Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Regulations

Chapter 4 Plumbing Fixtures and Fixture Fittings

Chapter 5 Water Heaters

Chapter 6 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 7 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 8 Indirect Wastes

Chapter 9 Vents

Chapter 10 Traps and Interceptors

Chapter 11 Storm Drainage

Chapter 12 Fuel Gas Piping

Chapter 13 Health Care Facilities and Medical Gas and Medical Vacuum Systems

Chapter 14 Firestop Protection

Chapter 15 Alternate Water Sources for Nonpotable Applications

Chapter 16 Nonpotable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Chapter 16A Non-Potable Water Reuse Systems

Chapter 17 Referenced Standards

Appendices [PDF]

Appendix A Recommended Rules for Sizing the Water Supply System

Appendix B Explanatory Notes on Combination Waste and Vent Systems

Appendix C Alternate Plumbing Systems

Appendix D Sizing Storm Water Drainage Systems

Appendix E Manufactured/Mobile Home Parks and Recreational Vehicle Parks

Appendix F Firefighter Breathing Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix G Sizing of Venting Systems

Appendix H Private Sewage Disposal Systems

Appendix J Combination of Indoor and Outdoor Combustion and Ventilation Opening Design

Appendix K Potable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Appendix L Sustainable Practices

This chapter applies to the special fixtures and systems in health care facilities; the special plumbing requirements for such facilities; and the installation, testing, and verification of Categories 1, 2, and 3 medical gas and medical vacuum piping systems, except as otherwise indicated in this chapter, from the central supply system to the station outlets or inlets in hospitals, clinics, and other health care facilities. Other plumbing in such facilities shall comply with other applicable sections of this code. For Category 3 medical gas systems, only oxygen and nitrous oxide shall be used.
This chapter does not apply to the following except as otherwise addressed in this chapter:
  1. Cylinder and container management, storage, and reserve requirements
  2. Bulk supply systems
  3. Electrical connections and requirements
  4. Motor requirements and controls
  5. Systems having nonstandard operating pressures
  6. Waste anesthetic gas disposal (WAGD) systems
  7. Surface-mounted medical gas rail systems
  8. Breathing air replenishment (BAR) systems
  9. Portable compressed gas systems
  10. Medical support gas systems
  11. Gas-powered device supply systems
  12. Scavenging systems
The requirements of this chapter shall not be interpreted to conflict with the requirements of NFPA 99. For requirements of portions of medical gas and medical vacuum systems not addressed in this chapter or medical gas and medical vacuum systems beyond the scope of this chapter refer to NFPA 99.
Where the term "medical gas" occurs, the provisions shall apply to piped systems for oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen, instrument air, and mixtures thereof. Where the name of a specific gas service occurs, the provision shall apply to that gas. [NFPA 99:5.1.1.2]

    Where the tenn "medical vacuum" occurs, the provisions shall apply to systems for piped medical-surgical vacuum. Where the name of a specific vacuum service occurs, the provision shall apply to that vacuum service. [NFPA 99:5.1.1.3]
Construction and equipment requirements shall be applied to new construction and new equipment, except as otherwise addressed in this chapter. [NFPA 99:1.3.2]
The altered, renovated, or modernized portion of an existing system or individual component shall be required to meet the installation and equipment requirements stated in this chapter. Where the alteration, renovation, or modernization adversely impacts existing performance requirements of a system or component, additional upgrading shall be required. An existing system that does not comply with the provisions of this chapter shall be permitted to be continued in use where the Authority Having Jurisdiction has determined that such lise does not constitute a distinct hazard to life. [NFPA 99:1.3.2.1 - 1.3.2.3]
Building systems in health care facilities shall be designed in accordance with Category 1 through Category 3 requirements as detailed in this chapter. [NFPA 99:4.1]
The governing body of the facility or its designee shall establish the following areas in accordance with the type of patient care anticipated:
  1. Critical care rooms
  2. General care rooms
  3. Basic care rooms [NFPA 99:1.3.4.1]
It shall be the responsibility of the governing body of the health care organization to designate anesthetizing locations. [NFPA 99:1.3.4.2]

Exception: Deep sedation and general anesthesia shall not be administered where using a Category 3 medical gas system. [NFPA 99:5.3.1.5]
It shall be the responsibility of the governing body of the health care organization to designate wet procedure locations. [NFPA 99:1.3.4.3]
Drinking fountain control valves shall be flush-mounted or fully recessed where installed in corridors or other areas where patients are transported on a gurney, bed, or wheelchair.
Piping and drain traps in psychiatric patient rooms shall be concealed. Fixtures and fittings shall be resistant to vandalism.
Ice makers or ice storage containers shall be located in nursing stations or similarly supervised areas to minimize potential contamination.
Sterilizers and bedpan steamers shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and comply with Section 1303.4.1 and Section 1303.4.2.
Sterilizers and bedpan steamers shall be connected to the sanitary drainage system through an air gap in accordance with Section 801.2. The size of indirect waste piping shall be not less than the size of the drain connection on the fixture. Each such indirect waste pipe shall not exceed 15 feet (4572 mm) in length and shall be separately piped to a receptor. Such receptors shall be located in the same room as the equipment served. Except for bedpan steamers, such indirect waste pipes shall not require traps. A trap having a seal of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) shall be provided in the indirect waste pipe for a bedpan steamer.
Where a sterilizer or bedpan steamer has provision for a vapor vent and such a vent is required by the manufacturer, the vent shall be extended to the outdoors above the roof. Sterilizer and bedpan steamer vapor vents shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall not be connected to a drainage system vent.
Provisions for aspirators or other water-supplied suction devices shall be installed with the specific approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Where aspirators are used for removing body fluids, they shall include a collection container to collect liquids and solid particles. Aspirators shall indirectly discharge to the sanitary drainage system through an air gap in accordance with Section 806.1. The potable water supply to an aspirator shall be protected by a vacuum breaker or equivalent backflow protection device in accordance with Section 603.5.9.
Drains shall be installed on dryers, after-coolers, separators, and receivers.
Clinical sinks shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 1303.7.1.
Clinical sinks shall be directly connected to the sanitary drainage system, and shall be provided with approved flushing devices installed in accordance with Section 413.1.
Hospitals shall be provided with not less than two approved potable water sources that are installed in such a manner as to prevent the interruption of water service.
The installation of medical gas and medical vacuum piping systems shall comply with the requirements of this chapter.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Medical gas systems for health care facilities that are regulated by OSHPD (hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, and intermediate care facilities, licensed clinics, and correctional treatment centers) shall be in accordance with NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities. See California Building Code Table 1224.4.6.1 for location and number of station outlets for oxygen, vacuum, and medical air.
The installation of individual components shall comply with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Such instructions shall include directions and information deemed by the manufacturer to be adequate for attaining proper operation, testing, and maintenance of the medical gas and medical vacuum systems. Copies of the manufacturer's instructions shall be left with the system owner. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.8]
Medical gas and medical vacuum systems shall be supplied from a central supply source of not less than two units, primary and secondary, consisting of one of the following:
  1. Two cylinder banks with not less than two cylinders in each bank.
  2. Not less than two air compressors.
  3. Not less than two vacuum pumps.
  4. A proportioning system for medical air USP.
Exception: A single Category 3 medical gas source system shall not supply more than two adjoining single treatment facilities. [NFPA 99:5.3.1.1.4]
Certification of medical gas and medical vacuum systems shall comply with the requirements of Section 1320.0.
Before a medical gas or medical vacuum system is installed or altered in a hospital, medical facility, or clinic, duplicate construction documents shall be filed with the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Approval of the plans shall be obtained prior to issuance of a permit by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Construction documents shall show the following:
  1. Plot plan of the site, drawn to scale, indicating the location of existing or new cylinder storage areas, property lines, driveways, and existing or proposed buildings.
  2. Piping layout of the proposed piping system or alteration, including alarms, valves, origin of gases, user outlets, and user inlets. The demand and loading of a piping, existing or future, shall also be indicated.
  3. Complete specification of materials.
Construction documents submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall clearly indicate the nature and extent of the work proposed and shall show in detail that such work will be in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.
A record of as-built plans and valve identification records shall remain on the site.
Medical gas and medical vacuum systems shall be capable of delivering service in the pressure ranges listed in Table 1305.1.

TABLE 1305.1
STANDARD DESIGNATION COLORS AND OPERATING PRESSURES FOR MEDICAL GAS AND MEDICAL VACUUM SYSTEMS [NFPA 99:TABLE 5.1.11]
GAS SERVICE ABBREVIATED
NAME
COLORS
(BACKGROUND/TEXT)
STANDARD
GAUGE PRESSURE
Medical air Med Air Yellow/black 50-55 psi
Carbon dioxide CO2 Gray/black or gray/white 50-55 psi
Helium He Brown/white 50-55 psi
Nitrogen N2 Black/white 160-185 psi
Nitrous oxide N2O Blue/white 50-55 psi
Oxygen O2 Green/white or white/green 50-55 psi
Oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures O2/CO2 n% (n = % of CO2)
Green/white 50-55 psi
Medical-surgical vacuum Med Vac White/black 15 inch to 30 inch HgV
Waste anesthetic gas disposal WAGD Violet/white Varies with system type
Other mixtures Gas A%/ Gas B% Colors as above; major gas for
background/minor gas for text
None
Nonmedical air ( Category 3
gas-powered device)
- Yellow-and-white diagonal
stripe/black
None
Nonmedical and Category 3
vacuum
- White-and-black diagonal
stripe/black boxed
None
Laboratory air - Yellow-and-white checker-
board/black
None
Laboratory vacuum - White-and-black
checkerboard/black boxed
None
Instrument air - Red/white 160-185 psi
For SI units: 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch of mercury vacuum (HgV) = 3.386 kPa
Medical gas and medical vacuum systems shall be capable of supplying the flow rates listed in Table 1305.2.

TABLE 1305.2
MINIMUM FLOW RATES (cubic feet per minute)
MEDICAL SYSTEM FLOW RATE
Oxygen .71 CFM per outlet1
Nitrous Oxide .71 CFM per outlet1
Medical Compressed Air .71 CFM per outlet1
Nitrogen 15 CFM free air per outlet
Vacuum 1 SCFM per inlet2
Carbon Dioxide .71 CFM per outlet1
Helium .71 CFM per outlet
For SI units: 1 cubic foot per minute (CFM) = 0.47 L/s

Notes:
1   A room designed for a permanently located respiratory ventilator or anesthesia machine shall have an outlet capable of a flow rate of 6.36 CFM (3.0 L/s) at the station outlet.
2   For testing and certification purposes, individual station inlets shall be capable of a flow rate of 3 SCFM, while maintaining a system pressure of not less than 12 inches of mercury (41 kPa) at the nearest adjacent vacuum inlet.
Station outlets and inlets for medical gas and medical vacuum systems shall be provided as listed in Table 1305.3.

