ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

UMC 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 4 - VENTILATION AIR
(Matrix Adoption Tables are non-regulatory, intended only as an aid to the code user. See Chapter 1 for state agency authority and building applications.)
Adopting agency BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD BSCC DPH AGR DWR CEC CA SL SLC
1 2 1-AC AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
Adopt entire chapter                                              
Adopt entire chapter as
amended (amended
sections listed below)
X   X X X     X X                            
Adopt only those sections
that are listed below
                  X X X X X X                
Chapter / Section                                              
401.0     X             X   X X X                  
401.1                     X X X X X                
401.2 with exception   X           X X                            
401.2.1   X           X X                            
402.0                   X X                
402.1 X             X X X X X X X X                
402.1.3                     X X X X X                
402.2                   X X                
402.3                   X X                
402.5       X X                                    
403.0                   X X X X X X                
403.7.2.1 - 403.7.2.4     X X X                                    
405.0                   X X X X X X                
407.0 and subsections                   X X X X X X                
408.0 and subsections                   X X X X X X                
409.0 and subsections                   X X X X X X                
410.0 and subsections                   X X X X X X                
411.0 and subsections                   X   X X X X                
412.0 and subsections                   X   X X X X                
413.0 and subsections                   X   X X X X                
414.0 and subsections                   X   X X X X                
415.0 and subsections                   X   X X X X                
416.0 - 416.2                   X   X X X X                
416.3                           X                  
416.4                   X X X X X X                
417.0                   X   X X X X                
418.0 and subsections                   X X X X X X                
419.0 and subsections                   X                          
Table 4-A                   X X X X X X                
Table 4-B                   X X   X X                  
Table 4-C                       X   X                  
Table 402.1 X             X X                            
Table 403.7 Note 11 & 12       X X                                    
This state agency does not adopt sections identified with the following symbol:
The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.0.
This chapter contains requirements for ventilation air supply, exhaust, and makeup air requirements for occupiable spaces within a building. [OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5] See Sections 404.0 through 418.0. [SFM] Air filters shall comply with all requirements of Part 12, Title 24, Chapter 12-71, SFM Standard 12-71-1.
[BSC-CG], [DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] In mechanically ventilated buildings, provide regularly occupied areas of the building with air filtration media for outside and return air that provides at least a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) of 13. MERV 13 filters shall be installed prior to occupancy, and recommendations for maintenance with filters of the same value shall be included in the operation and maintenance manual in compliance with Chapter 5, Division 5.5. of the California Green Building Standards Code (CALGreen).

Exception: Existing mechanical equipment.
Installed filters shall be clearly labeled by the manufacturer indicating the MERV rating.
Occupiable spaces listed in Table 402.1 [OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5] and Table 4-A shall be designed to have ventilation (outdoor) air for occupants in accordance with this chapter. Ventilation air requirements for occupancies regulated by the California Energy Commission are found in the California Energy Code.

