AIR GAPS FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION4
FIXTURES WHERE NOT AFFECTED BY SIDEWALLS1
(inches)
WHERE AFFECTED BY SIDEWALLS2
(inches)
Effective openings3 not greater than 12 of an
inch in diameter
1 112
Effective openings3 not greater than 34 of an
inch in diameter
112 214
Effective openings3 not greater than 1 inch in
diameter
2 3
Effective openings3 greater than 1 inch in
diameter
Two times the diameter of effective opening Three times the diameter of effective opening
For SI units: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

Notes:
1  Sidewalls, ribs, or similar obstructions do not affect air gaps where spaced from the inside edge of the spout opening a distance exceeding three times the diameter of the effective opening for a single wall, or a distance exceeding four times the effective opening for two intersecting walls.
2  Vertical walls, ribs, or similar obstructions extending from the water surface to or above the horizontal plane of the spout opening other than specified in Footnote 1 above. The effect of three or more such vertical walls or ribs has not been determined. In such cases, the air gap shall be measured from the top of the wall.
3  The effective opening shall be the minimum cross-sectional area at the seat of the control valve or the supply pipe or tubing that feeds the device or outlet. Where two or more lines supply one outlet, the effective opening shall be the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the individual supply lines or the area of the single outlet, whichever is smaller.
4  Air gaps less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) shall be approved as a permanent part of a listed assembly that has been tested under actual backflow conditions with vacuums of 0 to 25 inches of mercury (85 kPa).
An atmospheric vacuum breaker consists of a body, a checking member, and an atmospheric port.
A hose connection backflow preventer consists of two independent check valves with an independent atmospheric vent between and a means of field testing and draining.
A double check valve backflow prevention assembly consists of two independently acting internally loaded check valves, four properly located test cocks, and two isolation valves.
A pressure vacuum breaker backflow prevention assembly consists of a loaded air inlet valve, an internally loaded check valve, two properly located test cocks, and two isolation valves. This device shall be permitted to be installed indoors where provisions for spillage are provided.
A pressure-type vacuum breaker backflow prevention assembly consists of one check valve force-loaded closed and an air inlet vent valve force-loaded open to atmosphere, positioned downstream of the check valve, and located between and including two tightly closing shutoff valves and test cocks.
A reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly consists of two independently acting internally loaded check valves, a differential pressure-relief valve, four properly located test cocks, and two isolation valves.
A double check valve backflow prevention assembly with a parallel detector assembly consisting of a water meter and a double check valve backflow prevention assembly (DC).
A reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly with a parallel detector assembly consisting of a water meter and a reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP).
Assemblies shall comply with listed standards and be acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, with jurisdiction over the selection and installation of backflow prevention assemblies.
Where more than one backflow prevention valve is installed on a single premise, and the valves are installed in one location, each separate valve shall be permanently identified by the permittee in a manner satisfactory to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
The premise owner or responsible person shall have the backflow prevention assembly tested by a certified backflow assembly tester at the time of installation, repair, or relocation and not less than on an annual schedule thereafter, or more often where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. The periodic testing shall be performed in accordance with the procedures referenced in ASSE Series 5000 by a tester qualified in accordance with those standards.
Access and clearance shall be provided for the required testing, maintenance, and repair. Access and clearance shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and not less than 12 inches (305 mm) between the lowest portion of the assembly and grade, floor, or platform. Installations elevated that exceed 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor or grade shall be provided with a permanent platform capable of supporting a tester or maintenance person.
Direct connections between potable water piping and sewer-connected wastes shall not be permitted to exist under any condition with or without backflow protection. Where potable water is discharged to the drainage system, it shall be by means of an approved air gap of two pipe diameters of the supply inlet, but in no case shall the gap be less than 1 inch (25.4 mm). Connection shall be permitted to be made to the inlet side of a trap provided that an approved vacuum breaker is installed not less than 6 inches (152 mm), or the distance according to the device's listing, above the flood-level rim of such trapped fixture, so that at no time will such device be subjected to backpressure.
Backflow preventers for hot water exceeding 110°F (43°C) shall be a type designed to operate at temperatures exceeding 110°F (43°C) without rendering a portion of the assembly inoperative.
Fixtures, appliances, or appurtenances with integral backflow preventers or integral air gaps manufactured as a unit shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements and the manufacturer's installation instructions.
In cold climate areas, backflow assemblies and devices shall be protected from freezing with an outdoor enclosure in accordance with ASSE 1060 or by a method acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Drain lines serving backflow devices or assemblies shall be sized in accordance with the discharge rates of the manufacturer's flow charts of such devices or assemblies.
Backflow prevention devices with atmospheric vents or ports shall not be installed in pits, underground, or submerged locations. Backflow preventers shall not be located in an area containing fumes that are toxic, poisonous, or corrosive.
Specific requirements for backflow prevention shall comply with Section 603.5.1 through Section 603.5.20.
Water closet and urinal flushometer valves shall be protected against backflow by an approved backflow prevention assembly, device, or method. Where the valves are equipped with an atmospheric vacuum breaker, the vacuum breaker shall be installed on the discharge side of the flushometer valve with the critical level not less than 6 inches (152 mm), or the distance according to its listing, above the overflow rim of a water closet bowl or the highest part of a urinal.
Water closet and urinal tanks shall be equipped with a ballcock. The ballcock shall be installed with the critical level not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the full opening of the overflow pipe. In cases where the ballcock has no hush tube, the bottom of the water supply inlet shall be installed 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the full opening of the overflow pipe.
Water closet flushometer tanks shall be protected against backflow by an approved backflow prevention assembly, device, or method.
Heat exchangers used for heat transfer, heat recovery, or solar heating shall protect the potable water system from being contaminated by the heat-transfer medium. Single-wall heat exchangers used in indirect-fired water heaters shall meet the requirements of Section 505.4.1. Double-wall heat exchangers shall separate the potable water from the heat-transfer medium by providing a space between the two walls that are vented to the atmosphere.
Water supply inlets to tanks, vats, sumps, swimming pools, and other receptors shall be protected by one of the following means:
  1. An approved air gap.
  2. A listed vacuum breaker installed on the discharge side of the last valve with the critical level not less than 6 inches (152 mm) or in accordance with its listing.
  3. A backflow preventer suitable for the degree of hazard, installed in accordance with the requirements for that type of device or assembly as set forth in this chapter.
Potable water supplies to systems having no pumps or connections for pumping equipment, and no chemical injection or provisions for chemical injection, shall be protected from backflow by one of the following devices:
  1. Atmospheric vacuum breaker (AVB)
  2. Pressure vacuum breaker backflow prevention assembly (PVB)
  3. Spill-resistant pressure vacuum breaker (SVB)
  4. Reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP)
Where sprinkler and irrigation systems have pumps, connections for pumping equipment, or auxiliary air tanks, or are otherwise capable of creating backpressure, the potable water supply shall be protected by the following type of device where the backflow device is located upstream from the source of backpressure:
  1. Reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP)
Where systems have a backflow device installed downstream from a potable water supply pump or a potable water supply pump connection, the device shall be one of the following:
  1. Atmospheric vacuum breaker (AVB)
  2. Pressure vacuum breaker backflow prevention assembly (PVB)
  3. Spill-resistant pressure vacuum breaker (SVB)
  4. Reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP)
Where systems include a chemical injector or provisions for chemical injection, the potable water supply shall be protected by a reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP).
Potable water outlets with hose attachments, other than water heater drains, boiler drains, and clothes washer connections, shall be protected by a nonremovable hose bibb-type backflow preventer, a nonremovable hose bibb-type vacuum breaker, or by an atmospheric vacuum breaker installed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the highest point of usage located on the discharge side of the last valve. In climates where freezing temperatures occur, a listed self-draining frost-proof hose bibb with an integral backflow preventer or vacuum breaker shall be used.
Water-cooled compressors, degreasers, or other water-cooled equipment shall be protected by a backflow preventer installed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. Water-cooled equipment that produces backpressure shall be equipped with the appropriate protection.
Water inlets to water-supplied aspirators shall be equipped with a vacuum breaker installed in accordance with its listing requirements and this chapter. The discharge shall drain through an air gap. Where the tailpiece of a fixture to receive the discharge of an aspirator is used, the air gap shall be located above the flood-level rim of the fixture.
Potable water connections to steam or hot water boilers shall be protected from backflow by a double check valve backflow prevention assembly or reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly in accordance with Table 603.2. Where chemicals are introduced into the system a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly shall be provided in accordance with Table 603.2.
In cases where it is impractical to correct individual cross-connections on the domestic waterline, the line supplying such outlets shall be considered a nonpotable water line. No drinking or domestic water cutlets shall be connected to the nonpotable waterline. Where possible, portions of the nonpotable waterline shall be exposed, and exposed portions shall be properly identified in a manner satisfactory to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Each outlet on the nonpotable waterline that is permitted to be used for drinking or domestic purposes shall be posted: "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER, DO NOT DRINK."

[HCD 1 & HCD 2] An international symbol of a glass in a circle with a slash through it shall be provided similar to that shown in Figure 601.
Potable water supply to beverage dispensers, carbonated beverage dispensers, or coffee machines shall be protected by an air gap or a vented backflow preventer in accordance with ASSE 1022. For carbonated beverage dispensers, piping material installed downstream of the backflow preventer shall not be affected by carbon dioxide gas.
Deck-mounted or equipment-mounted vacuum breakers shall be installed in accordance with their listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions, with the critical level not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the flood-level rim.
Note: Fire Protection Systems has not been adopted by the State Fire Marshal. This section cannot be adopted or enforced pursuant to California Health and Safety Code 13114.7(a), which is being cited jar reference. California Health and Safety Code 13114.7
  1. For the purposes of this section the following are definitions of class I and class II systems:

    1. American Water Works Association [A.W.W.A] Manual No. M-14 class 1 - Automatic fire sprinkler systems with direct connection from public water mains only; no pumps, tanks, or reservoirs; no physical connection Fom other water supplies; no antifreeze or additives of any kind; and all sprinkler drains discharging to the atmosphere or other safe outlets.
    2. American Water Works Association [A.W.W.A] Manual No. M-14 class 2- Automatic fire sprinkler systems which are the same as class 1, except that booster pumps may be installed in the connections from the street mains.
  2. Automatic fire sprinkler systems described in subdivision (a) shall not require any backflow protection equipment at the service connection other than required by standards for those systems contained in the publication of the National Fire Protection Association entitled "Installation of Sprinkler Systems" [NFPA Pamphlet No. 13, 1980 edition]
Vacuum breakers for washer-hose bedpans shall be located not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. Hose connections in health care or laboratory areas shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor.
Portable cleaning equipment, dental vacuum pumps, and chemical dispensers shall be protected from backflow by an air gap, an atmospheric vacuum breaker, a spill-resistant vacuum breaker, or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer.
Potable water outlets, freeze-proof yard hydrants, combination stop-and-waste valves, or other fixtures that incorporate a stop and waste feature that drains into the ground shall not be installed underground.
The water supply to a pure water process system, such as dialysis water systems, semiconductor washing systems, and similar process piping systems, shall be protected from backpressure and backsiphonage by a reduced-pressure principle backflow preventer.
The individual connections of the dialysis related equipment to the dialysis pure water system shall not require additional backflow protection.
Plumbing fixture fittings with integral backflow protection shall comply with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
Potable water supply to swimming pools, spas, and hot tubs shall be protected by an air gap or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer in accordance with the following:
  1. The unit is equipped with a submerged fill line.
  2. The potable water supply is directly connected to the unit circulation system.
Pipe, tube, fittings, solvent cements, thread sealants, solders, and flux used in potable water systems intended to supply drinking water shall be in accordance with the requirements of NSF 61. Where fittings and valves are made from copper alloys containing more than 15 percent zinc by weight, and are used in plastic piping systems, they shall be resistant to dezincification and stress corrosion cracking in accordance with NSF 14.

    Materials used in the water supply system, except valves and similar devices, shall be of a like material, except where otherwise approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

    Materials for building water piping and building supply piping shall comply with the applicable standards referenced in Table 604.1.

Exception: [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Use of CPVC is not permitted for applications under authority of the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development.

