Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Regulations

Chapter 4 Plumbing Fixtures and Fixture Fittings

Chapter 5 Water Heaters

Chapter 6 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 7 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 8 Indirect Wastes

Chapter 9 Vents

Chapter 10 Traps and Interceptors

Chapter 11 Storm Drainage

Chapter 12 Fuel Gas Piping

Chapter 13 Health Care Facilities and Medical Gas and Medical Vacuum Systems

Chapter 14 Firestop Protection

Chapter 15 Alternate Water Sources for Nonpotable Applications

Chapter 16 Nonpotable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Chapter 16A Non-Potable Water Reuse Systems

Chapter 17 Referenced Standards

Appendices [PDF]

Appendix A Recommended Rules for Sizing the Water Supply System

Appendix B Explanatory Notes on Combination Waste and Vent Systems

Appendix C Alternate Plumbing Systems

Appendix D Sizing Storm Water Drainage Systems

Appendix E Manufactured/Mobile Home Parks and Recreational Vehicle Parks

Appendix F Firefighter Breathing Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix G Sizing of Venting Systems

Appendix H Private Sewage Disposal Systems

Appendix J Combination of Indoor and Outdoor Combustion and Ventilation Opening Design

Appendix K Potable Rainwater Catchment Systems

Appendix L Sustainable Practices

The regulations of this chapter shall govern the installation of fuel gas piping in or in connection with a building, structure or within the property lines of premises up to 5 pounds-force per square inch (psi) (34 kPa), other than service pipe. Fuel oil piping systems shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 31.
Coverage of piping systems shall extend from the point of delivery to the appliance connections. For other than undiluted liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas) systems, the point of delivery shall be the outlet of the service meter assembly or the outlet of the service regulator or service shutoff valve where no meter is provided. For undiluted liquefied petroleum gas systems, the point of delivery shall be considered the outlet of the final pressure regulator, exclusive of the line gas regulators where no meter is installed. Where a meter is installed, the point of delivery shall be the outlet of the meter. [NFPA 54:1.1.1.1(A)]
Piping systems requirements shall include design, materials, components, fabrications, assembly, installation, testing, inspection, operation, and maintenance. [NFPA 54:1.1.1.1(C)]
This code shall not apply to the following (reference standards for some of which appear in Chapter 17):
  1. Portable LP-Gas appliances and equipment that are not connected to a fixed fuel piping system.
  2. Installation of appliances such as brooders, dehydrators, dryers, and irrigation equipment used for agricultural purposes.
  3. Raw material (feedstock) applications, except for piping to special atmosphere generators.
  4. Oxygen-fuel gas cutting and welding systems.
  5. Industrial gas applications using such gases as acetylene and acetylenic compounds, hydrogen, ammonia, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and nitrogen.
  6. Petroleum refineries, pipeline compressor or pumping stations, loading terminals, compounding plants, refinery tank farms, and natural gas processing plants.
  7. Large integrated chemical plants or portions of such plants where flammable or combustible liquids or gases are produced by chemical reactions or used in chemical reactions.
  8. LP-Gas installations at utility gas plants.
  9. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) installations.
  10. Fuel gas piping in electric utility power plants.
  11. Proprietary items of equipment, apparatus, or instruments such as gas-generating sets, compressors, and calorimeters.
  12. LP-Gas equipment for vaporization, gas mixing, and gas manufacturing.
  13. LP-Gas piping for buildings under construction or renovations that are not to become part of the permanent building piping system-that is, temporary fixed piping for building heat.
  14. Installation of LP-Gas systems for railroad switch heating.
  15. Installation of LP-Gas and compressed natural gas (CNG) systems on vehicles.
  16. Gas piping, meters, gas-pressure regulators, and other appurtenances used by the serving gas supplier in distribution of gas, other than undiluted LP-Gas. [NFPA 54:1.1.1.2]
Upon completion of the installation, alteration, or repair of gas piping, and prior to the use thereof, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be notified that such gas piping is ready for inspection.
Excavations required for the installation of underground piping shall be kept open until such time as the piping has been inspected and approved. Where such piping is covered or concealed before such approval, it shall be exposed upon the direction of the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall make the following inspections and either shall approve that portion of the work as completed or shall notify the permit holder wherein the same fails to be in accordance with this code.
This inspection shall be made after gas piping authorized by the permit has been installed and before such piping has been covered or concealed or fixture or appliance has been attached thereto. This inspection shall include a determination that the gas piping size, material, and installation meet the requirements of this code.
This inspection shall be made after piping authorized by the permit has been installed and after portions thereof that are to be covered or concealed are so concealed and before fixture, appliance, or shutoff valve has been attached thereto. This inspection shall comply with Section 1213.1. Test gauges used in conducting tests shall be in accordance with Section 318.0.
In cases where the work authorized by the permit consists of a minor installation of additional piping to piping already connected to a gas meter, the foregoing inspections shall be permitted to be waived at the discretion of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. In this event, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall make such inspection as deemed advisable in order to be assured that the work has been performed in accordance with the intent of this code.
Where upon final piping inspection, the installation is found to be in accordance with the provisions of this code, a certificate of inspection shall be permitted to be issued by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
A copy of the certificate of such final piping inspection shall be issued to the serving gas supplier supplying gas to the premises.
It shall be unlawful for a serving gas supplier, or person furnishing gas, to tum on or cause to be turned on, a fuel gas or a gas meter or meters, until such certificate of final inspection, as herein provided, has been issued.
It shall be unlawful for a person, firm, or corporation, excepting an authorized agent or employee of a person, firm, or corporation engaged in the business of furnishing or supplying gas and whose service pipes supply or connect with the particular premises, to tum on or reconnect gas service in or on a premises where and when gas service is, at the time, not being rendered.
It shall be unlawful to tum on or connect gas in or on the premises unless outlets are securely connected to gas appliances or capped or plugged with screw joint fittings.
The Authority Having Jurisdiction or the serving gas supplier is hereby authorized to disconnect gas piping or appliance or both that shall be found not to be in accordance with the requirements of this code or that are found defective and in such condition as to endanger life or property.
Where such disconnection has been made, a notice shall be attached to such gas piping or appliance or both that shall state the same has been disconnected, together with the reasons thereof.
It shall be unlawful to remove or disconnect gas piping or gas appliance without capping or plugging with a screw joint fitting, the outlet from which said pipe or appliance was removed. Outlets to which gas appliances are not connected shall be left capped and gastight on a piping system that has been installed, altered, or repaired.

Exception: Where an approved listed quick-disconnect device is used.
Where temporary use of gas is desired and the Authority Having Jurisdiction deems the use necessary, a permit shall be permitted to be issued for such use for a period of time not to exceed that designated by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, provided that such gas piping system otherwise is in accordance with the requirements of this code regarding material, sizing, and safety.
Where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, a piping sketch or plan shall be prepared before proceeding with the installation. This plan shall show the proposed location of piping, the size of different branches, the various load demands, and the location of the point of delivery. [NFPA 54:5.1.1]
Where additional appliances are being connected to a gas piping system, the existing piping shall be checked to determine whether it has adequate capacity. Where inadequate, the existing system shall be enlarged as required, or separate gas piping of approve capacity shall be provided. [NFPA 54:5.1.2]
The location of the point of delivery shall be acceptable to the serving gas supplier. [NFPA 54:5.2]
Where two or more meters, or two or more service regulators where meters are not provided, are located on the same premises and supply separate users, the gas piping systems shall not be interconnected on the outlet side of the meters or service regulators. [NFPA 54:5.3.1]
Where a supplementary gas for standby use is connected downstream from a meter or a service regulator where a meter is not provided, a device to prevent backflow shall be installed. A three-way valve installed to admit the standby supply, and at the same time shut off the regular supply, shall be permitted to be used for this purpose. [NFPA 54:5.3.2]
Gas piping systems shall be of such size and so installed as to provide a supply of gas to meet the maximum demand and supply gas to each appliance inlet at not less than the minimum supply pressure required by the appliance. [NFPA 54:5.4.1]
The volumetric flow rate of gas to be provided (in cubic feet per hour) shall be calculated using the manufacturer's input ratings of the appliance served, adjusted for altitude. Where the input rating is not indicated, the gas supplier, appliance manufacturer, or a qualified agency shall be contacted or the rating from Table 1208.4.1 shall be used for estimating the volumetric flow rate of gas to be supplied.

    The total connected hourly load shall be used as the basis for piping sizing, assuming the appliances are operating at full capacity simultaneously.

Exception: Sizing shall be permitted to be based upon established load diversity factors. [NFPA 54:5.4.2]
TABLE 1208.4.1
APPROXIMATE GAS INPUT FOR TYPICAL APPLIANCES [NFPA 54: TABLE 5.4.2.1]
APPLIANCE INPUT
(Btu/h approx.)
Space Heating Units
Warm air furnace
Single family
Multifamily, per unit
Hydronic boiler
Single family
Multifamily, per unit


100000
60000

100000
60000
Space and Water Heating Units
Hydronic boiler
Single family
Multifamily, per unit


120000
75000
Water Heating Appliances
Water heater, automatic storage
30 to 40 gallon tank
Water heater, automatic storage
50 gallon tank
Water heater, automatic instantaneous
Capacity at 2 gallons per minute
Capacity at 4 gallons per minute
Capacity at 6 gallons per minute
Water heater, domestic, circulating or
side-arm


35000

50000

142800
285000
428400

35000
Cooking Appliances
Range, freestanding, domestic
Built-in oven or broiler unit, domestic
Built-in top unit, domestic

65000
25000
40000
Other Appliances
Refrigerator
Clothes dryer, Type 1 (domestic)
Gas fireplace direct vent
Gas log
Barbecue
Gaslight

3000
35000
40000
80000
40000
2500
For SI units: 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW
Gas piping shall be sized in accordance with one of the following:
  1. Pipe sizing tables or sizing equations in this chapter.
  2. Other approved engineering methods acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
  3. Sizing tables included in a listed piping system manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 54:5.4.3]
The design pressure loss in a piping system under maximum probable flow conditions, from the point of delivery to the inlet connection of the appliance, shall be such that the supply pressure at the appliance is greater than or equal to the minimum pressure required by the appliance. [NFPA 54:5.4.4]
Materials used for piping systems shall be in accordance with the requirements of this chapter or shall be acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 54:5.6.1.1]
Pipe, fittings, valves, or other materials shall not be used again unless they are free of foreign materials and have been ascertained to be approved for the service intended. [NFPA 54:5.6.1.2]
Material not covered by the standards specifications listed herein shall be investigated and tested to determine that it is safe and approved for the proposed service and, in addition, shall be recommended for that service by the manufacturer and shall be acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 54:5.6.1.3]
Cast-iron pipe shall not be used. [NFPA 54:5.6.2.1]
Steel and wrought-iron pipe shall be not less than standard weight (Schedule 40) and shall comply with one of the following standards:
  1. ASME B36.10
  2. ASTM A53
  3. ASTM A106 [NFPA 54:5.6.2.2]
Copper and copper alloy pipe shall not be used where the gas contains more than an average of 0.3 grains of hydrogen sulfide per 100 standard cubic feet (sct) of gas (0.7 mg/100 L).

    Threaded copper, copper alloy, or aluminum alloy pipe shall not be used with gases corrosive to such material.
Aluminum alloy pipe shall comply with ASTM B241 (except that the use of alloy 5456 is prohibited) and shall be marked at each end of each length indicating compliance. Aluminum alloy pipe shall be coated to protect against external corrosion where it is in contact with masonry, plaster, insulation or is subject to repeated wettings by such liquids as water, detergents, or sewage. [NFPA 54:5.6.2.5]

    Aluminum alloy pipe shall not be used in exterior locations or underground. [NFPA 54:5.6.2.6]
Seamless copper, aluminum alloy, or steel tubing shall not be used with gases corrosive to such material. [NFPA 54:5.6.3]
Steel tubing shall comply with ASTM A254. [NFPA 54:5.6.3.1]
Copper and copper alloy tubing shall not be used where the gas contains more than an average of 0.3 grains of hydrogen sulfide per 100 scf of gas (0.7 mg/100 L). Copper tubing shall comply with standard Type K or L of ASTM B88 or ASTM B280.
Aluminum alloy tubing shall comply with ASTM B210 or ASTM B241. Aluminum alloy tubing shall be coated to protect against external corrosion where it is in contact with masonry, plaster, insulation, or is subject to repeated wettings by such liquids as water, detergent, or sewage. Aluminum alloy tubing shall not be used in exterior locations or underground. [NFPA 54:5.6.3.3]
Corrugated stainless steel tubing shall be listed in accordance with CSA LC-1. [NFPA 54:5.6.3.4]
Polyethylene plastic pipe, tubing, and fittings used to supply fuel gas shall be in accordance with ASTM D2513. Pipe to be used shall be marked "gas" and "ASTM D2513." [NFPA 54:5.6.4.1.1]
Plastic pipe and fittings used to connect regulator vents to remote vent terminations shall be PVC in accordance with UL 651. PVC vent piping shall not be installed indoors. [NFPA 54:5.6.4.2]
Anodeless risers shall comply with Section 1208.5.4.2.1 through Section 1208.5.4.2.3. [NFPA 54:5.6.4.3]
Factory-assembled anodeless risers shall be recommended by the manufacturer for the gas used and shall be leak-tested by the manufacturer in accordance with written procedures. [NFPA 54:5.6.4.3(1)]
Service head adapters and field-assembled anodeless risers incorporating service head adapters shall be recommended by the manufacturer for the gas used and shall be design-certified to be in accordance with the requirements of Category I of ASTM D2513. The manufacturer shall provide the user qualified installation instructions. [NFPA 54:5.6.4.3(2)]
The use of plastic pipe, tubing, and fittings in undiluted liquefied petroleum gas piping systems shall be in accordance with NFPA 58. [NFPA 54:5.6.4.3(3)]
Gas pipe, tubing, and fittings shall be clear and free from cutting burrs and defects in structure or threading, and shall be thoroughly brushed and chip and scale blown. Defects in pipe, tubing, and fittings shall not be repaired. Defective pipe, tubing, and fittings shall be replaced. [NFPA 54:5.6.5]
Where in contact with material or atmosphere exerting a corrosive action, metallic piping and fittings coated with a corrosion-resistant material shall be used. External or internal coatings or linings used on piping or components shall not be considered as adding strength. [NFPA 54:5.6.6]
Metallic pipe and fitting threads shall be taper pipe threads and shall comply with ASME B1.20.1. [NFPA 54:5.6.7.1]
Pipe with threads that are stripped, chipped, corroded, or otherwise damaged shall not be used. Where a weld opens during the operation of cutting or threading, that portion of the pipe shall not be used. [NFPA 54:5.6.7.2]
Field threading of metallic pipe shall be in accordance with Table 1208.5.7.2. [NFPA 54:5.6.7.3]