TABLE 1305.3
MINIMUM OUTLETS AND INLETS PER STATION
LOCATION OXYGEN MEDICAL
VACUUM
MEDICAL
AIR
NITROUS
OXIDE
NITROGEN HELIUM CARBON
DIOXIDE
Patient rooms for medical/surgical, obstetrics, and pediatrics
1/bed 1/bed 1/bed - - - -
Examination/treatment for nursing units 1/bed 1/bed - - - - -
Intensive care (all) 3/bed 3/bed 2/bed - - - -
Nursery1
2/bed 2/bed 1/bed - - - -
General operating rooms 2/room 3/room4 2/room 1/room 1/room - -
Cystoscopic and invasive special procedures 2/room 3/room4 2/room - - - -
Recovery delivery and Iabor/delivery/recovery rooms2
2/bed
2/room
2/bed
3/room4
1/bed
1/room
- - - -
Labor rooms 1/bed 1/bed 1/bed - - - -
First aid and emergency treatment3
1/bed 1/bed4 1/bed - - - -
Autopsy - 1/station 1/station - - - -
Anesthesia workroom
1/station - 1/station - - - -
Notes:
1  Includes pedialric nursery.
2  Includes obstetric recovery.
3  Emergency trauma rooms used ior surgical procedures shall be classifled as general operating rooms.
4  Vacuum inlets required are in addition to inlets used as part of a scavenging system for removal of anesthetizing gases.
The installation of medical gas and medical vacuum systems shall be made by qualified, competent technicians who are experienced in performing such installations. Installers of medical gas and medical vacuum piped distribution systems, appurtenant piping supporting pump and compressor source systems, and appurtenant piping supporting source gas manifold systems not including permanently installed bulk source systems, shall be certified in accordance with ASSE 6010. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.10.1, 5.1.10.11.10.2]
Brazing shall be performed by individuals who are qualified in accordance with Section 1307.0. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.10.4]
Prior to installation work, the installer of medical gas and medical vacuum piping shall provide and maintain documentation on the job site for the qualification of brazing procedures and individual brazers that are required in accordance with Section 1307.0. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.10.5]
Health care organization personnel shall be permitted to install piping systems where the requirements of Section 1306.1 through Section 1306.2.1 are met during the installation. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.10.6]
Brazing procedures and brazer performance for the installation of medical gas and medical vacuum piping shall be qualified in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code or AWS B2.2, both as modified in Section 1307.2 through Section 1307.7. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.11.1, 5.3.6.3.1]
Brazers shall be qualified by visual examination of the test coupon followed by sectioning. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.11.2, 5.3.6.3.2]
The brazing procedure specification shall address cleaning, joint c1earance, overlap, internal purge gas, purge gas flow rate, and filler metal. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.11.3, 5.3.6.3.3]
The brazing procedure qualification record and the record of brazer performance qualification shall document the filler metal used, cleaning, joint clearance, overlap, internal purge gas, and flow rate during brazing of the coupon, and absence of internal oxidation in the completed coupon. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.11.4, 5.3.6.3.4]
Brazing procedures qualified by a technically competent group or agency shall be permitted under the following conditions:
  1. The brazing procedure specification and the procedure qualification record meet the requirements of this code.
  2. The employer obtains a copy of both the brazing procedure specification and the supporting qualification record from the group or agency and signs and dates these records, thereby accepting responsibility for the qualifications that were performed by the group or agency.
  3. The employer qualifies not less than one brazer following each brazing procedure specification used. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.11.5, 5.3.6.3.5]
An employer shall be permitted to accept brazer qualification records of a previous employer under the following conditions:
  1. The brazer has been qualified following the same or an equivalent procedure that the new employer uses.
  2. The new employer obtains a copy of the record of brazer performance qualification tests from the previous employer and signs and dates this record, thereby accepting responsibility for the qualifications performed by the previous employer. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.11.6, 5.3.6.3.6]
Performance qualifications of brazers shall remain in effect indefinitely, unless the brazer does not braze with the qualified procedure for a period exceeding 6 months or there is a specific reason to question the ability of the brazer. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.11.7, 5.3.6.3.7]
The provisions of this section shall apply to field-installed piping for the distribution of medical gases and medical vacuum systems.
Tubes, valves, fittings, station outlets, and other piping components in medical gas systems shall have been cleaned for oxygen service by the manufacturer prior to installation in accordance with CGA G-4.1 except that fittings shall be permitted to be cleaned by a supplier or agency other than the manufacturer. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.1.1, 5.3.6.2.2]

    Where tube ends, fittings, or other components become contaminated before installation they shall be recleaned in accordance with Section 1311.0.
Each length of tube shall be delivered plugged or capped by the manufacturer and kept sealed until prepared for installation. Fittings, valves, and other components shall be delivered sealed, labeled, and kept sealed until prepared for installation. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.1.2, 5.1.10.1.3]
Tubes shall be hard-drawn seamless copper ASTM B819 medical gas tube, Type L, except Type K shall be used where operating pressures exceed a gauge pressure of 185 psi (1276 kPa) and the pipe sizes exceed DN80 [(NPS 3) (318 inches O.D.)]. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.1.4]

    ASTM B819 medical gas tube shall be identified by the manufacturer's markings "OXY," "MED," "OXY/MED," "OXY/ACR," or "ACR/MED" in blue (Type L) or green (Type K). [NFPA 99:5.1.10.1.5]
Piping for medical vacuum systems shall be constructed of one of the following:
  1. Hard-drawn seamless copper tube in accordance with one of the following:

    1. ASTM E88 copper tube (Type K, L, or M)
    2. ASTM B280 copper ACR tube
    3. ASTM B819 copper medical gas tubing (Type K or L)
  2. Stainless steel tube [NFPA 99:5.1.10.2.1]
Exceptions: Piping for Category 3 medical vacuum systems shall be permitted to be as follows:
  1. Schedule 40 or Schedule 80 PVC plastic piping manufactured in accordance with ASTM D1785. [NFPA 99:5.3.8.2.3(1)]
  2. Schedule 40 or Schedule 80 CPVC IPS (iron pipe size) plastic piping manufactured in accordance with ASTM F441. [NFPA 99:5.3.8.2.4(1)]
  3. CPVC CTS (copper tube size) plastic pipe manufactured in accordance with ASTM D2846, 12 of an inch (15 mm) through 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter. [NFPA 99:5.3.8.2.4(3)]
This section sets forth the requirements for pipe joint installations for a medical gas or medical vacuum system.
Medical gas and medical vacuum systems shall have turns, offsets, and other changes in direction made using the following fittings or joining methods:
  1. Brazed in accordance with Section 1309.3.
  2. Memory metal fittings in accordance with Section 1309.4.1.
  3. Axially swaged, elastic preload fittings in accordance with Section 1309.4.2.
  4. Threaded in accordance with Section 1309.4.3.
  5. Welded in accordance with Section 1309.5. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.3.1]
Exceptions: Fittings or joints for Category 3 medical vacuum systems shall be permitted in accordance with the following:
  1. Flared fittings that comply with ASME B16.26. [NFPA 99:5.3.7.2.2(4)]
  2. Compression fittings that do not exceed 34 of an inch (20 mm) in size. [NFPA 99:5.3.7.2.2(5)]
  3. Soldered joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM B828 using a lead-free solder filler metal containing not more than 0.2 percent lead by volume in accordance with ASTM B32. [NFPA 99:5.3.7.2.3.3]
  4. Schedule 40 or Schedule 80 PVC plastic pipe fittings manufactured in accordance with ASTM D2466 or ASTM D2467. Joints shall be solvent-cemented in accordance with ASTM D2672. [NFPA 99:5.3.8.2.3(2), 5.3.8.2.3(3)]
  5. Schedule 40 or Schedule 80 CPVC IPS plastic pipe fittings manufactured in accordance with ASTM F438 or ASTM F439, or CPVC CTS plastic pipe fittings manufactured in accordance with ASTM D2846, 12 of an inch (15 mm) through 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter. Solvent cement used for joints shall be in accordance with ASTM F493. [NFPA 99:5.3.8.2.4(2) - 5.3.8.2.4(4)]
Medical vacuum systems shall be permitted to have branch connections made using mechanically formed, drilled, and extruded tee-branch connections that are formed in accordance with the tool manufacturer's instructions. Such branch connections shall be joined by brazing in accordance with Section 1309.3. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.3.2]
Brazed joints shall be made using a brazing alloy that exhibits a melting temperature in excess of 1000°F (538°C) to retain the integrity of the piping system in the event of fire exposure. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.1.3, 5.3.6.4.2]

    Fittings for tubes, turns, offsets, and other changes in direction shall be made with wrought-copper capillary fittings in accordance with ASME B16.22 or brazed fittings in accordance with ASME B16.50. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.1.1, 5.3.6.2.3]

    Cast-copper alloy fittings shall not be permitted. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.1.2, 5.3.6.2.4]
Brazed tube joints shall be the socket type. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.1.4, 5.3.6.4.1]
Filler metals shall bond with and be metallurgically compatible with the base metals being joined. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.1.5, 5.3.6.4.3]

    Filler metals shall comply with AWS A5.8. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.1.6, 5.3.6.4.4]
Copper-to-copper joints shall be brazed using a copper-phosphorus or copper-phosphorus-silver brazing filler metal (BCuP series) without flux. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.1.7, 5.3.6.4.5]
Joints to be brazed in place shall be accessible for necessary preparation, assembly, heating, filler application, cooling, cleaning, and inspection. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.1.9, 5.3.6.4.6]
Tube ends shall be cut square using a sharp tubing cutter to avoid deforming the tube. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.2.1, 5.3.6.5.1]
The cutting wheels on tubing cutters shall be free from grease, oil, or other lubricant not approved for oxygen service. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.2.2, 5.3.6.5.2]
The cut ends of the tube shall be rolled smooth or deburred with a sharp, clean deburring tool, taking care to prevent chips from entering the tube. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.2.3, 5.3.6.5.3]
The interior surfaces of tubes, fittings, and other components that are cleaned for oxygen service shall be stored and handled to avoid contamination prior to assembly and brazing. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.1, 5.3.6.6.1]
The exterior surfaces of tube ends shall be cleaned prior to brazing to remove surface oxides. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.2, 5.3.6.6.2]

    Where cleaning the exterior surfaces of tube ends, no matter shall be permitted to enter the tube. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.3]
Where the interior surfaces of fitting sockets become contaminated prior to brazing, they shall be recleaned for oxygen in accordance with Section 1311.0 and shall be cleaned for brazing with a clean, oil-free wire brush. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.4]
Clean, nonshedding, abrasive pads shall be used to clean the exterior surfaces of the tube ends. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.5]

Exception: For Category 3 systems, nonabrasive pads shall be used to clean the exterior surfaces of tube ends. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.6.3]
The use of steel wool or sand cloth shall be prohibited. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.6]

    For Category 3 systems, the use of wire brushes shall also be prohibited.

