CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

2018 Uniform Mechanical Code

Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 6 - DUCT SYSTEMS
(Matrix Adoption Tables are non-regulatory, intended only as an aid to the code user. See Chapter 1 for state agency authority and building applications.)
Adopting agency BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD BSCC DPH AGR DWR CEC CA SL SLC
1 2 1-AC AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
Adopt entire chapter X
Adopt entire chapter as
amended (amended
sections listed below)
X X X X X X X X X X X
Adopt only those sections
that are listed below
Chapter / Section
601.2, Exception X X
602.1 X X X X X X
602.2.1 X X
602.1, Exception X X X X X X
602.6.1 X X X X X X
603.3.3 X X
603.4.1 X X X X X X
603.10.1
603.10.1.1 X X
604.1 X X X X X X
604.2 X X X X X X
604.3 X X X X X
605.1 X X
605.8 X X X
606.1 X X
606.1.1 X X X X X X
608.1 X X X
This state agency does not adopt sections identified with the following symbol:
The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.0.
Ducts and plenums that are portions of a heating, cooling, ventilation, or exhaust system shall comply with the requirements of this chapter.
Duct systems shall be sized in accordance with ACCA Manual D listed in Table 1701.1, or by other approved methods.

Exception: [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Duct sizing calculations are not required for existing duct systems.
Materials used for duct systems shall comply with Section 602.2 through Section 602.8 as applicable.

Exception: [OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5] See Section 407.4.1.3.

     [Not permitted for OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5] Concealed building spaces or independent construction within buildings shall be permitted to be used as ducts or plenums. Gypsum board shall not be used for positive pressure ducts.

Exception: In healthcare facilities, concealed spaces shall not be permitted to be used as ducts or plenums.
Materials exposed within ducts or plenums shall be noncombustible or shall have a flame spread index not to exceed 25 and a smoke-developed index not to exceed 50, where tested as a composite product in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.

Exceptions:
  1. Return-air and outside-air ducts, plenums, or concealed spaces that serve a dwelling unit.
  2. Air filters in accordance with the requirements of Section 311.2.
  3. Water evaporation media in an evaporative cooler.
  4. Charcoal filters where protected with an approved fire suppression system.
  5. Products listed and labeled for installation within plenums in accordance with Section 602.2.1 through Section 602.2.3.
  6. Smoke detectors.
  7. Duct insulation, coverings, and linings and other supplementary materials installed in accordance with Section 604.0.
  8. Materials in a hazardous fabrication area including the areas above and below the fabrication area sharing a common air recirculation path with the fabrication area.
Electrical wiring in plenums shall comply with the California Electrical Code. Electrical wires and cables and optical fiber cables shall be listed and labeled for use in plenums and shall have a flame spread distance not exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm), an average optical density not exceeding 0.15, and a peak optical density not exceeding 0.5, where tested in accordance with NFPA 262.
Nonmetallic fire sprinkler piping in plenums shall be listed and labeled for use in plenums and shall have a flame spread distance not exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm), an average optical density not exceeding 0.15 and, a peak optical density not exceeding 0.5, where tested in accordance with UL 1887.
Nonmetallic pneumatic tubing in plenums shall be listed and labeled for use in plenums and shall have a flame spread distance not exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm), an average optical density not exceeding 0.15, and a peak optical density not exceeding 0.5, where tested in accordance with UL 1820.
Discrete plumbing, mechanical, and electrical products that are located in a plenum and have exposed combustible material shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2043.
Ducts, plenums, or fittings of metal shall comply with SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal and Flexible.
Ducts, plenums, or fittings of phenolic shall be constructed in accordance with SMACNA Phenolic Duct Construction Standards.
Where gypsum products are exposed in ducts or plenums, the air temperature shall be restricted to a range from 50°F (10°C) to 125°F (52°C), and moisture content shall be controlled so that the material is not adversely affected. All gypsum products shall have a mold or mildew resistant surface. For the purpose of this section, gypsum products shall not be exposed in supply ducts.
Factory-made air ducts shall be approved for the use intended or shall be in accordance with the requirements of UL 181. Each portion of a factory-made air duct system shall be identified by the manufacturer with a label or other identification indicating compliance with its class designation.
[OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5] In hospital building projects and all other health-care facilities, including clinics and correctional treatment centers, flexible ducts of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) in length may be used to connect supply, return or exhaust-air terminal devices to rigid duct systems. Where constant volume, variable volume or mixing boxes are utilized, flexible duct of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm), may be used on the inlet side for alignment. An internal impervious liner shall be provided to isolate insulation material from conditioned air.
Vibration isolation connectors installed between mechanical equipment and metal ducts (or casings) shall be made of an approved material and shall not exceed 10 inches (254 mm) in length.
Corridors shall not be used to convey air to or from rooms where the corridor is required to be of fire-resistive construction in accordance with the building code except where permitted by the building code.
The pressure classification of ducts shall be not less than the design operating pressure of the air distribution in which the duct is utilized.
Air ducts installed under a floor in a crawl space shall be installed in accordance with the following:
  1. Shall not prevent access to an area of the crawl space.
  2. Where it is required to move under ducts for access to areas of the crawl space, a vertical clearance of not less than 18 inches (457 mm) shall be provided.
Ducts shall be supported at each change of direction and in accordance with SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal and Flexible. Riser ducts shall be held in place by means of metal straps or angles and channels to secure the riser to the structure.