TABLE 604.1
MATERIALS FOR BUILDING SUPPLY AND WATER DiSTRIBUTION PIPING AND FITIINGS
MATERIAL BUILDING
SUPPLY PIPE
AND FITTINGS
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
PIPE AND
FITTINGS
REFERENCED
STANDARD(S) PIPE
REFERENCED
STANDARD(S) FITTINGS
Copper and Copper
Alloys
X X ASTM B42, ASTM B43,
ASTM B75, ASTM B88,
ASTM B135, ASTM B251,
ASTM B302, ASTM B447
ASME B16.15, ASME B16.18,
ASME B16.22, ASME B16.26
ASME B16.51
CPVC X X ASTM D2846, ASTM F441,
ASTM F442, CSA B137.6
ASTM D2846, ASTM F437,
ASTM F438, ASTM F439,
ASTM F1970, CSA B137.6
CPVC-AL-CPVC X X ASTM F2855 ASTM D2846
Ductile-Iron X X AWWA C151 ASME 816.4, AWWA C110,
AWWA C153
Galvanized Steel X X ASTM A53 -
Malleable Iron X X - ASME B16.3
PE X1 - ASTM D2239, ASTM D2737,
ASTM D3035, AWWA C901,
CSA B137.1
ASTM D2609, ASTM D2683,
ASTM D3261, ASTM F1055,
CSA B137.1
PE-AL-PE X X ASTM F1282, CSA 8137.9 ASTM F1282, ASTM F1974, CSA B137.9
PE-RT X X ASTM F2769 ASTM F1807, ASTM F2098,
ASTM F2159, ASTM F2735,
ASTM F2769
PEX2, 3 X X ASTM F876, ASTM F877,
CSA B137.5, AWWA C9041
ASSE 1061, ASTM F877,
ASTM F1807, ASTM F1960,
ASTM F1961, ASTM F2080,
ASTM F2159, ASTM F2735,
CSA 8137.5
PEX-AL-PEX4 X X ASTM F1281, CSA B137.10,
ASTM F2262
ASTM F1281, ASTM F1974,
ASTM F2434, CSA B137.10
PP X X ASTM F2389, CSA B137.11 ASTM F2389, CSA 8137.11
PVC X1 - ASTM D1785, ASTM D2241,
AWWA C900
ASTM D2464, ASTM D2466, ASTM D2467, ASTM F1970
Stainless Steel X X ASTM A269, ASTM A312 -
Notes:
1   For Building Supply or cold-water applications.
2   When PEX tubing is placed in soil and is used in potable water systems intended to supply drinking water to fixtures or appliances, the tubing or piping shall be sleeved with a material approved for potable water use in soil or other material that is impermable to solvents or petroleum products.
3   PEX tubing shall meet or exceed the requirements of ASTM F876-2013a or an equivalent or more stringent standard when used in continuously recirculating hot water systems and the PEX tubing is exposed to the hot water 100% of the time.
4   [For BSC, DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC & HCD] The use of PEX-AL-PEX in potable water supply systems is not adopted.
[HCD 1 & HCD 2] The local responsible building official of any city, county, or city and county, shall authorize by permit the use of CPVC for hot and cold water distribution systems within the interior of residential buildings provided all of the following conditions are satisfied:
  1. Permit Conditions. Any building permit issued pursuant to Section 604.1.1 shall be conditioned on compliance with the mitigation measures set forth in this section.
  2. Approved Materials. Only CPVC plumbing material listed as an approved material and installed in accordance with this code may be used.
  3. Installation and Use. Any installation and use of CPVC plumbing material pursuant to this section shall comply with all applicable requirements of this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.
  4. Certification of Compliance. Prior to issuing a building permit pursuant to Section 604.1.1, the building official shall require as part of the permitting process that the contractor, or the appropriate plumbing subcontractors, provide written certification: (1) that is required in subdivision (e), and (2) that he or she will comply with the flushing procedures and worker safety measures of this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.
  5. Worker Safety. Any contractor applying for a building permit that includes the use of CPVC plumbing materials authorized pursuant to this section shall include in the permit application a signed written certification stating that:

    1. They are aware of the health and safety hazards associated with CPVC plumbing installations;
    2. They have included in their Injury and Illness Prevention Plan the hazards associated with CPVC plumbing pipe installations; and
    3. The worker safety training elements of their Injury and Illness Prevention Plan meet the Department of Industrial Relation's guidelines.
  6. Findings of Compliance. The building official shall not give final permit approval of any CPVC plumbing materials installed pursuant to Section 604.1.1 unless he or she finds that the material has been installed in compliance with the requirements of this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.
  7. Penalties. Any contractor or subcontractor found to have failed to comply with the flushing, ventilation, and glove requirements of this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions shall be subject to the penalties in Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, Chapter 6 (Section 17995 et seq.). In addition, if during the conduct of any building inspection the building official finds that the ventilation and glove requirements of this code, are being violated, such building officials shall cite the contractor or subcontractor for that violation.
  8. Special Requirements for CPVC Installation within Residential Structures. [HCD 1] In addition to the other requirements in the California Plumbing Code and this Appendix for the installation of CPVC Solvent Cemented Hot and Cold Water Distributions Systems, all installations of CPVC pipe within residential structures shall meet the following:
  9. Flushing Procedures. [HCD 1] All installations of CPVC pipe within residential structures shall be flushed twice over a period of at least one (1) week. The pipe system shall be first flushed for at least 10 minutes and then filled and allowed to stand for no less than 1 week, after which all the branches of the pipe system must be flushed long enough to fully empty the contained volume. At the time of the fill, each fixture shall have a removable tag applied stating:

    "This new plumbing system was first filled on (date) by (name). The California Department of Housing and Community Development requires that the system be flushed after standing at least one week after the fill date specified above. If the system is used earlier than one week after the fill date, the water must be allowed to run for at least two minutes prior to use for human consumption. This tag may not be removed prior to flushing, except by the homeowner."
  10. Worker Safety Measures. [HCD 1] Mechanical ventilation sufficient to maintain exposures below the relevant exposure limits established by state regulation shall be provided in enclosed spaces. This ventilation shall be directed at the breathing zone of the worker installing the pipe. Where mechanical ventilation is not practical, respirators, suitable for organic vapors, shall be used. For the purpose of this subdivision, an enclosed space is defined as:

    1. A space less than 100 square feet of floor area under a ceiling with a height of 10 feet or less, and which does not have openings (consisting of doors, windows, or unfinished walls) on at least two sides;
    2. Crawl spaces having a height of less than three feet;
    3. Enclosed attics that have a roof and ceiling; or
    4. Trenches having a depth greater than 24 inches.
  11. Installers of CPVC pipe within residential structures shall use non-latex thin gauge (4 millimeters) nitrile gloves, or other gloves providing an equivalent or better degree of protection during the installation of the CPVC plumbing system. Gloves shall be provided to all workers by the contractor, or plumbing subcontractor, and shall be replaced upon contamination by cements.
All installations of PEX pipe where it is the initial plumbing piping installed in new construction shall be flushed twice over a period of at least one week. The pipe system shall be first flushed for at least 10 minutes and then filled and allowed to stand for no less than 1 week, after which all the branches of the pipe system must be flushed long enough to fully empty the contained volume. This provision shall not apply to the installation of PEX pipe where it replaces an existing pipe system of any material.
  1. At the time of fill, each fixture shall have a removable tag applied stating:

    1. "This new plumbing system was first filled and flushed on ———— (data) by ———— (name). The State of California requires that the system be flushed after standing at least one week after the fill date specified above. If this system is used earlier than one week after the fill date, the water must be allowed to run for at least two minutes prior to use for human consumption. This tag may not be removed prior to the completion of the required second flushing, except by the building owner or occupant."
  2. Prior to issuing a building permit to install PEX pipe, the building official shall require as part of the permitting process that the contractor, or the appropriate plumbing subcontractors, provide written certification that he or she will comply with the flushing procedures set forth in the code.
  3. The building official shall not give final permit approval of any PEX plumbing installation unless he or she finds that the material has been installed in compliance, with the requirements of the code, including the requirements to flush and tag the systems.
  4. Any contractor or subcontractor found to have failed to comply with the PEX flushing requirements shall be subject to the penalties in Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, Chapter 6 (Section 17995, et seq.).
The maximum allowable lead content in pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and fixtures intended to convey or dispense water for human consumption shall be not more than a weighted average of 0.25 percent with respect to the wetted surfaces of pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and fixtures. For solder and flux, the lead content shall be not more than 0.2 percent where used in piping systems that convey or dispense water for human consumption.

Exceptions:
  1. Pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, fixtures, or backflow preventers used for nonpotable services such as manufacturing, industrial processing, irrigation, outdoor watering, or any other uses where the water is not used for human consumption.
  2. Flush valves, fill valves, flushometer valves, tub fillers, shower valves, service saddles, or water distribution main gate valves that are 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter or larger.
Pipes, pipe fittings, valves, and faucets utilized in the water supply system for non-drinking water applications shall have a maximum of 8 percent lead content.
Copper or copper alloy tube for water piping shall have a weight of not less than Type L.

Exception: Type M copper or copper alloy tubing shall be permitted to be used for water piping where piping is aboveground in, or on, a building or underground outside of structures.
Hard-drawn copper or copper alloy tubing for water supply and distribution in addition to the required incised marking, shall be marked in accordance with ASTM B88. The colors shall be: Type K, green; Type L, blue; and Type M, red.
Flexible water connectors shall be installed in readily accessible locations, and where under continuous pressure shall be in accordance with ASME A112.18.6/CSA B125.6.
Cast-iron fittings up to and including 2 inches (50 mm) in size, where used in connection with potable water piping, shall be galvanized.
Malleable iron water fittings shall be galvanized.
Piping and tubing that has previously been used for a purpose other than for potable water systems shall not be used.
Epoxy coating used on existing, underground steel building supply piping shall be in accordance with NSF 61 and AWWA C210.
Approved plastic materials shall be permitted to be used in building supply piping, provided that where metal building supply piping is used for electrical grounding purposes, replacement piping therefore shall be of like materials.

Exception: Where a grounding system acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction is installed, inspected, and approved, metallic pipe shall be permitted to be replaced with nonmetallic pipe.
Plastic materials for building supply piping outside underground shall have a blue insulated copper tracer wire or other approved conductor installed adjacent to the piping. Access shall be provided to the tracer wire or the tracer wire shall terminate aboveground at each end of the nonmetallic piping. The tracer wire size shall be not less than 18 AWG and the insulation type shall be suitable for direct burial.
Solder shall comply with the requirements of Section 604.2.
Flexible corrugated connectors of copper, copper alloy, or stainless steel shall be limited to the following connector lengths:
  1. Fixture Connectors - 30 inches (762 mm)
  2. Washing Machine Connectors - 72 inches (1829 mm)
  3. Dishwasher and Icemaker Connectors - 120 inches (3048 mm)
Flexible metallic (copper and stainless steel), reinforced flexible, braided stainless steel, or polymer braided with EPDM core connectors that connect a water heater to the piping system shall be in accordance with ASME A112.18.6/CSA B125.6. Copper, copper alloy, or stainless steel flexible connectors shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). PEX, PEX-AL-PEX, PE-AL-PE, or PE-RT tubing shall not be installed within the first 18 inches (4S7 mm) of piping connected to a water heater.