TABLE 402.1
MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE1, 2
[ASHRAE 62.1:TABLE 6.2.2.1]
Note: Ventilation air supply requirements for occupancies regulated by the California Energy Commission are found in the California Energy Code.
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY4 PEOPLE OUTDOOR Air Rate Rp (cfm/person) AREA OUTDOOR Air Rate RA (cfm/ft2) DEFAULT OCCUPANT DENSITY3 (people/1000 ft2) AIR CLASS
CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES
Booking/waiting 7.5 0.06 50 2
Cell 5 0.12 25 2
Day room 5 0.06 30 1
Guard stations 5 0.06 15 1
EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES
Art classroom 10 0.18 20 2
Classrooms (ages 5-8) 10 0.12 25 1
Classrooms (age 9 plus) 10 0.12 35 1
Computer lab 10 0.12 25 1
Daycare (through age 4) 10 0.18 25 2
Daycare sickroom 10 0.18 25 3
Lecture classroom 7.5 0.06 65 1
Lecture hall (fixed seats) 7.5 0.06 150 1
Media centera 10 0.12 25 1
Multi-use assembly 7.5 0.06 100 1
Music/theater/dance 10 0.06 35 1
Science laboratories 10 0.18 25 2
University/college laboratories 10 0.18 25 2
Wood/metal shop 10 0.18 20 2
FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE
Bars, cocktail lounges 7.5 0.18 100 2
Cafeteria/fast food dining 7.5 0.18 100 2
Kitchen (cooking) 7.5 0.12 20 2
Restaurant dining rooms 7.5 0.18 70 2
GENERAL
Break rooms 5 0.06 25 1
Coffee stations 5 0.06 20 1
Conference/meeting 5 0.06 50 1
Corridors - 0.06 - 1
Occupiable storage rooms for liquids or gelsb 5 0.12 2 2
HOTELS, MOTELS, RESORTS, DORMITORIES
Barracks sleeping areas 5 0.06 20 1
Bedroom/living room 5 0.06 10 1
Laundry rooms, central 5 0.12 10 2
Laundry rooms within dwelling units 5 0.12 10 1
Lobbies/pre-function 7.5 0.06 30 1
Multipurpose assembly 5 0.06 120 1
OFFICE BUILDINGS
Break Rooms 5 0.12 50 1
Main entry lobbies 5 0.06 10 1
Occupiable storage rooms for dry materials 5 0.06 2 1
Office space 5 0.06 5 1
Reception areas 5 0.06 30 1
Telephone/data entry 5 0.06 60 1
MISCELLANEOUS SPACES
Bank or bank lobbies 7.5 0.06 15 1
Bank vaults/safe deposit 5 0.06 5 2
Computer (not printing) 5 0.06 4 1
Freezer and refrigerated spaces (<50°F)e 10 - - 2
General manufacturing (excludes heavy industrial and processes using chemicals) 10 0.18 7 3
Pharmacy (prep. area) 5 0.18 10 2
Photo studios 5 0.12 10 1
Shipping/receivingb 10 0.12 2 2
Sorting, packing, light assembly 7.5 0.12 7 2
Telephone closets - - - 1
Transportation waiting 7.5 0.06 100 1
Warehousesb 10 0.06 - 2
PUBLIC ASSEMBLY SPACES
Auditorium seating area 5 0.06 150 1
Courtrooms 5 0.06 70 1
Legislative chambers 5 0.06 50 1
Libraries 5 0.12 10 1
Lobbies 5 0.06 150 1
Museums (children's) 7.5 0.12 40 1
Museums/galleries 7.5 0.06 40 1
Places of religious worship 5 0.06 120 1
RESIDENTIAL
Common corridors - 0.06 - 1
Dwelling unitf, g 5 0.06 See footnotef 1
RETAIL
Sales (except as below) 7.5 0.12 15 2
Barber shop 7.5 0.06 25 2
Beauty and nail salons 20 0.12 25 2
Coin-operated laundries 7.5 0.12 20 2
Mall common areas 7.5 0.06 40 1
Pet shops (animal areas) 7.5 0.18 10 2
Supermarket 7.5 0.06 8 1
SPORTS AND ENTERTAINMENT
Bowling alley (seating) 10 0.12 40 1
Disco/dance floors 20 0.06 100 2
Gambling casinos 7.5 0.18 120 1
Game arcades 7.5 0.18 20 1
Gym, sports arena (play area)e 20 0.18 7 2
Health club/aerobics room 20 0.06 40 2
Health club/weight rooms 20 0.06 10 2
Spectator areas 7.5 0.06 150 1
Stages, studiosd 10 0.06 70 1
Swimming (pool & deck)c - 0.48 - 2
For SI units: 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.0283 m3/min, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2
Notes:
  1. 1 This table applies to no-smoking areas. Rates for smoking-permitted spaces shall be determined using other methods.
  2. 2 Volumetric airflow rates are based on an air density of 0.075 pounds of dry air per cubic foot (lbda/ft3) (1.201 kgda/m3), which corresponds to dry air at a barometric pressure of 1 atm (101 kPa) and an air temperature of 70°F (21°C). Rates shall be permitted to be adjusted for actual density, but such adjustment is not required for compliance with this chapter.
  3. 3 The default occupant density shall be used where actual occupant density is not known.
  4. 4 Where the occupancy category for a proposed space or zone is not listed, the requirements for the listed occupancy category that is most similar in terms of occupant density, activities, and building construction shall be used.
ITEM-SPECIFIC NOTES FOR TABLE 402.1
  1. a For high school and college libraries, use values shown for Public Assembly Spaces - Libraries.
  2. b Rate is capable of not being sufficient where stored materials include those having potentially harmful emissions.
  3. c Rate does not allow for humidity control. Additional ventilation or dehumidification shall be permitted to remove moisture. "Deck area" refers to the area surrounding the pool that would be expected to be wetted during normal pool use, i.e., where the pool is occupied. Deck area that is not expected to be wetted shall be designated as a space type (for example, "spectator area").
  4. d Rate does not include special exhaust for stage effects, e.g., dry ice vapors, smoke.
  5. e Where combustion equipment is intended to be used on the playing surface or in the space, additional dilution ventilation, source control, or both shall be provided.
  6. f Default occupancy for dwelling units shall be two persons for studio and one-bedroom units, with one additional person for each additional bedroom.
  7. g Air from one residential dwelling shall not be recirculated or transferred to other spaces outside of that dwelling.
The outdoor air ventilation rate and air distribution assumptions made in the design of the ventilation system shall be clearly identified on the construction documents.
Requirements for ventilation air rate for single-family dwellings shall be in accordance with this chapter or ASHRAE 62.2.
Mechanical ventilation for health care facilities shall be designed and installed in accordance with this code and ASHRAE 170 [OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5]-2013, through Addendum ae. Ventilation rates for areas not specified in Table 4-A shall have minimum ventilation and air change rates per ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1. Where areas with prescribed ventilation rates in both Standards 62.1 and Table 4-A exist, the higher of the two air change rates shall be used. All supply-air, return air, and exhaust-air systems shall comply with ASHRAE 170. The text of ASHRAE 170 shall be modified as follows:
  1. ASHRAE 170. Section 6.1.2.1 -- Not adopted.
  2. ASHRAE 170. Section 6.3.2 -- Not adopted.
  3. ASHRAE 170. Table 6.4 -- Not adopted.
  4. ASHRAE 170. Section 6.4-6.4.4 -- Not adopted.
  5. ASHRAE 170. Section 6.9 -- Not adopted.
  6. ASHRAE 170. Section 7.1a -- Modify as follows:

    Replace reference to Table 7.1 with reference to Table 4-A.
  7. ASHRAE 170. Section 7.2.1a through e -- Not adopted.
  8. ASHRAE 170. Section 7.2.2 a through c, and e -- Not adopted.
  9. ASHRAE 170. Section 7.2.3 -- Not adopted.
  10. ASHRAE 170. Section 7.3.1 -- Modify as follows:

    Replace reference to Table 7.1 with reference to Table 4-A.
  11. ASHRAE 170. Section 7.4.1 -- Modify as follows:

    Delete the Exception that allows for high return grilles.


TABLE 4-A
PRESSURE RELATIONSHIP AND VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS FOR GENERAL ACUTE CARE HOSPITALS, SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, CORRECTIONAL TREATMENT CENTERS, OUTPATIENT FACILITIES, AND LICENSED CLINICS
FUNCTION OR SPACE PRESSURE RELATION-SHIP TO ADJACENT AREAS (f) (n) MINIMUM OUTDOOR ACH MINIMUM TOTAL ACH ALL ROOM AIR EXHAUSTED DIRECTLY TO OUTDOORS (j) AIR RECIRCULATED BY MEANS OF ROOM UNITS (a) DESIGN RELATIVE HUMIDITY(k), % DESIGN TEMPERATURE (l),° F/°C

Airborne infection isolation anteroom (u)

(e)

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Airborne infection isolation room (u)

Negative

2

12

Yes

No

max 60

70-75/21-24

Airborne infection isolation treatment/exam room

Negative

2

12

Yes

No

NR

NR

Angiography room

Positive

3

15

NR

NR

max 60

70-75/21-24

Bathing room

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

70-75/21-24

Bathroom

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

72-78/22-26

Bedpan room

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Blood bank/tissue storage

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Blood draw/phlebotomy

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Bronchoscopy, sputum collection, and pentamidine administration (n)