    The cleaning process shall not result in grooving of the surfaces to be joined. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.7, 5.3.6.6.5]
After being abraded, the surfaces shall be wiped using a clean, lint-free white cloth. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.8, 5.3.6.6.6]
Tubes, fittings, valves, and other components shall be visually examined internally before being joined to verify that they have not become contaminated for oxygen service and that they are free of obstructions or debris. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.9, 5.3.6.6.7]
The interior surfaces of tube ends, fittings, and other components that were cleaned for oxygen service by the manufacturer, but become contaminated prior to being installed, shall be permitted to be recleaned in accordance with Section 1311.0.
Material that has become contaminated shall be cleaned in accordance with Section 1311.0.
Joints shall be brazed within 8 hours after the surfaces are cleaned for brazing. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.13, 5.3.6.6.9]
Flux shall only be used where brazing dissimilar metals, such as copper and bronze or brass, using a silver (BAg series) brazing filler metal. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.4.1, 5.3.6.7.1]

    Cast metals shall not be field-brazed. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.7.2]
Surfaces shall be cleaned for brazing in accordance with Section 1309.3.6. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.4.2, 5.3.6.7.3]
Flux shall be applied sparingly to minimize contamination of the inside of the tube with flux. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.4.3, 5.3.6.7.4]

    The flux shall be applied and worked over the cleaned surfaces to be brazed using a stiff bristle brush to ensure complete coverage and wetting of the surfaces with flux. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.4.4, 5.3.6.7.5]
Short sections of copper tube shall be brazed onto the non-copper component, and the interior of the subassembly shall be cleaned of flux prior to installation in the piping system. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.4.5, 5.3.6.7.6]
On joints DN20 (NPS 34) (78 of an inch O.D.) size and smaller, flux-coated brazing rods shall be permitted to be used in lieu of applying flux to the surfaces being joined. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.4.6, 5.3.6.7.7]
Where being brazed, joints shall be continuously purged with oil-free, dry nitrogen NF to prevent the formation of copper oxide on the inside surfaces of the joint. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.1, 5.3.6.8.1]
The source of the purge gas shall be monitored, and the installer shall be audibly alerted where the source content is low. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.2, 5.3.6.8.2]
The purge gas flow rate shall be controlled by the use of a pressure regulator and a flowmeter, or a combination thereof. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.3, 5.3.6.8.4]

    Pressure regulators alone shall not be used to control purge gas flow rates. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.4, 5.3.6.8.5]

    For Category 3 systems, the nitrogen purge gas flow rate shall not be high enough to produce a positive pressure in the piping system. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.8.3]
In order to assure that ambient air has been removed from the pipeline prior to brazing, an oxygen analyzer shall be used to verify the effectiveness of the purge. The oxygen analyzer shall read below 1 percent oxygen concentration before brazing begins. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.5]
During and after installation, openings in the piping system shall be kept sealed to maintain a nitrogen atmosphere within the piping to prevent debris or other contaminants from entering the system. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.6, 5.3.6.8.6]
While a joint is being brazed, a discharge opening shall be provided on the opposite side of the joint from where the purge gas is being introduced. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.7, 5.3.6.8.7]
The flow of purge gas shall be maintained until the joint is cool to the touch. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.8, 5.3.6.8.8]
After the joint has cooled, the purge discharge opening shall be sealed to prevent contamination of the inside of the tube and maintain the nitrogen atmosphere within the piping system. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.9, 5.3.6.8.9]
The final brazed connection of new piping to an existing pipeline containing the system gas shall be permitted to be made without the use of a nitrogen purge. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.10]
After a final brazed connection in a positive-pressure medical gas pipeline is made without a nitrogen purge, an outlet in the immediate downstream zone of the affected portions of both tbe new and existing piping shall be tested in accordance with the following [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.11]:
  1. Each joint in the final connection between the new work and the existing system shall be leak-tested with the gas of system designation at the normal operating pressure by means of a leak detectant that is safe for use with oxygen and does not contain ammonia. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.9.2]
  2. Vacuum joints shall be tested using an ultrasonic leak detector or other means that will allow detection of leaks in an active medical vacuum system. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.9.3]
  3. For pressure gases, immediately after the final brazed connection is made and leak-tested, an outlet in the new piping and an outlet in the existing piping that are immediately downstream from the point or area of intrusion shall be purged in accordance with Section 1309.3.8.9(4). [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.9.4]
  4. Where traces of particulate matter have been deposited in the pipelines as a result of construction, a heavy, intermittent purging of the pipeline shall be done. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.6]
  5. Before the new work is used for patient care, positive-pressure gases shall be tested for operational pressure and gas concentration in accordance with Section 1319.10 and Section 1319.11. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.9.5]
  6. Permanent records of these tests shall be maintained. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.9.6]
Where using the autogenous orbital welding process, joints shall be continuously purged inside and outside with inert gas(es) in accordance with the qualified welding procedure. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.5.12]
Tube ends shall be inserted fully into the socket or to a mechanically limited depth that is not less than the minimum cup depth (overlap) in accordance with ASME B16.50. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.6.1, 5.3.6.9.1]
Where flux is permitted, the joint shall be heated slowly until the flux has liquefied. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.6.2, 5.3.6.9.2]

     After flux is liquefied, or where flux is not permitted to be used, the joint shall be heated quickly to the brazing temperature, taking care not to overheat thc joint. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.6.3, 5.3.6.9.3]
After brazing, the outside of joints shall be cleaned by washing with water and a wire brush to remove residue and permit clear visual inspection of the joint. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.7.1, 5.3.6.10.1]
Where flux has been used, the wash water shall be hot. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.7.2, 5.3.6.10.2]
Each brazed joint shall be visually inspected after cleaning the outside surfaces. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.7.3, 5.3.6.10.3]
Joints exhibiting the following conditions shall not be pem1itted:
  1. Flux or flux residue (where flux or flux-coated BAg series rods are used with dissimilar metals).
  2. Base metal melting or erosion.
  3. Unmelted filler metal.
  4. Failure of the filler metal to be clearly visible around the joint at the interface between the socket and the tube.
  5. Cracks in the tube or component.
  6. Cracks in the braze filler metal.
  7. Failure of the joint to hold the test pressure under the installer-performed initial pressure test in accordance with Section 1319.5 and the standing pressure test in accordance with Section 1319.7 or Section 1319.8. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.7.4, 5.3.6.10.4]
Brazed joints that are identified as defective under the conditions of Section 1309.3.10.3(2) or Section 1309.3.10.3(5) shall be replaced. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.7.5,5.3.6.10.5]

      Brazed joints that are identified as defective under the conditions of Section 1309.3.10.3(1), Section 1309.3.10.3(3), Section 1309.3.10.3(4), Section 1309.3.10.3(6), or Section 1309.3.10.3(7) shall be permitted to be repaired, except that no joint shall be reheated more than once before being replaced. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.7.6, 5.3.6.10.6]
The special fittings in Section 1309.4.1 through Section 1309.4.5 shall be pem1itted to be used in lieu of brazed joints.
Memory metal fittings having a temperature rating not less than 1000°F (538°C) and a pressure rating not less than 300 psi (2068 kPa) shall be permitted to be used to join copper or stainless steel tube. Such fittings shall be installed by qualified technicians in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.6]
Axially swaged, elastic strain preload fittings providing metal-to-metal seals, having a temperature rating not less than 1000°F (538°C) and a pressure rating not less than 300 psi (2068 kPa), and where complete, are permanent and nonseparable shall be permitted to be used to join copper or stainless steel tube. Such fittings shall be installed by qualified technicians in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.7]
Threaded fittings shall comply with the following requirements:
  1. Be limited to connections for pressure and vacuum indicators, alarm devices, check valves, and source equipment on the source side of the source valve.
  2. Be tapered pipe threads in accordance with ASME B1.20.1.
  3. Be made up with polytetrafluroethylene tape or other thread sealant recommended for oxygen service, with the sealant applied to the male threads only and care taken to ensure sealant does not enter the pipe. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.8, 5.3.6.2.5]
Dielectric fittings shall comply with the following requirements, and shall only be permitted where required by the manufacturer of special medical equipment to electrically isolate the equipment from the system distribution piping:
  1. Be of brass or copper construction with an approved dielectric.
  2. Be permitted to be a union.
  3. Be clean for oxygen where used for medical gases. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.9.2]
Approved metallic gas tube fittings that provide a permanent joint having the mechanical, thermal, and scaling integrity of a brazed joint shall be permitted to be used. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.9.1]
Welded joints for medical gas and medical-surgical vacuum systems shall be permitted to be made using a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) autogenous orbital procedure. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.5.1.1]
Welders shall be qualified in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.5.2.2]
The GTAW autogenous orbital procedure and the welder qualification procedure shall be qualified in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Welder qualification procedures shall include a bend test and a tensile test in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code on each tube size diameter. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.5.1.2, 5.1.10.5.1.3]
GTAW autogenous orbital welded joints shall be purged during welding with a commercially available mixture of 75 percent helium (+/- 5 percent) and 25 percent argon (+/- 5 percent). [NFPA 99:5.1.10.5.1.5]
Test coupons shall be welded and inspected, as a minimum, at the start of work and every 4 hours thereafter, or where the machine is idle for more than 30 minutes, and at the end of the work period. Test coupons shall be inspected on the I.D. and O.D. by a qualified quality control inspector, and shall be welded at change of operator, weld head, welding power supply, or gas source. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.5.1.7 - 5.1.10.5.1.9]
Stainless tube shall be welded using metal inert gas (MIG) welding, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, or other welding techniques approved for joining stainless tube. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.5.2.1]
The following joints shall be prohibited throughout medical gas and medical vacuum distribution pipeline systems [NFPA 99:5.1.10.10, 5.3.6.2.6]:
  1. Flared and compression-type connections, including connections to station outlets and inlets, alarm devices, and other components. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.10(1), 5.3.6.2.6(1)]
  2. Other straight-threaded connections, including unions. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.10(2), 5.3.6.2.6(3)]
  3. The use of pipe-crimping tools to permanently stop the flow of medical gas and medical vacuum piping. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.10(3)]
  4. Removable and nonremovable push-fit fittings that employ a quick assembly push fit connector. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.10(4)]
  5. Push-lock connections for Category 3 medical gas systems. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.2.6(2)]
The installer shall furnish documentation certifying that installed piping materials for medical gas or medical vacuum systems are in accordance with Section 1308.0. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.1.6]
Medical gas and medical vacuum piping systems shall be designed and sized to deliver the required flow rates at the utilization pressures in accordance with Section 1310.2.1 through Section 1310.2.3. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.1.1, 5.3.6.11.1]

     In no case, shall pipe sizing be less than as follows:
  1. Mains and branches in medical gas piping systems shall be not less than DN 15 (NPS 12) (58 of an inch O.D.) size. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.1.2]
  2. Mains and branches in medical-surgical vacuum systems shall be not less than DN20 (NPS 34) (78 of an inch O.D.) size. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.1.3]
  3. Drops to individual station outlets and inlets shall be not less than DN15 (NPS 12) (58 of an inch O.D.) size. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.1.4]
  4. Runouts to alarm panels and connecting tubing for gauges and alarm devices shall be permitted to be DN8 (NPS 14) (38 of an inch O.D.) size. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.1.5]
  5. Category 3 medical gas piping systems that utilize oxygen shall be not less than DN10 (NPS 38) (12 of an inch O.D.) size, and systems that utilize nitrous oxide shall be not less than DN8 (NPS 14) (38 of an inch O.D.) size. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.11.2]
Where the maximum demand for each medical gas or medical vacuum system does not exceed the values in Table 1310.2.1(2) through Table 1310.2.1(7), the size of pipe of each section of the system shall be determined in accordance with Section 1310.2.2. The size for systems beyond the range of Table 1310.2.1(2) through Table 1310.2.1(7) shall be determined in accordance with Section 1310.2.3.