[BSC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] PEX-AL-PEX is not adopted for use in potable water supply and distribution systems.
Joining methods for copper or copper alloy pipe, tubing, and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.1.1 through Section 605.1.5.
Brazed joints between copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing and fittings shall be made with brazing alloys having a liquid temperature above 1000°F (538°C). The joint surfaces to be brazed shall be cleaned bright by either manual or mechanical means. Tubing shall be cut square and reamed to full inside diameter. Brazing flux shall be applied to the joint surfaces where required by manufacturer's recommendation. Brazing filler metal in accordance with AWS A5.8 shall be applied at the point where the pipe or tubing enters the socket of the fitting.
Flared joints for soft copper or copper alloy water tubing shall be made with fittings that are in accordance with the applicable standards referenced in Table 604.1. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square using an appropriate tubing cutter. The tubing shall be reamed to full inside diameter, resized to round, and expanded with a proper flaring tool.
Mechanical joints shall include, but are not limited to, compression, flanged, grooved, pressed, and push fit fittings.
Mechanically formed tee fittings shall have extracted collars that shall be formed in a continuous operation consisting of drilling a pilot hole and drawing out the pipe or tube surface to form a collar having a height not less than three times the thickness of the branch tube wall. The branch pipe or tube shall be notched to conform to the inner curve of the run pipe or tube and shall have two dimple depth stops to ensure that penetration of the branch pipe or tube into the collar is of a depth for brazing and that the branch pipe or tube does not obstruct the flow in the main line pipe or tube. Dimple depth stops shall be in line with the run of the pipe or tube. The second dimple shall be 14 of an inch (6.4 mm) above the first and shall serve as a visual point of inspection. Fittings and joints shall be made by brazing. Soldered joints shall not be permitted.
Pressed fittings for copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing shall have an elastomeric o-ring that forms the joint. The pipe or tubing shall be fully inserted into the fitting, and the pipe or tubing marked at the shoulder of the fitting. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square, chamfered, and reamed to full inside diameter. The fitting alignment shall be checked against the mark on the pipe or tubing to ensure the pipe or tubing is inserted into the fitting. The joint shall be pressed using the tool recommended by the manufacturer.
Removable and nonremovable push fit fittings for copper or copper alloy tubing or pipe that employ quick assembly push fit connectors shall be in accordance with ASSE 1061. Push fit fittings for copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing shall have an approved elastomeric o-ring that forms the joint. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square, chamfered, and reamed to full inside diameter. The tubing shall be fully inserted into the fitting, and the tubing marked at the shoulder of the fitting. The fitting alignment shall be checked against the mark on the tubing to ensure the tubing is inserted into the fitting and gripping mechanism has engaged on the pipe.
Soldered joints between copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing and fittings shall be made in accordance with ASTM B828 with the following sequence of joint preparation and operation as follows: measuring and cutting, reaming, cleaning, fluxing, assembly and support, heating, applying the solder, cooling and cleaning. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square and reamed to the full inside diameter including the removal of burrs on the outside of the pipe or tubing. Surfaces to be joined shall be cleaned bright by manual or mechanical means. Flux shall be applied to pipe or tubing and fittings and shall be in accordance with ASTM B813, and shall become noncorrosive and nontoxic after soldering. Insert pipe or tubing into the base of the fitting and remove excess flux. Pipe or tubing and fitting shall be supported to ensure a uniform capillary space around the joint. Heat shall be applied using an air or fuel torch with the flame perpendicular to the pipe or tubing using acetylene or an LP gas. Preheating shall depend on the size of the joint. The flame shall be moved to the fitting cup and alternate between the pipe or tubing and fitting. Solder in accordance with ASTM B32 shall be applied to the joint surfaces until capillary action draws the molten solder into the cup. Solder and fluxes with a lead content that exceeds 0.2 percent shall be prohibited in piping systems conveying potable water. Joint surfaces shall not be disturbed until cool and any remaining flux residue shall be cleaned.
Threaded joints for copper or copper alloy pipe shall be made with pipe threads in accordance with ASME B1.20.1. Thread sealant tape or compound shall be applied only on male threads, and such material shall be of approved types, insoluble in water, and nontoxic.
CPVC plastic pipe and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.2.1 through Section 605.2.3.
Removable and nonremovable push fit fittings that employ a quick assembly push fit connector shall be in accordance with ASSE 1061.
Solvent cement joints for CPVC pipe and fittings shall be clean from dirt and moisture. Solvent cements in accordance with ASTM F493, requiring the use of a primer shall be orange in color. The primer shall be colored and be in accordance with ASTM F656. Listed solvent cement in accordance with ASTM F493 that does not require the use of primers, yellow or red in color, shall be permitted for pipe and fittings manufactured in accordance with ASTM D2846, 12 of an inch (15 mm) through 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter or ASTM F442, 12 of an inch (15 mm) through 3 inches (80 mm) in diameter. Apply primer where required inside the fitting and to the depth of the fitting on pipe. Apply liberal coat of cement to the outside surface of pipe to depth of fitting and inside of fitting. Place pipe inside fitting to forcefully bottom the pipe in the socket and hold together until joint is set. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Low VOC One-Step Cement that does not require the use of primer shall be utilized with CPVC pipe and fittings, manufactured in accordance with ASTM D2846.
Threads shall comply with ASME B1.20.1. A minimum of Schedule 80 shall be permitted to be threaded; however, the pressure rating shall be reduced by 50 percent. The use of molded fittings shall not result in a 50 percent reduction in the pressure rating of the pipe provided that the molded fittings shall be fabricated so that the wall thickness of the material is maintained at the threads. Thread sealant compound that is compatible with the pipe and fitting, insoluble in water, and nontoxic shall be applied to male threads. Caution shall be used during assembly to prevent over tightening of the CPVC components once the thread sealant has been applied. Female CPVC threaded fittings shall be used with plastic male threads only.
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride/aluminum/chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC/AL/CPVC) plastic pipe and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.3.1.
Solvent cement joints for CPVC/AL/CPVC pipe and fittings shall be clean from dirt and moisture. Solvent cements in accordance with ASTM F493, requiring the use of a primer shall be orange in color. The primer shall be colored and be in accordance with ASTM F656. Listed solvent cement in accordance with ASTM F493 that does not require the use of primers, yellow in color, shall be permitted to join pipe manufactured in accordance with ASTM F2855 and fittings manufactured in accordance with ASTM D2846, 12 of an inch (15 mm) through 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter. Apply primer where required inside the fitting and to the depth of the fitting on pipe. Apply liberal coat of cement to the outside surface of pipe to depth of fitting and inside of fitting. Place pipe inside fitting to forcefully bottom the pipe in the socket and hold together until joint is set.
Ductile iron pipe and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.4.1 or Section 605.4.2.
Mechanical joints for ductile iron pipe and fittings shall consist of a bell that is cast integrally with the pipe or fitting and provided with an exterior flange having bolt holes and a socket with annular recesses for the sealing gasket and the plain end of the pipe or fitting. The elastomeric gasket shall comply with AWWA C111. Lubricant recommended for potable water application by the pipe manufacturer shall be applied to the gasket and plain end of the pipe.
Push-on joints for ductile iron pipe and fittings shall consist of a single elastomeric gasket that shall be assembled by positioning the elastomeric gasket in an annular recess in the pipe or fitting socket and forcing the plain end of the pipe or fitting into the socket. The plain end shall compress the elastomeric gasket to form a positive seal and shall be designed so that the elastomeric gasket shall be locked in place against displacement. The elastomeric gasket shall comply with AWWA C111. Lubricant recommended for potable water application by the pipe manufacturer shall be applied to the gasket and plain end of the pipe.
Galvanized steel pipe and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.5.1 or Section 605.5.2.
Mechanical joints shall be made with an approved and listed elastomeric gasket.
Threaded joints shall be made with pipe threads that are in accordance with ASME B1.20.1. Thread sealant tape or compound shall be applied only on male threads, and such material shall be of approved types, insoluble in water, and nontoxic.
PE plastic pipe or tubing and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.6.1 or Section 605.6.2.
Heat-fusion joints between PE pipe or tubing and fittings shall be assembled in accordance with Section 605.6.1.1 through Scction 605.6.1.3 using butt, socket, and electro-fusion heat methods.
Butt-fusion joints shall be installed in accordance with ASTM F2620 and shall be made by heating the squared ends of two pipes, pipe and fitting, or two fittings by holding ends against a heated element. The heated element shall be removed where the proper melt is obtained and joined ends shall be placed together with applied force.
Electro-fusion joints shall be heated internally by a conductor at the interface of the joint. Align and restrain fitting to pipe to prevent movement and apply electric current to the fitting. Turn off the current when the proper time has elapsed to heat the joint. The joint shall fuse together and remain undisturbed until cool.
Socket-fusion joints shall be installed in accordance with ASTM F2620 and shall be made by simultaneously heating the outside surface of a pipe end and the inside of a fitting socket. Where the proper melt is obtained, the pipe and fitting shall be joined by inserting one into the other with applied force. The joint shall fuse together and remain undisturbed until cool.
Mechanical joints between PE pipe or tubing and fittings shall include insert and mechanical compression fittings that provide a pressure seal resistance to pullout. Joints for insert fittings shall be made by cutting the pipe square, using a cutter designed for plastic piping, and removal of sharp edges. Two stainless steel clamps shall be placed over the end of the pipe. Fittings shall be checked for proper size based on the diameter of the pipe. The end of pipe shall be placed over the barbed insert fitting, making contact with the fitting shoulder. Clamps shall be positioned equal to 180 degrees (3.14 rad) apart and shall be tightened to provide a leak tight joint. Compression type couplings and fittings shall be permitted for use in joining PE piping and tubing. Stiffeners that extend beyond the clamp or nut shall be prohibited. Bends shall be not less than 30 pipe diameters, or the coil radius where bending with the coil. Bends shall not be permitted closer than 10 pipe diameters of a fitting or valve. Mechanical joints shall be designed for their intended use.
PE-AL-PE plastic pipe or tubing and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.7.1 and Section 605.7.1.1.
Mechanical joints for PE-AL-PE pipe or tubing and fittings shall be either of the metal insert fittings with a split ring and compression nut or metal insert fittings with copper crimp rings. Metal insert fittings shall comply with ASTM F1974. Crimp insert fittings shall be joined to the pipe by placing the copper crimp ring around the outer circumference of the pipe, forcing the pipe material into the space formed by the ribs on the fitting until the pipe contacts the shoulder of the fitting. The crimp ring shall then be positioned on the pipe so the edge of the crimp ring is 18 of an inch (3.2 mm) to 14 of an inch (6.4 mm) from the end of the pipe. The jaws of the crimping tool shall be centered over the crimp ring and tool perpendicular to the barb. The jaws shall be closed around the crimp ring and shall not be crimped more than once.
Compression joints for PE-AL-PE pipe or tubing and fittings shall be joined through the compression of a split ring, by a compression nut around the circumference of the pipe. The compression nut and split ring shall be placed around the pipe. The ribbed end of the fitting shall be inserted onto the pipe until the pipe contacts the shoulder of the fitting. Position and compress the split ring by tightening the compression nut onto the insert fitting.
Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) tubing shall be marked with the appropriate standard designation(s) listed in Table 604.1 for which the tubing has been approved. PE-RT tubing shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Metal insert fittings, metal compression fittings, and plastic fittings shall be manufactured to and marked in accordance with the standards for fittings in Table 604.1.
PEX plastic tubing and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.9.1 and Section 605.9.2.

All PEX pipe installed in California must provide at least 30-day UV protection. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3, & 4] Installation and use of PEX tubing shall be in accordance with manufacturer's standards. PEX piping shall not be used for any application that would result in noncompliance with any provisions of the California Building Standards Code.
Fittings for PEX tubing shall comply with the applicable standards referenced in Table 604.1. PEX tubing in accordance with ASTM F876 shall be marked with the applicable standard designation for the fittings, specified by the tubing manufacturer for use with the tubing. Brass fittings used with PEX tubing shall meet or exceed NSF 14-2009 standards to prevent dezincification and stress crack corrosion. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3, & 4] Installation and use of PEX tubing shall be in accordance with manufacturer's standards. PEX piping shall not be used for any application that would result in noncompliance with any provisions of the California Building Standards Code.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
PEX-AL-PEX plastic pipe or tubing and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.10.1 and Section 605.10.1.1.

[DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC, BSC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] PEX-AL-PEX is not adopted for use in potable water supply and distribution systems.
Mechanical joints between PEX-AL-PEX tubing and fittings shall include mechanical and compression type fittings and insert fittings with a crimping ring. Insert fittings utilizing a crimping ring shall be in accordance with ASTM F1974 or ASTM F2434. Crimp joints for crimp insert fittings shall be joined to PEX-AL-PEX pipe by the compression of a crimp ring around the outer circumference of the pipe, forcing the pipe material into annular spaces formed by ribs on the fitting.

[BSC] PEX-AL-PEX is not adopted for use in potable water supply and distribution systems.
Compression joints shall include compression insert fittings and shall be joined to PEX-AL-PEX pipe through the compression of a split ring or compression nut around the outer circumference of the pipe, forcing the pipe material into the annular space formed by the ribs on the fitting.

[BSC] PEX-AL-PEX is not adopted for use in potable water supply and distribution systems.
PP pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.11.1 through Section 605.11.3.
Heat-fusion joints for polypropylene (PP) pipe and fitting joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings, fusion outlets, butt-fusion polypropylene fittings or pipe, or electro-fusion polypropylene fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F2389 or CSA B137.11.
Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
PP pipe shall not be threaded. PP transition fittings for connection to other piping materials shall only be threaded by use of copper alloy or stainless steel inserts molded in the fitting.
PVC plastic pipe and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.12.1 through Section 605.12.3.
Mechanical joints shall be designed to provide a permanent seal and shall be of the mechanical or push-on joint. The mechanical joint shall include a pipe spigot that has a wall thickness to withstand without deformation or collapse; the compressive force exerted where the fitting is tightened. The push-on joint shall have a minimum wall thickness of the bell at any point between the ring and the pipe barrel. The elastomeric gasket shall comply with ASTM D3139, and be of such size and shape as to provide a compressive force against the spigot and socket after assembly to provide a positive seal.
Solvent cement joints for PVC pipe and fittings shall be clean from dirt and moisture. Pipe shall be cut square and pipe shall be deburred. Where surfaces to be joined are cleaned and free of dirt, moisture, oil, and other foreign material, apply primer purple in color in accordance with ASTM F656. Primer shall be applied until the surface of the pipe and fitting is softened. Solvent cements in accordance with ASTM D2564 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. Joints shall be made while both the inside socket surface and outside surface of pipe are wet with solvent cement. Hold joint in place and undisturbed for 1 minute after assembly.