Negative

2

12

Yes

No

NR

68-73/20-23

Cardiac catheterization lab

Positive

3

15

NR

No

max 60

70-75/21-24

Clean linen storage

Positive

NR

2

NR

NR

NR

72-78/22-26

Clean workroom (central medical and surgical supply space)

Positive

2

4

NR

No

max 60

72-78/22-26

Clean workroom or clean holding (support)

Positive

2

4

NR

NR

NR

NR

Critical and intensive care

NR

2

6

NR

No

30-60

70-75/21-24

CT Scan

NR

2

6

NR

NR

max 60

NR

Darkroom (g)

Negative

2

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Delivery room (caesarean) (m), (n), (o)

Positive

4

20

NR

No

20-60

68-75/20-24

Dialysis treatment area

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

72-78/22-26

Dialyzer reprocessing room

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Dietary storage

NR

NR

2

NR

No

NR

72-78/22-26

Electroconvulsive therapy procedure room

P

3

15

NR

NR

NR

NR

Emergency department exam/treatment room (p)

NR

2

6

NR

NR

max 60

70-75/21-24

Endoscope cleaning

Negative

2

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

ER decontamination

Negative

2

12

Yes

No

NR

NR

ER waiting rooms

Negative

2

12

Yes (q)

NR

max 65

70-75/21-24

Examination room

NR

2

6

NR

NR

max 60

70-75/21-24

Fast track room

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Fluoroscopy room

Negative

2

6

Yes

No

NR

NR

Food preparation center (i)

NR

2

10

NR

No

NR

72-78/22-26

Gamma camera

NR

2

6

NR

No

NR

NR

Gastrointestinal endoscopy procedure room (x)

NR

2

6

NR

No

20-60

68-73/20-23

Hazardous material storage

Negative

2

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Hydrotherapy

Negative

2

6

NR

NR

NR

72-80/22-27

Infusion room

Positive

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Intermediate care (s)

NR

2

6

NR

NR

max 60

70-75/21-24

Interventional imaging procedure room

Positive

5

15

NR

NR

NR

NR

IV Prep. room

Positive

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Janitor's closet, housekeeping

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Labor/delivery/recovery  (LDR) (s)

NR

2

6

NR

NR

max 60

70-75/21-24

Labor/delivery/recovery/ postpartum (LDRP) (s)

NR

2

6

NR

NR

max 60

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, bacteriology (v)

Negative

2

6

Yes

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, biochemistry (v)

Negative

2

6

Yes

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, cytology (v)

Negative

2

6

Yes

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, general (v)

Negative

2

6

NR

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, glasswashing

Negative

2

10

Yes

NR

NR

NR

Laboratory, histology (v)

Negative

2

6

Yes

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, infectious disease and virus

Negative

2

6

Yes

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, media transfer (v)

Positive

2

4

NR

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, microbiology (v)

Negative

2

6

Yes

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, nuclear medicine (v)

Negative

2

6

Yes

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, pathology (v)

Negative

2

6

Yes

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, serology (v)

Negative

2

6

Yes

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Laboratory, sterilizing

Negative

2

10

Yes

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Lactation

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Laser eye room

Positive

3

15

NR

No

20-60

70-75/21-24

Laundry, general

Negative

2

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Linen and trash chute room

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Medical/anesthesia gas storage (r)

Negative

NR

8

Yes

NR

NR

NR

Medication room

NR

2

4

NR

NR

max 60

70-75/21-24

Morgues and autopsy room (n)

Negative

2

12

Yes

No

NR

68-75/20-24

MRI room

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Negative-pressure x-ray room

Negative

2

12

Yes

No

max 60

72-78/22-26

Newborn intensive care

Positive

2

6

NR

No

30-60

72-78/22-26

Newborn intensive care formula room

P

2

10

NR

No

NR

NR

Newborn/well baby nursery suite

NR

2

6

NR

No

30-60

72-78/22-26

Nonrefrigerated body-holding room (h)