TABLE 1208.5.7.2
SPECIFICATIONS FOR THREADING METALLIC PIPE
[NFPA 54:TABLE 5.6.7.3]
IRON
PIPE SIZE
(inches)
APPROXIMATE LENGTH OF
THREADED PORTION
(inches)
APPROXIMATE NUMBER
OF THREADS TO
BE CUT
12 34 10
34 34 10
1 78 10
114 1 11
32 1 11
2 1 11
212 112 12
3 112 12
4 158 13
For SI Units: 1 inch = 25.4 mm
Thread joint compounds shall be resistant to the action of liquefied petroleum gas or to other chemical constituents of the gases to be conducted through the piping. [NFPA 54:5.6.7.4]
The type of piping joint used shall be approved for the pressure temperature conditions and shall be selected giving consideration to joint tightness and mechanical strength under the service conditions. The joint shall be able to sustain the maximum end force due to the internal pressure and additional forces due to temperature expansion or contraction, vibration, fatigue, or to the weight of the pipe and its contents. [NFPA 54:5.6.8]
Pipe joints shall be threaded, flanged, brazed, welded, or press-connect fittings made in accordance with CSA LC-4. Where nonferrous pipe is brazed, the brazing materials shall have a melting point in excess of 1000°F (538°C). Brazing alloys shall not contain more than 0.05 percent phosphorus.
Tubing joints shall either be made with approved gas tubing fittings, be brazed with a material having a melting point in excess of 1000°F (538°C), or made by press-connect fittings in accordance with CSA LC-4. Brazing alloys shall not contain more than 0.05 percent phosphorus. [NFPA 54:5.6.8.2]
Flared joints shall be used in systems constructed from nonferrous pipe and tubing where experience or tests have demonstrated that the joint is approved for the conditions and where provisions are made in the design to prevent separation of the joints. [NFPA 54:5.6.8.3]
Metallic pipe fittings shall comply with the following:
  1. Threaded fittings in sizes exceeding 4 inches (100 mm) shall not be used unless acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
  2. Fittings used with steel or wrought-iron pipe shall be steel, copper alloy, malleable iron, or cast-iron.
  3. Fittings used with copper or copper alloy pipe shall be copper or copper alloy.
  4. Fittings used with aluminum alloy pipe shall be of aluminum alloy.
  5. Cast-iron fittings shall comply with the following:

    1. Flanges shall be permitted.
    2. Bushings shall not be used.
    3. Fittings shall not be used in systems containing flammable gas-air mixtures.
    4. Fittings in sizes 4 inches (100 mm) and larger shall not be used indoors unless approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
    5. Fittings in sizes 6 inches (150 mm) and larger shall not be used unless approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
  6. Aluminum alloy fitting threads shall not fonn the joint seal.
  7. Zinc-aluminum alloy fittings shall not be used in systems containing flammable gas-air mixtures.
  8. Special fittings such as couplings; proprietary type joints; saddle tees; gland-type compression fittings; and flared, flareless, or compression type tubing fittings shall be as follows:

    1. Used within the fitting manufacturer's pressure-temperature recommendations.
    2. Used within the service conditions anticipated with respect to vibration, fatigue, thermal expansion, or contraction.
    3. Installed or braced to prevent separation of the joint by gas pressure or external physical damage.
    4. Acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Plastic pipe, tubing, and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Section 1208.5.9.1 through Section 1208.5.9.4 shall be observed where making such joints. [NFPA 54:5.6.9]
The joint shall be designed and installed so that the longitudinal pullout resistance of the joint shall be equal to the tensile strength of the plastic piping material. [NFPA 54:5.6.9(1)]
Heat-fusion joints shall be made in accordance with qualified procedures that have been established and proven by test to produce gas-tight joints as strong as the pipe or tubing being joined. Joints shall be made with the joining method recommended by the pipe manufacturer. Heat-fusion fittings shall be marked "ASTM D2513." [NFPA 54:5.6.9(2)]
Where compression-type mechanical joints are used, the gasket material in the fitting shall be compatible with the plastic piping and with the gas distributed by the system. An internal tubular rigid stiffener shall be used in conjunction with the fitting. The stiffener shall be flush with the end of the pipe or tubing and shall extend not less than the outside end of the compression fitting where installed. The stiffener shall be free of rough or sharp edges and shall not be a forced tit in the plastic. Split tubular stiffeners shall not be used. [NFPA 54:5.6.9(3)]
Plastic piping joints and fittings for use in liquefied petroleum gas piping systems shall be in accordance with NFPA 58. [NFPA 54:5.6.9(4)]
Flanges shall comply with ASME B16.1, ASME B16.20, or MSS SP-6. The pressure-temperature ratings shall equal or exceed that required by the application. [NFPA 54:5.6.10]
Standard facings shall be permitted for use under this code. Where 150 psi (1034 kPa) steel flanges are bolted to Class 125 cast-iron flanges, the raised face on the steel flange shall be removed. [NFPA 54:5.6.10.1]
Lapped flanges shall be used aboveground or in exposed locations accessible for inspection. [NFPA 54:5.6.10.2]
The material for gaskets shall be capable of withstanding the design temperature and pressure of the piping system and the chemical constituents of the gas being conducted without change to its chemical and physical properties. The effects of fire exposure to the joint shall be considered in choosing the material. [NFPA 54:5.6.11] Flange gaskets shall comply with the following requirements:
  1. Acceptable materials include the following:

    1. Metal (plain or corrugated)
    2. Composition
    3. Aluminum o-rings and spiral-wound metal gaskets [NFPA 54:5.6.11.1]
  2. Where a flanged joint is opened, the gasket shall be replaced. [NFPA 54:5.6.11.2]
  3. Full-face gaskets shall be used with bronze and cast-iron flanges. [NFPA 54:5.6.11.3]
Gas meters shall be selected for the maximum expected pressure and permissible pressure drop. [NFPA 54:5.7.1]
Gas meters shall be located in ventilated spaces readily accessible for examination, reading, replacement, or necessary maintenance. [NFPA 54:5.7.2.1]
Gas meters shall not be placed where they will be subjected to damage, such as adjacent to a driveway; under a fire escape; in public passages, halls, or coal bins; or where they will be subject to excessive corrosion or vibration. [NFPA 54:5.7.2.2]
Gas meters shall not be located where they will be subjected to extreme temperatures or sudden extreme changes in temperature. Meters shall not be located in areas where they are subjected to temperatures beyond those recommended by the manufacturer. [NFPA 54:5.7.2.3]
Gas meters shall be supported or connected to rigid piping so as not to exert a strain on the meters. Where flexible connectors are used to connect a gas meter to downstream piping at mobile homes in mobile home parks, the meter shall be supported by a post or bracket placed in a firm footing or by other means providing equivalent support. [NFPA 54:5.7.3]
Meters shall be protected against overpressure, backpressure, and vacuum. [NFPA 54:5.7.4]
Gas piping at multiple meter installations shall be marked by a metal tag or other permanent means attached by the installing agency, designating the building or the part of the building being supplied. [NFPA 54:5.7.5]
A line pressure regulator or gas appliance pressure regulator, as applicable, shall be installed where the gas supply pressure exceeds that at which the branch supply line or appliances are designed to operate or vary beyond design pressure limits. [NFPA 54:5.8.1]
Where the gas supply design pressure in piping systems located indoors exceeds 2 psi (14 kPa) and line pressure regulators are installed to reduce the supply pressure to 14 inches water column (3.5 kPa) or less, the following shall apply:
  1. Regulators shall be provided with factory installed overpressure protection devices.
  2. Overpressure protection devices shall limit the pressure downstream of the line pressure regulator to 2 psi (14 kPa) in the event of failure of the line pressure regulator. [NFPA 54:5.8.3]
Line pressure regulators shall be listed in accordance with CSA Z21.80. [NFPA 54:5.8.2]
The gas pressure regulator shall be accessible for servicing. [NFPA 54:5.8.4]
Pressure regulators shall be protected against physical damage. [NFPA 54:5.8.5]
Line pressure regulators shall comply with the following:
  1. An independent vent to the exterior of the building, sized in accordance with the regulator manufacturer's instructions, shall be provided where the location of a regulator is such that a ruptured diaphragm will cause a hazard. Where more than one regulator is at a location, each regulator shall have a separate vent to the outdoors, or where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the vent lines shall be permitted to be manifolded in accordance with accepted engineering practices to minimize backpressure in the event of diaphragm failure. Materials for vent piping shall comply with Section 1208.5.

    Exception: A regulator and vent limiting means combination listed in accordance with CSA Z21.80 shall be permitted to be used without a vent to the outdoors.
  2. The vent shall be designed to prevent the entry of water, insects, or other foreign materials that will cause blockage.
  3. The regulator vent shall terminate not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from a source of ignition.
  4. At locations where regulators will be submerged during floods, a special antiflood-type breather vent fitting shall be installed, or the vent line shall be extended above the height of the expected flood waters.
  5. A regulator shall not be vented to the appliance flue or exhaust system. [NFPA 54:5.8.6.1]
Venting of gas appliance pressure regulators shall be in accordance with the following requirements:
  1. Appliance pressure regulators requiring access to the atmosphere for successful operation shall be equipped with vent piping leading outdoors or, where the regulator vent is an integral part of the appliance, into the combustion chamber adjacent to a continuous pilot, unless constructed or equipped with a vent-limiting means to limit the escape of gas from the vent opening in the event of diaphragm failure.
  2. Vent limiting means shall be employed on listed appliance pressure regulators.
  3. In the case of vents leading outdoors, means shall be employed to prevent water from entering this piping and also to prevent blockage of vents by insects and foreign matter.
  4. Under no circumstances shall a regulator be vented to the appliance flue or exhaust system.
  5. In the case of vents entering the combustion chamber, the vent shall be located so the escaping gas will be readily ignited by the pilot and the heat liberated thereby will not adversely affect the normal operation of the safety shutoff system. The terminus of the vent shall be securely held in a fixed position relative to the pilot. For manufactured gas, the need for a flame arrester in the vent piping shall be determined.
  6. Vent lines from a gas appliance pressure regulator and bleed lines from a diaphragm-type valve shall not be connected to a common manifold terminating in a combustion chamber. Vent lines shall not terminate in positive-pressure-type combustion chambers. [NFPA 54:9.1.19]
The discharge of vents shall be in accordance with the following requirements:
  1. The discharge stacks, vents, or outlet parts of pressure-relieving and pressure-limiting devices shall be located so that gas is safely discharged to the outdoors.
  2. Discharge stacks or vents shall be designed to prevent the entry of water, insects, or other foreign material that could cause blockage. The discharge stack or vent line shall be not less than the same size as the outlet of the pressure-relieving device. [NFPA 54:5.9.7]
Valved and regulated bypasses shall be permitted to be placed around gas line pressure regulators where continuity of service is imperative. [NFPA 54:5.8.7]
Line pressure regulators at multiple regulator installations shall be marked by a metal tag or other permanent means designating the building or the part of the building being supplied. [NFPA 54:5.8.8]
Protective devices shall be installed as close to the equipment as practical where the design of the equipment connected is such that air, oxygen, or standby gases are capable of being forced into the gas supply system. Gas and air combustion mixers incorporating double diaphragm "zero" or "atmosphere" governors or regulators shall require no further protection unless connected directly to compressed air or oxygen at pressures of 5 psi (34 kPa) or more. [NFPA 54:5.10.1]
Protective devices shall include, but not be limited to the following:
  1. Check valves.
  2. Three-way valves (of the type that completely closes one side before starting to open the other side).
  3. Reverse flow indicators controlling positive shutoff valves.
  4. Normally closed air-actuated positive shutoff pressure regulators. [NFPA 54:5.10.2]
A protective device shall be installed between the meter and the appliance or equipment where the operation of the appliance or equipment is such that it is capable of producing a vacuum or a dangerous reduction in gas pressure at the meter. Such protective devices include, but are not limited to, mechanical, diaphragm-operated, or electrically operated low-pressure shutoff valves. [NFPA 54:5.11]
Shutoff valves shall be approved and shall be selected giving consideration to pressure drop, service involved, emergency use, and reliability of operation. Shutoff valves of size 1 inch (25 mm) National Pipe Thread and smaller shall be listed. [NFPA 54:5.12]
Piping systems shall be designed to prevent failure from thermal expansion or contraction. [NFPA 54:5.14.1]
Where local conditions include earthquake, tornado, unstable ground, or flood hazards, special consideration shall be given to increased strength and flexibility of piping supports and connections. [NFPA 54:5.14.2]
Where automatic excess flow valves are installed, they shall be listed, sized, and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 54:5.13]
Underground gas piping shall be installed with approved clearance from other underground structures to avoid contact therewith, to allow maintenance, and to protect against damage from proximity to other structures. In addition, underground plastic piping shall be installed with approved clearance or shall be insulated from sources of heat so as to prevent the heat from impairing the serviceability of the pipe. [NFPA 54:7.1.1]
Underground piping systems shall be installed with a cover not less than 12 inches (305 mm). Where external damage to the pipe or tubing from external forces is likely to result, the cover shall be not less than 18 inches (457 mm). Where a cover not less than 12 inches (305 mm) cannot be provided, the pipe shall be installed in conduit or bridged (shielded). [NFPA 54:7.1.2.1]
The trench shall be graded so that the pipe has a firm, substantially continuous bearing on the bottom of the trench. [NFPA 54:7.1.2.2]
Where flooding of the trench is done to consolidate the backfill, care shall be exercised to see that the pipe is not floated from its firm bearing on the trench bottom. [NFPA 54:7.1.2.3]
Gas piping in contact with earth or other material that is capable of corroding the piping shall be protected against corrosion in an approved manner. Where dissimilar metals are joined underground, an insulating coupling or fitting shall be used. Piping shall not be laid in contact with cinders. Uncoated threaded or socket-welded joints shall not be used in piping in contact with soil or where internal or external crevice corrosion is known to occur. [NFPA 54:7.1.3]
Where the formation of hydrates or ice is known to occur, piping shall be protected against freezing. [NFPA 54:7.1.4]
Underground piping installed through the outer foundation or basement wall of a building shall be encased in a protective sleeve or protected by an approved device or method. The space between the gas piping and the sleeve and between the sleeve and the wall shall be sealed to prevent entry of gas and water. [NFPA 54:7.1.5]
Where gas piping is installed underground beneath buildings, the piping shall be one of the following:
  1. Encased in an approved conduit designed to withstand the imposed loads and installed in accordance with Section 1210.1.6.1 or Section 1210.1.6.2.
  2. A piping or encasement system listed for installation beneath buildings. [NFPA 54:7.1.6]
The conduit shall extend into an accessible portion of the building and, at the point where the conduit terminates in the building, the space between the conduit and the gas piping shall be sealed to prevent the possible entrance of a gas leakage. Where the end sealing is of a type that will retain the full pressure of the pipe, the conduit shall be designed for the same pressure as the pipe. The conduit shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) outside the building, be vented outdoors above finished ground level, and be installed so as to prevent the entrance of water and insects. [NFPA 54:7.1.6.1]
Where the conduit originates and terminates within the same building, the conduit shall originate and terminate in an accessible portion of the building and shall not be sealed. [NFPA 54:7.1.6.2]
Plastic piping shall be installed outdoors, underground only.