[HCD 1 & HCD 2] Plastic pipe and fittings joined with solvent cement shall utilize Low VOC primer(s), if a primer is required, and Low VOC solvent cement(s) as defined in Section 214.0.
Threads shall comply with ASME B1.20.1. A minimum of Schedule 80 shall be permitted to be threaded; however, the pressure rating shall be reduced by 50 percent. The use of molded fittings shall not result in a 50 percent reduction in the pressure rating of the pipe provided that the molded fittings shall be fabricated so that the wall thickness of the material is maintained at the threads. Thread sealant compound that is compatible with the pipe and fitting, insoluble in water, and nontoxic shall be applied to male threads. Caution shall be used during assembly to prevent over tightening of the PVC components once the thread sealant has been applied. Female PVC threaded fittings shall be used with plastic male threads only.
Joining methods for stainless steel pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.13.1 or Section 605.13.2.
Mechanical joints shall be designed for their intended use. Such joints shall include compression, flanged, grooved, pressed, and threaded.
Welded joints shall be either fusion or resistance welded based on the selection of the base metal. Chemical composition of the filler metal shall comply with AWS A5.9 based on the alloy content of the piping material.
In water piping, slip joints shall be permitted to be used only on the exposed fixture supply.
Dielectric unions where installed at points of connection where there is a dissimilarity of metals shall be in accordance with ASSE 1079. . [DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC, HCD 1 & HCD 2, OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Dielectric unions shall be used at all points of connection where there is a dissimilarity of metals.
Joints between various materials shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.16.1 through Section 605.16.3.
Joints from copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing to threaded pipe shall be made by the use of copper alloy adapter, copper alloy nipple [minimum 6 inches (152 mm)], dielectric fitting, or dielectric union in accordance with ASSE 1079. The joint between the copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing and the fitting shall be a soldered, brazed, flared, or pressed joint and the connection between the threaded pipe and the fitting shall be made with a standard pipe size threaded joint.
Where connecting plastic pipe to other types of piping, approved types of adapter or transition fittings designed for the specific transition intended shall be used.
Where connecting stainless steel pipe to other types of piping, mechanical joints of the compression type, dielectric fitting, or dielectric union in accordance with ASSE 1079 and designed for the specific transition intended shall be used.
Valves up to and including 2 inches (50 mm) in size shall be copper alloy or other approved material. Sizes exceeding 2 inches (50 mm) shall be permitted to have cast iron or copper alloy bodies. Each gate or ball valve shall be a fullway type with working parts of non-corrosive material. Valves carrying water used in potable water systems intended to supply drinking water shall be in accordance with the requirements of NSF 61 and ASME A112.4.14, ASME B16.34, ASTM F1970, ASTM F2389, AWWA C500, AWWA C504, AWWA C507, CSA B125.3, MSS SP-67, MSS SP-70, MSS SP-71, MSS SP-72, MSS SP-78, MSS SP80, MSS SP-110, MSS SP-122, or NSF 359.
A fullway valve controlling outlets shall be installed on the discharge side of each water meter and on each unmetered water supply. Water piping supplying more than one building on one premises shall be equipped with a separate fullway valve to each building, so arranged that the water supply can be turned on or off to an individual or separate building provided; however, that supply piping to a single-family residence and building accessory thereto shall be permitted to be controlled on one valve. Such shutoff valves shall be accessible. A fullway valve shall be installed on the discharge piping from water supply tanks at or near the tank. A fullway valve shall be installed on the cold water supply pipe to each water heater at or near the water heater.
In multidwelling units, one or more shutoff valves shall be provided in each dwelling unit so that the water supply to a plumbing fixture or group of fixtures in that dwelling unit can be shut off without stopping water supply to fixtures in other dwelling units. These valves shall be accessible in the dwelling unit that they control.
Valves used to control two or more openings shall be fullway gate valves, ball valves, or other approved valves designed and approved for the service intended.
A control valve shall be installed immediately ahead of each water-supplied appliance and immediately ahead of each slip joint or appliance supply.

    Parallel water distribution systems shall provide a control valve either immediately ahead of each fixture being supplied or installed at the manifold, and shall be identified with the fixture being supplied. Where parallel water distribution system manifolds are located in attics, crawl spaces, or other locations not readily accessible, a separate shutoff valve shall be required immediately ahead of each individual fixture or appliance served.
Required shutoff or control valves shall be accessible.
A single control valve shall be installed on a water supply line ahead of an automatic metering valve that supplies a battery of fixtures.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3, & 4] Each riser or branch shall be provided with an accessible sectionalizing valve in hot-and cold-water systems to permit servicing or replacement of piping or equipment. Stop valves shall be provided at each fixture.
Potable water supply tanks shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions, and supported in accordance with the California Building Code.
Potable water supply tanks, interior tank coatings, or tank liners intended to supply drinking water shall be in accordance with NSF 61.
Tanks used for potable water shall be tightly covered and vented in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Such vent shall be screened with a corrosion-resistant material of not less than number 24 mesh.
Tanks shall have not less than a 16 square inch (0.01 m2) overflow that is screened with a corrosion-resistant material of not less than number 24 mesh.
Pressurized tanks shall be provided with a listed pressure-relief valve installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. The relief valve shall be discharged in accordance with Section 608.5. Where a potable water supply tank is located above the fixtures, appliances, or system components it serves it shall be equipped with a vacuum relief valve that is in accordance with CSA Z21.22.
Where the water pressure in the main or other source of supply will not provide a residual water pressure of not less than 15 pounds force per square inch (psi) (103 kPa), after allowing for friction and other pressure losses, a tank and a pump or other means that will provide said 15 psi (103 kPa) pressure shall be installed. Where fixtures, fixture fittings, or both are installed that require residual pressure exceeding 15 psi (103 kPa), that minimum residual pressure shall be provided.
Where static water pressure in the water supply piping is exceeding 80 psi (552 kPa), an approved-type pressure regulator preceded by an adequate strainer shall be installed and the static pressure reduced to 80 psi (552 kPa) or less. Pressure regulator(s) equal to or exceeding 112 inches (40 mm) shall not require a strainer. Such regulator(s) shall control the pressure to water outlets in the building unless otherwise approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Each such regulator and strainer shall be accessibly located aboveground or in a vault equipped with a properly sized and sloped bore sighted drain to daylight, shall be protected from freezing, and shall have the strainer readily accessible for cleaning without removing the regulator or strainer body or disconnecting the supply piping. Pipe size determinations shall be based on 80 percent of the reduced pressure where using Table 610.4. An approved expansion tank shall be installed in the cold water distribution piping downstream of each such regulator to prevent excessive pressure from developing due to thermal expansion and to maintain the pressure setting of the regulator. Expansion tanks used in potable water systems intended to supply drinking water shall be in accordance with NSF 61. The expansion tank shall be properly sized and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and listing. Systems designed by registered design professionals shall be permitted to use approved pressure relief valves in lieu of expansion tanks provided such relief valves have a maximum pressure relief setting of 100 psi (689 kPa) or less.
A water system provided with a check valve, backflow preventer, or other normally closed device that prevents dissipation of building pressure back into the water main, independent of the type of water heater used, shall be provided with an approved, listed, and adequately sized expansion tank or other approved device having a similar function to control thermal expansion. Such expansion tank or other approved device shall be installed on the building side of the check valve, backflow preventer, or other device and shall be sized and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.

    A water system containing storage water heating equipment shall be provided with an approved, listed, adequately sized combination temperature and pressure-relief valve, except for listed nonstorage instantaneous heaters having an inside diameter of not more than 3 inches (80 mm). Each such approved combination temperature and pressure-relief valve shall be installed on the water-heating device in an approved location based on its listing requirements and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Each such combination temperature and pressure-relief valve shall be provided with a drain in accordance with Section 608.5.
Each pressure relief valve shall be an approved automatic type with drain, and each such relief valve shall be set at a pressure of not more than 150 psi (1034 kPa). No shutoff valve shall be installed between the relief valve and the system.
The discharge piping serving a temperature relief valve, pressure relief valve, or combination of both shall have no valves, obstructions, or means of isolation and be provided with the following:
  1. Equal to the size of the valve outlet and shall discharge full size to the flood level of the area receiving the discharge and pointing down.
  2. Materials shall be rated at not less than the operating temperature of the system and approved for such use.
  3. Discharge pipe shall discharge independently by gravity through an air gap into the drainage system or outside of the building with the end of the pipe not exceeding 2 feet (610 mm) and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the ground and pointing downwards.
  4. Discharge in such a manner that does not cause personal injury or structural damage.
  5. No part of such discharge pipe shall be trapped or subject to freezing.
  6. The terminal end of the pipe shall not be threaded.
  7. Discharge from a relief valve into a water heater pan shall be prohibited.
A water-heating device connected to a separate storage tank and having valves between said heater and tank shall be provided with an approved water pressure relief valve.
Where a hot-water storage tank or an indirect water heater is located at an elevation above the fixture outlets in the hot-water system, a vacuum relief valve that is in accordance with CSA Z21.22 shall be installed on the storage tank or heater.
Water piping shall be adequately supported in accordance with Table 313.3. Burred ends shall be reamed to the full bore of the pipe or tube. Changes in direction shall be made by the appropriate use of fittings, except that changes in direction in copper or copper alloy tubing shall be permitted to be made with bends, provided that such bends are made with bending equipment that does not deform or create a loss in the cross-sectional area of the tubing. Changes in direction are allowed with flexible pipe and tubing without fittings in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Provisions shall be made for expansion in hot-water piping. Piping, equipment, appurtenances, and devices shall be installed in a workmanlike manner in accordance with the provisions and intent of the code. Building supply yard piping shall be not less than 12 inches (305 mm) below the average local frost depth. The cover shall be not less than 12 inches (305 mm) below finish grade.
Water pipes shall not be run or laid in the same trench as building sewer or drainage piping constructed of clay or materials that are not approved for use within a building unless both of the following conditions are met:
  1. The bottom of the water pipe, shall be not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the top of the sewer or drain line.
  2. The water pipe shall be placed on a solid shelf excavated at one side of the common trench with a clear horizontal distance of not less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the sewer or drain line.

        Water pipes crossing sewer or drainage piping constructed of clay or materials that are not approved for use within a building shall be laid not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the sewer or drain pipe.
Water piping installed within a building and in or under a concrete floor slab resting on the ground shall be installed in accordance with the following requirements:
  1. Ferrous piping shall have a protective coating of an approved type, machine applied and in accordance with recognized standards. Field wrapping shall provide equivalent protection and shall be restricted to those short sections and fittings necessarily stripped for threading. Zinc coating (galvanizing) shall not be deemed adequate protection for piping or fittings. Approved nonferrous piping shall not be required to be wrapped.
  2. Copper or copper alloy tubing shall be installed without joints where possible. Where joints are permitted, they shall be brazed, and fittings shall be wrought copper.

    For the purpose of this section, "within a building" shall mean within the fixed limits of the building foundation.
Upon completion of a section or of the entire hot and cold water supply system, it shall be tested and proved tight under a water pressure not less than the working pressure under which it is to be used. The water used for tests shall be obtained from a potable source of supply. Except for plastic piping, a 50 psi (345 kPa) air pressure shall be permitted to be substituted for the water test. In either method of test, the piping shall withstand the test without leaking for a period of not less than 15 minutes.
Unions shall be installed in the water supply piping not more than 12 inches (305 mm) of regulating equipment, water heating, conditioning tanks, and similar equipment that requires service by removal or replacement in a manner that will facilitate its ready removal.
Except as provided in Section 609.7, no building supply shall be located in a lot other than the lot that is the site of the building or structure served by such building supply.
Nothing contained in this code shall be construed to prohibit the use of an abutting lot to:
  1. Provide access to connect a building supply to an available public water service where proper cause and legal easement not in violation of other requirements have been first established to the satisfaction of the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
  2. Provide additional space for a building supply where proper cause, transfer of ownership, or change of boundary not in violation of other requirements have been first established to the satisfaction of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. The instrument recording such action shall constitute an agreement with the Authority Having Jurisdiction, which shall clearly state and show that the areas so joined or used shall be maintained as a unit during the time they are so used. Such an agreement shall be recorded in the office of the County Recorder as a part of the conditions of ownership of said properties, and shall be binding on heirs, successors, and assigns to such properties. A copy of the instrument recording such proceedings shall be filed with the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Where a booster pump (excluding a fire pump) is connected to a building supply or underground water pipe, a low-pressure cutoff switch on the inlet side of the pump shall be installed not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) of the inlet. The cutoff switch shall be set for not less than 10 psi (69 kPa). A pressure gauge shall be installed between the shutoff valve and the pump.
New or repaired potable water systems shall be disinfected prior to use where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]. Prior to utilization of newly constructed or altered potable water piping systems, all affected potable water piping shall be disinfected using procedures prescribed in California Plumbing Code Sections 609.9(1) through 609.9(4). The method to be followed shall be that prescribed by the Health Authority or, in case no method is prescribed by it, the following:
  1. The pipe system shall be flushed with clean, potable water until potable water appears at the points of outlet.
  2. The system or parts thereof shall be filled with a water-chlorine solution containing not less than 50 parts per million of chlorine, and the system or part thereof shall be valved-off and allowed to stand for 24 hours; or, the system or part thereof shall be filled with a water-chlorine solution containing not less than 200 parts per million of chlorine and allowed to stand for 3 hours.
  3. Following the allowed standing time, the system shall be flushed with clean, potable water until the chlorine residual in the water coming from the system does not exceed the chlorine residual in the flushing water.
  4. The procedure shall be repeated where it is shown by bacteriological examination made by an approved agency that contamination persists in the system.
[Not adopted by HCD] Building water supply systems where quick-acting valves are installed shall be provided with water hammer arrester(s) to absorb high pressures resulting from the quick closing of these valves. Water hammer arresters shall be approved mechanical devices in accordance with ASSE 1010 or PDIWH 201 and shall be installed as close as possible to quick-acting valves.
Where listed mechanical devices are used, the manufacturer's specifications as to location and method of installation shall be followed.
Insulation of domestic hot water piping shall be in accordance with Section 609.11.1 and Section 609.11.2.
Domestic hot water piping shall be insulated.
Hot water pipe insulation shall have a minimum wall thickness of not less than the diameter of the pipe for a pipe up to 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter. Insulation wall thickness shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) for a pipe of 2 inches (50 mm) or more in diameter.