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

70-75/21-24

Nourishment area or room

NR

NR

2

NR

NR

NR

NR

Nuclear medicine (Gamma, PET, SPECT)

Negative

2

6

Yes

No

NR

NR

Nuclear medicine hot lab

Negative

NR

6

Yes

No

NR

70-75/21-24

Nuclear medicine treatment room

Negative

2

6

Yes

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Nurse station (aa)

(aa)

(aa)

2

(aa)

(aa)

(aa)

(aa)

Observation

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Occupational therapy

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Operating room, hybrid operating room (m), (n), (o)

Positive

4

20

NR

No

20-60

68-75/20-24

Operating/surgical cystoscopic room (m), (n), (o)

Positive

4

20

NR

No

20-60

68-75/20-24

Patient corridor

NR

NR

2

NR

NR

NR

NR

Patient holding preparation

NR

2

6

NR

No

NR

NR

Patient room

NR

2

4 (y)

NR

NR

max 60

70-75/21-24

Pediatric play area

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Pharmacy (b)

Positive

2

4

NR

NR

NR

NR

Drug room

NR

2

4

NR

NR

NR

NR

HD ante room (b)

Positive

NR

NR

NR

NR

<60

≤68/≤20

HD buffer room (b)

Negative

NR

30

Yes

No

<60

≤68/≤20

HD segregated compounding area (ab)

Negative

NR

12

Yes

NR

NR

NR

HD storage (b)

Negative

NR

12

Yes

NR

NR

NR

Non-HD ante room (b)

Positive

NR

30

NR

NR

<60

≤68/≤20

Non-HD buffer room (b)

Positive

NR

30

NR

No

<60

≤68/≤20

Non-HD segregated compounding area (b)

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

Physical therapy (nursing facility)

Negative

2

6

NR

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Physical therapy (diagnostic and treatment)

Negative

2

6

NR

NR

max 65

72-80/22-27

Post-anesthesia care unit

NR

2

6

Yes

No

20-60

70-75/21-24

Pre-screening area

Negative

2

12

Yes (q)

NR

NR

NR

Procedure room (o), (d)

Positive

3

15

NR

No

20-60

70-75/21-24

Protective environment anteroom (t)

(e)

NR

10

NR

No

NR

NR

Protective environment room (t)

Positive

2

12

NR

No

max 60

70-75/21-24

Radiology waiting rooms

Negative

2

12

Yes (q), (w)

NR

max 60

70-75/21-24

Recovery room

NR

2

6

NR

No

20-60

70-75/21-24

Recreation/activity room

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Residentgathering/activity/dining (nursing facility)

NR

4

4

NR

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Resident room (nursing facility)

NR

2

2

NR

NR

NR

70-75/21-24

Resident unit corridor (nursing facility) 

NR

NR

4

NR

NR

NR

NR

Seclusion room

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Semi-restricted corridor

NR

2

4

NR

NR

NR

NR

Shower room

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Soiled linen sorting and storage

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Soiled or decontamination room

Negative

2

6

Yes

No

NR

72-78/22-26

Soiled workroom or soiled holding, utility room

Negative

2

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Special purpose room (SNF & ICF only)

NR

2

6

Yes

NR

NR

NR

Speech therapy/audiology room

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Sterile storage

Positive

2

4

NR

NR

max 60

72-78/22-26

Sterilizer equipment room

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Substerile service area

NR

2

6

NR

No

NR

NR

Toilet room

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Trauma/cardiac room (crisis or shock) (c)

Positive

3

15

NR

No

20-60

70-75/21-24

Treatment room (surgery and critical care) (p)

NR

2

6

NR

NR

20-60

70-75/21-24

Treatment room (diagnosticand treatment) (x)

NR

2

6

NR

NR

max 60

70-75/21-24

Triage

Negative

2

12

Yes (q)

NR

max 60

70-75/21-24

Ultrasound room

NR

2

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

Unsterile supply

NR

2

2

NR

NR

NR

NR

Waiting area (nuclear medicine)

Negative

2

12

Yes

No

NR

NR

Waiting area primary care clinic

Negative

2

10

Yes(q)