Exceptions:
  1. Plastic piping shall be permitted to terminate aboveground where an anodeless riser is used.
  2. Plastic piping shall be permitted to terminate with a wall head adapter aboveground in buildings, including basements, where the plastic piping is inserted in a piping material permitted for use in buildings. [NFPA 54:7.1.7.1]
Connections made between metallic and plastic piping shall be made with fittings that are in accordance with one of the following:
  1. ASTM D2513
  2. ASTM F1973
  3. ASTM F2509 [NFPA 54:7.1.7.2]
An electrically continuous corrosion-resistant tracer wire (not less than AWG 14) or tape shall be buried with the plastic pipe to facilitate locating. One end of the tracer wire or tape shall be brought aboveground at a building wall or riser. [NFPA 54:7.1.7.3]
Piping installed aboveground shall be securely supported and located where it will be protected from physical damage. Where passing through an exterior wall, the piping shall be protected against corrosion by coating or wrapping with an inert material approved for such applications. The piping shall be sealed around its circumference at the point of the exterior penetration to prevent the entry of water, insects, and rodents. Where piping is encased in a protective pipe sleeve, the annular spaces between the gas piping and the sleeve and between the sleeve and the wall opening shall be sealed. [NFPA 54:7.2.1]
The installation of gas piping shall not cause structural stresses within building components to exceed allowable design limits. Approval shall be obtained before beams or joists are cut or notched. [NFPA 54:7.2.2]

    Permission shall be obtained from the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Piping for other than dry gas conditions shall be sloped not less than 14 inch in 15 feet (1.4 mm/m) to prevent traps. [NFPA 54:7.2.3]
Gas piping shall be permitted to be installed in accessible spaces between a fixed ceiling and a dropped ceiling, whether or not such spaces are used as a plenum. Valves shall not be located in such spaces.

Exception: Appliance or equipment shutoff valves required by this code shall be permitted to be installed in accessible spaces containing vented appliances.
Gas piping inside a building shall not be installed in or through a clothes chute, chimney or gas vent, dumbwaiter, elevator shaft, or air duct, other than combustion air ducts. [NFPA 54:7.2.4]

Exception: Ducts used to provide ventilation air in accordance with Section 506.0 or to above-ceiling spaces in accordance with Section 1210.2.2.1.
Piping shall be supported with metal pipe hooks, metal pipe straps, metal bands, metal brackets, metal hangers, or building structural components; approved for the size of piping; of adequate strength and quality; and located at intervals so as to prevent or damp out excessive vibration. Piping shall be anchored to prevent undue strains on connected appliances and equipment and shall not be supported by other piping. Pipe hangers and supports shall comply with the requirements of MSS SP-58. [NFPA 54:7.2.5.1]
Spacing of supports in gas piping installations shall not exceed the distance shown in Table 1210.2.4.1. Spacing of supports for CSST shall be in accordance with the CSST manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 54:7.2.5.2]

TABLE 1210.2.4.1
SUPPORT OF PIPING
[NFPA 54:TABLE 7.2.5.2]
STEEL PIPE,
NOMINAL SIZE
OF PIPE
(inches)
SPACING OF
SUPPORTS
(feet)
NOMINAL SIZE
OF TUBING SMOOTH-WALL
(inches O.D.)
SPACING OF
SUPPORTS
(feet)
1/2 6 1/2 4
3/4 or 1 8 5/8 or 3/4 6
11/4 or larger
(horizontal)
10 7/8 or 1 (horizontal) 8
11/4 or larger
(vertical)
Every floor
level
1 or longer
(vertical)
Every floor
level
For SI umts: 1 Inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
Supports, hangers, and anchors shall be installed so as not to interfere with the free expansion and contraction of the piping between anchors. Parts of the supporting system shall be designed and installed so they are not disengaged by movement of the supported piping. [NFPA 54:7.2.5.3]
Where piping containing gas is to be removed, the line shall be first disconnected from sources of gas and then thoroughly purged with air, water, or inert gas before cutting or welding is done. [NFPA 54:7.2.6]
Gas piping in concealed locations shall be installed in accordance with this section. [NFPA 54:7.3.1]
Where gas piping is to be concealed, connections shall be of the following type:
  1. Pipe fittings such as elbows, tees, couplings, and right/left nipple/couplings.
  2. Joining tubing by brazing (see Section 1208.5.8.2).
  3. Fittings listed for use in concealed spaces or that have been demonstrated to sustain, without leakage, forces due to temperature expansion or contraction, vibration, or fatigue based on their geographic location, application, or operation.
  4. Where necessary to insert fittings in gas pipe that has been installed in a concealed location, the pipe shall be reconnected by welding, flanges, or the use of a right/left nipple/coupling.
Concealed gas piping shall not be located in solid partitions. [NFPA 54:7.3.3]
This provision shall not apply to tubing that pierces walls, floors, or partitions. Tubing installed vertically and horizontally inside hollow walls or partitions without protection along its entire concealed length shall be in accordance with the following requirements:
  1. A steel striker barrier not less than 0.0508 of an inch (1.3 mm) thick, or equivalent, shall be installed between the tubing and the finished wall and extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) beyond concealed penetrations of plates, firestops, wall studs, and similar construction features.
  2. The tubing shall be installed in single runs and shall not be rigidly secured. [NFPA 54:7.3.4]
In industrial occupancies, gas piping in solid floors such as concrete shall be laid in channels in the floor and covered to permit access to the piping with minimum damage to the building. Where piping in floor channels is exposed to excessive moisture or corrosive substances, the piping shall be protected in an approved manner. [NFPA 54:7.3.5.1]

Exception: In other than industrial occupancies and where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, gas piping embedded in concrete floor slabs constructed with portland cement shall be surrounded with not less than 112 inches (38 mm) of concrete and shall not be in physical contact with other metallic structures such as reinforcing rods or electrically neutral conductors. Piping, fittings, and risers shall be protected against corrosion in accordance with Section 1208.5.6. Piping shall not be embedded in concrete slabs containing quick-set additives or cinder aggregate. [NFPA 54:7.3.5.2]
Where gas piping exceeding 5 psi (34 kPa) is located within vertical chases in accordance with Section 1210.5(2), the requirements of Section 1210.4.1 through Section 1210.4.3 shall apply. [NFPA 54:7.4]
Where pressure reduction is required in branch connections in accordance with Section 1210.5, such reduction shall take place either inside the chase or immediately adjacent to the outside wall of the chase. Regulator venting and downstream overpressure protection shall comply with Section 1208.7.1 and Section 1208.7.5. The regulator shall be accessible for service and repair, and vented in accordance with one of the following:
  1. Where the fuel gas is lighter than air, regulators equipped with a vent limiting means shall be permitted to be vented into the chase. Regulators not equipped with a vent limiting means shall be permitted to be vented either directly to the outdoors or to a point within the top 1 foot (305 mm) of the chase.
  2. Where the fuel gas is heavier than air, the regulator vent shall be vented directly to the outdoors. [NFPA 54:7.4.1]
Chase construction shall comply with local building codes with respect to fire resistance and protection of horizontal and vertical openings. [NFPA 54:7.4.2]
A chase shall be ventilated to the outdoors and at the top. The openings shall have a minimum free area [in square inches (m2)] equal to the product of one-half of the maximum pressure in the piping [in psi (kPa)] times the largest nominal diameter of that piping [in inches (mm)], or the cross-sectional area of the chase, whichever is smaller. Where more than one fuel gas piping system is present, the free area for each system shall be calculated and the largest area used. [NFPA 54:7.4.31
The maximum design operating pressure for piping systems located inside buildings shall not exceed 5 psi (34 kPa) unless one or more of the following conditions are met:
  1. The piping system is welded.
  2. The piping is located in a ventilated chase or otherwise enclosed for protection against accidental gas accumulation.
  3. The piping is located inside buildings or separate areas of buildings used exclusively for one of the following:

    1. Industrial processing or heating
    2. Research
    3. Warehousing
    4. Boiler or mechanical equipment rooms
  4. The piping is a temporary installation for buildings under construction.
  5. The piping serves appliances or equipment used for agricultural purposes.
  6. The piping system is an LP-Gas piping system with a design operating pressure exceeding 20 psi (138 kPa) and in accordance with NFPA 58. LP-Gas systems designed to operate below -5°F (-21°C) or with butane or a propane-butane mix shall be designed to either accommodate liquid LP-Gas or to prevent LP-Gas vapor from condensing back into liquid. [NFPA 54:5.5]
The maximum operating pressure for piping systems serving appliances designed to operate at 14 inches water column (3.5 kPa) inlet pressure or less shall be 2 pounds-force per square inch gauge (psig) (14 kPa) unless an over-pressure protection device designed to limit pressure at the appliance to 2 psig (14 kPa) upon failure of the line gas pressure regulator is installed.
Changes in direction of gas pipe shall be made by the use of fittings, factory bends, or field bends. [NFPA 54:7.5]
Metallic pipe bends shall comply with the following:
  1. Bends shall be made with bending equipment and procedures intended for that purpose.
  2. Bends shall be smooth and free from buckling, cracks, or other evidence of mechanical damage.
  3. The longitudinal weld of the pipe shall be near the neutral axis of the bend.
  4. The pipe shall not be bent through an arc of more than 90 degrees (1.57 rad).
  5. The inside radius of a bend shall be not less than six times the outside diameter of the pipe. [NFPA 54:7.5.1]
Plastic pipe bends shall comply with the following:
  1. The pipe shall not be damaged, and the internal diameter of the pipe shall not be effectively reduced.
  2. Joints shall not be located in pipe bends.
  3. The radius of the inner curve of such bends shall be not less than 25 times the inside diameter of the pipe.
  4. Where the piping manufacturer specifies the use of special bending equipment or procedures, such equipment or procedures shall be used. [NFPA 54:7.5.2]
Factory-made welding elbows or transverse segments cut therefrom shall have an arc length measured along the crotch of not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) for pipe sizes 2 inches (50 mm) and larger. [NFPA 54:7.5.3]
For other than dry gas conditions, a drip shall be provided at a point in the line of pipe where condensate is capable of collecting. Where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction or the serving gas supplier, a drip shall also be provided at the outlet of the meter. This drip shall be so installed as to constitute a trap wherein an accumulation of condensate will shut off the flow of gas before it will run back into the meter. [NFPA 54:7.6.1]
Drips shall be installed in such locations that they will be readily accessible to permit cleaning or emptying. A drip shall not be located where the condensate is likely to freeze. [NFPA 54:7.6.2]
The installation of sediment traps shall comply with Section 1212.8. [NFPA 54:7.6.3]
Outlets shall be located and installed in accordance with the following requirements:
  1. The outlet fittings or piping shall be securely fastened in place.
  2. Outlets shall not be located behind doors.
  3. Outlets shall be located far enough from floors, walls, patios, slabs, and ceilings to permit the use of wrenches without straining, bending, or damaging the piping.
  4. The unthreaded portion of gas piping outlets shall extend not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) through finished ceilings or indoor or outdoor walls.
  5. The unthreaded portion of gas piping outlets shall extend not less than 2 inches (51 mm) above the surface of floors or outdoor patios or slabs.
  6. The provisions of Section 1210.9(4) and Section 1210.9(5) shall not apply to listed quick-disconnect devices of the flush-mounted type or listed gas convenience outlets. Such devices shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 54:7.7.1]
Each outlet, including a valve, shall be closed gastight with a threaded plug or cap immediately after installation and shall be left closed until the appliance or equipment is connected thereto. Where an appliance or equipment is disconnected from an outlet, and the outlet is not to be used again immediately, it shall be capped or plugged gastight.