Exceptions:
  1. Piping that penetrates framing members shall not be required to have pipe insulation for the distance of the framing penetration.
  2. Hot water piping between the fixture control valve or supply stop and the fixture or appliance shall not be required to be insulated.
The size of each water meter and each potable water supply pipe from the meter or other source of supply to the fixture supply branches, risers, fixtures, connections, outlets, or other uses shall be based on the total demand and shall be determined according to the methods and procedures outlined in this section. Water piping systems shall be designed to ensure that the maximum velocities allowed by the code and the applicable standard are not exceeded.
Where a water filter, water softener, backflow prevention device, tankless water heater, or similar device is installed in a water supply line, the pressure loss through such devices shall be included in the pressure loss calculations of the system, and the water supply pipe and meter shall be adequately sized to provide for such a pressure loss.

    No water filter, water softener, back flow prevention device, or similar device regulated by this code shall be installed in a potable water supply piping where the installation of such device produces an excessive pressure drop in such water supply piping. In the absence of specific pressure drop information, the diameter of the inlet or outlet of such device or its connecting piping shall be not less than the diameter of such water distribution piping to the fixtures served by the device.

    Such devices shall be of a type approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction and shall be tested for flow rating and pressure loss by an approved laboratory or recognized testing agency to standards consistent with the intent of this chapter.
The quantity of water required to be supplied to every plumbing fixture shall be represented by fixture units, as shown in Table 610.3. Equivalent fixture values shown in Table 610.3 include both hot and cold water demand.

TABLE 610.3
WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (WSFU) AND MINIMUM FIXTURE BRANCH PIPE SIZES3
APPLIANCES, APPURTENANCES OR FIXTURES2 MINIMUM
FIXTURE BRANCH
PIPE SIZE1, 4
(inches)
PRIVATE PUBLIC ASSEMBLY6
Bathtub or Combination Bath/Shower (fill) 1/2 4.0 4.0 -
3/4 inch Bathtub Fill Valve
3/4 10.0 10.0 -
Bidet 1/2 1.0 - -
Clothes Washer 1/2 4.0 4.0 -
Dental Unit, cuspidor 1/2 - 1.0 -
Dishwasher, domestic 1/2 1.5 1.5 -
Drinking Fountain or Water Cooler 1/2 0.5 0.5 0.75
Hose Bibb 1/2 2.5 2.5 -
Hose Bibb, each additional8 1/2 1.0 1.0 -
Lavatory 1/2 1.0 1.0 1.0
Lawn Sprinkler, each head5 - 1.0 1.0 -
Mobilehome or Manufactured Home, each (minimum)9 - 6.0 - -
Sinks - - - -
Bar
1/2 1.0 2.0 -
Clinical Faucet
1/2 - 3.0 -
Clinical Flushometer Valve with or without faucet
1 - 8.0 -
Kitchen, domestic with or without dishwasher
1/2 1.5 1.5 -
Laundry
1/2 1.5 1.5 -
Service or Mop Basin
1/2 1.5 3.0 -
Washup, each set of faucets
1/2 - 2.0 -
Shower, per head 1/2 2.0 2.0 -
Urinal, 1.0 GPF Flushometer Valve 3/4 See Footnote7 -
Urinal, greater than 1.0 GPF Flushometer Valve 3/4 See Footnote7 -
Urinal, flush tank 1/2 2.0 2.0 3.0
Urinal, hybrid 1/2 1.0 1.0 1.0
Wash Fountain, circular spray 3/4 - 4.0 -
Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank 1/2 2.5 2.5 3.5
Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Tank 1/2 2.5 2.5 3.5
Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve 1 See Footnote7 -
Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank 1/2 3.0 5.5 7.0
Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve 1 See Footnote7 -
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm

Notes:
1   Size of the cold branch pipe, or both the hot and cold branch pipes.
2   Appliances, appurtenances, or fixtures not referenced in this table shall be permitted to be sized by reference to fixtures having a similar flow rate and frequency of use.
3   The listed fixture unit values represent their load on the cold water building supply. The separate cold water and hot water fixture unit value for fixtures having both hot and cold water connections shall be permitted to be each taken as three-quarter of the listed total value of the fixture.
4   The listed minimum supply branch pipe sizes for individual fixtures are the nominal (I.D.) pipe size.
5   For fixtures or supply connections likely to impose continuous flow demands, determine the required flow in gallons per minute (gpm) (L/s), and add it separately to the demand in gpm (L/s) for the distribution system or portions thereof.
6   Assembly [Public Use (See Table 422.1)].
7   Where sizing flushometer systems, see Section 610.10.
8   Reduced fixture unit loading for additional hose bibbs is to be used where sizing total building demand and for pipe sizing where more than one hose bibb is supplied by a segment of water distribution pipe. The fixture branch to each hose bibb shall be sized on the basis of 2.5 fixture units.
9   For water supply fixture unit values related to lots within mobilehome parks in all parts of the State of California, see California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, Article 5, Section 1278. For water supply fixture unit values related to lots within special occupancy parks in all parts of the State of California, see California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, Article 5, Section 2278.
Systems within the range of Table 610.4 shall be permitted to be sized from that table or by the method in accordance with Section 610.5.

    Listed parallel water distribution systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing, but at no time shall a portion of the system exceed the maximum velocities allowed by the code.

TABLE 610.4
FIXTURE UNIT TABLE FOR DETERMINING WATER PIPE AND METER SIZES
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1   Available static pressure after head loss.
2   Building supply, not less than 34 of an inch (20 mm) nominal size.
Except as provided in Section 610.4, the size of each water piping system shall be determined in accordance with the procedure set forth in Appendix A. For alternate methods of sizing water supply systems, see Appendix C.
Except where the type of pipe used and the water characteristics are such that no decrease in capacity due to length of service (age of system) is expected, friction-loss data shall be obtained from the "Fairly Rough" or "Rough" charts in Appendix A of this code. Friction or pressure losses in water meter, valve, and fittings shall be obtained from the same sources. Pressure losses through water-treating equipment, backflow prevention devices, or other flow-restricting devices shall be computed in accordance with Section 610.2.
On a proposed water piping installation sized using Table 610.4, the following conditions shall be determined:
  1. Total number of fixture units as determined from Table 610.3, Equivalent Fixture Units, for the fixtures to be installed.
  2. Developed length of supply pipe from meter to most remote outlet.
  3. Difference in elevation between the meter or other source of supply and the highest fixture or outlet.
  4. Pressure in the street main or other source of supply at the locality where the installation is to be made.
  5. In localities where there is a fluctuation of pressure in the main throughout the day, the water piping system shall be designed on the basis of the minimum pressure available.
The size of the meter and the building supply pipe shall be determined as follows:
  1. Determine the available pressure at the water meter or other source of supply.
  2. Add or subtract depending on positive or negative elevation change, 12 psi (3.4 kPa) for each foot (305 mm) of difference in elevation between such source of supply and the highest water supply outlet in the building or on the premises.
  3. Use the "pressure range" group within which this pressure will fall using Table 610.4.
  4. Select the "length" column that is equal to or longer than the required length.
  5. Follow down the column to a fixture unit value equal to or exceeding the total number of fixture units required by the installation.
  6. Having located the proper fixture unit value for the required length, sizes of meter and building supply pipe as found in the two left-hand columns shall be applied.
  7. No building supply pipe shall be less than 34 of an inch (20 mm) in diameter.
Where Table 610.4 is used, the minimum size of each branch shall be determined by the number of fixture units to be served by that branch, the total developed length of the system, and the meter and street service size in accordance with Section 610.8. No branch piping is required to be larger in size than that required by Table 610.4 for the building supply pipe.
Where using Table 610.4 to size water supply systems serving flushometer valves, the number of flushometer fixture units assigned to every section of pipe, whether branch or main, shall be determined by the number and category of flushometer valves served by that section of pipe, in accordance with Table 610.10. Piping supplying a flushometer valve shall be not less in size than the valve inlet.

    Where using Table 610.10 to size water piping, care shall be exercised to assign flushometer fixture units based on the number and category of fixtures served.

TABLE 610.10
FLUSHOMETER FIXTURE UNITS FOR WATER SIZING USING TABLE 610.3
FIXTURE CATEGORY: WATER CLOSET WITH FLUSHOMETER VALVES
NUMBER OF
FLUSHOMETER
VALVES
INDIVIDUAL
FIXTURE UNITS
ASSIGNED IN
DECREASING
VALUE
FIXTURE UNITS ASSIGNED
FOR WATER CLOSETS
AND SIMILAR 10-UNIT
FIXTURES IN
ACCUMULATIVE VALUES
0 40 40
2 30 70
3 20 90
4 15 105
5 or more 10 each 115 plus 10 for each
additional fixture in
excess of 5
FIXTURE CATEGORY: URINALS WITH FLUSHOMETER VALVES
NUMBER OF
FLUSHOMETER
VALVES
INDIVIDUAL
FIXTURE UNITS
ASSIGNED IN
DECREASING
VALUE
FIXTURE UNITS ASSIGNED
FOR URINALS AND
SIMILAR 5-UNIT
FIXTURES IN
ACCUMULATIVE VALUES
1 20 20
2 15 35
3 10 45
4 8 53
5 or more 5 each 58 plus 5 for each
additional fixture in
excess of 5

    In the example below, fixture units assigned to each section of pipe are computed. Each capital letter refers to the section of pipe above it, unless otherwise shown.
A: 1 WC = 40 F.U.
B: 2 WC = 70 F.U.
C: 2 WC (70) + 1 UR (20) = 90 F.U.
D: 2 WC (70) + 2 UR (35) = 105 F.U.
E: 2 WC (70) + 2 UR (35) + 1 LAV (1) = 106 F.U.
F: 2 WC (70) + 2 UR (35) + 2 LAV (2) = 107 F.U.
G: 1 LAV = 1 F.U.
H: 2 LAV = 2 F.U.
I: 2 LA V (2) + 1 UR (20) = 22 F.U.
J: 2 LA V (2)+ 2 UR (35) = 37 F.U.
K: 2 LAV (2) + 2 UR (35) + 1 WC (40) = 77 F.U.
L: 2 LAV (2) + 2 UR (35) + 2 WC (70) = 107 F.U.
M: 4 WC (105) + 4 UR (53) + 4 LA V (4) = 162 F.U.
N: 1 WC =40 F.U.
O: 1 WC (40) + 1 UR (20) = 60 F.U.
P: 1 WC (40) + 1 UR(20) + 1 LAV (1) = 61 F.U.
Q: 2 WC (70) + 1 UR (20) + 1 LAV (1) = 91 F.U.
R: 2 WC (70) + 2 UR (35) + 1 LAV (1) = 106 F.U.
S: 2 WC (70) + 2 UR (35) + 2 LAV (2) = 107 F.U.
T: 6 WC (125) + 6 UR (63) + 6 LAV (6) = 194 F.U.
EXAMPLE 610.10
SIZING METHOD FOR PUBLIC USE FIXTURES USING TABLE 610.10
The size of branches and mains serving flushometer tanks shall be consistent with the sizing procedures for flush tank water closets.
Water piping systems shall not exceed the maximum velocities listed in this section or Appendix A.
Maximum velocities in copper and copper alloy tube and fitting systems shall not exceed 8 feet per second (ft/s) (2.4 m/s) in cold water and 5 ft/s (1.5 m/s) in hot water.
Maximum velocities through copper fittings in tubing other than copper shall not exceed 8 ft/s (2.4 m/s) in cold water and 5 ft/s (1.5 m/s) in hot water.
The provisions of this section relative to size of water piping shall not apply to the following:
  1. Water supply piping systems designed in accordance with recognized engineering procedures acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
  2. Alteration of or minor additions to existing installations, provided the Authority Having Jurisdiction finds that there will be an adequate supply of water to operate fixtures.
  3. Replacement of existing fixtures or appliances.
  4. Piping that is part of fixture equipment.
  5. Unusual conditions where, in the judgment of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, an adequate supply of water is provided to operate fixtures and equipment.
  6. The size and material of irrigation water piping installed outside of a building or structure and separated from the potable water supply by means of an approved air gap or backflow prevention device is not regulated by this code. The potable water piping system supplying each such irrigation system shall be adequately sized as required elsewhere in this chapter to deliver the full connected demand of both the domestic use and the irrigation systems.
Drinking water treatment units shall comply with NSF 42 or NSF 53. Water softeners shall comply with NSF 44. Ultraviolet water treatment systems shall comply with NSF 55. Reverse osmosis drinking water treatment systems shall comply with NSF 58. Drinking water distillation systems shall comply with NSF 62.
Discharge from drinking water treatment units shall enter the drainage system through an air gap in accordance with Table 603.3.1 or an air gap device in accordance with Table 603.2, NSF 58, or IAPMO PS 65.
The tubing to and from drinking water treatment units shall be of a size and material as recommended by the manufacturer. The tubing shall comply with the requirements of NSF 14, NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53, NSF 55, NSF 58, NSF 62 or the appropriate material standards referenced in Table 1701.1.
Residential-use water softeners shall be sized in accordance with Table 611.4.