NR

NR

NR

Warewashing

Negative

NR

10

Yes

No

NR

NR

Wound intensive care (burn unit)

NR

2

6

NR

No

40-60

70-75/21-24

X-ray (diagnostic and treatment)

NR

2

6

NR

NR

max 60

72-78/22-26

X-ray (surgery/critical care and catheterization)

Positive

3

15

NR

No

max 60

70-75/21-24

Note: NR = No requirement
Notes for Table 4-A:
  1. Except where indicated by a "No" in this column, recirculating room HVAC units (with heating or cooling coils) are acceptable for providing that portion of the minimum total air changes per hour that is permitted by Section 407.4.1.7. Because of the cleaning difficulty and potential for buildup of contamination, recirculating room units shall not be used in areas marked "No." Recirculating devices with HEPA filters shall be permitted in existing facilities as interim, supplemental environmental controls to meet requirements for the control of airborne infectious agents. The design of either portable or fixed systems should prevent stagnation and short circuiting of airflow. The design of such systems shall also allow for easy access for scheduled preventative maintenance and cleaning.
  2. Additional air change, ISO class, continuous pressure monitoring and filtering requirements for compounding areas shall comply with California Board of Pharmacy regulations Title 16 §1735 & §1751, and USP <797> & <800>. Air supplied to the compounding buffer room and ante room must be introduced through 99.97% minimum HEPA filters located in the ceiling. At least 15 air changes per hour (ACPH) shall be provided to nonhazardous drug (non-HD) compounding buffer rooms through the ceiling. The HEPA filtered air from the PEC in the non-HD buffer room, when added to the HVAC-supplied HEPAfiltered air, shall increase the total HEPA-filtered ACPH to at least 30. If the PEC is used to meet the minimum total ACPH requirements, the PEC must not be turned off except for maintenance. All hazardous drug (HD) compounding areas and PECs shall be exhausted externally through 99.97% HEPA filtration. For both hazardous and non-hazardous compounding, minimum air changes shall be met under dynamic operating conditions as defined by USP. Returns and exhaust grilles shall be mounted low on the wall unless a visual smoke study demonstrates dilution of particles and sweeping out of particles from the entire room. One return/exhaust should be placed near the refrigerator compressor. Anteroom shall have a minimum pressure differential of +0.02 inches water column in relation to the adjacent, non-compounding spaces. Non-HD buffer room shall have a pressure differential of +0.02 to +0.05 inches water column in relation to the anteroom. HD buffer room shall have a pressure differential of -0.01 to -0.03 inches water column in relation to the anteroom.
  3. The term trauma room as used herein is a first-aid room and/or emergency room used for general initial treatment of accident victims. The operating room within the trauma center that is routinely used for emergency surgery is considered to be an operating room by this standard.
  4. Pressure relationships need not be maintained when the room is unoccupied.
  5. See Section 7.2 of ASHRAE 170 and its subsections for pressure-relationship requirements.
  6. For operating rooms, cardiac catheterization labs, angiography rooms, cystoscopy rooms, delivery rooms, cesarean operating rooms, newborn intensive care, and nurseries provide approximately 15% excess supply air to the room or a sufficient quantity of excess supply air to maintain an appropriate positive air balance based on the room tightness and number of doors. For all rooms not listed in this footnote or not listed in Section 322.0 requiring either a positive or negative air balance, provide approximately 10% differential cfm between supply and return/exhaust airflow but not less than 25 cfm differential shall be provided regardless of room size. Room function, size, and tightness may be considered when determining the differential airflow required. Where continuous directional control is not required, variations between supply cfm and return or exhaust cfm shall be minimized in accordance with Section 407.4.1.3.
  7. All air need not be exhausted if darkroom equipment has a scavenging exhaust duct attached and meets ventilation standards regarding NIOSH, OSHA, and local employee exposure limits.2, 3
  8. A nonrefrigerated body-holding room is applicable only to facilities that do not perform autopsies on-site and use the space for short periods while waiting for the body to be transferred.
  9. Minimum total air changes per hour (ach) shall be that required to provide proper makeup air to kitchen exhaust systems as specified in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 154.4 In some cases, excess exfiltration or infiltration to or from exit corridors compromises the exit corridor restrictions of NFPA 90A,5 the pressure requirements of NFPA 96,6 or the maximum defined in the table. During operation, a reduction to the number of air changes to any extent required for odor control shall be permitted when the space is not in use. (See FGI [2010] in Informative Appendix B.)