Exceptions:
  1. Laboratory appliances installed in accordance with Section 1212.3.1 shall be permitted.
  2. The use of a listed quick-disconnect device with integral shutoff or listed gas convenience outlet shall be permitted. [NFPA 54:7.7.2.1]
Appliance shutoff valves installed in fireplaces shall be removed and the piping capped gastight where the fireplace is used for solid-fuel burning. [NFPA 54:7.7.2.2]
Where a branch outlet is placed on a main supply line before it is known what size pipe will be connected to it, the outlet shall be of the same size as the line that supplies it. [NFPA 54:7.8]
An accessible gas shutoff valve shall be provided upstream of each gas pressure regulator. Where two gas pressure regulators are installed in series in a single gas line, a manual valve shall not be required at the second regulator. [NFPA 54:7.9.1]
Main gas shutoff valves controlling several gas piping systems shall be readily accessible for operation and installed so as to be protected from physical damage. They shall be marked with a metal tag or other permanent means attached by the installing agency so that the gas piping systems supplied through them are readily identified. [NFPA 54:7.9.2.1]
In multiple-tenant buildings supplied through a master meter, through one service regulator where a meter is not provided, or where meters or service regulators are not readily accessible from the appliance or equipment location, an individual shutoff valve for each apartment or tenant line shall be provided at a convenient point of general accessibility. In a common system serving a number of individual buildings, shutoff valves shall be installed at each building. [NFPA 54:7.9.2.2]
An exterior shutoff valve to permit turning off the gas supply to each building in an emergency shall be provided. The emergency shutoff valves shall be plainly marked as such and their locations posted as required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 54:7.9.2.3]
Each laboratory space containing two or more gas outlets installed on tables, benches, or in hoods in educational, research, commercial and industrial occupancies shall have a single shutoff valve through which such gas outlets are supplied. The shutoff valve shall be accessible and shall be located within the laboratory or located adjacent to the laboratory's egress door and shall be identified. [NFPA 54:7.9.2.4]
No device shall be placed inside the gas piping or fittings that will reduce the cross-sectional area or otherwise obstruct the free flow of gas, except where an allowance in the piping system design has been made for such a device and where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 54:7.10]
Where gas-air mixing machines are employed to produce mixtures above or below the flammable range, they shall be provided with stops to prevent adjustment of the mixture to within or approaching the flammable range. [NFPA 54:7.11]
Systems containing flammable gas-air mixtures shall be in accordance with NFPA 54.
Each aboveground portion of a gas piping system other than CSST that is likely to become energized shall be electrically continuous and bonded to an effective ground-fault current path. Gas piping, other than CSST, shall be considered to be bonded where it is connected to appliances that are connected to the appliance grounding conductor of the circuit supplying that appliance. [NFPA 54:7.13.1]
CSST gas piping systems shall be bonded to the electrical service grounding electrode system. The bonding jumper shall connect to a metallic pipe or fitting between the point of delivery and the first downstream CSST fitting. The bonding jumper shall be not smaller than 6 AWG copper wire or equivalent. Gas piping systems that contain one or more segments of CSST shall be bonded in accordance with this section. [NFPA 54:7.13.2]
Gas piping shall not be used as a grounding conductor or electrode. [NFPA 54:7.13.3]
Where a lightning protection system is installed, the bonding of the gas piping shall be in accordance with NFPA 780. [NFPA 54:7.13.4]
Electrical circuits shall not utilize gas piping or components as conductors.

Exception: Low-voltage (50V or less) control circuits, ignition circuits, and electronic flame detection device circuits shall be permitted to make use of piping or components as a part of an electric circuit. [NFPA 54:7.14]
Electrical connections between wiring and electrically operated control devices in a piping system shall comply with the requirements of California Electrical Code.
An essential safety control depending on electric current as the operating medium shall be of a type that will shut off (fail safe) the flow of gas in the event of current failure. [NFPA 54:7.15.2]
Earthquake-actuated gas shutoff valves designed to automatically shut oil the gas at the location of the valve in the event of a seismic disturbance and certified by the State Architect as conforming to California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 12, Chapter 12-16-1, shall be provided for buildings when such installation is required by local ordinance. Earthquake-actuated gas shutoff valves which have not been certified by the State Architect shall be prohibited in buildings open to the public under mandatory installation by local ordinance, installation of the valves shall be in accordance with local ordinance, and in the absence of such per the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Appliances shall be connected to the building piping in accordance with Section 1212.5 through Section 1212.7 by one of the following:
  1. Rigid metallic pipe and fittings.
  2. Semirigid metallic tubing and metallic fittings. Aluminum alloy tubing shall not be used in exterior locations.
  3. A listed connector in accordance with CSA Z21.24. The connector shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall be in the same room as the appliance. One connector shall be used for each appliance.
  4. A listed connector in accordance with CSA Z21.75. One connector shall be used for each appliance.
  5. CSST where installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
  6. Listed nonmetallic gas hose connectors installed in accordance with Section 1212.3.
  7. In Section 1212.1(2) through Section 1212.1(6), the connector or tubing shall be installed so as to be protected against physical and thermal damage. Aluminum alloy tubing and connectors shall be coated to protect against external corrosion where they arc in contact with masonry, plaster, insulation, or are subject to repeated wettings by such liquids as water (except rainwater), detergents, or sewage. Connectors and tubing shall not be installed through an opening in an appliance housing, cabinet, or casing, unless the tubing or connector is protected against damage. [NFPA 54:9.6.1]
Commercial cooking appliances that are moved for cleaning and sanitation purposes shall be connected in accordance with the connector manufacturer's installation instructions using a listed appliance connector in accordance with CSA Z21.69. The commercial cooking appliance connector installation shall be configured in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 54:9.6.1.1]
Movement of appliances with casters shall be limited by a restraining device installed in accordance with the connector and appliance manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 54:9.6.1.2]
Suspended low-intensity infrared tube heaters shall be connected to the building piping system with a connector listed for the application in accordance with CSA Z21.24 and the following requirements:
  1. The connector shall be installed in accordance with the tube heater installation instructions, and shall be in the same room as the appliance.
  2. One connector shall be used per appliance. [NFPA 54:9.6.1.3]
Listed gas hose connectors shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and in accordance with Section 1212.3.1 and Section 1212.3.2. [NFPA 54:9.6.2]
Indoor gas hose connectors shall be used to connect laboratory, shop, and ironing appliances or equipment requiring mobility during operation. An appliance or equipment shutoff valve shall be installed where the connector is attached to the building piping. The connector shall be of minimum length and shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm). The connector shall not be concealed and shall not extend from one room to another or pass through wall partitions, ceilings, or floors.
Where outdoor gas hose connectors are used to connect portable outdoor appliances, the connector shall be listed in accordance with CSA Z21.54. An appliance shutoff valve, a listed quick-disconnect device, or a listed gas convenience outlet shall be installed where the connector is attached to the supply piping and in such a manner to prevent the accumulation of water or foreign matter. This connection shall be made only in the outdoor area where the appliance is to be used. [NFPA 54:9.6.2(2)]

The connector length shall not exceed 15 feet (4572 mm).
Where portable industrial appliances, or appliances requiring mobility or subject to vibration, are connected to the building gas piping system by the use of a flexible hose, the hose shall be approved and safe for the conditions under which it is used. [NFPA 54:9.6.3.1]
Where industrial appliances requiring mobility are connected to the rigid piping by the use of swivel joints or couplings, the swivel joints or couplings shall be approved for the service required, and only the minimum number required shall be installed. [NFPA 54:9.6.3.2]
Where industrial appliances subject to vibration are connected to the building piping system by the use of metal flexible connectors, the connectors shall be approved for the service required. [NFPA 54:9.6.3.3]
Where flexible connections are used, they shall be of the minimum practical length and shall not extend from one room to another or pass through walls, partitions, ceilings, or floors. Flexible connections shall not be used in a concealed location. They shall be protected against physical or thermal damage and shall be provided with gas shutoff valves in readily accessible locations in rigid piping upstream from the flexible connections. [NFPA 54:9.6.3.4]
Appliances connected to a piping system shall have an accessible, approved manual shutoff valve with a nondisplaceable valve member, or a listed gas convenience outlet. Appliance shutoff valves and convenience outlets shall serve a single appliance and shall be installed within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the appliance it serves. Where a connector is used, the valve shall be installed upstream of the connector. A union or flanged connection shall be provided downstream from the valve to permit removal of appliance controls. Shutoff valves serving decorative appliances shall be permitted to be installed in fireplaces where listed for such use. [NFPA 54:9.6.4, 9.6.4.1]

Exceptions:
  1. Shutoff valves shall be permitted to be accessibly located inside or under an appliance where such appliance is removed without removal of the shutoff valve.
  2. Shutoff valves shall be permitted to be accessibly located inside wall heaters and wall furnaces listed for recessed installation where necessary maintenance is performed without removal of the shutoff valve.
Quick-disconnect devices used to connect appliances to the building piping shall be listed to CSA Z21.41. Where installed indoors, an approved manual shutoff valve with a non-displaceable valve member shall be installed upstream of the quick-disconnect device. [NFPA 54:9.6.5]
Appliances shall be permitted to be connected to the building piping by means of a listed gas convenience outlet, in conjunction with a listed appliance connector, installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.

    Gas convenience outlets shall be listed in accordance with CSA Z21.90 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 54:9.6.6]
Where a sediment trap is not incorporated as a part of the appliance, a sediment trap shall be installed downstream of the appliance shutoff valve as close to the inlet of the appliance as practical, before the flex connector, where used at the time of appliance installation. The sediment trap shall be either a tee fitting with a capped nipple in the bottom outlet, as illustrated in Figure 1212.8, or other device recognized as an effective sediment trap. Illuminating appliances, ranges, clothes dryers, decorative appliances for installation in vented fireplaces, gas fireplaces, and outdoor grills shall not be required to be so equipped.
For SI units: 1 inch = 25.4 mm
FIGURE 1212.8
METHOD OF INSTALLING A TEE FITTING SEDIMENT TRAP
[NFPA 54: FIGURE 9.6.7]
Piping shall be installed in a manner not to interfere with inspection, maintenance, or servicing of the appliance. [NFPA 54:9.6.8]
Liquefied petroleum gas facilities shall comply with NFPA 58.
Prior to acceptance and initial operation, piping installations shall be visually inspected and pressure-tested to determine that the materials, design, fabrication, and installation practices are in accordance with the requirements of this code. [NFPA 54:8.1.1.1]
Inspection shall consist of visual examination during or after manufacture, fabrication, assembly, or pressure tests. [NFPA 54:8.1.1.2]
Where repairs or additions are made following the pressure test, the affected piping shall be tested. Minor repairs and additions are not required to be pressure-tested provided that the work is inspected and connections are tested with a noncorrosive leak-detecting fluid or other leak-detecting methods approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 54:8.1.1.3]
Where new branches are installed to new appliances, the newly installed branches shall be required to be pressure-tested. Connections between the new piping and the existing piping shall be tested with a noncorrosive leak-detecting fluid or approved leak-detecting methods. [NFPA 54:8.1.1.4]
A piping system shall be tested as a complete unit or in sections. Under no circumstances shall a valve in a line be used as a bulkhead between gas in one section of the piping system and test medium in an adjacent section, unless two valves are installed in series with a valved "telltale" located between these valves. A valve shall not be subjected to the test pressure unless it is determined that the valve, including the valve-closing mechanism, is designed to safely withstand the pressure. [NFPA 54:8.1.1.5]
Regulator and valve assemblies fabricated independently of the piping system in which they are to be installed shall be permitted to be tested with inert gas or air at the time of fabrication. [NFPA 54:8.1.1.6]
The test medium shall be air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or an inert gas. OXYGEN SHALL NEVER BE USED. [NFPA 54:8.1.2]
Test preparation shall comply with Section 1213.2.1 through Section 1213.2.6.
Pipe joints, including welds, shall be left exposed for examination during the test.