TABLE 611.4
SIZING OF RESIDENTIAL WATER SOFTENERS4
REQUIRED SIZE OF SOFTENER
CONNECTION (inches)
NUMBER OF BATHROOM
GROUPS SERVED1
34 up to 22
1 up to 43
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm

Notes:
1   Installation of a kitchen sink and dishwasher, laundry tray, and automatic
clothes washer permitted without additional size increase.
2   An additional water closet and lavatory permitted.
3   Over four bathroom groups, the softener size shall be engineered for the specific installation.
4   See also Appendix A, Recommended Rules for Sizing the Water Supply System, and Appendix C, Alternate Plumbing Systems, for alternate methods of sizing water supply systems.
Where residential sprinkler systems are required in one and two family dwellings or townhouses, the systems shall be installed by an ASSE Series 7000 certified installer in accordance with this section or NFPA 13D. This section shall be considered equivalent to NFPA 13D. Partial residential sprinkler systems shall be permitted to be installed in buildings not required to be equipped with a residential sprinkler system.
This section shall apply to standalone and multipurpose wet-pipe sprinkler systems that do not include the use of antifreeze. A multipurpose fire sprinkler system shall provide potable water to both fire sprinklers and plumbing fixtures. A stand-alone sprinkler system shall be separate and independent from the potable water distribution system.
Sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with Section 612.3.1 through Section 612.3.7.
Sprinklers shall be installed to protect all floor areas of a dwelling unit in one and two family dwellings or townhouses.

Exceptions:
  1. Attics, crawl spaces, and normally unoccupied concealed spaces that do not contain fuel-fired appliances do not require sprinklers. In attics, crawl spaces, and normally unoccupied concealed spaces that contain fuel-fired equipment, a sprinkler shall be provided to protect the equipment; however, sprinklers shall not be required in the remainder of the space.
  2. Clothes closets, linen closets, and pantries that do not exceed 24 square feet (2.2 m2) in area, with the smallest dimension not exceeding 3 feet (914 mm) and having wall and ceiling surfaces of gypsum board.
  3. Bathrooms and toilet rooms that do not exceed 55 square feet (5.1 m2) in area.
  4. Detached garages; carports; with no habitable space above; open attached porches; unheated entry areas, such as mud rooms, that are adjacent to an exterior door; and similar areas.
  5. Covered unheated projections of the building at entrances/exits provided it is not the only means of egress from the dwelling unit.
  6. Ceiling pockets that meet the following requirements:

    1. The total volume of an unprotected ceiling pocket does not exceed 100 cubic feet (2.83 m3).
    2. The entire floor under the unprotected ceiling pocket is protected by the sprinklers at the lower ceiling elevation.
    3. Each unprotected ceiling pocket is separated from an adjacent unprotected ceiling pocket by not less than a 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontal distance.
    4. The interior finish of the unprotected ceiling pocket is noncombustible material.
    5. Skylights not exceeding 32 square feet (2.97 m2).
Sprinklers shall be listed residential sprinklers and shall be installed in accordance with the sprinkler manufacturer's installation instructions.
Sprinklers shall have a temperature rating of not less than 135°F (57°C) and not more than 170°F (77°C). Sprinklers shall be separated from heat sources in accordance with the sprinkler manufacturer's installation instructions.

Exception: Sprinklers located close to a heat source in accordance with Section 612.3.3.1 shall be intermediate temperature sprinklers.
Sprinklers shall have an intermediate temperature rating of not less than 175°F (79°C) and not more than 225°F (107°C) where installed in the following locations:
  1. Directly under skylights, where the sprinkler is exposed to direct sunlight.
  2. In attics and concealed spaces located directly beneath a roof.
  3. Within the distance to a heat source in accordance with Table 612.3.3.1.

TABLE 612.3.3.1
LOCATIONS WHERE INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SPRINKLERS ARE REQUIRED
HEAT SOURCE DISTANCE FROM HEAT
SOURCE1
MINIMUM DISTANCE2
(inches)
MAXIMUM
DISTANCE
(inches)
Fireplace, Side of Open or Recessed
Fireplace
12 36
Fireplace, Front of Recessed Fireplace 36 60
Coal and Wood burning Stove 12 42
Kitchen Range Top 9 18
Oven 9 18
Vent Connector or Chimney Connector 9 18
Heating Duct, Not Insulated 9 18
Hot Water Pipe, Not Insulated 6 12
Side of Ceiling or Wall Warm Air
Register
12 24
Front of Wall Mounted Warm Air
Register
18 36
Water Heater, Furnace, or Boiler 3 6
Luminaire up to 250 Watts 3 6
Luminaire 250 Watts up to 499 Watts 6 12
For SI units: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

Notes:
1   Distances shall be measured in a straight line from the nearest edge of the heat source to the nearest edge of the sprinkler.
2   Sprinklers shall not be located at distances less than the minimum table distance unless the sprinkler listing allows a lesser distance.
The piping system shall be protected in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 3. Where sprinklers are required in areas that are subject to freezing, dry-sidewall or dry-pendent sprinklers extending from a non-freezing area into a freezing area shall be installed. Where fire sprinkler piping cannot be adequately protected against freezing, the system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 13D.
The area of coverage of a single sprinkler shall be based on the sprinkler listing and the sprinkler manufacturer's installation instructions. The area of coverage of a single sprinkler shall not exceed 400 square feet (37.16 m2).
The water discharge from a sprinkler shall not be blocked by obstructions unless additional sprinklers are installed to protect the obstructed area. Additional sprinklers shall not be required where sprinkler separation from obstructions is in accordance with the requirements of Table 612.3.6, or the minimum distances specified in the sprinkler manufacturer's installation instructions.

TABLE 612.3.6
MINIMUM SEPARATION FROM OBSTRUCTION
PENDENT SPRINKLERS
DISTANCE FROM DEFLECTOR TO PLANE AT BOTTOM OF OBSTRUCTION (A)
(inches)
MINIMUM DISTANCE TO OBSTRUCTION (B)
(feet)
1 112
3 3
5 4
7 412
9 6
11 612
14 7

SIDEWALL SPRINKLER
SIDE OBSTRUCTION
DISTANCE FROM DEFLECTOR TO PLANE AT BOTTOM OF OBSTRUCTION (A)
(inches)
MINIMUM DISTANCE TO OBSTRUCTION (B)
(feet)
1 112
3 3
5 4
7 412
9 6
11 612
14 7

SIDEWALL SPRINKLER
SIDE OBSTRUCTION
DISTANCE FROM DEFLECTOR TO PLANE AT BOTTOM OF OBSTRUCTION (A)
(inches)
MINIMUM DISTANCE TO OBSTRUCTION (B)
(feet)
1 8
2 10
3 11
4 12
6 13
7 14
9 15
11 16
14 17
For SI units: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
Pendent sprinklers located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the center of a ceiling fan, surface-mounted ceiling luminaire, or similar object shall be considered to be obstructed and additional sprinklers shall be provided.
Sidewall sprinklers located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the center of a ceiling fan, surface-mounted ceiling luminaire, or similar object shall be considered to be obstructed and additional sprinklers shall be provided.
Sprinklers shall not be painted, caulked, or modified. A sprinkler that has been painted, caulked, modified, or damaged shall be replaced with a new sprinkler.
A backflow preventer shall not be required to separate a sprinkler system from the water distribution system, provided that:
  1. The system complies with NFPA 13D or Section R313, and
  2. Piping material are suitable for potable water in accordance with the California Plumbing Code, and
  3. The system does not contain antifreeze or have a fire department connection.
Sprinkler piping systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 612.4.1 through Section 612.4.5.
Sprinkler piping shall be installed in accordance with the requirements for water distribution piping. Sprinkler piping shall comply with the material requirements for cold water distribution piping. For multipurpose piping systems, the sprinkler piping shall connect to and be a part of the cold water distribution piping system.
Nonmetallic pipe and tubing, such as CPVC, PEX-AL-PEX, PE-RT, and PEX, shall be certified for residential sprinkler installations and shall have a pressure rating of not less than 130 psi (896 kPa) at 120°F (49°C).
Nonmetallic pipe and tubing systems shall be protected from exposure to the occupied space by a layer of not less than 38 of an inch (9.5 mm) thick gypsum wallboard, 12 of an inch (12.7 mm) thick plywood, or other material having a 15 minute fire rating.

Exceptions:
  1. Pipe protection shall not be required in areas that are not required to be protected with sprinklers in accordance with Section 612.3.1.
  2. Pipe protection shall not be required where exposed piping is permitted by the pipe third party listing.
The solvent cementing of fittings shall be completed and threaded adapters for sprinklers shall be verified as being clear of excess cement prior to the installation of sprinklers on systems assembled with solvent cement.
Shutoff valves shall not be installed in a location where the valve would isolate piping serving one or more sprinklers. Shutoff valves shall only be permitted for the entire water distribution system.
The sprinkler piping beyond the service valve located at the beginning of the water distribution system shall serve only one dwelling unit.
A 12 inch (15 mm) drain for the sprinkler system shall be provided on the system side of the water distribution shutoff valve.
Sprinkler piping systems shall be sized in accordance with Section 612.5.1 through Section 612.5.3.2.2.
The sizing of the sprinkler piping system shall be based on the flow rate and pressure of each sprinkler in accordance with Section 612.5.1.1 and the number of sprinklers in accordance with Section 612.5.1.3.
The minimum flow rate and pressure for each residential sprinkler shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's published data for the specific sprinkler model based on the following:
  1. The area of coverage
  2. The ceiling configuration
  3. The temperature rating
  4. Additional conditions specified by the sprinkler manufacturer
The flow rate used for sizing the sprinkler piping system shall be based on the following:
  1. The flow rate for a room having only one sprinkler shall be the flow rate required for the sprinkler in accordance with Section 612.5.1.1.
  2. The flow rate for a room having two or more sprinklers shall be determined by identifying the sprinkler in the room with the highest required flow rate in accordance with Section 612.5.1.1, and multiplying that flow rate by 2.
  3. Where the sprinkler manufacturer specifies different criteria for ceiling configurations that are not smooth, flat, and horizontal the required flow rate for that room shall be in accordance with the sprinkler manufacturer's instructions.
  4. The flow rate used for sizing the sprinkler system shall be the flow required by the room with the largest flow rate in accordance with Section 612.5.1.2(1), Section 612.5.1.2(2), and Section 612.5.1.2(3).
  5. For the purpose of this section, it shall be permissible to reduce the flow rate for a room by subdividing the space into two or more rooms, where each room is evaluated separately with respect to the required design flow rate. Each room shall be bounded by walls and a ceiling. Openings in walls shall have a lintel not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in depth and each lintel shall form a solid barrier between the ceiling and the top of the opening.
Attached garages and carports with habitable space above shall be protected by fire sprinklers in accordance with this Section and Section R313. Protection shall be provided in accordance with one of the following:
  1. Residential Sprinklers installed in accordance with their listing.
  2. Extended Coverage sprinklers discharging water not less than their listed flow rate for Light Hazard in accordance with NFPA 13.
  3. Quick-Response spray sprinklers at light hazard spacing in accordance with NFPA 13 designed to discharge at 0.05 gpm/ft2 density (minimum).
  4. The system demand shall be permitted to be limited to the number of sprinklers in the compartment but shall not exceed two sprinklers for hydraulic calculation purposes. Garage doors shall not be considered obstructions and shall be permitted to be ignored for placement and calculation of sprinklers.
The water supply for a multipurpose or stand alone sprinkler system shall be provided by the public water main, private water main, private well system, or storage tank. The water supply required shall be determined in accordance with Section 612.5.1.2 at a pressure not less than that used in accordance with Section 612.5.3. Where a water supply serves both domestic and fire sprinkler systems, 5 gpm (19 L/min) shall be added to the sprinkler system demand at the point where the systems are connected, to determine the size of common piping and the size of the total water supply requirements where no provision is made to prevent flow into the domestic water system upon operation of a sprinkler.
Where a dwelling unit water supply is from a tank system, a private well system, a pump or a combination of these, the available water pressure shall be based on the minimum pressure control setting of the pump.
The water supply shall have the capacity to provide the required flow rate to the sprinklers for a period of time as follows:
  1. Seven minutes for one story dwelling units less than 2000 square feet (185.81 m2) in area. For the purpose of determining the area of the dwelling unit, the area of attached garages and attached open carports, porches, balconies and patios shall not be included.
  2. Ten minutes for multi-level dwelling units and one story dwelling units not less than 2000 square feet (185.81 m2) in area. For the purpose of determining the area of the dwelling unit, the area of attached garages and attached open carports, porches, balconies, and patios shall not be included.
    Where a well system, a water supply tank system, a pump, or a combination thereof is used the water supply shall serve both domestic and fire sprinkler systems. A combination of well capacity and tank storage shall be permitted to meet the capacity requirement.
The sprinkler piping shall be sized for the flow rate in accordance with Section 612.5.1. The flow rate required to supply the plumbing fixtures shall not be required to be added to the sprinkler design flow for multipurpose or stand-alone piping systems. The sizing of the water supply to the plumbing fixtures shall be determined in accordance with this chapter. For multipurpose piping systems, the largest pipe size required based on either the sprinkler piping calculations or the water distribution piping calculations shall be installed.
The sprinkler pipe shall be sized using the prescriptive method in Section 612.5.3.2 or by hydraulic calculation in accordance with NFPA 13D. The sprinkler pipe size from the water supply source to a sprinkler shall be not less than 34 of an inch (20 mm) in diameter. Threaded adapter fittings at the point where sprinklers are attached to the piping shall be not less than 12 of an inch (15 mm) in diameter.
The sprinkler pipe shall be sized by determining the available pressure to offset friction loss in piping and based on the piping material, diameter and length using the equation in Section 612.5.3.2.1 and the procedure in Section 612.5.3.2.2.
The available system pressure (Pt) for sizing the sprinkler piping shall be determined in accordance with the Equation 612.5.3.2.1.