TABLE 1310.2.1(2)
PRESSURE LOSS FOR MEDICAL AIR
FLOW RATE
(SCFM)1
PRESSURE DROP (psi) PER 100 FEET2
12 INCH PIPE 34 INCH PIPE 1 INCH PIPE
0.35 0.004 0.001 -
0.71 0.012 0.003 -
1.06 0.023 0.005 -
1.41 0.037 0.007 -
1.77 0.055 0.011 -
2.12
0.075 0.015 -
2.47 0.097 0.019 -
2.82 0.123 0.024 -
3.18 0.151 0.029
-
3.53 0.181 0.035 -
4.24 0.249 0.048 -
4.94
0.326 0.063 -
5.65
0.413 0.080 -
6.36
0.507 0.098 -
7.06
0.611 0.118 0.030
7.77
0.723 0.139 0.035
8.47 0.843 0.139 0.041
9.18 0.969 0.187 0.047
9.89 1.108 0212 0053
10.59 1.252 0.240 0.060
12.36 1.647 0.315 0.079
14.12 2.090 0.398 0.100
15.89 2.580 0.490 0.123
17.66 3.116 0.591 0.148
19.42 - 0.701 0.176
21.19 - 0.818 0.205
22.95 - 0.944 0.236
24.72 - 1.078 0.268
28.25 - 1.369 0.341
31.78 - 1.690 0.421
35.31 - 2.043 0.509
38.84 - 2.425 0.603
42.37 - 2.838 0.705
45.90 - 3.280 0.814
49.43 - 3.751 0.929
52.97 - 4.249 1.052
56.50 - - 1.181
60.03 - - 1.318
63.56 - - 1.461
67.09 - - 1.611
70.62 - - 1.768
81.21 - - 2.276
88.28 - - 2.647
95.34 - - 3.044
For SI units: 1 standard cubic foot per minute = 28.32 SLPM, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1 Based on pressure of 14.7 psig (101 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).
2 Based on pressure of 55 psig (379 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).



TABLE 1310.2.1(3)
PRESSURE LOSS FOR NITROGEN
FLOW RATE
(SCFM)1
PRESSURE DROP (psi) PER 100 FEET2
12 INCH PIPE 34 INCH PIPE 1 INCH PIPE
5.30 0.126 0.024 -
10.59 0.430 0.082 -
15.89 0.886 0.168 -
21.19 1.485 0.281 -
26.48 2.220 0.419 -
31.48 3.089 0.581 -
37.08 4.087 0.766 -
42.37 - 0.975 -
47.67 - 1.206 -
52.97 - 1.460 0.361
58.26 - 1.736 0.429
63.56 - 2.033 0.502
68.85 - 2.352 0.580
74.15 - 2.692 0.663
79.45 - 3.054 0.752
84.74 - 3.436 0.845
90.04 - 3.840 0.943
95.34 - 4.264 1.046
100.63 - 4.709 1.154
105.93 - - 1.267
116.52 - - 1.508
127.12 - - 1.768
137.71 - - 2.046
148.30 - - 2.344
158.90 - - 2.660
169.49 - - 2.994
180.08 - -
3.347
190.67 - - 3.719
201.27 - - 4.108
211.86 - - 4.516
222.45 - - 4.942
233.05 - - -
243.64 - - -
254.23 - - -
264.83 - - -
275.42 - - -
286.01 - - -
296.60 - - -
307.20 - - -
317.79 - - -
For SI units: 1 standard cubic foot per minute = 28.32 SLPM, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1 Based on pressure of 14.7 psig (101 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).
2 Based on pressure of 55 psig (379 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).



TABLE 1310.2.1(4)
PRESSURE LOSS FOR NITROUS OXIDE AND CARBON DIOXIDE
FLOW RATE
(SCFM)1
PRESSURE DROP (psi) PER 100 FEET2
12 INCH PIPE 34 INCH PIPE 1 INCH PIPE
0.35 0.004 - -
0.71 0.014 - -
1.06 0.029 - -
1.41 0.047 - -
1.77 0.070 - -
2.12 0.096 - -
2.47 0.125 - -
2.82 0.159
- -
3.18 0.195 - -
3.53 0.235 0.045 -
4.24 0.324 0.062 -
4.94 0.425 0.081 -
5.65 0.539 0.103 -
6.36 0.664 0.127 -
7.06 0.802 0.153 0.038
7.77 0.950 0.181 0.045
8.47 1.110 0.211 0.053
9.18 1.281 0.243 0.061
9.89 1.463 0.278 0.070
10.59 1.656 0.314 0.079
12.36 2.186 0.413 0.103
14.12 2.752 0.525 0.131
15.89 3.442 0.648 0.162
17.66 4.166 0.783 0.195
19.42 - 0.929 0.231
21.19 - 0.744 0.270
22.95 - 0.858 0.312
24.72 - 0.980 0.356
28.25 - 1.244 0.453
31.78 - 1.537 0.560
35.31 - 1.858 0.677
38.84 - 2.205 0.804
42.37 - 2.581 0.941
45.90 - 2.982 1.088
49.43 - 3.411 1.245
52.97 - 4.249 1.411
56.50 - - 1.587
60.03 - - 1.772
63.56 - - 1.967
67.09 - - 2.174
70.62 - - 2.385
79.45 - - 2.959
88.28 - - 3.589
For SI units: 1 standard cubic foot per minute = 28.32 SLPM, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1 Based on pressure of 14.7 psig (101 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).
2 Based on pressure of 55 psig (379 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).



TABLE 1310.2.1(5)
PRESSURE LOSS FOR OXYGEN
FLOW RATE
(SCFM)1
PRESSURE DROP (psi) PER 100 FEET2
12 INCH PIPE 34 INCH PIPE 1 INCH PIPE
0.35 0.004 - -
0.71 0.013 0.003 -
1.06 0.025 0.005 -
1.41 0.041 0.008 -
1.77 0.060 0.012 -
2.12 0.082 0.016 -
2.47 0.107 0.021 -
2.82 0.135 0.026 -
3.18 0.166 0.032 -
3.53 0.199 0.038 -
4.24 0.274 0.053 -
4.94 0.359 0.069 -
5.65 0.454 0.087 -
6.36 0.558 0.107 -
7.06 0.672 0.129 0.033
7.77 0.795 0.153 0.039
8.47 0.927 0.179 0.045
9.18
1.066 0.205 0.052
9.89 1.218 0.233 0.059
10.59 1.377 0.263 0.066
12.36 1.811 0.346 0.087
14.12 2.298 0.438 0.110
15.89 2.837 0.539 0.135
17.66 3.456 0.650 0.163
19.42 - 0.771
0.193
21.19 - 0.900 0.225
22.95 - 1.038 0.260
24.72 - 1.185 0.295
28.25 - 1.505 0.375
31.78 - 1.859 0.463
35.31 - 2.247
0.559
38.84 - 2.667 0.663
42.37 - 3.121 0.775
45.90 - 3.607 0.895
49.43 - 4.125 1.022
52.97 - - 1.157
56.50 - - 1.299
60.03 - - 1.449
63.56 - - 1.607
67.09 - - 1.772
70.62 - - 1.944
81.21 - - 2.503
91.81 - - 3.127
102.40 - - 3.813
For SI units: 1 standard cubic foot per minute = 28.32 SLPM, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1 Based on pressure of 14.7 psig (101 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).
2 Based on pressure of 55 psig (379 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).



TABLE 1310.2.1(6)
PRESSURE LOSS FOR VACUUM
FLOW RATE
(SCFM)1
VACUUM LOSS (inch of mercury) PER 100 FEET FOR COPPER TUBE2
34 INCH TUBE
1 INCH TUBE
114 INCH TUBE 112 INCH TUBE 2 INCH TUBE
0.35 0.019 - - - -
0.71 0.061 - - - -
1.06 0.120 - - - -
1.41 0.194 - - - -
1.77 0.284 - - - -
2.12 0.387 - - - -
2.47 0.504 - - - -
2.82 0.634 - - - -
3.18 0.777 - - - -
3.53 0.932 0.238 - - -
4.24 1.277 0.325 - - -
4.94 1.669 0.424 - - -
5.65 2.106 0.534 - - -
6.36 2.586 0.655 - - -
7.06 3.110 0.787 0.272 - -
7.77 3.674 0.929 0.321 - -
8.47 4.280 1.081 0.373 - -
9.18 4.927 1.243 0.429 - -
9.89 - 1.416 0.488 - -
10.59 - 1.597 0.551 0.242 -
11.30 - 1.789 0.616 0.270 -
12.01 - 1.990 0.685 0.300 -
12.71 - 2.200 0.757 0.332 -
13.42 - 2.419 0.832 0.365 -
14.12 - 2.648 0.911 0.399 -
14.83 - 2.886 0.992 0.435 -
15.54 - 3.132 1.077 0.471 -
16.24 - 3.388 1.164 0.510 -
16.95 - 3.652 1.254 0.549 -
17.66 - 3.925 1.348 0.590 -
18.36 - 4.207 1.444 0.632 0.167
19.07 - 4.498 1.543 0.675 0.179
19.77 - 4.797 1.646 0.720 0.190
20.48 - - 1.751 0.766 0.202
21.19 - - 1.859 0.813 0.214
24.72 - - 2.441 1.066 0.281
28.25 - - 3.092 1.350 0.356
31.78 - - 3.811 1.662 0.438
35.31 - - 4.596 2.004 0.527
38.84 - - - 2.373 0.624
42.37 - - - 2.770 0.728
45.90 - - - 3.194 0.838
49.43 - - - 3.645 0.956
52.97 - - - 4.122 1.081
56.50 - - - 4.626 1.212
63.56 - - - - 1.495
70.62 - - - - 1.803
77.68 - - - - 2.138
84.74 - - - - 2.497
91.81 - - - - 2.882
98.87 - - - - 3.291
105.93 - - - - 3.724
112.99 - - - - 4.181
For SI units: 1 standard cubic foot per minute = 2832 SLPM, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 inch of mercury = 3.386 kPa

Notes:
1 Based on pressure of 14.7 psig (101 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).
2 Based on pressure of 19 inches of mercury gauge vacuum (64 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).