     Metal ducts shall be installed with not less than 4 inches (102 mm) separation from earth. Ducts shall be installed in a building with clearances that will retain the full thickness of fire-proofing on structural members.
Supports for rectangular ducts shall be installed on two opposite sides of each duct and shall be riveted, bolted, or metal screwed to each side of the duct at intervals specified.
Horizontal round ducts not more than 40 inches (1016 mm) in diameter where suspended from above shall be supported with one hanger per interval and in accordance with Section 603.3.2.1 through Section 603.3.2.3.
Ducts shall be equipped with tight-fitting circular bands extending around the entire perimeter of the duct at each specified support interval.
Circular bands shall be not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) wide nor less than equivalent to the gauge of the duct material it supports.

Exception: Ducts not more than 10 inches (254 mm) in diameter shall be permitted to be supported by No. 18 gauge galvanized steel wire.
Each circular band shall be provided with means of connecting to the suspending support.
Ducts located in structures that are installed in areas classified as seismic design category C, D, E, or F shall be in accordance with the California Building Code or California Residential Code.
Factory-made air ducts shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 181 and installed in accordance with the terms of their listing, the manufacturer's installation instructions, and SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal and Flexible.

     Factory-made air ducts shall not be used for vertical risers in air-duct systems serving more than two stories and shall not penetrate a fire-resistance-rated assembly or construction.

     Factory-made air ducts shall be installed with not less than 4 inches (102 mm) of separation from earth, except where installed as a liner inside of concrete, tile, or metal pipe and shall be protected from physical damage.

     The temperature of the air to be conveyed in a duct shall not exceed 250°F (121° C). Flexible air connectors shall not be permitted.
[Not permitted for OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5] Factory-made flexible air ducts and connectors shall be not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) in length and shall not be used in lieu of rigid elbows or fittings. Flexible air ducts shall be permitted to be used as an elbow at a terminal device.

Exception: Residential occupancies.
Flexible air ducts shall comply with UL 181, and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal and Flexible.

Flexible air duct installations shall comply with the following:
  1. Ducts shall be installed using the minimum required length to make the connection.
  2. Horizontal duct runs shall be supported at not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) intervals.
  3. Vertical risers shall be supported at not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) intervals.
  4. Sag between support hangers shall not exceed 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) per foot (305 mm) of support spacing.
  5. Supports shall be rigid and shall be not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide at point of contact with the duct surface.
  6. Duct bends shall be not less than one duct diameter bend radius.
  7. Screws shall not penetrate the inner liner of non-metallic flexible ducts unless permitted in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
  8. Fittings for attaching non-metallic ducts shall be beaded and have a collar length of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) for attaching the duct.

    Exception: A bead shall not be required where metal worm-gear clamps are used or where attaching metallic ducts using screws in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
  9. Duct inner liner shall be installed at not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) on the collar and past the bead prior to the application of the tape and mechanical fastener. Where mastic is used instead of tape, the mastic shall be applied in accordance the mastic manufacturer's instructions.
  10. Duct outer vapor barriers shall be secured using two wraps of approved tape. A mechanical fastener shall be permitted to be used in place of, or in combination with, the tape.
  11. Flexible air ducts shall not penetrate a fire-resistance-rated assembly or construction.
  12. The temperature of the air to be conveyed in a flexible air duct shall not exceed 250°F (121 °C).
  13. Flexible Air ducts shall be sealed in accordance with Section 603.10.
Plastic air ducts and fittings shall be permitted where installed underground and listed for such use.
Ducts installed in locations where they are exposed to mechanical damage by vehicles or from other causes shall be protected by approved barriers.
Installers shall provide the manufacturer's field fabrication and installation instructions.