Pt = Psup - PLws - PLm - PLd - PLe - Psp (Equation 612.5.3.2.1)

Pt = Pressure used for sizing the system in
Table 612.5.3.2(4) through Table
612.5.3.2(9)
Psup = Pressure available from the water supply
source
PLws = Pressure loss in the water service pipe
PLm = Pressure loss through the water meter
PLd = Pressure loss from devices other than
the water meter
PLe = Pressure loss associated with changes
in elevation
Psp = Maximum pressure required by a
sprinkler


TABLE 612.5.3.2(4)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 34 INCH TYPE M COPPER WATER TUBING*
SPRINKLER FLOW
RATE
(gpm)
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
SIZE
(inch)
AVAILABLE PRESSURE - Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF PIPE FROM SERVICE VALVE TO FARTHEST SPRINKLER (feet)
8 34 217 289 361 434 506 578 650 723 795 867
9 34 174 232 291 349 407 465 523 581 639 697
10 34 143 191 239 287 335 383 430 478 526 574
11 34 120 160 200 241 281 321 361 401 441 481
12 34 102 137 171 205 239 273 307 341 375 410
13 34 88 118 147 177 206 235 265 294 324 353
14 34 77 103 128 154 180 205 231 257 282 308
15 34 68 90 113 136 158 181 203 226 248 271
16 34 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 241
17 34 54 72 90 108 125 143 161 179 197 215
18 34 48 64 81 97 113 129 145 161 177 193
19 34 44 58 73 88 102 117 131 146 160 175
20 34 40 53 66 80 93 106 119 133 146 159
21 34 36 48 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145
22 34 33 44 56 67 78 89 100 111 122 133
23 34 31 41 51 61 72 82 92 102 113 123
24 34 28 38 47 57 66 76 85 95 104 114
25 34 26 35 44 53 61 70 79 88 97 105
26 34 24 33 41 49 57 65 73 82 90 98
27 34 23 30 38 46 53 61 69 76 84 91
28 34 21 28 36 43 50 57 64 71 78 85
29 34 20 27 33 40 47 53 60 67 73 80
30 34 19 25 31 38 44 50 56 63 69 75
31 34 18 24 29 35 41 47 53 59 65 71
32 34 17 22 28 33 39 44 50 56 61 67
33 34 16 21 26 32 37 42 47 53 58 63
34 34 NP 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
35 34 NP 19 24 28 33 38 42 47 52 57
36 34 NP 18 22 27 31 36 40 45 49 54
37 34 NP 17 21 26 30 34 38 43 47 51
38 34 NP 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 45 49
39 34 NP 15 19 23 27 31 35 39 42 46
40 34 NP NP 18 22 26 29 33 37 40 44
For SI units: 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
* NP - Means not permitted.



TABLE 612.5.3.2(5)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1 INCH TYPE M COPPER WATER TUBING
SPRINKLER
FLOW RATE
(gpm)
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
SIZE
(inch)
AVAILABLE PRESSURE - Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF PIPE FROM SERVICE VALVE TO FARTHEST SPRINKLER (feet)
8 1 806 1075 1343 1612 1881 2149 2418 2687 2955 3224
9 1 648 864 1080 1296 1512 1728 1945 2161 2377 2593
10 1 533 711 889 1067 1245 1422 1600 1778 1956 2134
11 1 447 596 745 894 1043 1192 1341 1491 1640 1789
12 1 381 508 634 761 888 1015 1142 1269 1396 1523
13 1 328 438 547 657 766 875 985 1094 1204 1313
14 1 286 382 477 572 668 763 859 954 1049 1145
15 1 252 336 420 504 588 672 756 840 924 1008
16 1 224 298 373 447 522 596 671 745 820 894
17 1 200 266 333 400 466 533 600 666 733 799
18 1 180 240 300 360 420 479 539 599 659 719
19 1 163 217 271 325 380 434 488 542 597 651
20 1 148 197 247 296 345 395 444 493 543 592
21 1 135 180 225 270 315 360 406 451 496 541
22 1 124 165 207 248 289 331 372 413 455 496
23 1 114 152 190 228 267 305 343 381 419 457
24 1 106 141 176 211 246 282 317 352 387 422
25 1 98 131 163 196 228 261 294 326 359 392
26 1 91 121 152 182 212 243 273 304 334 364
27 1 85 113 142 170 198 226 255 283 311 340
28 1 79 106 132 159 185 212 238 265 291 318
29 1 74 99 124 149 174 198 223 248 273 298
30 1 70 93 116 140 163 186 210 233 256 280
31 1 66 88 110 132 153 175 197 219 241 263
32 1 62 83 103 124 145 165 186 207 227 248
33 1 59 78 98 117 137 156 176 195 215 234
34 1 55 74 92 111 129 148 166 185 203 222
35 1 53 70 88 105 123 140 158 175 193 210
36 1 50 66 83 100 116 133 150 166 183 199
37 1 47 63 79 95 111 126 142 158 174 190
38 1 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 181
39 1 43 57 72 86 100 115 129 143 158 172
40 1 41 55 68 82 96 109 123 137 150 164
For SI units: 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm


TABLE 612.5.3.2(6)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 34 INCH IPS CPVC PIPE
SPRINKLER
FLOW RATE
(gpm)
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
SIZE
(inch)
AVAILABLE PRESSURE - Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF PIPE FROM SERVICE VALVE TO FARTHEST SPRINKLER (feet)
8 34 348 465 581 697 813 929 1045 1161 1278 1394
9 34 280 374 467 560 654 747 841 934 1027 1121
10 34 231 307 384 461 538 615 692 769 845 922
11 34 193 258 322 387 451 515 580 644 709 773
12 34 165 219 274 329 384 439 494 549 603 658
13 34 142 189 237 284 331 378 426 473 520 568
14 34 124 165 206 247 289 330 371 412 454 495
15 34 109 145 182 218 254 290 327 363 399 436
16 34 97 129 161 193 226 258 290 322 354 387
17 34 86 115 144 173 202 230 259 288 317 346
18 34 78 104 130 155 181 207 233 259 285 311
19 34 70 94 117 141 164 188 211 234 258 281
20 34 64 85 107 128 149 171 192 213 235 256
21 34 58 78 97 117 136 156 175 195 214 234
22 34 54 71 89 107 125 143 161 179 197 214
23 34 49 66 82 99 115 132 148 165 181 198
24 34 46 61 76 91 107 122 317 152 167 183
25 34 42 56 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169
26 34 39 52 66 79 92 105 118 131 144 157
27 34 37 49 61 73 86 98 110 122 135 147
28 34 34 46 57 69 80 92 103 114 126 137
29 34 32 43 54 64 75 86 96 107 118 129
30 34 30 40 50 60 70 81 91 101 111 121
31 34 28 38 47 57 66 76 85 95 104 114
32 34 27 36 45 54 63 71 80 89 98 107
33 34 25 34 42 51 59 68 76 84 93 101
34 34 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96
35 34 23 30 38 45 53 61 68 76 83 91
36 34 22 29 36 43 50 57 65 72 79 86
37 34 20 27 34 41 48 55 61 68 75 82
38 34 20 27 33 39 46 52 59 65 72 78
39 34 19 25 31 37 43 50 56 62 68 74
40 34 18 24 30 35 41 47` 53 59 65 71
For SI units: 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm


TABLE 612.5.3.2(7)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1 INCH IPS CPVC PIPE
For SI units: 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm



TABLE 612.5.3.2(8)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 34 INCH PEX TUBING*
For SI units: 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
* NP - Means not permitted.



TABLE 612.5.3.2(9)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1 INCH PEX TUBING
SPRINKLER
FLOW RATE
(gpm)
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
SIZE
(inch)
AVAILABLE PRESSURE - Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF PIPE FROM SERVICE VALVE TO FARTHEST SPRINKLER (feet)
8 1 314 418 523 628 732 837 941 1046 1151 1255
9 1 252 336 421 505 589 673 757 841 925 1009
10 1 208 277 346 415 485 554 623 692 761 831
11 1 174 232 290 348 406 464 522 580 638 696
12 1 148 198 247 296 346 395 445 494 543 593
13 1 128 170 213 256 298 341 383 426 469 511
14 1 111 149 186 223 260 297 334 371 409 446
15 1 98 131 163 196 229 262 294 327 360 392
16 1 87 116 145 174 203 232 261 290 319 348
17 1 78 104 130 156 182 208 233 259 285 311
18 1 70 93 117 140 163 187 210 233 257 280
19 1 63 84 106 127 148 169 190 211 232 253
20 1 58 77 96 115 134 154 173 192 211 230
21 1 53 70 88 105 123 140 158 175 193 211
22 1 48 64 80 97 113 129 145 161 177 193
23 1 44 59 74 89 104 119 133 148 163 178
24 1 41 55 69 82 96 110 123 137 151 164
25 1 38 51 64 76 89 102 114 127 140 152
26 1 35 47 59 71 83 95 106 118 130 142
27 1 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 121 132
28 1 31 41 52 62 72 82 93 103 113 124
29 1 29 39 48 58 68 77 87 97 106 116
30 1 27 36 45 54 63 73 82 91 100 109
31 1 26 34 43 51 60 68 77 85 94 102
32 1 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 89 97
33 1 23 30 38 46 53 61 68 76 84 91
34 1 22 29 36 43 50 58 65 72 79 86
35 1 20 27 34 41 48 55 61 68 75 82
36 1 19 26 32 39 45 52 58 65 71 78
37 1 18 25 31 37 43 49 55 62 68 74
38 1 18 23 29 35 41 47 53 59 64 70
39 1 17 22 28 33 39 45 50 56 61 67
40 1 16 21 27 32 37 43 48 53 59 64
For SI units: 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
The following procedure shall be used to determine the minimum size of the residential sprinkler piping:

Step 1 - Determine Psup

Obtain the supply pressure available from the water main from the water purveyor, or for an individual source, the available supply pressure shall be in accordance with Section 612.5.2.1. The pressure shall be the flowing pressure available at the flow rate used when applying Table 612.5.3.2(1).

Step 2 - Determine PLws

Use Table 612.5.3.2(1) to determine the pressure loss in the water service pipe based on the size of the water service. Where the water service supplies more than one dwelling unit, 5 gpm (0.3 L/s) shall be added to the sprinkler flow rate.

Step 3 - Determine PLm

Use Table 612.5.3.2(2) to determine the pressure loss from the water meter based on the water meter size.

Step 4 - Determine PLd

Determine the pressure loss from devices, other than the water meter, installed in the piping system supplying sprinklers such as pressure-reducing valves, backflow preventers, water softeners, or water filters. Device pressure losses shall be based on the device manufacturer's specifications. The flow rate used to determine pressure loss shall be the sprinkler flow rate from Section 612.5.1.2. As an alternative to deducting pressure loss for a device, an automatic bypass valve shall be installed to divert flow around the device when a sprinkler activates.

Step 5 - Determine PLe

Use Table 612.5.3.2(3) to determine the pressure loss associated with changes in elevation. The elevation used in applying the table shall be the difference between the elevation where the water source pressure was measured and the elevation of the highest sprinkler.