Exception: Covered or concealed pipe end joints that have been previously tested in accordance with this code. [NFPA 54:8.1.3.1]
Expansion joints shall be provided with temporary restraints, where required, for the additional thrust load under test. [NFPA 54:8.1.3.2]
Appliances and equipment that are not to be included in the test shall be either disconnected from the piping or isolated by blanks, blind flanges, or caps. Flanged joints at which blinds are inserted to blank off other equipment during the test shall not be required to be tested. [NFPA 54:8.1.3.3]
Where the piping system is connected to appliances or equipment designed for operating pressures of less than the test pressure, such appliances or equipment shall be isolated from the piping system by disconnecting them and capping the outlets. [NFPA 54:8.1.3.4]
Where the piping system is connected to appliances or equipment designed for operating pressures equal to or greater than the test pressure, such appliances and equipment shall be isolated from the piping system by closing the individual appliance or equipment shutoff valve(s). [NFPA 54:8.1.3.5]
Testing of piping systems shall be performed in a manner that protects the safety of employees and the public during the test. [NFPA 54:8.1.3.6]
This inspection shall include an air, CO2, or nitrogen pressure test, at which time the gas piping shall stand a pressure of not less than 10 psi (69 kPa) gauge pressure. Test pressures shall be held for a length of time satisfactory to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, but in no case less than 15 minutes with no perceptible drop in pressure. For welded piping, and for piping carrying gas at pressures in excess of 14 inches water column pressure (3.5 kPa), the test pressure shall be not less than 60 psi (414 kPa) and shall be continued for a length of time satisfactory to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, but in no case for less than 30 minutes. For CSST carrying gas at pressures in excess of 14 inches water column (3.5 kPa) pressure, the test pressure shall be 30 psi (207 kPa) for 30 minutes. These tests shall be made using air, CO2, or nitrogen pressure and shall be made in the presence of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Necessary apparatus for conducting tests shall be furnished by the permit holder. Test gauges used in conducting tests shall be in accordance with Section 318.0.
The piping system shall withstand the test pressure specified without showing evidence of leakage or other defects. Reduction of test pressures as indicated by pressure gauges shall be deemed to indicate the presence of a leak unless such reduction is readily attributed to some other cause. [NFPA 54:8.1.5.1]
The leakage shall be located by means of an approved gas detector, a noncorrosive leak detection fluid, or other approved leak detection methods. Matches, candles, open flames, or other methods that provide a source of ignition shall not be used. [NFPA 54:8.1.5.2]
Where leakage or other defects are located, the affected portion of the piping system shall be repaired or replaced and retested. [NFPA 54:8.1.5.3]
Leak checks using fuel gas shall be permitted in piping systems that have been pressure-tested in accordance with Section 1213.0. [NFPA 54:8.2.1]
During the process of turning gas on into a system of new gas piping, the entire system shall be inspected to determine that there are no open fittings or ends and that valves at unused outlets are closed and plugged or capped. [NFPA 54:8.2.2]
Immediately after the gas is turned on into a new system or into a system that has been initially restored after an interruption of service, the piping system shall be checked for leakage. Where leakage is indicated, the gas supply shall be shut off until the necessary repairs have been made. [NFPA 54:8.2.3]
Appliances and equipment shall not be placed in operation until after the piping system has been checked in accordance with Section 1213.5.2; connections to the appliance are checked for leakage; and purged in accordance with Section 1213.6. [NFPA 54:8.2.4]
The purging of piping shall be in accordance with Section 1213.6.1 through Section 1213.6.3. [NFPA 54:8.3]
The purging of piping systems shall be in accordance with the provisions of Section 1213.6.1.1 through Section 1213.6.1.4 where the piping system meets either of the following:
  1. The design operating gas pressure exceeds 2 psig (14 kPa).
  2. The piping being purged contains one or more sections of pipe or tubing meeting the size and length criteria of Table 1213.6.1. [NFPA 54:8.3.1]
TABLE 1213.6.1
SIZE AND LENGTH OF PIPING
[NFPA 54: TABLE 8.3.1]*
NOMINAL PIPING
SIZE (inches)
LENGTH OF PIPING
(feet)
≥ 212 < 3
> 50
≥ 3 < 4
> 30
≥ 4 < 6
> 15
≥ 6 < 8
> 10
≥ 8
Any length
For SI umts: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
* CSST EHD size of 62 is equivalent to nominal 2 inches (50 mm) pipe or tubing size.
Where existing gas piping is opened, the section that is opened shall be isolated from the gas supply and the line pressure vented in accordance with Section 1213.6.1.3. Where gas piping meeting the criteria of Table 1213.6.1 is removed from service, the residual fuel gas in the piping shall be displaced with an inert gas. [NFPA 54:8.3.1.1]
Where gas piping containing air and meeting the criteria of Table 1213.6.1 is placed in operation, the air in the piping shall first be displaced with an inert gas. The inert gas shall then be displaced with fuel gas in accordance with Section 1213.6.1.3. [NFPA 54:8.3.1.2]
The open end of a piping system being pressure vented or purged shall discharge directly to an outdoor location. Purging operations shall comply with the following requirements:
  1. The point of discharge shall be controlled with a shutoff valve.
  2. The point of discharge shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from sources of ignition, not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from building openings, and not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from mechanical air intake openings.
  3. During discharge, the open point of discharge shall be continuously attended and monitored with a combustible gas indicator that is in accordance with Section 1213.6.1.4.
  4. Purging operations introducing fuel gas shall be stopped where 90 percent fuel gas by volume is detected within the pipe.
  5. Persons not involved in the purging operations shall be evacuated from areas within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the point of discharge. [NFPA 54:8.3.1.3]
Combustible gas indicators shall be listed and shall be calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Combustible gas indicators shall numerically display a volume scale from 0 percent to 100 percent in 1 percent or smaller increments. [NFPA 54:8.3.1.4]
The purging of piping systems shall be in accordance with the provisions of Section 1213.6.2.1 where the piping system meets both of the following:
  1. The design operating pressure is 2 psig (14 kPa) or less.
  2. The piping being purged is constructed entirely from pipe or tubing not meeting the size and length criteria of Table 1213.6.1. [NFPA 54:8.3.2]
The piping system shall be purged in accordance with one or more of the following:
  1. The piping shall be purged with fuel gas and shall discharge to the outdoors.
  2. The piping shall be purged with fuel gas and shall discharge to the indoors or outdoors through an appliance burner not located in a combustion chamber. Such burner shall be provided with a continuous source of ignition.
  3. The piping shall be purged with fuel gas and shall discharge to the indoors or outdoors through a burner that has a continuous source of ignition and that is designed for such purpose.
  4. The piping shall be purged with fuel gas that is discharge to the indoors or outdoors, and the point of discharge shall be monitored with a listed combustible gas detector in accordance with Section 1213.6.2.2. Purging shall be stopped where fuel gas is detected.
  5. The piping shall be purged by the gas supplier in accordance with written procedures. [NFPA 54:8.3.2.1]
Combustible gas detectors shall be listed and shall be calibrated or tested in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Combustible gas detectors shall be capable of indicating the presence of fuel gas. [NFPA 54:8.3.2.2]
After the piping system has been placed in operation, appliances and equipment shall be purged before being placed into operation. [NFPA 54:8.3.3]
Where two or more meters, or two or more service regulators where meters are not provided, are located on the same premises and supply separate users, the gas piping systems shall not be interconnected on the outlet side of the meters or service regulators. [NFPA 54:5.3.1]
Where supplementary gas for standby use is connected downstream from a meter or a service regulator where a meter is not provided, a device to prevent backflow shall be installed. A three-way valve installed to admit the standby supply and at the same time shut off the regular supply shall be permitted to be used for this purpose. [NFPA 54:5.3.2]
The following regulations, shall comply with this section and Section 1216.0, shall be the standard for the installation of gas piping. Natural gas regulations and tables are based on the use of gas having a specific gravity of 0.60, supplied at 6 to 8 inches water column (1.5 kPa to 1.9 kPa) pressure at the outlet of the meter or regulator. For undiluted liquefied petroleum gas, gas piping shall be permitted to be sized at 11 inches water column (2.7 kPa) pressure at the outlet of the meter or regulator and specific gravity of 1.50. Where gas of a different specific gravity is to be delivered, the specific gravity conversion factors provided by the serving gas supplier shall be used in sizing piping systems from the pipe sizing tables in this chapter.
The hourly volume of gas required at each piping outlet shall be taken as not less than the maximum hourly rating as specified by the manufacturer of the appliance or appliances to be connected to each such outlet.
Where the gas appliances to be installed have not been definitely specified, Table 1208.4.1 shall be permitted to be used as a reference to estimate requirements of typical appliances.

    To obtain the cubic feet per hour (m3/h) of gas required, divide the input of the appliances by the average Btu (kW•h) heating value per cubic foot (m3) of the gas. The average Btu (kW•h) per cubic foot (m3) of the gas in the area of the installation shall be permitted to be obtained from the serving gas supplier.
The size of the supply piping outlet for a gas appliance shall be not less than 112 of an inch (15 mm).

    The size of a piping outlet for a mobile home shall be not less than 34 of an inch (20 mm).
Where the pipe size is to be determined using a method in Section 1216.1.1 through Section 1216.1.3. the diameter of each pipe segment shall be obtained from the pipe sizing tables in Section 1216.2 or from the sizing equations in Section 1216.3. [NFPA 54:6.1]
The pipe size of each section of gas piping shall be determined using the longest length of piping from the point of delivery to the most remote outlet and the load of the section (see calculation example in Figure 1216.1.1). [NFPA 54:6.1.1]
FIGURE 1216.1.1
EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATING USE OF TABLE 1208.4.1 AND TABLE 1216.2(1)
Problem: Determine the required pipe size of each section and outlet of the piping system shown in Figure 1216.1.1. Gas to be used has a specific gravity of 0.60 and 1100 British thermal units (Btu) per cubic foot (0.0114 kW•h/L), delivered at 8 inch water column (1.9 kPa) pressure.
For SI units: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h

Solution:
  1. Maximum gas demand of Outlet A-
    32 cubic feet per hour (0.91 m3/h) (from Table 1208.4.1).
    Maximum gas demand of Outlet B-
    3 cubic feet per hour (0.08 m3/h) (from Table 1208.4.1).
    Maximum gas demand of Outlet C-
    59 cubic feet per hour (1.67 m3/h) (from Table 1208.4.1).
    Maximum gas demand of Outlet D-
    136 cubic feet per hour (3.85 m3/h) [150000 Btu/hour (44 kW) divided by 1100 Btu per cubic foot (0.0114 kW•h/L)].
  2. The length of pipe from the gas meter to the most remote outlet (Outlet A) is 60 feet (18288 mm).
  3. Using the length in feet column row marked 60 feet (18288 mm) in Table 1216.2(1):
    Outlet A, supplying 32 cubic feet per hour (0.91 m3/h), requires 1/2 of an inch (15 mm) pipe.
    Section 1, supplying Outlets A and B, or 35 cubic feet per hour (0.99 m3/h) requires 1/2 of an inch (15 mm) pipe.
    Section 2, supplying Outlets A, B, and C, or 94 cubic feet per hour (2.66 m3/h) requires 3/4 of an inch (20 mm) pipe.
    Section 3, supplying Outlets A, B, C, and D, or 230 cubic feet per hour (6.51 m3/h), requires 1 inch (25 mm) pipe.
  4. Using the column marked 60 feet (18288 mm) in Table 1216.2(1) [no column for actual length of 55 feet (16764 mm)]:
    Outlet B supplying 3 cubic feet per hour (0.08 m3/h), requires 1/2 of an inch (15 mm) pipe.
    Outlet C, supplying 59 cubic feet per hour (1.67 m3/h), requires 1/2 of an inch (15 mm) pipe.
  5. Using the column marked 60 feet (18288 mm) in Table 1216.2(1):
    Outlet D, supplying 136 cubic feet per hour (3.85 m3/h), requires 3/4 of an inch (20 mm) pipe.

TABLE 1216.2(1)
SCHEDULE 40 METALLIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(b)]1, 2
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
2   NA means a flow of less than 10 ft3/h (0.283 m3/h).
Pipe shall be sized as follows:
  1. The pipe size of each section of the longest pipe run from the point of delivery to the most remote outlet shall be determined using the longest run of piping and the load of the section.
  2. The pipe size of each section of branch piping not previously sized shall be determined using the length of piping from the point of delivery to the most remote outlet in each branch and the load of the section. [NFPA 54:6.1.2]
The pipe size for each section of higher pressure gas piping shall be determined using the longest length of piping from the point of delivery to the most remote line pressure regulator. The pipe size from the line pressure regulator to each outlet shall be determined using the length of piping from the regulator to the most remote outlet served by the regulator. [NFPA 54:6.1.3]
Table 1216.2(1) through Table 1216.2(36) shall be used to size gas piping in conjunction with one of the methods described in Section 1216.1.1 through Section 1216.1.3. [NFPA 54:6.2]

TABLE 1216.2(1)
SCHEDULE 40 METALLIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(b)]1, 2
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1  Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
2  NA means a flow of less than 10 ft3/h (0.283 m3/h).


TABLE 1216.2(2)
SCHEDULE 40 METALLIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(c)]*
For SI units: 1 inch 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa
* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(3)
SCHEDULE 40 METALLIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(d)]*
For SI units: 1 inch 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa
* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(4)
SCHEDULE 40 METALLIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(e)]*
For SI units: 1 inch 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa
* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(5)
SCHEDULE 40 METALLIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(f)]*


GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: 3.0 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 2.0 psi
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
PIPE SIZE (inch)
NOMINAL: 12 34 1 114 112 2 212 3 4
ACTUAL ID: 0.622 0.824 1.049 1.380 1.610 2.067 2.469 3.068 4.026
LENGTH
(feet)
CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 2350 4920 9270 19000 28500 54900 87500 155000 316000
20 1620 3380 6370 13100 19600 37700 60100 106000 217000
30 1300 2720 5110 10500 15700 30300 48300 85400 174000
40 1110 2320 4380 8990 13500 25900 41300 73100 149000
50 985 2060 3880 7970 11900 23000 36600 64800 132000
60 892 1870 3520 7220 10800 20800 33200 58700 120000
70 821 1720 3230 6640 9950 19200 30500 54000 110000
80 764 1600 3010 6180 9260 17800 28400 50200 102000
90 717 1500 2820 5800 8680 16700 26700 47100 96100
100 677 1420 2670 5470 8200 15800 25200 44500 90800
125 600 1250 2360 4850 7270 14000 22300 39500 80500
150 544 1140 2140 4400 6590 12700 20200 35700 72900
175 500 1050 1970 4040 6060 11700 18600 32900 67100
200 465 973 1830 3760 5640 10900 17300 30600 62400
250 412 862 1620 3330 5000 9620 15300 27100 55300
300 374 781 1470 3020 4530 8720 13900 24600 50100
350 344 719 1350 2780 4170 8020 12800 22600 46100
400 320 669 1260 2590 3870 7460 11900 21000 42900
450 300 627 1180 2430 3640 7000 11200 19700 40200
500 283 593 1120 2290 3430 6610 10500 18600 38000
550 269 563 1060 2180 3260 6280 10000 17700 36100
600 257 537 1010 2080 3110 5990 9550 16900 34400
650 246 514 969 1990 2980 5740 9150 16200 33000
700 236 494 931 1910 2860 5510 8790 15500 31700
750 228 476 897 1840 2760 5310 8470 15000 30500
800 220 460 866 1780 2660 5130 8180 14500 29500
850 213 445 838 1720 2580 4960 7910 14000 28500
900 206 431 812 1670 2500 4810 7670 13600 27700
950 200 419 789 1620 2430 4670 7450 13200 26900
1000 195 407 767 1580 2360 4550 7240 12800 26100
1100 185 387 729 1500 2240 4320 6890 12200 24800
1200 177 369 695 1430 2140 4120 6570 11600 23700
1300 169 353 666 1370 2050 3940 6290 11100 22700
1400 162 340 640 1310 1970 3790 6040 10700 21800
1500 156 327 616 1270 1900 3650 5820 10300 21000
1600 151 316 595 1220 1830 3530 5620 10000 20300
1700 146 306 576 1180 1770 3410 5440 9610 19600
1800 142 296 558 1150 1720 3310 5270 9320 19000
1900 138 288 542 1110 1670 3210 5120 9050 18400
2000 134 280 527 1080 1620 3120 4980 8800 18000
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa
* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.