TABLE 1310.2.1(7)
PRESSURE LOSS FOR VACUUM (CATEGORY 3)
For SI units: 1 standard cubic foot per minute = 2832 SLPM, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 inch of mercury = 3.386 kPa

Notes:
1 Based on pressure of 14.7 psig (101 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).
2 Based on pressure of 19 inches of mercury gauge vacuum (64 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).
The size of each section of pipe in a system within the range of Table 1310.2.1(2) through Table 1310.2.1(7) shall be determined in accordance with the following:
  1. Determine the total flow rate and number of outlets or inlets for each section of pipe in accordance with Table 1305.2 and Table 1305.3.
  2. Measure the length of the section of pipe to each station outlet or inlet on the system. Multiply the measured pipe length by 1.5 (150 percent), to account for the number of fittings in the system, to determine the pipe equivalent length.
  3. Beginning with the most remote outlet or inlet, multiply the total flow rate by the diversity factor specified in Table 1310.2.1(1) for each section of pipe to determine the sizing flow rate for the piping.
  4. Select Table 1310.2.1(2) through Table 1310.2.1(7) based on the medical gas or medical vacuum being transported through the piping.
  5. Select an estimated pipe size for determining the system pressure loss. Multiply the pipe equivalent length, for a given section of pipe, by the pressure loss for the sizing flow rate in the applicable table. Divide that number by 100 to determine the system pressure loss for the section of pipe.
  6. Add the pressure loss for each section of piping, from the source equipment location to the outlet or inlet, to determine the total system pressure loss to each outlet or inlet. The total system pressure loss in the piping to each outlet or inlet shall not exceed the values specified in Table 1310.2.2(1).
TABLE 1310.2.1(1)
SYSTEM SIZING - FLOW REQUIREMENTS FOR STATION OUTLETS AND INLETS1
NUMBER OF OUTLETS AND INLETS
TERMINAL UNITS PER FACILITY
DIVERSITY PERCENTAGE OF AVERAGE
FLOW PER OUTLETS AND INLETS
TERMINAL UNITS
MINIMUM PERMISSIBLE SYSTEM FLOW
OF ALL PRESSURIZED MEDICAL GAS SYSTEMS2
(standard cubic feet per minute)
1-10 100% Actual Demand
11-25 75% 7.0
26-50 50% 13.1
51-100 50% 17.5
Notes:
1  Flow rates of station outlets and inlets in accordance with Table 1305.2.
2  The minimum system flow is the average outlets and inlets flow times the number of station outlets and inlets times the diversity percentage.



TABLE 1310.2.2(1)
MAXIMUM PERMITTED PRESSURE LOSS IN MEDICAL GAS AND MEDICAL VACUUM SYSTEMS
TYPE OF SYSTEM MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SYSTEM
PRESSURE LOSS (psi)
Medical Air
5
Nitrogen 15
Nitrous Oxide
5
Carbon Dioxide
5
Oxygen 5
Medical Vacuum
4 inches of mercury
For SI units: 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch of mercury = 3.386 kPa
For conditions other than those covered by Section 1310.2.1, such as longer runs of greater gas or vacuum demands, the size of each medical gas or medical vacuum piping system shall be determined by standard engineering methods acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, and each system shall be so designed that the total pressure drop or gain between the source equipment and an outlet or inlet shall not exceed the allowable pressures shown in Table 1305.1.
Piping shall be protected against freezing, corrosion, and physical damage . [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.2, 5.3.6.11.4.1]
Piping exposed in corridors and other areas where subject to physical damage from the movement of carts, stretchers, beds, portable equipment, or vehicles shall be protected. [NFPA 99:5.1.1 0.11.2.1, 5.3.6.11.4.2]
Piping underground within buildings or embedded in concrete floors or walls shall be installed in a continuous conduit. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.2.2]

Exception: Category 3 medical gas piping shall not be installed within floor slabs. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.15]
Buried piping outside of buildings shall be installed below the local level of frost penetration. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.5.1, 5.3.6.13.1]
Piping risers shall be permitted to be installed in pipe shafts where protected from physical damage, effects of excessive heat, corrosion, or contact with oil. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.3.1]
Piping shall not be installed in kitchens, elevator shafts, elevator machine rooms, areas with open flames, electrical service equipment exceeding 600 volts, and areas prohibited under California Electrical Code except for the following locations:
  1. Room locations for medical air compressor supply systems and medical-surgical vacuum pump supply systems.
  2. Room locations for secondary distribution circuit panels and breakers having a voltage rating not exceeding 600 volts. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.3.2]
  3. Medical gas piping, including oxygen and nitrous oxide piping, shall not be located where subject to contact with oil, including a possible flooding area in the case of a major oil leak. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.3.4, 5.3.6.11.3]
Medical gas piping shall be permitted to be installed in the same service trench or tunnel with fuel gas lines, fuel oil lines, electrical lines, steam lines, and similar utilities provided that the space is ventilated (naturally or mechanically) and the ambient temperature around the medical gas piping does not exceed 130°F (54°C). [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.3.3]
Piping shall be supported from the building structure. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.4.1, 5.3.6.12.1]
Hangers and supports shall be installed in accordance with MSS SP-58. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.4.2, 5.3.6.12.2]
Hangers and supports for copper tube shall be sized for copper tube. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.4.3, 5.3.6.12.3]
In damp locations, copper tube hangers or supports that are in contact with the tube shall be plastic-coated or otherwise be electrically insulated from the tube by a material that will not absorb moisture. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.4.4, 5.3.6.12.4]
Maximum support spacing for metallic piping shall be in accordance with Table 1310.5.4(1). [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.4.5, 5.3.6.12.5] Maximum support spacing for plastic pipe shall be in accordance with Table 1310.5.4(2). [NFPA 99:5.3.8.3.4]

TABLE 1310.5.4(1)
MAXIMUM METALLIC PIPE SUPPORT SPACING
[NFPA 99: TABLE 5.1.10.11.4.5, 5.3.6.12.5]
PIPE SIZE
HANGER
SPACING (feet)
DN8 (NPS 14) (38 of an inch O.D.) 5
DN10 (NPS 38) (12 of an inch O.D.) 6
DN15 (NPS 12) (58 of an inch O.D.) 6
DN20 (NPS 34) (78 of an inch O.D.) 7
DN25 (NPS 1) (118 of an inch O.D.) 8
DN32 (NPS 112) (138 of an inch O.D.) 9
DN40 and
larger
(NPS 112) (158 of an inch O.D.) 10
Vertical risers, all sizes, every floor, but not to
exceed:
15
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm


TABLE 1310.5.4(2)
MAXIMUM METALLIC PIPE SUPPORT SPACING
[NFPA 99: TABLE 5.3.8.3.4]
PIPE SIZE
HANGER
SPACING (feet)
DN15 (NPS 12) (58 of an inch O.D.) 4
DN20 (NPS 34) (78 of an inch O.D.) 4
DN25 (NPS 1 (118 of an inch O.D.) 4.33
DN32 (NPS 114) (138 of an inch O.D.) 4.33
DN40 (NPS 112) (158 of an inch O.D.) 4.67
DN50 (NPS 2) (238 of an inch O.D.) 4.67
DN65 and
larger
(NPS 212) (278 of an inch O.D.) 5
Vertical risers, all sizes, every floor, but not to
exceed:
10
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
Where required, medical gas and medical vacuum piping shall be seismically restrained against earthquakes in accordance with the applicable building code. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.4.6]
The installation procedure for underground piping shall protect the piping from physical damage while being backfilled. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.5.2, 5.3.6.13.2]
Underground piping shall comply with the following where protected by a conduit, cover, or other enclosure:
  1. Access shall be provided at the joints for visual inspection and leak testing.
  2. The conduit, cover, or enclosure shall be selfdraining and not retain groundwater in prolonged contact with the pipe. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.5.3, 5.3.6.13.3]
Buried piping that will be subject to surface loads shall be buried at a depth that will protect the piping or its enclosure from excessive stresses. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.5.4, 5.3.6.13.4]
The minimum backfilled cover above the top of the piping or its enclosure for buried piping outside of buildings shall be 36 inches (914 mm), except that the minimum cover shall be permitted to be reduced to 18 inches (457 mm) where there is no potential for damage from surface loads or surface conditions. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.5.5, 5.3.6.13.5]
Trenches shall be excavated so that the piping or its enclosure has firm, substantially continuous bearing on the bottom of the trench. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.5.6, 5.3.6.13.6]
Backfill shall be clean, free from material that is capable of damaging the pipe, and compacted. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.5.7, 5.3.6.13.7]
A continuous warning tape or marker placed immediately above the piping or its enclosure shall clearly identify the pipeline by specific name. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.5.8, 5.3.6.13.8]
A continuous warning means shall be provided above the pipeline at approximately one-half the depth of burial. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.5.9, 5.3.6.13.9]
Where underground piping is installed through a wall sleeve, the outdoor end of the sleeve shall be sealed watertight to prevent the entrance of groundwater into the building. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.5.10, 5.3.6.13.10]
Hose and flexible connectors, both metallic and nonmetallic, shall not be longer than necessary and shall not penetrate or be concealed in walls, floors, ceilings, or partitions. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.6.1, 5.3.6.16.1]

     Hose and flexible connectors for Category 3 medical gas shall be gas specific and not be permitted to conduct any other gas, gas mixture, or liquid. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.16.5]