     Factory-made air ducts that are in accordance with UL 181 shall be supported in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Other ducts shall comply with SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal and Flexible.
In flood hazard areas, ducts shall be located above the elevation required by the building code for utilities and attendant equipment or the elevation of the lowest floor, whichever is higher, or shall be designed and constructed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the ducts during floods up to such elevation. Where the ducts are located below that elevation, the ducts shall be capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding to such elevation.
Joints and seams for duct systems shall comply with SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal and Flexible. Joints of duct systems shall be made substantially airtight by means of tapes, mastics, gasketing, or other means. Crimp joints for round ducts shall have a contact lap of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) and shall be mechanically fastened by means of not less than three sheet-metal screws equally spaced around the joint, or an equivalent fastening method.

     Joints and seams and reinforcements for factory-made air ducts and plenums shall comply with the conditions of prior approval in accordance with the installation instructions that shall accompany the product. Closure systems for sealing factory made air ducts and plenums shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 181A or UL 181B, and marked in accordance with Table 603.10.

TABLE 603.10
CLOSURE MARKINGS
TYPE OF DUCTWORK STANDARD TYPE OF CLOSURE SYSTEM MARKING
Rigid Metallic or
Rigid Fiberglass
UL 181A Pressure Sensitive Tape 181A-P
Rigid Metallic or
Rigid Fiberglass
UL 181A Mastic Tape 181A-M
Rigid Metallic or
Rigid Fiberglass
UL 181A Heat Sensitive Tape
181A-H
Flexible Air Ducts UL 181B Pressure Sensitive Tape*
181B-FX*
Flexible Air Ducts UL 181B Mastic* 181B-M*
* Mechanical fasteners shall be used in conjunction with a listed pressure sensitive tape or mastic in accordance with UL 181. Nonmetallic mechanical fasteners shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 181B and labeled "181B-C."
[Not adopted by HCD] Ductwork shall be leak-tested in accordance with the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual. Representative sections totaling not less than 10 percent of the total installed duct area shall be tested. Where the tested 10 percent fail to comply with the requirements of this section, then 40 percent of the total installed duct area shall be tested. Where the tested 40 percent fail to comply with the requirements of this section, then 100 percent of the total installed duct area shall be tested. Sections shall be selected by the building owner or designated representative of the building owner. Positive pressure leakage testing shall be permitted for negative pressure ductwork. The permitted duct leakage shall be not more than the following:

Lmax = CLP0.65      (Equation 603.10.1)
Where:
Lmax = maximum permitted leakage, (ft3/min)/100
square feet [0.0001 (m3/s)/m2] duct surface
area.
CL = six, duct leakage class, (ft3/min)/100 square
feet [0.0001 (m3/s)/m2] duct surface area at
1 inch water column (0.2 kPa).
P = test pressure, which shall be equal to the
design duct pressure class rating, inch
water column (kPa).
[HCD 1 & HCD 2] See California Energy Code Section 150.0(m)(11) for low-rise residential; and Section 140.4(1) for duct leakage tests for other residential buildings.
Exhaust ducts and venting systems under positive pressure shall not extend into or pass through ducts or plenums.
Ducts installed underground shall be approved for the installation and shall have a slope of not less than 1/8 inch per foot (10.4 mm/m) back to the main riser. Ducts, plenums, and fittings shall be permitted to be constructed of concrete, clay, or ceramics where installed in the ground or in a concrete slab, provided the joints are sealed and duct is secured in accordance with SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal and Flexible. Metal ducts where installed in or under a concrete slab shall be encased in not less than 2 inches (51 mm) of concrete, secured in accordance with SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal and Flexible.
Where installed, air dispersion systems shall be completely in exposed locations in duct systems under positive pressure, and not pass through or penetrate fire-resistant-rated construction. Air dispersion systems shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2518.
Air ducts conveying air at temperatures exceeding 140°F (60°C) shall be insulated to maintain an insulation surface temperature of not more than 140°F (60°C). Factory-made air ducts and insulations intended for installation on the exterior of ducts shall be legibly printed with the name of the manufacturer, the thermal resistance (R) value at installed thickness, flame-spread index, and smoke developed index of the composite material. Internal duct liners and insulation shall be installed in accordance with SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal and Flexible. [OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5] Cold air ducts shall be insulated wherever necessary or to prevent condensation.