TABLE 1216.2(6)
SCHEDULE 40 METALLIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(g)]*
For SI units: 1 inch 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa
* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(7)
SEMI-RIGID COPPER TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(h)]1, 2

GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: LESS THAN 2 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 0.3 in. w.c.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
TUBE SIZE (inch)
NOMINAL: K & L: 14 38 12 58 34 1 114 112 2
ACR: 38 12 58 34 78 118 138 - -
OUTSIDE 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.125 1.375 1.625 2.125
INSIDE:3 0.305 0.402 0.527 0.652 0.745 0.995 1.245 1.481 1.959
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 20 42 85 148 210 448 806 1270 2650
20 14 29 58 102 144 308 554 873 1820
30 11 23 47 82 116 247 445 701 1460
30 10 20 40 70 99 211 381 600 1250
50 NA 17 35 62 88 187 337 532 1110
60 NA 16 32 56 79 170 306 482 1000
70 NA 14 29 52 73 156 281 443 924
80 NA 13 27 48 68 145 262 413 859
90 NA 13 26 45 64 136 245 387 806
100 NA 12 24 43 60 129 232 366 366
125 NA 11 22 38 53 114 206 324 675
150 NA 10 20 34 48 103 186 294 612
175 NA NA 18 31 45 95 171 270 563
200 NA NA 17 29 41 89 159 251 523
250 NA NA 15 26 37 78 141 223 464
300 NA NA 13 23 33 71 128 202 420
350 NA NA 12 22 31 65 118 186 387
400 NA NA 11 20 28 61 110 173 360
450 NA NA 11 19 27 57 103 162 338
500 NA NA 10 18 25 54 97 153 319
550 NA NA NA 17 24 51 92 145 303
600 NA NA NA 16 23 49 88 139 289
650 NA NA NA 15 22 47 84 133 277
700 NA NA NA 15 21 45 81 128 266
750 NA NA NA 14 20 43 78 123 256
800 NA NA NA 14 20 42 75 119 247
850 NA NA NA 13 19 40 73 115 239
900 NA NA NA 13 18 39 71 111 232
950 NA NA NA 13 18 38 69 108 225
1000 NA NA NA 12 17 37 67 105 219
1100 NA NA NA 12 16 35 63 100 208
1200 NA NA NA 11 16 34 60 95 199
1300 NA NA NA 11 15 32 58 91 190
1400 NA NA NA 10 14 31 56 88 183
1500 NA NA NA NA 14 30 54 84 176
1600 NA NA NA NA 13 29 52 82 170
1700 NA NA NA NA 13 28 50 79 164
1800 NA NA NA NA 13 27 49 77 159
1900 NA NA NA NA 12 26 47 74 155
2000 NA NA NA NA 12 25 46 72 151
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
2   NA means a flow of less than 10 ft3/h (0.283 m3/h).
3   Table capacities are based on Type K copper tubing inside diameter (shown), which has the smallest inside diameter of the copper tubing products.



TABLE 1216.2(8)
SEMI-RIGID COPPER TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(i)]1, 2


GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: LESS THAN 2 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 0.5 in. w.c.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
TUBE SIZE (inch)
NOMINAL: K & L: 14 38 12 58 34 1 114 112 2
ACR: 38 12 58 34 78 118 138 - -
OUTSIDE 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.125 1.375 1.625 2.125
INSIDE:3 0.305 0.402 0.527 0.652 0.745 0.995 1.245 1.481 1.959
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 27 55 111 195 276 590 1060 1680 3490
20 18 38 77 134 190 406 730 1150 2400
30 15 30 61 107 152 326 586 925 1930
40 13 26 53 92 131 279 502 791 1650
50 11 23 47 82 116 247 445 701 1460
60 10 21 42 74 105 224 403 635 1320
70 NA 19 39 68 96 206 371 585 1220
80 NA 18 36 63 90 192 345 544 1130
90 NA 17 34 59 84 180 324 510 1060
100 NA 16 32 56 79 170 306 482 1000
125 NA 14 28 50 70 151 271 427 890
150 NA 13 26 45 64 136 245 387 806
175 NA 12 24 41 59 125 226 356 742
200 NA 11 22 39 55 117 210 331 690
250 NA NA 20 34 48 103 186 294 612
300 NA NA 18 31 44 94 169 266 554
350 NA NA 16 28 40 86 155 245 510
400 NA NA 15 26 38 80 144 228 474
450 NA NA 14 25 35 75 135 214 445
500 NA NA 13 23 33 71 128 202 420
550 NA NA 13 22 32 68 122 192 399
600 NA NA 12 21 30 64 116 183 381
650 NA NA 12 20 29 62 111 175 365
700 NA NA 11 20 28 59 107 168 350
750 NA NA 11 19 27 57 103 162 338
800 NA NA 10 18 26 55 99 156 326
850 NA NA 10 18 25 53 96 151 315
900 NA NA NA 17 24 52 93 147 306
950 NA NA NA 17 24 50 90 143 297
1000 NA NA NA 16 23 49 88 139 289
1100 NA NA NA 15 22 46 84 132 274
1200 NA NA NA 15 21 44 80 126 262
1300 NA NA NA 14 20 42 76 120 251
1400 NA NA NA 13 19 41 73 116 241
1500 NA NA NA 13 18 39 71 111 232
1600 NA NA NA 13 18 38 68 108 224
1700 NA NA NA 12 17 37 66 104 217
1800 NA NA NA 12 17 36 64 101 210
1900 NA NA NA 11 16 35 62 98 204
2000 NA NA NA 11 16 34 60 95 199
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
2   NA means a flow of less than 10 ft3/h (0.283 m3/h).
3   Table capacities are based on Type K copper tubing inside diameter (shown), which has the smallest inside diameter of the copper tubing products.



TABLE 1216.2(9)
SEMI-RIGID COPPER TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(j)]1, 2
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
2   NA means a flow of less than 10 ft3/h (0.283 m3/h).
3   Table capacities are based on Type K copper tubing inside diameter (shown), which has the smallest inside diameter of the copper tubing products.


TABLE 1216.2(10)
SEMI-RIGID COPPER TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(k)]2
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   Table capacities are based on Type K copper tubing inside diameter (shown), which has the smallest inside diameter of the copper tubing products.
2   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(11)
SEMI-RIGID COPPER TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(I)]2


GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: 2.0 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 1.0 psi
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
TUBE SIZE (inch)
NOMINAL: K & L: 14 38 12 58 34 1 114 112 2
ACR: 38 12 58 34 78 118 138 - -
OUTSIDE 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.125 1.375 1.625 2.125
INSIDE:1 0.305 0.402 0.527 0.652 0.745 0.995 1.245 1.481 1.959
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 245 506 1030 1800 2550 5450 9820 15500 32200
20 169 348 708 1240 1760 3750 6750 10600 22200
30 135 279 568 993 1410 3010 5420 8550 17800
40 116 239 486 850 1210 2580 4640 7310 15200
50 103 212 431 754 1070 2280 4110 6480 13500
60 93 192 391 683 969 2070 3730 5870 12200
70 86 177 359 628 891 1900 3430 5400 11300
80 80 164 334 584 829 1770 3190 5030 10500
90 75 154 314 548 778 1660 2990 4720 9820
100 71 146 296 518 735 1570 2830 4450 9280
125 63 129 263 459 651 1390 2500 3950 8220
150 57 117 238 416 590 1260 2270 3580 7450
175 52 108 219 383 543 1160 2090 3290 6850
200 49 100 204 356 505 1080 1940 3060 6380
250 43 89 181 315 448 956 1720 2710 5650
300 39 80 164 286 406 866 1560 2460 5120
350 36 74 150 263 373 797 1430 2260 4710
400 33 69 140 245 347 741 1330 2100 4380
450 31 65 131 230 326 696 1250 1970 4110
500 30 61 124 217 308 657 1180 1870 3880
550 28 58 118 206 292 624 1120 1770 3690
600 27 55 112 196 279 595 1070 1690 3520
650 26 53 108 188 267 570 1030 1620 3370
700 25 51 103 181 256 548 986 1550 3240
750 24 49 100 174 247 528 950 1500 3120
800 23 47 96 168 239 510 917 1450 3010
850 22 46 93 163 231 493 888 1400 2920
900 22 44 90 158 224 478 861 1360 2830
950 21 43 88 153 217 464 836 1320 2740
1000 20 42 85 149 211 452 813 1280 2670
1100 19 40 81 142 201 429 772 1220 2540
1200 18 38 77 135 192 409 737 1160 2420
1300 18 36 74 129 183 392 705 1110 2320
1400 17 35 71 124 176 376 678 1070 2230
1500 16 34 68 120 170 363 653 1030 2140
1600 16 33 66 116 164 350 630 994 2070
1700 15 31 64 112 159 339 610 962 2000
1800 15 30 62 108 154 329 592 933 1940
1900 14 30 60 105 149 319 575 906 1890
2000 14 29 59 102 145 310 559 881 1830
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1   Table capacities are based on Type K copper tubing inside diameter (shown), which has the smallest inside diameter of the copper tnbing products.
2  Table entries are ronnded to 3 significant digits.



TABLE 1216.2(12)
SEMI-RIGID COPPER TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(m)]3


GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: 2.0 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 1.5 psi
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
INTENDED USE: PIPE SIZING BETWEEN POINT OF DELIVERY AND THE HOUSE LINE REGULATOR. TOTAL LOAD SUPPLIED BY A SINGLE HOUSE LINE REGULATOR NOT EXCEEDING 150 CUBIC FEET PER HOUR.2
TUBE SIZE (inch)
NOMINAL: K & L: 14 38 12 58 34 1 114 112 2
ACR: 38 12 58 34 78 118 138 - -
OUTSIDE 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.125 1.375 1.625 2.125
INSIDE:1 0.305 0.402 0.527 0.652 0.745 0.995 1.245 1.481 1.959
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 303 625 1270 2220 3150 6740 12100 19100 39800
20 208 430 874 1530 2170 4630 8330 13100 27400
30 167 345 702 1230 1740 3720 6690 10600 22000
40 143 295 601 1050 1490 3180 5730 9030 18800
50 127 262 532 931 1320 2820 5080 8000 16700
60 115 237 482 843 1200 2560 4600 7250 15100
70 106 218 444 776 1100 2350 4230 6670 13900
80 98 203 413 722 1020 2190 3940 6210 12900
90 92 190 387 677 961 2050 3690 5820 12100
100 87 180 366 640 907 1940 3490 5500 11500
125 77 159 324 567 804 1720 3090 4880 10200
150 70 144 294 514 729 1560 2800 4420 9200
175 64 133 270 472 670 1430 2580 4060 8460
200 60 124 252 440 624 1330 2400 3780 7870
250 53 110 223 390 553 1180 2130 3350 6980
300 48 99 202 353 501 1070 1930 3040 6320
350 44 91 186 325 461 984 1770 2790 5820
400 41 85 173 302 429 916 1650 2600 5410
450 39 80 162 283 402 859 1550 2440 5080
500 36 75 153 268 380 811 1460 2300 4800
550 35 72 146 254 361 771 1390 2190 4560
600 33 68 139 243 344 735 1320 2090 4350
650 32 65 133 232 330 704 1270 2000 4160
700 30 63 128 223 317 676 1220 1920 4000
750 29 60 123 215 305 652 1170 1850 3850
800 28 58 119 208 295 629 1130 1790 3720
850 27 57 115 201 285 609 1100 1730 3600
900 27 55 111 195 276 590 1060 1680 3490
950 26 53 108 189 268 573 1030 1630 3390
1000 25 52 105 184 261 558 1000 1580 3300
1100 24 49 100 175 248 530 954 1500 3130
1200 23 47 95 167 237 505 910 1430 2990
1300 22 45 91 160 227 484 871 1370 2860
1400 21 43 88 153 218 465 837 1320 2750
1500 20 42 85 148 210 448 806 1270 2650
1600 19 40 82 143 202 432 779 1230 2560
1700 19 39 79 138 196 419 753 1190 2470
1800 18 38 77 134 190 406 731 1150 2400
1900 18 37 74 130 184 394 709 1120 2330
2000 17 36 72 126 179 383 690 1090 2270
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1   Table capacities are based on Type K copper tubing inside diameter (shown), which has the smallest inside diameter of the copper tubing products.
2   Where this table is used to size the tubing upstream of a line pressure regulator, the pipe or tubing downstream of the line pressure regulator shall be sized using a pressure drop no greater than 1 inch water column (0.249 kPa).
3   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.



TABLE 1216.2(13)
SEMI-RIGID COPPER TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(n)]2


GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: 5.0 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 3.5 psi
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
TUBE SIZE (inch)
NOMINAL: K & L: 14 38 12 58 34 1 114 112 2
ACR: 38 12 58 34 78 118 138 - -
OUTSIDE 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.125 1.375 1.625 2.125
INSIDE:1 0.305 0.402 0.527 0.652 0.745 0.995 1.245 1.481 1.959
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 511 1050 2140 3750 5320 11400 20400 32200 67100
20 351 724 1470 2580 3650 7800 14000 22200 46100
30 282 582 1180 2070 2930 6270 11300 17800 37000
40 241 498 1010 1770 2510 5360 9660 15200 31700
50 214 441 898 1570 2230 4750 8560 13500 28100
60 194 400 813 1420 2020 4310 7750 12200 25500
70 178 368 748 1310 1860 3960 7130 11200 23400
80 166 342 696 1220 1730 3690 6640 10500 21800
90 156 321 653 1140 1620 3460 6230 9820 20400
100 147 303 617 1080 1530 3270 5880 9270 19300
125 130 269 547 955 1360 2900 5210 8220 17100
150 118 243 495 866 1230 2620 4720 7450 15500
175 109 224 456 796 1130 2410 4350 6850 14300
200 101 208 424 741 1050 2250 4040 6370 13300
250 90 185 376 657 932 1990 3580 5650 11800
300 81 167 340 595 844 1800 3250 5120 10700
350 75 154 313 547 777 1660 2990 4710 9810
400 69 143 291 509 722 1540 2780 4380 9120
450 65 134 273 478 678 1450 2610 4110 8560
500 62 127 258 451 640 1370 2460 3880 8090
550 58 121 245 429 608 1300 2340 3690 7680
600 56 115 234 409 580 1240 2230 3520 7330
650 53 110 224 392 556 1190 2140 3370 7020
700 51 106 215 376 534 1140 2050 3240 6740
750 49 102 207 362 514 1100 1980 3120 6490
800 48 98 200 350 497 1060 1910 3010 6270
850 46 95 194 339 481 1030 1850 2910 6070
900 45 92 188 328 466 1000 1790 2820 5880
950 43 90 182 319 452 967 1740 2740 5710
1000 42 87 177 310 440 940 1690 2670 5560
1100 40 83 169 295 418 893 1610 2530 5280
1200 38 79 161 281 399 852 1530 2420 5040
1300 37 76 154 269 382 816 1470 2320 4820
1400 35 73 148 259 367 784 1410 2220 4630
1500 34 70 143 249 353 755 1360 2140 4460
1600 33 68 138 241 341 729 1310 2070 4310
1700 32 65 133 233 330 705 1270 2000 4170
1800 31 63 129 226 320 684 1230 1940 4040
1900 30 62 125 219 311 664 1200 1890 3930
2000 29 60 122 213 302 646 1160 1830 3820
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1   Table capacities are based on Type K copper tubing inside diameter (shown), which has the smallest inside diameter of the copper tubing products.
2   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.