Exception: Flexible connectors, used in Category 3 systems, of other than all-metal construction that connect manifolds to the gas distribution piping shall not exceed 5 feet (1524 mm) in length. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.21.9]
Hose and flexible connectors, metallic or nonmetallic, shall have a burst gauge pressure of not less than 1000 psi (6895 kPa). [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.6.2, 5.3.6.16.2]
Metallic flexible joints shall be permitted in the pipeline where required for expansion joints, seismic protection, thermal expansion, or vibration control and shall be as follows:
  1. For wetted surfaces, made of bronze, copper, or stainless steel.
  2. Cleaned at the factory for oxygen service and received on the job site with certification of cleanliness.
  3. Approved for service at 300 psig (2068 kPa) or more and able to withstand temperatures of 1000°F (538°C).
  4. Provided with brazing extensions to allow brazing into the pipeline in accordance with Section 1309.3.
  5. Supported with pipe hangers and supports as required for their additional weight. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.6.3]
Two or more medical gas or medical vacuum piping systems shall not be interconnected for installation, testing, or other reason. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.7.1]
Leak testing shall be accomplished by separately charging and testing each individual piping system. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.7.2]
Where a positive-pressure medical gas piping distribution system, originally used or constructed for the use at one pressure and for one gas, is converted for operation at another pressure or for another gas, the provisions of Section 1308.0 shall apply as if the system were new. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.9.1]
A medical vacuum system shall not be permitted to be converted for use as a medical gas system. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.9.2]
Positive pressure patient medical gas piping shall not be breached or penetrated by any means or process that will result in residual copper particles or other debris remaining in the piping or affect the oxygen-clean interior of the piping. The breaching or penetrating process shall ensure that debris created by the process remains contained within the work area. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.11.12]
Color and pressure requirements shall be in accordance with Table 1305.1. Medical gas piping shall not be painted. [NFPA 99:5.1.11.1.3]
Piping shall be labeled by stenciling or adhesive markers that identify the patient medical gas or medical vacuum system and include the following:
  1. The name of the medical gas or medical vacuum system or the chemical symbol shall comply with Table 1305.1.
  2. The medical gas or medical vacuum system color code shall comply with Table 1305.1.
  3. Where positive-pressure gas piping systems operate at pressures other than the standard gauge pressure in Table 1305.1, the pipe labeling shall include the operating pressure in addition to the name of the gas. [NFPA 99:5.1.11.1.1]
Pipe labels shall be located as follows:
  1. At intervals of not more than 20 feet (6096 mm).
  2. Not less than once in or above every room.
  3. On both sides of walls or partitions penetrated by the piping.
  4. Not less than once in every story height traversed by risers. [NFPA 99:5.1.11.1.2]
The interior surfaces of tube ends, fittings, and other components that were cleaned for oxygen service by the manufacturer, but become contaminated prior to being installed, shall be permitted to be recleaned on-site by the installer by thoroughly scrubbing the interior surfaces with a clean, hot water-alkaline solution, such as sodium carbonate or trisodium phosphate, using a solution of 1 pound (0.5 kg) of sodium carbonate or trisodium phosphate to 3 gallons (11 L) of potable water and thoroughly rinsing them with clean, hot potable water. Other aqueous cleaning solutions shall be permitted to be used for on-site recleaning provided that they are as recommended in CGA G-4.1. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.10, 5.1.10.4.3.11]
Material that has become contaminated internally and is not clean for oxygen service shall not be installed. [NFPA 99:5.1.10.4.3.12, 5.3.6.6.8]
New or replacement shutoff valves for medical gas or medical vacuum systems shall be as follows:
  1. Quarter tum, full ported, ball type.
  2. Brass or bronze construction.
  3. Have extensions for brazing.
  4. Have a handle indicating open or closed.
  5. Consist of three pieces permitting in-line serviceability. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.3]
Exception: Shutoff valves for medical vacuum service shall be permitted to be ball or butterfly type. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.3.2]
Shutoff valves, except valves in zone valve box assemblies, shall be located in secured areas such as locked piped chases, or be locked or latched in their operating position. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.2]
Shutoff valves accessible to other than authorized personnel shall be installed in valve boxes with frangible or removable windows large enough to permit manual operation of valves. Shutoff valves for use in certain areas, such as psychiatric or pediatric areas, shall be permitted to be secured with the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction to prevent inappropriate access. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.2.1, 5.1.4.2.2]
Where a central Category 3 medical gas (oxygen and nitrous oxide) supply is remote from a single treatment facility, the main supply line shall be provided with an emergency shutoff valve so located in the single treatment facility as to be accessible from all use-point locations in an emergency. Where a central Category 3 medical gas (oxygen and nitrous oxide) supply system supplies two treatment facilities, each facility shall be provided with an emergency shutoff valve so located in the treatment facility as to be accessible from all use-point locations in an emergency. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.19.1, 5.3.6.19.2]
A remotely activated shutoff valve at a supply manifold shall not be used for emergency shutoff. For clinical purposes, such a remote valve actuator shall not fail-closed in the event of a loss of electric power. Where remote actuators are the type that fail-open, it shall be mandatory that cylinder shutoff valves be close where the system is not in use. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.19.4]
Shutoff valves shall be labeled in accordance with Section 1312.9.
A shutoff valve shall be placed at the immediate connection of each source system to the piped distribution system to permit the entire source, including accessory devices to be isolated from the facility. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.4]
The source valve shall be located in the immediate vicinity of the source equipment. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.4.1]
A shutoff valve shall be provided in the main supply line inside of the building, except where one or more of the following conditions exist:
  1. The source and source valve are located inside the building served.
  2. The source system is physically mounted to the wall of the building served, and the pipeline enters the building in the immediate vicinity of the source valve. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.5]
The main line valve shall be located to permit access by authorized personnel only. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.5.1]
The main line valve shall be located on the facility side of the source valve and outside of the source room, enclosure, or where the main line first enters the building. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.5.2]
Risers supplied from the main line shall be provided with a shutoff valve in the riser adjacent to the main line. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.6]
Riser valves shall be permitted to be located above ceilings, but shall remain accessible and not be obstructed. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.6.1]
Service valves shall be installed to allow servicing or modification of lateral branch piping from a main or riser without shutting down the entire main, riser, or facility. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.7]
Not more than one service valve shall be required for each branch off of a riser regardless of how many zone valve boxes are installed on that lateral. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.7.1]

     Service valves shall be placed in the branch piping prior to a zone valve box assembly on that branch. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.7.2]
Service valves shall be located in one of the following areas:
  1. Behind a locked access door
  2. Locked open above a ceiling
  3. Locked open in a secure area [NFPA 99:5.1.4.7.3]
Station outlets and inlets shall be supplied through a zone valve as follows:
  1. The zone valve shall be placed such that a wall inter-venes between the valve and outlets or inlets that it controls.
  2. The zone valve shall serve only outlets and inlets located on that same story.
  3. The zone valve shall not be located in the same room with the station outlets or inlets that it controls. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.8]
Zone valves shall be readily operable from a standing position in the corridor on the same floor they serve. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.8.1]
Zone valves shall be so arranged that shutting off the supply of medical gas or medical vacuum to one zone, operating room, or anesthetizing location will not affect the supply of medical gas or medical vacuum to another zone, room, location, or the rest of the system. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.8.2, 5.1.4.8.7.2]
A pressure or vacuum indicator shall be provided on the station outlet or inlet side of each zone valve. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.8.3]
A zone valve shall be located immediately outside each vital life-support area, critical care area, and anesthetizing location of moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia, in each medical gas, medical vacuum line, or both, and located so as to be readily accessible in an emergency. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.8.7]
Gas-delivery columns, hose reels, ceiling tracks, control panels, pendants, booms, or other special installations shall be located downstream of the zone valve. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.8.7.1]
In-line shutoff valves intended for use to isolate piping for maintenance or modification shall meet the following requirements:
  1. Be located in a restricted area
  2. Be locked or latched open
  3. Be identified in accordance with Section 1312.9 [NFPA 99:5.1.4.9.1]
Shutoff valves provided for the connection of future piping shall meet the following requirements:
  1. Be located in a restricted area
  2. Be locked or latched closed
  3. Be identified in accordance with Section 1312.9 [NFPA 99:5.1.4.10]
Downstream piping shall be closed with a brazed cap with tubing allowance for cutting and rebrazing. [NFPA 99:5.1.4.10.2]
Shutoff valves shall be identified as follows:
  1. The name or chemical symbol for the specific medical gas or medical vacuum system.
  2. The room or areas served.
  3. A caution to not close or open valve except in emergency. [NFPA 99:5.1.11.2.1]
Where positive pressure gas piping systems operate at pressures other than the standard gauge pressure of 50 psi (345 kPa) to 55 psi (379 kPa), or a gauge pressure of 160 psi (1103 kPa) to 185 psi (1276 kPa) for nitrogen, the shutoff valve identification shall also include the nonstandard operating pressure. [NFPA 99:5.1.11.2.2]
Shutoff valves shall be labeled in substance as follows:

Source valve(s) shall be labeled in substance as follows:
SOURCE VALVE FOR THE (SOURCE NAME)
[NFPA 99:5.1.11.2.3]

Main line valve(s) shall be labeled in substance as follows:

MAIN LINE VALVE FOR THE
(MEDICAL GAS/VACUUM NAME)
SERVING (NAME OF BUILDING)

[NFPA 99:5.1.11.2.4]

Riser valve(s) shall be labeled in substance as follows:

RISER FOR THE (MEDICAL GAS/
VACUUM NAME) SERVING (NAME OF THE
AREA/BUILDING SERVED BY THE
PARTICULAR RISER)

[NFPA 99:5.1.11.2.5]

Service valve(s) shall be labeled in substance as follows:

SERVICE VALVE FOR THE
(MEDICAL GASN ACUUM NAME) SERVING
(NAME OF THE AREA/BUILDING
SERVED BY THE PARTICULAR VALVE)

[NFPA 99:5.1.11.2.6]

In-line shutoff valve(s) shall be labeled in substance as follows:

CAUTION
IN-LINE SHUTOFF VALVE FOR THE
(MEDICAL GAS/VACUUM NAME)
DO NOT CLOSE EXCEPT IN EMERGENCY
THIS VALVE CONTROLS SUPPLY TO
(NAME OF THE AREA/BUILDING SERVED
BY THE PARTICULAR VALVE)
Central supply systems and medical gas outlets for oxygen, medical air, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and other patient medical gases shall be piped into areas where the gases will be used under the direction of licensed medical professionals for purposes congruent with the following:
  1. Direct respiration by patients.
  2. Clinical application of the gas to a patient.
  3. Medical device applications directly related to respiration.
  4. Power for medical devices used directly on patients.
  5. Calibration of medical devices used in accordance with Section 1313.1 (1) through Section 1313.1(4). [NFPA 99:5.1.3.5.2]
Materials used in central supply systems shall comply with the following requirements:
  1. In those portions of systems intended to handle oxygen at gauge pressures that exceed 350 pounds-force per square inch (psi) (2413 kPa), the interconnecting hose shall contain no polymeric materials.
  2. In those portions of systems intended to handle oxygen or nitrous oxide material, construction shall be compatible with oxygen under the temperatures and pressures to which the components are capable of being exposed in the containment and use of oxygen, nitrous oxide, mixtures of these gases, or mixtures containing more than 23.5 percent oxygen. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.5.4 - 5.1.3.5.4(2), 5.3.6.21.8 - 5.3.6.21.8(2)]
Pressure-relief valves shall be installed in accordance with Section 1316.2. Each central supply system shall have a pressure-relief valve set at 50 percent above normal line pressure, installed downstream of the pressure regulator and upstream of the shutoff valve. This pressure-relief valve shall be permitted to be set at a higher pressure, provided another pressure-relief valve set at 50 percent above normal line pressure is installed in the main supply line.
Medical air compressors shall be installed in a well-lit, ventilated, and clean location and shall be accessible. The location shall be provided with drainage facilities in accordance with this code. The medical air compressor area shall be located separately from medical gas cylinder system sources, and shall be readily accessible for maintenance.
Medical air compressors shall be sufficient to serve the peak calculated demand with the largest single compressor out of service. In no case shall there be less than two compressors. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.10(B)]
Medical air compressor systems shall consist of the components listed in Section 1314.1.2.1 or Section 1314.1.2.2.
Category 1 and Category 2 medical air compressor systems shall consist of the following:
  1. Components shall be arranged to permit service and a continuous supply of medical air in the event of a single fault failure. Component arrangement shall be permitted to very in accordance with the technology(ies) employed, provided an equal level of operating redundancy and medical air quality is maintained. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.10(A)]
  2. An automatic means to prevent backflow from on-cycle compressors through off-cycle compressors. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.2(2)]
  3. A manual shutoff valve to isolate each compressor from the centrally piped system and from other compressors for maintenance or repair without loss of pressure in the system. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.2(3)]
  4. Intake filter-mufflers of the dry type. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.2(4)]
  5. Pressure relief valves set at 50 percent above line pressure. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.2(5)]
  6. Piping and components between the compressor and the source shutoff valve that do not contribute to contaminant levels. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.2(6)]
  7. Materials and devices used between the medical air intake and the medical air source valve shall be permitted to be of a design or construction appropriate for the service as determined by the manufacturer. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.2(7)]
Category 3 medical air compressor systems shall consist of the following:
  1. Disconnect switches.
  2. Motor-starting devices.
  3. Motor overload protection devices.
  4. One or more compressors.
  5. For single, duplex, or multiple compressor systems, means for activation and deactivation of each individual compressor.
  6. Where multiple compressors are used, manual or automatic means to alternate individual compressors.
  7. Where multiple compressors are used, manual or automatic means to activate the additional unite(s) where the in-service unite(s) are incapable of maintaining the required pressure.
  8. Intake filter-mufflers of the dry type.
  9. Receivers with a manual or automatic drain.
  10. Shutoff valves.
  11. Compressor discharge check valves (for multiple compressors).
  12. Air dryers that maintain not less than 40 percent relative humidity at operating pressure and temperature.
  13. In-line final particulate or coalescing filters rated at 0.01 micron (0.01 µm), with filter status indicator to ensure the delivery of compressed air with a maximum allowable 0.05 ppm liquid oil.
  14. Pressure regulators.
  15. Pressure-relief valve.
  16. Pressure indicator.
  17. Moisture indicator. [NFPA 99:5.3.7.6.1]
Air sources for medical air compressors shall comply with Section 1314.1.3.1 or Section 1314.1.3.2.
The medical air compressors shall draw their air from a source of clean air. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.12(A)]