Exceptions:
  1. Factory-installed plenums, casings, or ductwork furnished as a part of HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with approved energy efficiency standards.
  2. Ducts or plenums located in conditioned spaces where heat gain or heat loss will not increase energy use.
  3. For runouts less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in length to air terminals or air outlets, the rated R-value of insulation need not exceed R-3.5.
  4. Backs of air outlets and outlet plenums exposed to unconditioned or indirectly conditioned spaces with face areas exceeding 5 square feet (0.5 m2) need not exceed R-2; those 5 square feet (0.5 m2) or smaller need not be insulated.
  5. Ducts and plenums used exclusively for evaporative cooling systems.
Materials installed within ducts and plenums for insulating, sound deadening, or other purposes shall have a mold, humidity, and erosion-resistant surface where tested in accordance with UL 181. Duct liners in systems operating with air velocities exceeding 2000 feet per minute (10.16 m/s) shall be fastened with both adhesive and mechanical fasteners, and exposed edges shall have approved treatment to withstand the operating velocity. Where the internal insulation is capable of being in contact with condensates or other liquids, the material shall be water-resistant.
Insulation applied to the surface of ducts, including duct coverings, linings, tapes, and adhesives, located in buildings shall have a flame-spread index not to exceed 25 and a smoke-developed index not to exceed 50, where tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723. The specimen preparation and mounting procedures of ASTM E2231 shall be used. Air duct coverings and linings shall not flame, glow, smolder, or smoke where tested in accordance with ASTM C411 at the temperature to which they are exposed in service. In no case shall the test temperature be less than 250°F (121 °C). Coverings shall not penetrate a fire-resistance-rated assembly.
[OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3 (surgical clinics), 4 & 5] Thermal acoustical lining materials shall not be installed within ducts, terminal boxes, sound traps, and other in-duct systems serving areas such as operating, cesarean operating rooms, delivery rooms, post anesthesia care units, cystoscopy, cardiac catheterization labs, nurseries, intensive care units, newborn intensive care units, and airborne infection isolation rooms unless terminal filters with 90 percent average efficiency based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2 or minimum efficiency rating value (MERV) of 14 are installed downstream of the duct lining.
[OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 4 & 5] Thermal or acoustical lining materials shall not be installed within ducts which are downstream of the 99.97 percent high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter or with minimum efficiency rating value (MERV) of 17 required in Section 408.2.1 for protective environment rooms.
Smoke dampers shall comply with UL 555S, and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions where required by the California Building Code or California Residential Code.
Fire dampers shall comply with UL 555, and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions where required by the building code. Fire dampers shall have been tested for closure under airflow conditions and shall be labeled for both maximum airflow permitted and direction of flow. Where more than one damper is installed at a point in a single air path, the entire airflow shall be assumed to be passing through the smallest damper area.

     Ductwork shall be connected to damper sleeves or assemblies in accordance with the fire damper manufacturer's installation instructions.
Ceiling radiation dampers shall comply with UL 555C, and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions in the fire-resistive ceiling membrane of floor-ceiling and roof-ceiling assemblies where required by the building code. Fire dampers not meeting the temperature limitation of ceiling radiation dampers shall not be used as a substitute.
Where size requires the use of multiple dampers, each damper shall be listed for use in multiple arrangements and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Fire and smoke dampers shall be provided with an approved means of access large enough to allow inspection and maintenance of the damper and its operating parts. The access shall not affect the integrity of the fire-resistance-rated assembly. The access openings shall not reduce the fire-resistance rating of the assembly.

     Access shall not require the use of tools. Access doors in ducts shall be tight fitting and approved for the required duct construction. Access points shall be permanently identified on the exterior by a label with letters not less than 1/2 of an inch (12.7 mm) in height reading as one of the following:
  1. Smoke Damper
  2. Fire Damper
  3. Fire/Smoke Damper
Dampers shall be installed in a manner to ensure positive closing or opening as required by function. Interior liners or insulation shall be held back from portions of a damper, its sleeve, or adjoining duct that would interfere with the damper's proper operation. Exterior materials shall be installed so as to not interfere with the operation or maintenance of external operating devices needed for the function of the damper.
Fusible links, thermal sensors, and pneumatic or electric operators shall have a temperature rating or classification as in accordance with the building code.
When the automatic activation of a smoke damper or a combination smoke-fire damper occurs, the HVAC system serving such dampers shall immediately shut down.