Step 6 - Determine Psp

Determine the maximum pressure required by an individual sprinkler based on the flow rate from Section 612.5.1.1. The minimum pressure required is specified in the sprinkler manufacturer's published data for the specific sprinkler model based on the selected flow rate.

Step 7 - Calculate Pt

Using Equation 612.5.3.2.1, calculate the available system pressure for sizing the sprinkler piping.

Step 8 - Determine the maximum allowable pipe length

Use Table 612.5.3.2(4) through Table 612.5.3.2(9) to select a material and size for the residential sprinkler piping. The piping material and size shall be acceptable where the developed length of pipe between the inside water service valve and the most remote sprinkler does not exceed the maximum allowable length specified by the applicable table. Interpolation of Pt bctween the tabular values shall be permitted.

    The maximum allowable length of piping in Table 612.5.3.2(4) through Table 612.5.3.2(9) incorporates an adjustment for pipe fittings, and no additional consideration of friction losses associated with pipe fittings shall be required.

TABLE 612.5.3.2(1)
WATER SERVICE PRESSURE LOSS (PLws)1, 2, 3
FLOW
RATE
(gpm)
34 INCH WATER SERVICE PRESSURE LOSS
(psi)
1 INCH WATER SERVICE PRESSURE LOSS
(psi)
114 INCH WATER SERVICE PRESSURE LOSS
(psi)
40 FEET
OR
LESS
41 FEET
TO
75 FEET
76 FEET
TO
100 FEET
101 FEET
TO
150 FEET
40 FEET
OR
LESS
41 FEET
TO
75 FEET
76 FEET
TO
100 FEET
101 FEET
TO
150 FEET
40 FEET
OR
LESS
41 FEET
TO
75 FEET
76 FEET
TO
100 FEET
101 FEET
TO
150 FEET
8 5.1 8.7 11.8 17.4 1.5 2.5 3.4 5.1 0.6 1.0 1.3 1.9
10 7.7 13.1 17.8 26.3 2.3 3.8 5.2 7.7 0.8 1.4 2.0 2.9
12 10.8 18.4 24.9 NP 3.2 5.4 7.3 10.7 1.2 2.0 2.7 4.0
14 14.4 24.5 NP NP 4.2 7.1 9.6 14.3 1.6 2.7 3.6 5.4
16 18.4 NP NP NP 5.4 9.1 12.4 18.3 2.0 3.4 4.7 6.9
18 22.9 NP NP NP 6.7 11.4 15.4 22.7 2.5 4.3 5.8 8.6
20 27.8 NP NP NP 8.1 13.8 18.7 27.6 3.1 5.2 7.0 10.4
22 NP NP NP NP 9.7 16.5 22.3 NP 3.7 6.2 8.4 12.4
24 NP NP NP NP 11.4 19.3 26.2 NP 4.3 7.3 9.9 14.6
26 NP NP NP NP 13.2 22.4 NP NP 5.0 8.5 11.4 16.9
28 NP NP NP NP 15.1 25.7 NP NP 5.7 9.7 13.1 19.4
30 NP NP NP NP 17.2 NP NP NP 6.5 11.0 14.9 22.0
32 NP NP NP NP 19.4 NP NP NP 7.3 12.4 16.8 24.8
34 NP NP NP NP 21.7 NP NP NP 8.2 13.9 18.8 NP
36 NP NP NP NP 24.7 NP NP NP 9.1 15.4 20.9 NP
For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch= 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm

Notes:
1   Values arc applicable for underground piping materials and are based on polyethylene pipe having an SDR of 11 and a Hazen Williams C Factor of 150.
2   Values include the following length allowances for fittings: 25 percent length increase for actual lengths up to 100 feet (30480 mm) and 15 percent length increase for actual lengths over 100 feet (30480 mm).
3   NP - Means not permitted.



TABLE 612.5.3.2(2)
MINIMUM WATER METER PRESSURE LOSS (PLm)1, 2
FLOW RATE
(gpm)
58 INCH METER
PRESSURE
LOSS (psi)
34 INCH METER
PRESSURE
LOSS (psi)
1 INCH METER
PRESSURE
LOSS (psi)
8 2 1 1
10 3 1 1
12 4 18.4 1
14 5 24.5 1
16 7 3 1
18 9 4 1
20 11 4 2
22 NP 5 2
24 NP 5 2
26 NP 6 2
28 NP 6 2
30 NP 7 2
32 NP 7 3
34 NP 8 3
36 NP 8 3
For SI units: 1 gallon per minnte = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch = 25 mm

Notes:
1   Table 612.5.3.2(2) establishes conservative values for water meter pressure loss for installations where the water meter loss is unknown. Where the actual water meter pressure loss is known, PLm shall be the pressure loss as specified by the meter manufacturer.
2   NP - Means not permitted.


TABLE 612.5.3.2(3)
ELEVATION LOSS (PLe)
ELEVATION (feet) PRESSURE LOSS (psi)
5 2.2
10 4.4
15 6.5
20 8.7
25 10.9
20 13.0
35 15.2
40 17.4
For SI units: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa
An owner's manual for the fire sprinkler system shall be provided to the owner. A sign or valve tag shall be installed at the main shutoff valve to the water distribution system stating the following: "Warning, the water system for this home supplies fire sprinklers that require certain flow and pressure to fight a fire. Devices that restrict the flow, decrease the pressure, or automatically shut off the water to the fire sprinkler system, such as water softeners, filtration systems, and automatic shutoff valves shall not be added to this system without a review of the fire, sprinkler system by a fire protection specialist. Do not remove this sign."
The inspection and testing of sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with Section 612.7.1 and Section 612.7.2.
The following shall be verified prior to the concealment of any sprinkler system piping:
  1. Sprinklers are installed in all areas in accordance with Section 612.3.1
  2. Where sprinkler water spray patterns are obstructed by construction features, luminaries or ceiling fans, additional sprinklers are installed in accordance with Section 612.3.6.
  3. Sprinklers are the correct temperature rating and are installed at or beyond the required separation distances from heat sources in accordance with Section 612.3.3 and Section 612.3.3.1.
  4. The minimum pipe size in accordance with the requirements of Table 612.5.3.2(4) through Table 612.5.3.2(9) or, where the piping system was hydraulically calculated in accordance with Section 612.5.3.1, the size used in the hydraulic calculation.
  5. The pipe length does not exceed the length permitted by Table 612.5.3.2(4) through Table 612.5.3.2(9) or, where the piping system was hydraulically calculated in accordance with Section 612.5.3.1, pipe lengths and fittings shall not exceed those used in the hydraulic calculation.
  6. Nonmetallic piping that conveys water to sprinklers is certified as having a pressure rating of not less than 130 psi (896 kPa) at 120°F (49°C).
  7. Piping is properly supported.
  8. The piping system is tested in accordance with Section 609.4.
Upon completion of the residential sprinkler system, the system shall be inspected. The following shall be verified during the final inspection:
  1. Sprinklers are not painted, damaged, or otherwise hindered from operation.
  2. Where a pump is required to provide water to the system, the pump starts automatically upon system water demand.
  3. Pressure reducing valves, water softeners, water filters, or other impairments to water flow that were not part of the original design have not been installed.
  4. The sign or valve tag in accordance with Section 612.6 is installed and the owner's manual for the system is present.
The domestic water-heating equipment and distribution systems shall supply water at the temperature and amounts shown in Table 613.1. Where the system is designed by a mechanical engineer, appropriate diversity factors may be utilized.

TABLE 613.1
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] HOT WATER USE
CLINICAL DIETARY1 LAUNDRY2
Liter/Hour/Bed 11.9 7.2 7.6
Gallons/Hour/Bed 3 2 2
Temperature °C 41-49.0 49.0 71.0
Temperature °F 105-120.0 120.0 160.0
1   Rinse water temperature at automatic dishwashing equipment and pot
sinks shall be 180°F(82°C).

Exception: The rinse water supply to pot rinse sinks may be deleted if
a method of chemical disinfection using a three-compartment sink is
proposed
2   The required temperature of 160°F (71°C) in the laundry is that measure
in the washing machine and shall be supplied so that the temperature may
be maintained over the entire wash and rinse period.

Exception: A lower water temperature of 140°F (60°C) may be utilized,
provided linens are subsequently passed through a tumbler dryer at 180°F
(82°C) or a flatwork ironer at 300°F (149°C).
At least two pieces of hot-water-heating equipment shall be provided to supply hot water for dishwashing and minimum patient services such as handwashing and bathing. Booster heaters for 125°F to 180°F (52°C to 82°C) water are acceptable as a second piece of equipment for dishwashing. Where storage tanks are separate from the water heater, at least two independent storage tanks shall be provided.
Instantaneous heaters are permitted for supplying hot water to handwashing and bathing fixtures if a continuous mechanical recirculation system is also provided.
Water storage tanks shall be fabricated of corrosion-resistant materials or lined with corrosion-resistant materials.
Temperature control valves shall be provided to automatically regulate the temperature of hot water delivered to plumbing fixtures used by patients to a range of 105°F (41°C) minimum to 120°F (49°C) maximum. High temperature alarm set at 125°F (52°C) shall be provided. The audible/visual device for the high temperature alarm shall annunciate at a continuously occupied location.
Hot-water distribution system serving patient care areas shall be under constant mechanical recirculation to provide continuous hot water at each hot water outlet. Nonrecirculated fixture branch piping shall not exceed 25 feet (7.62 meters) in length. Dead-end piping (risers with no flow, branches with no fixture) shall not be installed. In renovation projects, dead-end piping shall be removed in the area of renovation. Empty risers, mains, and branches installed for future use shall be permitted.
At fixtures where water exceeding 125°F (52°C) is accessible to patients or personnel, warning signs in letters at least 2 inches (51 mm) high shall be posted above the fixtures.
Sectionalizing valves shall be provided as required by Section 606.8.
All piping for multistation or central dialysis units shall be rigid where possible. All piping and tubing shall be in a neat arrangement. The placement of piping or tubing on the floor is not permitted.
All valves shall be located in accessible locations.
Piping and valves shall be identified according to their function.
A means of preventing backwashing or flushing of the system when one or more stations are in operation shall be provided.
A continuous audible alarm shall sound at the nurses' station and remote equipment rooms when the minimum velocity is not maintained, or if backwashing or flushing is attempted while one or more stations are in operation.
Water used for dialysis treatment shall meet the latest edition of ANSI/American Association of Medical Instrumentations (AAMI) RD62, Water treatment equipment for hemodialysis applications.
A diagram of all piping as installed shall be posted at the nurses' station and equipment room of all multistation or central dialysis units.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Nonpotable water shall not be piped for drinking, washing or bathing, washing of clothing, cooking, washing of food, washing of cooking or eating utensils, washing of food preparation or processing premises, or other personal service rooms.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Non-potable water systems or systems carrying any other non-potable substance shall be installed so as to prevent backflow or back-siphonage into a potable water system.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Outlets for non-potable water, such as water for industrial or fire-fighting purposes, shall be posted in a manner understandable to all employees to indicate that the water is unsafe and shall not be used for drinking, washing, cooking or other personal service purposes.
For new acute care hospital buildings submitted after the effective date of this code, the hospital shall have an Oil-site water supply sufficient to operate essential hospital utilities and equipment in the acute care hospital building, to support 72 hours of continuing operation in the event of an emergency. Any general acute care hospital in operation after January 1, 2030 shall have an on-site water supply sufficient to operate essential hospital utilities and equipment in the acute care hospital buildings on the campus with an SPC-3, SPC-4, or SPC-5 rating, to support 72 hours of continuing operation in the event of an emergency. See also California Building Code, Part 2, Section 1616A.1.42.

    The emergency water storage capacity shall be computed based on an approved Water Conservation/Water Rationing Plan to provide for 72 hours of operation, accepted by the licensing agency. For acute care hospital facilities or buildings required to meet NPC-5, on-site water supply of not less than 150 gallons [567.9 L] [based on 50 gallons/day/bed for 72 hours] of potable water per licensed bed shall be provided. In no event shall the campus on-site water storage capacity be less than one tank with at least 5,000 gallons capacity.

    The emergency supply shall have fittings to allow for replenishment of the water supply from transportable water sources and a means to dispense water to portable containers in the event that normal water supply becomes unavailable.

Exception: With the approval of the Office and the licensing agency, hook-ups that allow for the use of transportable sources of potable water may be provided in lieu of 72 hours of on-site storage if a minimum onsite water supply of potable and industrial water is provided, sufficient to support 24 hours of operation, without replenishment based on the hospital's approved Water Conservation/Water Rationing plan. In no event shall the on-site water storage capacity be less than one tank with at least 5,000 gallons capacity. This emergency supply tank shall have fittings to allow for replenishment of the water supply from transportable water sources and a means to dispense water to portable containers in the event that normal water supply becomes unavailable.
The emergency supply of water shall be provided at adequate pressure using gravity, pressure tanks, or booster pumps. Pumps used for this purpose shall be provided with electrical power from the on-site emergency power supply system.
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