     Where an air source equal to or better than outside air is available, it shall be permitted to be used for the medical air compressors in accordance with the following provisions:
  1. This alternate source of supply air shall be available on a continuous 24 hours-per-day, 7 days-per-week basis.
  2. Ventilating systems having fans with motors or drive belts located in the air stream shall not be used as a source of medical air intake. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.12(E)]
Air sources for a compressor(s) located inside a building shall comply with the following provisions:
  1. Be located within a space where no chemical based materials are stored or used.
  2. Be located in a space that is not used for patient medical treatment.
  3. Not be taken from a room or space in which there is an open or semi-open discharge from a medical vacuum or scavenging system. [NFPA 99:5.3.7.6.5.1]
     Air sources for a compressor(s) located outside the building shall be drawn from locations where no contamination from medical vacuum or scavenging system discharges or particulate matter is anticipated. [NFPA 99:5.3.7.6.5.2]
Compressor intake piping shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1308.5. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.12(F)]
Compressor air intakes shall be located as follows:
  1. Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from ventilating system exhausts, fuel storage vents, combustion vents, plumbing vents, medical vacuum and WAGD discharges, or areas that are capable of collecting vehicular exhausts or other noxious fumes. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.12(B)]
  2. Not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above ground level. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.12(C)]
  3. Not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from a door, window, or opening in the building. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.12(D)]
Air intakes for separate compressors shall be permitted to be joined together to one common intake where the following conditions are met:
  1. The common intake is sized to minimize backpressure in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
  2. Each compressor is capable of being isolated by manual or check valve, blind flange, or tube cap to prevent open inlet piping where the compressor(s) is removed for service from the consequent backflow of room air into the other compressor(s). [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.12(G)]
The end of the intake shall be turned down and screened or otherwise protected against the entry of vermin, debris, or precipitation by screening fabricated or composed of a noncorroding material. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.12(H)]
Receivers for medical air shall meet the following requirements [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.6]:
  1. Be made of corrosion-resistant materials or otherwise be made corrosion resistant. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.6(1)]
  2. Comply with Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.6(2), 5.3.7.6.2.2]
  3. Be equipped with a pressure-relief valve, automatic drain, manual drain, sight glass, and pressure indicator. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.6(3)]
  4. Be of a capacity sufficient to prevent the compressor from short cycling. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.6(4), 5.3.7.6.2.1]
Medical air receivers shall be provided with approved valves to allow the flow of compressed air to enter and exit out of separate receiver ports during normal operation and allow the receiver to be bypassed during service without shutting down the supply of medical air. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.6.3.10(D)]
The vacuum plant shall be installed in a well-lit, ventilated, and clean location with accessibility. The location shall be provided with drainage facilities in accordance with this code. The vacuum plant, where installed as a source, shall be located separately from other medical vacuum system sources, and shall be readily accessible for maintenance.
Medical surgical vacuum sources shall consist of the following:
  1. Two or more vacuum pumps sufficient to serve the peak calculated demand with the largest single vacuum pump out of service.
  2. An automatic means to prevent back flow from on cycle vacuum pumps through off-cycle vacuum pumps.
  3. A shutoff valve or other isolation means to isolate each vacuum pump from the centrally piped system and other vacuum pumps for maintenance or repair without loss of vacuum in the system.
  4. A vacuum receiver.
  5. Piping between the vacuum pump(s), discharge(s), receiver(s), and the vacuum source shutoff valve shall be in accordance with Section 1308.5, except that brass, galvanized, or black steel pipe shall be permitted to be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
  6. Materials and devices used between the medical vacuum exhaust and the medical vacuum source shall be permitted to be of a design or construction appropriate for the service, as determined by the manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.7.1.2]
Additional pumps shall automatically activate when the pump(s) in operation is incapable of maintaining the required vacuum. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.7.6.1]

     Automatic or manual alternation of pumps shall allow division of operating time. Where automatic alternation of pumps is not provided, the facility staff shall arrange a schedule for manual alternation. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.7.6.2]
Receivers for vacuum shall meet the following requirements:
  1. Be made of materials approved by the manufacturer.
  2. Comply with Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
  3. Withstand a gauge pressure of 60 psi (414 k Pa) and 30 inch gauge HgV (102 kPa).
  4. Be equipped with a manual drain.
  5. Be of a capacity based on the technology of the pumps. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.7.3]
Medical-surgical vacuum pumps shall exhaust in a manner and location that will minimize the hazards of noise and contamination to the facility and its environment. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.7.7.1]
The exhaust shall be located as follows:
  1. Outdoors.
  2. Not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from a door, window, air intake, or other openings in buildings or places of public assembly.
  3. At a level different from air intakes.
  4. Where prevailing winds, adjacent buildings, topography, or other influences that will not divert the exhaust into occupied areas or prevent dispersion of the exhaust. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.7.7.2]
The end of the exhaust shall be turned down and screened or otherwise be protected against the entry of vermin, debris, or precipitation by screening fabricated or composed of a noncorroding material. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.7.7.3]
The exhaust shall be free of dips and loops that are capable of trapping condensate or oil, or provided with a drip leg and valved drain at the bottom of the low point. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.7.7.4]
Vacuum exhausts from multiple pumps shall be permitted to be joined together to one common exhaust where in accordance with the following [NFPA 99:5.1.3.7.7.5]:
  1. The common exhaust is sized to minimize backpressure in accordance with the pump manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.7.7.5(1), 5.3.8.3.11(7)]
  2. Each pump shall be isolated by manual or check valve, blind flange, or tube cap to prevent open exhaust piping where the pump(s) is removed for service and consequent flow of exhaust air into the room. [NFPA 99:5.1.3.7.7.5(2), 5.3.8.3.11(8)]
Pressure-regulating equipment shall be installed in the supply main upstream of the final line-pressure valve. Where multiple piping systems for the same gas at different operating pressures are required, separate pressure-regulating equipment, relief valves, and source shutoff valves shall be provided for each pressure.
Pressure-relief valves shall close automatically where excess pressure has been released.
Pressure-relief valves set at 50 percent shall be vented to the outside from gas systems, except medical air, or where the total capacity of the supply system is in excess of 3000 cubic feet (84.95 m3) of gas.
Pressure-relief valves shall be brass, bronze, or stainless steel and designed for the gas service. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.21.6]
A pressure-relief valve shall not be isolated from its intended use by a valve.
Pressure and vacuum indicators shall be readable from a standing position. Pressure and vacuum indicators shall be provided at the following locations:
  1. Adjacent to the alarm-initiating device for source mainline pressure and vacuum alarms in the master alarm system.
  2. At or in area alarm panels to indicate the pressure, vacuum, or both at the alarm activating device for each system that is monitored by the panel.
  3. On the station outlet or inlet side of zone valves.
    [NFPA 99:5.1.8.2.1, 5.1.8.2.2]
Station outlets and inlets shall be installed in strict accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Each station outlet and inlet for medical gases and medical vacuums shall be gas-specific. [NFPA 99:5.1.5.1, 5.3.6.17.1]
Each station outlet shall consist of a primary and secondary valve (or assembly). [NFPA 99:5.1.5.2, 5.3.6.17.2]