TABLE 1216.2(14)
CORRUGATED STAINLESS STEEL TUBING (CSST) [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(o)]1, 2


GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: LESS THAN 2 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 0.5 in.w.c.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
TUBE SIZE (EHD)3
FLOW DESIGNATION: 13 15 18 19 23 25 30 31 37 39 46 48 60 62
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
5 46 63 115 134 225 270 471 546 895 1037 1790 2070 3660 4140
10 32 44 82 95 161 192 330 383 639 746 1260 1470 2600 2930
15 25 35 66 77 132 157 267 310 524 615 1030 1200 2140 2400
20 22 31 58 67 116 137 231 269 456 536 888 1050 1850 2080
25 19 27 52 60 104 122 206 240 409 482 793 936 1660 1860
30 18 25 47 55 96 112 188 218 374 442 723 856 1520 1700
40 15 21 41 47 83 97 162 188 325 386 625 742 1320 1470
50 13 19 37 42 75 87 144 168 292 347 559 665 1180 1320
60 12 17 34 38 68 80 131 153 267 318 509 608 1080 1200
70 11 16 31 36 63 74 121 141 248 295 471 563 1000 1110
80 10 15 29 33 60 69 113 132 232 277 440 527 940 1040
90 10 14 28 32 57 65 107 125 219 262 415 498 887 983
100 9 13 26 30 54 62 101 118 208 249 393 472 843 933
150 7 10 20 23 42 48 78 91 171 205 320 387 691 762
200 6 9 18 21 38 44 71 82 148 179 277 336 600 661
250 5 8 16 19 34 39 63 74 133 161 247 301 538 591
300 5 7 15 17 32 36 57 67 95 148 226 275 492 540
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
2   Table includes losses for four 90 degree (1.57 rad) bends and two end fittings. Tubing runs with larger numbers of bends, fittings, or both shall be increased by an equivalent length of tubing to the following equation: L = 1.3 n, where L is additional length (ft) of tubing and n is the number of additional fittings, bends, or both.
3   EHD = Equivalent Hydraulic Diameter, which is a measure of the relative hydraulic efficiency between different tubing sizes. The greater the value of EHD, the greater the gas capacity of the tubing.



TABLE 1216.2(15)
CORRUGATED STAINLESS STEEL TUBING (CSST) [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(p)]1, 2


GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: LESS THAN 2 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 3.0 in.w.c.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
INTENDED USE: INITIAL SUPPLY PRESSURE OF 8.0 INCH WATER COLUMN OR GREATER
TUBE SIZE (EHD)3
FLOW DESIGNATION: 13 15 18 19 23 25 30 31 37 46 48 60 62
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
5 120 160 277 327 529 649 1180 1370 2140 4430 5010 8800 10100
10 83 112 197 231 380 462 828 958 1530 3200 3560 6270 7160
15 67 90 161 189 313 379 673 778 1250 2540 2910 5140 5850
20 57 78 140 164 273 329 580 672 1090 2200 2530 4460 5070
25 51 69 125 147 245 295 518 599 978 1960 2270 4000 4540
30 46 63 115 l34 225 270 471 546 895 1790 2070 3660 4140
40 39 54 100 116 196 234 407 471 778 1550 1800 3180 3590
50 35 48 89 104 176 210 363 421 698 l380 1610 2850 3210
60 32 44 82 95 161 192 330 383 639 1260 1470 2600 2930
70 29 41 76 88 150 178 306 355 593 1170 l360 2420 2720
80 27 38 71 82 141 167 285 331 555 1090 1280 2260 2540
90 26 36 67 77 l33 157 268 311 524 1030 1200 2140 2400
100 24 34 63 73 126 149 254 295 498 974 1140 2030 2280
150 19 27 52 60 104 122 206 240 409 793 936 1660 1860
200 17 23 45 52 91 106 178 207 355 686 812 1440 1610
250 15 21 40 46 82 95 159 184 319 613 728 1290 1440
300 13 19 37 42 75 87 144 168 234 559 665 1180 l320
For SI units: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
2   Table includes losses for four 90 degree (1.57 rad) bends and two end fittings. Tubing runs with larger numbers of bends, fittings, or both shall be increased by an equivalent length of tubing to the following equation: L = 1.3 n, where L is additional length (ft) of tubing and n is the number of additional fittings, bends, or both.
3   EHD = Equivalent Hydraulic Diameter, which is a measure of the relative hydraulic efficiency between different tubing sizes. The greater the value of EHD, the greater the gas capacity of the tubing.



TABLE 1216.2(16)
CORRUGATED STAINLESS STEEL TUBING (CSST) [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(q)]1, 2
For SI units: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
2   Table includes losses for four 90 degree (1.57 rad) bends and two end fittings. Tubing runs with larger numbers of bends, fittings, or both shall be increased by an equivalent length of tubing to the following equation: L = 1.3 n, where L is additional length (ft) of tubing and n is the number of additional fittings, bends, or both.
3   EHD = Equivalent Hydraulic Diameter, which is a measure of the relative hydraulic efficiency between different tubing sizes. The greater the value of EHD, the greater the gas capacity of the tubing.


TABLE 1216.2(17)
CORRUGATED STAINLESS STEEL TUBING (CSST) [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(r)]1, 2, 3, 4
For SI units: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1   Table does not include effect of pressure drop across the line regulator. Where regulator loss exceeds 0.75 psi (5.17 kPa), DO NOT USE THIS TABLE. Consult with regulator manufacturer for pressure drops and capacity factors. Pressure drops across regulator are capable of varying with the flow rate.
2   CAUTION: Capacities shown in table are capable of exceeding the maximum capacity of selected regulator. Consult with regulator or tubing manufacturer for guidance.
3   Table includes losses for four 90 degree (1.57 rad) bends and two end fittings. Tubing runs with larger numbers of bends, fittings, or both shall be increased by an equivalent length of tubing to the following equation: L = 1.3 n, where L is additional length (ft) of tubing and n is the number of additional fittings, bends, or both.
4   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
5   EHD = Equivalent Hydraulic Diameter, which is a measure of the relative hydraulic efficiency between different tubing sizes. The greater the value of EHD, the greater the gas capacity of the tubing.


TABLE 1216.2(18)
CORRUGATED STAINLESS STEEL TUBING (CSST) [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(s)]1, 2, 3, 4


GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: 5.0 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 3.5 psi
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
TUBE SIZE (EHD)5
FLOW DESIGNATION: 13 15 18 19 23 25 30 31 37 39 46 48 60 62
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 523 674 1080 l300 2000 2530 4920 5660 8300 9140 18100 19800 34400 40400
25 322 420 691 827 1290 1620 3080 3540 5310 5911 11400 12600 22000 25600
30 292 382 632 755 1180 1480 2800 3230 4860 5420 10400 11500 20100 23400
40 251 329 549 654 1030 1280 2420 2790 4230 4727 8970 10000 17400 20200
50 223 293 492 586 926 1150 2160 2490 3790 4251 8020 8930 15600 18100
75 180 238 403 479 763 944 1750 2020 3110 3506 6530 7320 12800 14800
80 174 230 391 463 740 915 1690 1960 3020 3400 6320 7090 12400 14300
100 154 205 350 415 665 820 1510 1740 2710 3057 5650 6350 11100 12800
150 124 166 287 339 548 672 1230 1420 2220 2521 4600 5200 9130 10500
200 107 143 249 294 478 584 1060 1220 1930 2199 3980 4510 7930 9090
250 95 128 223 263 430 524 945 1090 1730 1977 3550 4040 7110 8140
300 86 116 204 240 394 479 860 995 1590 1813 3240 3690 6500 7430
400 74 100 177 208 343 416 742 858 l380 1581 2800 3210 5650 6440
500 66 89 159 186 309 373 662 766 1040 1422 2500 2870 5060 5760
For SI units: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1   Table does not include effect of pressure drop across the line regulator. Where regulator loss exceeds 1 psi (7 kPa), DO NOT USE THIS TABLE. Consult with regulator manufacturer for pressure drops and capacity factors. Pressure drops across regulator are capable of varying with the flow rate.
2   CAUTION: Capacities shown in table are capable of exceeding the maximum capacity of selected regulator. Consult tubing manufacturer for guidance.
3   Table includes losses for four 90 degree (1.57 rad) bends and two end fittings. Tubing runs with larger numbers of bends, fittings, or both shall be increased by an equivalent length of tubing to the following equation: L = 1.3 n, where L is additional length (ft) of tubing and n is the number of additional fittings, bends, or both.
4   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
5   EHD = Equivalent Hydraulic Diameter, which is a measure of the relative hydraulic efficiency between different tubing sizes. The greater the value of EHD, the greater the gas capacity of the tubing.



TABLE 1216.2(19)
POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(t)]*


GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: LESS THAN 2 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 0.3 in. w.c.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
PIPE SIZE (inch)
NOMINAL OD: 12 34 1 114 112 2 3 4
DESIGNATION: SDR 9.3 SDR 11 SDR 11 SDR 10 SDR 11 SDR 11 SDR 11 SDR 11
ACTUAL ID: 0.660 0.860 1.077 1.328 1.554 1.943 2.864 3.682
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 153 305 551 955 1440 2590 7170 13900
20 105 210 379 656 991 1780 4920 9520
30 84 169 304 527 796 1430 3950 7640
40 72 144 260 451 681 1220 3380 6540
50 64 128 231 400 604 1080 3000 5800
60 58 116 209 362 547 983 2720 5250
70 53 107 192 333 503 904 2500 4830
80 50 99 179 310 468 841 2330 4500
90 46 93 168 291 439 789 2180 4220
100 44 88 159 275 415 745 2060 3990
125 39 78 141 243 368 661 1830 3530
150 35 71 127 221 333 598 1660 3200
175 32 65 117 203 306 551 1520 2940
200 30 60 109 189 285 512 1420 2740
250 27 54 97 167 253 454 1260 2430
300 24 48 88 152 229 411 1140 2200
350 22 45 81 139 211 378 1050 2020
400 21 42 75 130 196 352 974 1880
450 19 39 70 122 184 330 914 1770
500 18 37 66 115 174 312 863 1670
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.



TABLE 1216.2(20)
POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(u)]*


GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: LESS THAN 2 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 0.5 in. w.c.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
PIPE SIZE (inch)
NOMINAL OD: 12 34 1 114 112 2 3 4
DESIGNATION: SDR 9.3 SDR 11 SDR 11 SDR 10 SDR 11 SDR 11 SDR 11 SDR 11
ACTUAL ID: 0.660 0.860 1.077 1.328 1.554 1.943 2.864 3.682
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 201 403 726 1260 1900 3410 9450 18260
20 138 277 499 865 1310 2350 6490 12550
30 111 222 401 695 1050 1880 5210 10080
40 95 190 343 594 898 1610 4460 8630
50 84 169 304 527 796 1430 3950 7640
60 76 153 276 477 721 1300 3580 6930
70 70 140 254 439 663 1190 3300 6370
80 65 131 236 409 617 1110 3070 5930
90 61 123 221 383 579 1040 2880 5560
100 58 116 209 362 547 983 2720 5250
125 51 103 185 321 485 871 2410 4660
150 46 93 168 291 439 789 2180 4220
175 43 86 154 268 404 726 2010 3880
200 40 80 144 249 376 675 1870 3610
250 35 71 127 221 333 598 1660 3200
300 32 64 115 200 302 542 1500 2900
350 29 59 106 184 278 499 1380 2670
400 27 55 99 171 258 464 1280 2480
450 26 51 93 160 242 435 1200 2330
500 24 48 88 152 229 411 1140 2200
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

*  Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.



TABLE 1216.2(21)
POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(v)]*
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa
* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(22)
POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(w)]2, 3

GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: LESS THAN 2.0 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 0.3 in. w.c.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
PLASTIC TUBING SIZE (CTS)1 (inch)
NOMINAL OD: 12 1
DESIGNATION: SDR 7 SDR 11
ACTUAL ID: 0.445 0.927
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 54 372
20 37 256
30 30 205
40 26 176
50 23 156
60 21 141
70 19 130
80 18 121
90 17 113
100 16 107
125 14 95
150 13 86
175 12 79
200 11 74
225 10 69
250 NA 65
275 NA 62
300 NA 59
350 NA 54
400 NA 51
450 NA 47
500 NA 45

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   CTS = Copper tube size.
2   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
3   NA means a flow of less than 10 ft3/h (0.283 m3/h).



TABLE 1216.2(23)
POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.2(x)]2, 3

GAS: NATURAL
INLET PRESSURE: LESS THAN 2.0 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 0.5 in. w.c.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.60
PLASTIC TUBING SIZE (CTS)1 (inch)
NOMINAL OD: 12 1
DESIGNATION: SDR 7 SDR 11
ACTUAL ID: 0.445 0.927
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 72 490
20 49 337
30 39 271
40 34 232
50 30 205
60 27 186
70 25 171
80 23 159
90 22 149
100 21 141
125 18 125
150 17 113
175 15 104
200 14 97
225 13 91
250 12 86
275 11 82
300 11 78
350 10 72
400 NA 67
450 NA 63
500 NA 59

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot per hour = 0.0283 m3/h, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   CTS = Copper tube size.
2   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
3   NA means a flow of less than 10 ft3/h (0.283 m3/h).