Exceptions:
  1. HVAC systems that are part of an engineered smoke evacuation system.
  2. Where the automatic activation causes all the smoke dampers and combination smoke-fire dampers to close in the enclosed space having a common atmosphere where openings are required to be protected.
  3. Where analysis demonstrates shutoff would create a greater hazard.
The HVAC system shall not be restarted again until all the dampers are reset and fully opened.
Perforated ceilings shall be permitted to be used for air supply within the limitations of this section. Exit corridors, where required to be of fire-resistive construction by the California Building Code, shall not have ventilating ceilings.
[OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5] Ventilating ceilings are not permitted in health facilities.
Ventilating ceilings shall comply with the following:
  1. Suspended ventilating ceiling material shall have a Class 1 flame spread classification on both sides, determined in accordance with the building code. Suspended ventilating ceiling supports shall be of noncombustible materials.
  2. Lighting fixtures recessed into ventilating ceilings shall be of a type approved for that purpose.
An under-floor space shall be permitted to be used as a supply plenum.
The use of under-floor space shall be limited to dwelling units not more than two stories in height. Except for the floor immediately above the underfloor plenum, supply ducts shall be provided extending from the plenum to registers on other floor levels.

Exception: In flood hazard areas, under-floor spaces shall not be used as supply plenums unless the flood opening requirements in the building code are met.
Such spaces shall be cleaned of all loose cotnbustible scrap material and shall be tightly enclosed.
The enclosing material of the under-floor space, including the sidewall insulation, shall be not more flammable than 1 inch (25.4 mm) (nominal) wood boards (flame-spread index of 200). Installation of foam plastics is regulated by the building code.
Access shall be through an opening in the floor and shall be not less than 24 inches by 24 inches (610 mm by 610 mm).
A furnace supplying warm air to under-floor space shall be equipped with an automatic control that will start the air-circulating fan where the air in the furnace bonnet reaches a temperature not exceeding 150°F (66°C). Such control shall be one that cannot be set to exceed 150°F (66°C).
A furnace supplying warm air to such space shall be equipped with an approved temperature limit control that will limit outlet air temperature to 200°F (93°C).
A noncombustible receptacle shall be placed below each floor opening into the air chamber, and such receptacle shall comply with Section 607.8.1 through Section 607.8.3.
The receptacle shall be securely suspended from the floor members and shall be not more than 18 inches (457 mm) below the floor opening.
The area of the receptacle shall extend 3 inches (76 mm) beyond the opening on all sides.
The perimeter of the receptacle shall have a vertical lip not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) high at the open sides where it is at the level of the bottom of the joists, or 3 inches (76 mm) high where the receptacle is suspended.
Floor registers shall be designed for easy removal in order to give access for cleaning the receptacles.
Exterior walls and interior stud partitions shall be fire blocked at the floor.
Each wall register shall be connected to the air chamber by a register box or boot.
A duct complying with Section 602.0 shall extend from the furnace supply outlet not less than 6 inches (152 mm) below combustible framing.
The entire ground surface of the under-floor space shall be covered with a vapor barrier having a thickness not less than 4 mils (0.1 mm) and a flame-spread index of not more than 200.
Fuel gas lines and plumbing waste cleanouts shall not be located within the space.
Air-moving systems supplying air in excess of 2000 cubic feet per minute (ft3/min) (0.9439 m3/s) to enclosed spaces within buildings shall be equipped with an automatic shutoff. Automatic shutoff shall be accomplished by interrupting the power source of the air-moving equipment upon detection of smoke in the main supply-air duct served by such equipment. Duct smoke detectors shall comply with UL 268A, shall be labeled by an approved agency, approved and listed by California State Fire Marshal, and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Such devices shall be compatible with the operating velocities, pressures, temperatures, and humidities of the system. Where fire-detection or alarm systems are provided for the building, the smoke detectors shall be supervised by such systems in an approved manner, and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and the California Building and Fire Codes.

Exceptions:
  1. Where the space supplied by the air-moving equipment is served by a total coverage smoke-detection system in accordance with the California Fire Code, interconnection to such system shall be permitted to be used to accomplish the required shutoff.
  2. Automatic shutoff is not required where occupied rooms served by the air-handling equipment have direct exit to the exterior, and the travel distance does not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm).
  3. Automatic shutoff is not required for Group R, Division 3 and Group U Occupancies.
  4. Automatic shutoff is not required for approved smoke-control systems or where analysis demonstrates shutoff would create a greater hazard, such as shall be permitted to be encountered in air-moving equipment supplying specialized portions of Group H Occupancies. Such equipment shall be required to have smoke detection with remote indication and manual shutoff capability at an approved location.
  5. Smoke detectors that are factory installed in listed air-moving equipment shall be permitted to be used in lieu of smoke detectors installed in the main supply-air duct served by such equipment.
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