     Each station inlet shall consist of a primary valve (or assembly). [NFPA 99:5.1.5.3]
The secondary valve (or assembly) shall close automatically to stop the flow of medical gas (or medical vacuum, where provided) where the primary valve (or assembly) is removed. [NFPA 99:5.1.5.4, 5.3.6.17.3]
After installation of the piping, but before installation of the station outlets and inlets and other medical gas and medical gas system components (e.g., pressure-actuating switches for alarms, manifolds, pressure gauges, or pressure relief valves), the line shall be blown clear by means of oil-free, dry nitrogen NF.
Station outlets and inlets shall be identified as to the name or chemical symbol for the specific medical gas or medical vacuum provided. [NFPA 99:5.1.11.3.1]
Master, area, and local alarm systems used for medical gas and medical vacuum systems shall include the following:
  1. Separate visual indicators for each condition monitored, except as permitted for local alarms that are displayed on master alarm panels.
  2. Visual indicators that remain in alarm until the situation that has caused the alarm is resolved.
  3. A cancelable audible indication of each alarm condition that produces a sound level of not less than 80 decibels at 3 feet (914 mm).
  4. A means to visually identify a lamp or LED failure.
  5. Visual and audible indication that the communication with an alarm initiating device is disconnected.
  6. Labeling of each indicator, indicating the condition monitored.
  7. Labeling of each alarm panel for its area of surveillance.
  8. Reinitiation of the audible signal where another alarm condition occurs while the audible alarm is silenced.
  9. Power for master, area alarms. sensors, and switches from the life safety branch of the emergency electrical system as described in NFPA 99.
  10. Power for local alarms, dew point sensors, and carbon monoxide sensors permitted to be from the same essential electrical branch as is used to power the air compressor system.
  11. Where used for communications, wiring from switches or sensors that is supervised or protected as required by Section 517.30(c)(3) of California Electrial Code for life safety and critical branch circuits in which protection is one of the following types:
    1. Conduit
    2. Free air
    3. Wire
    4. Cable tray
    5. Raceways
  12. Communication devices that do not use electrical wiring for signal transmission shall be supervised such that failure of communication shall initiate an alarm.
  13. Assurance by the responsible authority of the facility that the labeling of alarms, where room numbers or designations are used, is accurate and up-to-date.
  14. Provisions for automatic restart after a power loss of 10 seconds (e.g., during generator startup) without giving false signals or requiring manual reset
  15. Alarm switches, sensors, or both installed so as to be removable. [NFPA 99:5.1.9.1]
Warning systems for medical gas systems (oxygen and nitrous oxide) in Category 3 facilities shall include the following:
  1. Alarms for the following:
    1. Oxygen main line pressure low or high
    2. Oxygen changeover to secondary bank or about to change over (where automatic).
    3. Nitrous oxide main line pressure low or high.
    4. Nitrous oxide changeover to secondary bank or about to changeover (where automatic).
  2. Warning systems shall have not less than one single alarm panel in each treatment facility served by the medical gas source equipment.
  3. Alarm panels shall be located in an area of continuous surveillance while the facility is in operation.
  4. Pressure switches, sensors, or both that monitor main line pressure shall be mounted at the source equipment with pressure alarm indicators (lamp or LED) at the alarm panel.
  5. Audible and noncancelable alarm visual signals shall indicate where the pressure in the main line increases or decreases 20 percent from the normal operating pressure.
  6. Visual indications shall remain until the situation that caused the alarm is resolved.
  7. Pressure switches, sensors, or both shall be installed downstream of emergency shutoff valves, and other shutoff valves in the system, and shall cause an alarm for the medical gas where the pressure decreases or increases 20 percent from the normal operating pressure.
  8. A cancelable audible indication of each alarm condition that produces a sound at the alarm panel shall reinitiate the audible signal where another alarm condition occurs while the audible signal is silenced. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.22]
Functioning of alarm components shall be verified in accordance with the testing and monitoring requirements of the manufacturer and the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Inspection and testing shall be performed on components, or portions thereof, of new piped medical gas or vacuum systems, additions, renovations, temporary installations, or repaired systems in accordance with Section 1319.2 through Section 1319.12.2, and certified in accordance with Section 1320.0.
Systems that are breached and components that are subject to additions, renovations, or replacement shall be inspected and tested. Systems shall be deemed breached at the point of pipeline intrusion by physical separation or by system component removal, replacement, or addition. Breached portions of the systems subject to inspection and testing shall be confined to the specific altered zone and components in the immediate zone or area that is located upstream for medical vacuum systems and downstream for pressure gases at the point or area of intrusion. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.1.3 - 5.1.12.1.5]
Inspection and testing reports shall be submitted directly to the party that contracted for the testing, who shall submit the report through channels to the responsible facility authority and others that are required. Reports shall contain detailed listings of findings and results. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.1.6, 5.1.12.1.7]
Piping in medical gas and medical vacuum distribution systems shall be blown clear by means of oil-free, dry nitrogen NF after installation of the distribution piping, and before installation of station outlet and inlet rough-in assemblies and other system components. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.2, 5.3.6.23.2.2]
Each section of the piping in medical gas and medical vacuum systems shall be pressure tested by a party qualified in accordance with Section 1306.1, and using oil-free, dry nitrogen NF. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.3.1, 5.3.6.23.2.3(A)]

     Initial pressure tests shall be conducted in accordance with the following:
  1. After blow down of the distribution piping.
  2. After installation of station outlet and inlet rough-in assemblies. Test caps shall be permitted to be used.
  3. Prior to the installation of components of the distribution piping system that would be damaged by the test pressure. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.3.2, 5.3.6.23.2.3(B)]
The source shutoff valve for the piping system shall remain closed during tests. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.3.3, 5.3.6.23 .2.3(C)]
The test pressure for pressure medical gases and medical vacuum systems shall be one and one-half times the system working pressure, and not less than a gauge pressure of 150 psi (10 34 kPa). [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.3.4, 5.3.6.23.2.3(D)] The test pressure shall be maintained until each joint has been examined for leakage by means of a leak detectant that is safe for use with oxygen and does not contain ammonia. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.3 .5, 5.3.6.23.2.3(E)]
Leaks shall be located, repaired (where permitted), replaced (where required), and retested. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.3.6, 5.3.6.23.2.3(F)]
A party qualified in accordance with Section 1306.1 shall determine that no cross-connections exist between medical gas and medical vacuum piping systems. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.4, 5.3.6.23.2.4]
Piping systems shall be reduced to atmospheric pressure. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.4.1, 5.3.6.23.2.4(A)]
Sources of test gas shall be disconnected from piping systems except for the one system being tested. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.4.2, 5.3.6.23.2.4(D)]
The system under test shall be charged with oil-free, dry nitrogen NF to a gauge pressure of 50 psi (345 kPa). [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.4.3, 5.3.6.23.2.4(C), 5.3.6.23.2.4(E)]
After the installation of the individual faceplates with approved adapters matching outlet and inlet labels, each individual outlet and inlet (in each installed medical gas and medical vacuum piping system) shall be checked to determine that the test gas is being dispensed from the piping system being tested. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.4.4, 5.3.6.23.2.4(F)]
The cross-connection test shall be repeated for each installed medical gas and medical vacuum piping system. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.4.5, 5.3.6.23.2.4(G)]
The proper labeling and identification of system outlets and inlets shall be confirmed during these tests. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.4.6, 5.3.6.23.2.4(H)]
After successful completion of the initial pressure tests in accordance with Section 1319.5, medical gas distribution piping shall be subjected to a standing pressure test by a party qualified in accordance with Section 1306.1. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.6, 5.3.6.23.2.6]
Tests shall be conducted after the final installation of station outlet valve bodies, face plates, and other distribution system components. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.6.1, 5.3.6.23.2.6(A)]
The source valve shall be closed during testing. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.6.2, 5.3.6.23.2.6(B)]
The piping systems shall be subjected to a 24 hour standing pressure test using oil-free , dry nitrogen NF. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.6.3, 5.3.6.23.2.6(C)]
Test pressures shall be 20 percent above the normal system operating line pressure. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.6.4, 5.3.6.23.2.6(D)]
At the conclusion of the tests, there shall not be a change in the test pressure except that attributed to changes in ambient temperature. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.6.5]

     For Category 3 systems, there shall not be a change in the test pressure that exceeds a gauge pressure of 5 psi (34 kPa). [NFPA 99:5.3.6.23.2.6(E)]
Leaks shall be located, repaired (where permitted), or replaced (where required), and retested. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.6.6, 5.3.6.23.2.6(F)]
The 24 hour standing pressure test shall be witnessed by the Authority Having Jurisdiction or its designee. A form indicating that this test has been performed and witnessed shall be provided to the verifier at the start of the tests required Section 1319.12. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.6.7]
After successful completion of the initial pressure tests under Section 1319.5, medical vacuum distribution piping shall be subjected to a standing vacuum test. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.7]
Tests shall be conducted after installation of all components of the medical vacuum system. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.7.1]
The piping systems shall be subjected to a 24 hour standing vacuum test. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.7.2]
Test pressure shall be between 12 inch gauge HgV (41 kPa) and full vacuum. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.7.3]
During the test, the source of test vacuum shall be disconnected from the piping system. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.7.4]
At the conclusion of the test, there shall not be a change in the vacuum except that attributed to changes in ambient temperature. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.7.5]
Leaks shall be located, repaired (where permitted), or replaced (where required), and retested. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.7.7]
The 24 hour standing pressure test of the medical vacuum system shall be witnessed by the Authority Having Jurisdiction or its designee. A form indicating that this test has been performed and witnessed shall be provided to the verifier at the start of the tests required in Section 1319.12. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.7.6]
The outlets in each medical gas piping system shall be purged by a party qualified in accordance with Section 1306.1, using oil-free, dry nitrogen NF to remove particulate matter from the piping. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.5, 5.3.6.23.2.5]
Using appropriate adapters, each outlet shall be purged with an intermittent high-volume flow of test gas until the purge produces no discoloration in a clean white cloth. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.5.1, 5.3.6.23.2.5(B)]
Purging shall start at the closest outlet or inlet to the zone valve and continue to the furthest outlet or inlet within the zone. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.2.5.2]

Exception: For Category 3 medical gas piping systems, purging shall start at the furthest outlet in the system and proceed toward the source equipment. [NFPA 99:5.3.6.23.2.5(C)]
Operational pressure tests shall be performed at each station outlet and inlet or terminal where the user makes connections and disconnections. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.10]
Tests shall be performed with the gas of system designation or the operating vacuum. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.10.1]
Gas outlets with a gauge pressure of 50 psi (345 kPa), including, but not limited to, oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, and carbon dioxide, shall deliver 3.5 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM) (100 SLPM) with a pressure drop of not more than 5 psi (34 kPa) and static pressure of 50 psi (345 kPa) to 55 psi (379 kPa). [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.10.2]
Medical surgical vacuum inlets shall draw 3 SCFM (85 Nl/min) without reducing the vacuum pressure below 12 inch mercury gauge (HgV) (41 kPa) at any adjacent station inlet. [NFPA 9:5.1.12.3.10.4]
Oxygen and medical air outlets serving critical care areas shall allow a transient flow rate of 6 SCFM (170 SLPM) for 3 seconds. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.10.5]
After purging each system in accordance with Section 1319.9, the following shall be performed:
  1. Each pressure gas source and outlet shall be analyzed for concentration of gas, by volume.
  2. Analysis shall be conducted with instruments designed to measure the specific gas dispensed.
  3. Allowable concentrations shall be as indicated in Table 1319.11. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.11]


Table 1319.11
GAS CONCENTRATIONS
[NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.11]
MEDICAL GAS CONCENTRATION
Oxygen >99% oxygen
Nitrous oxide >99% nitrous oxide
Nitrogen <1% oxygen or >99% nitrogen
Medical air 19.5% - 23.5% oxygen
Other gases As specified by +/-1%, unless
otherwise specified
Verification tests shall be performed after tests in accordance with Section 1319.5 through Section 1319.11 have been completed. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.1.1, 5.3.6.23.3.1(C)]
The test gas shall be oil-free, dry nitrogen NF or the system gas where permitted. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.1.2, 5.3.6.23.3.1(D)]
Verification testing shall be conducted by a party technically competent and experienced in the field of medical gas and medical vacuum pipeline testing and meeting the requirements of ASSE 6030. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.1.3, 5.3.6.23.3.1(A)]

     Testing shall be performed by a party other than the installing contractor, the system supplier, or the system manufacturer. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.1.4, 5.3.6.23.3.1(B)]

     Where systems have not been installed by in-house personnel, testing shall be permitted by personnel of that organization who meet the requirements of this section. [NFPA 99:5.1.12.3.1.5]
Prior to a medical gas or medical vacuum system being placed in service, such system shall be certified in accordance with Section 1320.2.
Certification tests, verified and attested to by the certification agency, shall include the following:
  1. Verifying in accordance with the installation requirements.
  2. Testing and checking for leakage, correct zoning, and identification of control valves.
  3. Checking for identification and labeling of pipelines, station outlets, and control valves.
  4. Testing for cross-connection, flow rate, system pressure drop, and system performance.
  5. Functional testing of pressure relief valves and safety valves.
  6. Functional testing of sources of supply.
  7. Functional testing of alarm systems, including accuracy of system components.
  8. Purge flushing of system and filling with specific source gases.
  9. Testing for purity and cleanliness of source gases.
  10. Testing for specific gas identity at each station outlet.
A report that includes the specific items addressed in Section 1320.2, and other information required by this chapter, shall be delivered to the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to acceptance of the system.
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