TABLE 1216.2(24)
SCHEDULE 40 METALLIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(a)]*
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa
* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(25)
SCHEDULE 40 METALLIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(b)]*
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa
* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(26)
SCHEDULE 40 METALLIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(c)]*
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa
* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(27)
SCHEDULE 40 METALLIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(d)]*
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa
* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(28)
SEMI-RIGID COPPER TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(e)]2
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1   Table capacities are based on Type K copper tubing inside diameter (shown), which has the smallest inside diameter of the copper tubing products.
2   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(29)
SEMI-RIGID COPPER TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(f)]2, 3
For SI units: 1 inch 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   Table capacities are based on Type K copper tubing inside diameter (shown), which has the smallest inside diameter of the copper tubing products.
2   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
3   NA means a flow ofless than 10000 Btu/h (2.93 kW).


TABLE 1216.2(30)
SEMI-RIGID COPPER TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(9)]2
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1   Table capacities are based on Type K copper tubing inside diameter (shown), which has the smallest inside diameter of the copper tubing products.
2   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.


TABLE 1216.2(31)
CORRUGATED STAINLESS STEEL TUBING (CSST) [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(h)]1, 2


GAS: UNDILUTED PROPANE
INLET PRESSURE: 11.0 in. w.c.
PRESSURE DROP: 0.5 in. w.c.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1.50
INTENDED USE: CSST SIZING BETWEEN SINGLE OR SECOND STAGE (LOW PRESSURE) REGULATOR AND APPLIANCE SHUTOFF VALVE
TUBE SIZE (EHD)3
FLOW DESIGNATION: 13 15 18 19 23 25 30 31 37 39 46 48 60 62
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
5 72 99 181 211 355 426 744 863 1420 1638 2830 3270 5780 6550
10 50 69 129 150 254 303 521 605 971 1179 1990 2320 4110 4640
15 39 55 104 121 208 248 422 490 775 972 1620 1900 3370 3790
20 34 49 91 106 183 216 365 425 661 847 1400 1650 2930 3290
25 30 42 82 94 164 192 325 379 583 762 1250 1480 2630 2940
30 28 39 74 87 151 177 297 344 528 698 1140 l350 2400 2680
40 23 33 64 74 l31 153 256 297 449 610 988 1170 2090 2330
50 20 30 58 66 118 l37 227 265 397 548 884 1050 1870 2080
60 19 26 53 60 107 126 207 241 359 502 805 961 1710 1900
70 17 25 49 57 99 117 191 222 330 466 745 890 1590 1760
80 15 23 45 52 94 109 178 208 307 438 696 833 1490 1650
90 15 22 44 50 90 102 169 197 286 414 656 787 1400 1550
100 14 20 41 47 85 98 159 186 270 393 621 746 1330 1480
150 11 15 31 36 66 75 123 143 217 324 506 611 1090 1210
200 9 14 28 33 60 69 112 129 183 283 438 531 948 1050
250 8 12 25 30 53 61 99 117 163 254 390 476 850 934
300 8 11 23 26 50 57 90 107 147 234 357 434 777 854
For SI units: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   Table includes losses for four 90 degree (1.57 rad) bends and two end fittings. Tubing runs with larger numbers of bends, fittings, or both shall be increased by an equivalent length of tubing to the following equation: L = 1.3 n, where L is additional length (ft) of tubing and n is the number of additional fittings, bends, or both.
2   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
3   EHD = Equivalent Hydraulic Diameter, which is a measure of the relative hydraulic efficiency between different tubing sizes. The greater the value of EHD, the greater the gas capacity of the tubing.



TABLE 1216.2(32)
CORRUGATED STAINLESS STEEL TUBING (CSST) [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(i)]1, 2, 3, 4


GAS: UNDILUTED PROPANE
INLET PRESSURE: 2.0 psi
PRESSURE DROP: 1.0 psi
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1.50
INTENDED USE: CSST SIZING BETWEEN 2 PSI SERVICE AND LINE PRESSURE REGULATOR
TUBE SIZE (EHD)5
FLOW DESIGNATION: 13 15 18 19 23 25 30 31 37 39 46 48 60 62
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER HOUR
10 426 558 927 1110 1740 2170 4100 4720 7130 7958 15200 16800 29400 34200
25 262 347 591 701 1120 1380 2560 2950 4560 5147 9550 10700 18800 21700
30 238 316 540 640 1030 1270 2330 2690 4180 4719 8710 9790 17200 19800
40 203 271 469 554 896 1100 2010 2320 3630 4116 7530 8500 14900 17200
50 181 243 420 496 806 986 1790 2070 3260 3702 6730 7610 13400 15400
75 147 196 344 406 663 809 1460 1690 2680 3053 5480 6230 11000 12600
80 140 189 333 393 643 768 1410 1630 2590 2961 5300 6040 10600 12200
100 124 169 298 350 578 703 1260 1450 2330 2662 4740 5410 9530 10900
150 101 137 245 287 477 575 1020 1180 1910 2195 3860 4430 7810 8890
200 86 118 213 248 415 501 880 1020 1660 1915 3340 3840 6780 7710
250 77 105 191 222 373 448 785 910 1490 1722 2980 3440 6080 6900
300 69 96 173 203 343 411 716 829 1360 1578 2720 3150 5560 6300
400 60 82 151 175 298 355 616 716 1160 1376 2350 2730 4830 5460
500 53 72 135 158 268 319 550 638 1030 1237 2100 2450 4330 4880
For SI units: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1   Table does not include effect of pressure drop across the line regulator. Where regulator loss exceeds 0.5 psi (3.4 kPa), [based on 13 inch water column (3.2 kPa) outlet pressure], DO NOT USE THIS TABLE. Consult with regulator manufacturer for pressure drops and capacity factors. Pressure drops across regulator are capable of varying with the flow rate.
2   CAUTION: Capacities shown in table are capable of exceeding the maximum capacity of selected regulator. Consult tubing manufacturer for guidance.
3   Table includes losses for four 90 degree (1.57 rad) bends and two end fittings. Tubing runs with larger numbers of bends, fittings, or both shall be increased by an equivalent length of tubing to the following equation: L = 1.3 n, where L is additional length (ft) of tubing and n is the number of additional fittings, bends, or both.
4   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
5   EHD = Equivalent Hydraulic Diameter, which is a measure of the relative hydraulic efficiency between different tubing sizes. The greater the value of EHD, the greater the gas capacity of the tubing.



TABLE 1216.2(33)
CORRUGATED STAINLESS STEEL TUBING (CSST) [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(j)]1, 2, 3, 4
For SI units: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:
1   Table does not include effect of pressure drop across the line regulator. Where regulator loss exceeds 0.5 psi (3.4 kPa), [based on 13 inch water column (3.2 kPa) outlet pressure], DO NOT USE THIS TABLE. Consult with regulator manufacturer for pressure drops and capacity factors. Pressure drops across regulator are capable of varying with the flow rate.
2   CAUTION: Capacities shown in table are capable of exceeding the maximum capacity of selected regulator. Consult with regulator or tubing manufacturer for guidance.
3   Table includes losses for four 90 degree (1.57 rad) bends and two end fittings. Tubing runs with larger numbers of bends, fittings, or both shall be increased by an equivalent length of tubing to the following equation: L = 1.3 n, where L is additional length (ft) of tubing and n is the number of additional fittings, bends, or both.
4   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
5   EHD = Equivalent Hydraulic Diameter, which is a measure of the relative hydraulic efficiency between different tubing sizes. The greater the value of EHD, the greater the gas capacity of the tubing.


TABLE 1216.2(34)
POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC PIPE [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(k)]*


GAS: UNDILUTED PROPANE
INLET PRESSURE: 11.0 in. w.c.
PRESSURE DROP: 0.5 in. w.c.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1.50
INTENDED USE: PE SIZING BETWEEN INTEGRAL SECOND-STAGE REGULATOR AT TANK OR SECOND-STANGE
(LOW PRESSURE) REGULATOR AND BUILDING
PIPE SIZE (inch)
NOMINAL OD: 12 34 1 114 112 2 3 4
DESIGNATION: SDR 9.3 SDR 11 SDR 11 SDR 10 SDR 11 SDR 11 SDR 11 SDR 11
ACTUAL ID: 0.660 .860 1.077 1.328 1.554 1.943 2.864 3.682
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
10 340 680 1230 2130 3210 5770 16000 30900
20 233 468 844 1460 2210 3970 11000 21200
30 187 375 677 1170 1770 3180 8810 17000
40 160 321 580 1000 1520 2730 7540 14600
50 142 285 514 890 1340 2420 6680 12900
60 129 258 466 807 1220 2190 6050 11700
70 119 237 428 742 1120 2010 5570 10800
80 110 221 398 690 1040 1870 5180 10000
90 103 207 374 648 978 1760 4860 9400
100 98 196 353 612 924 1660 4590 8900
125 87 173 313 542 819 1470 4070 7900
150 78 157 284 491 742 1330 3690 7130
175 72 145 261 452 683 1230 3390 6560
200 67 135 243 420 635 1140 3160 6100
250 60 119 215 373 563 1010 2800 5410
300 54 108 195 338 510 916 2530 4900
350 50 99 179 311 469 843 2330 4510
400 46 92 167 289 436 784 2170 4190
450 43 87 157 271 409 736 2040 3930
500 41 82 148 256 387 695 1920 3720
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.



TABLE 1216.2(35)
POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC PIPE [NFPA 54:TABlE 6.3(I)]*
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa
* Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.



  TABLE 1216.2(36)
  POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC TUBING [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.3(m)]2

GAS: UNDILUTED PROPANE
INLET PRESSURE: 11.0 in. w.c.
PRESSURE DROP: 0.5 in. w.c.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1.50
INTENDED USE: PE TUBE SIZING BETWEEN INTEGRAL
SECOND-STAGE REGULATOR AT TANK OR SECOND-STAGE
(LOW PRESSURE) REGULATOR AND BUILDING
PLASTIC TUBING SIZE (CTS)1 (inch)
NOMINAL OD: 12 1
DESIGNATION: SDR 7 SDR 11
ACTUAL ID: 0.445 0.927
LENGTH (feet) CAPACITY IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
10 121 828
20 83 569
30 67 457
40 57 391
50 51 347
60 46 314
70 42 289
80 39 269
90 37 252
100 35 238
125 31 211
150 28 191
175 26 176
200 24 164
225 22 154
250 21 145
275 20 138
300 19 132
350 18 121
400 16 113
450 15 106
500 15 100

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

Notes:
1   CTS = Copper tube size.
2   Table entries are rounded to 3 significant digits.
The inside diameter of smooth-wall pipe or tubing shall be determined by Equation 1216.3(1), Equation 1216.3(2), Table 1216.3, and using the equivalent pipe length determined by Section 1216.1.1 through Section 1216.1.3. [NFPA 54:6.4]

EQUATION 1216.3(1)
LOW-PRESSURE GAS FORMULA (LESS THAN 1.5 psi) [NFPA 54:6.4.1]

Where:
D = inside diameter of pipe, inches
Q = input rate appliance(s), cubic feet per hour at 60°F
and 30 inch mercury column
L = equivalent length of pipe, feet
ΔH = pressure drop, inches water column
Cr = in accordance with Table 1216.3

EQUATION 1216.3(2)
HIGH-PRESSURE GAS FORMULA (1.5 psi AND ABOVE) [NFPA 54:6.4.2]

Where:
D = inside diameter of pipe, inches
Q = input rate appliance(s), cubic feet per hour at 60°F
and 30 inch mercury column
P1 = upstream pressure, psia (P1 + 14.7)
P2 = downstream pressure, psia (P2 + 14.7)
L = equivalent length of pipe, feet
Cr = in accordance with Table 1216.3
Y = in accordance with Table 1216.3

For SI units: 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m3, 1000 British thermal units per hour = 0.293 kW, 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, °C = (°F-32)/1.8, 1 inch mercury column = 3.39 kPa, 1 inch water column = 0.249 kPa

TABLE 1216.3
Cr AND Y FOR NATURAL GAS AND UNDILUTED PROPANE AT STANDARD CONDITIONS [NFPA 54: TABLE 6.4.2]
GAS FORMULA FACTORS
Cr Y
Natural Gas 0.6094 0.9992
Undiluted Propane 1.2462 0.9910
To determine the size of each section of pipe in a system within the range of Table 1216.2(1) through Table 1216.2(36), proceed as follows:
  1. Measure the length of the pipe from the gas meter location to the most remote outlet on the system.
  2. Select the length in feet column and row showing the distance, or the next longer distance where the table does not give the exact length.
  3. Starting at the most remote outlet, find in the row just selected the gas demand for that outlet. Where the exact figure of demand is not shown, choose the next larger figure in the row.
  4. At the top of this column will be found the correct size of pipe.
  5. Using this same row, proceed in a similar manner for each section of pipe serving this outlet. For each section of pipe, determine the total gas demand supplied by that section. Where gas piping sections serve both heating and cooling appliances and the installation prevents both units from operating simultaneously, the larger of the two demand loads needs to be used in sizing these sections.
  6. Size each section of branch piping not previously sized by measuring the distance from the gas meter location to the most remote outlet in that branch and follow the procedures of steps 2, 3, 4, and 5 above. Size branch piping in the order of their distance from the meter location, beginning with the most distant outlet not previously sized.
For conditions other than those covered by Section 1216.1, such as longer runs or greater gas demands, the size of each gas piping system shall be determined by standard engineering methods acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, and each such system shall be so designed that the total pressure drop between the meter or other point of supply and an outlet where full demand is being supplied to all outlets, shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 1208.4.
Where the gas pressure exceeds 14 inches (3.5 kPa) or less than 6 inches (1.5 kPa) of water column, or where diversity demand factors are used, the design, pipe, sizing, materials, location, and use of such systems first shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Piping systems designed for pressures exceeding the serving gas supplier's standard delivery pressure shall have prior verification from the gas supplier of the availability of the design pressure.
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