  10. In some areas with potential contamination and/or odor problems, exhaust air shall be discharged directly to the outdoors and not recirculated to other areas. Individual circumstances may require special consideration for air exhausted to the outdoors. To satisfy exhaust needs, constant replacement air from the outdoors is necessary when the system is in operation.
  11. The RH ranges listed are the minimum and/or maximum allowable at any point within the design temperature range required for that space.
  12. Systems shall be capable of maintaining the rooms within the range during normal operation. Lower or higher temperature shall be permitted when patients' comfort and/or medical conditions require those conditions.
  13. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria documents regarding occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases and vapors, and control of occupational exposure to nitrous oxide7 indicate a need for both local exhaust (scavenging) systems and general ventilation of the areas in which the respective gases are utilized. Refer to NFPA 99 for other requirements.8
  14. If pressure-monitoring device alarms are installed, allowances shall be made to prevent nuisance alarms. Short-term excursions from required pressure relationships shall be allowed while doors are moving or temporarily open. Simple visual methods such as smoke trail, ball-in-tube, or flutterstrip shall be permitted for verification of airflow direction.
  15. Surgeons or surgical procedures may require room temperatures, ventilation rates, humidity ranges, and/or air distribution methods that exceed the minimum indicated ranges.
  16. Treatment rooms used for bronchoscopy shall be treated as bronchoscopy rooms. Treatment rooms used for procedures with nitrous oxide shall contain provisions for exhausting anesthetic waste gases.
  17. In a recirculating ventilation system, HEPA filters shall be permitted instead of exhausting the air from these spaces to the outdoors provided that the return air passes through the HEPA filters before it is introduced into any other spaces. The entire minimum total air changes per hour of recirculating airflow shall pass through HEPA filters. When these areas are open to larger, nonwaiting spaces, the exhaust air volume shall be calculated based on the seating area of the waiting area. (Note: The intent here is to not require the volume calculation to include a very large space [e.g., an atrium] just because a waiting area opens onto it.)
  18. See NFPA 99 for further requirements. 8
  19. For intermediate care, labor/delivery/recovery rooms, and labor/delivery/recovery/postpartum rooms, four total ach shall be permitted when supplemental heating and/or cooling systems (radiant heating and cooling, baseboard heating, etc.) are used.
  20. The protective environment airflow design specifications protect the patient from common environmental airborne infectious microbes (i.e., Aspergillus spores). The anteroom shall have negative air pressure in relation to the protective environment room. A door louver, transfer grille, or other acceptable means may be provided to allow for airflow from the protective environment room to the anteroom. The protective environment room shall have positive-pressure in relation to the anteroom and adjoining toilet room. Recirculation HEPA filters shall be permitted to increase the equivalent room air exchanges; however, the outdoor air changes are still required. Constant-volume airflow is required for consistent ventilation for the protected environment. The pressure relationship to adjacent areas shall remain unchanged if the PE room is utilized as a normal patient room. Rooms with reversible airflow provisions for the purpose of switching between protective environment and AII functions shall not be permitted.
  21. The AII room described in this standard shall be used for isolating the airborne spread of infectious diseases, such as measles, varicella, or tuberculosis. The airborne infection isolation room shall have negative pressure in relation to the anteroom, and the adjoining toilet room shall have negative pressure in relation to the airborne infection isolation room. Supplemental recirculating devices using HEPA filters shall be permitted in the AII room to increase the equivalent room air exchanges; however, the minimum outdoor air changes of Table 4-A are still required. AII rooms that are retrofitted from standard patient rooms from which it is impractical to exhaust directly outdoors may be recirculated with air from the  AII room, provided that air first passes through a HEPA filter. When the  AII room is not utilized for airborne infection isolation, the pressure relationship to adjacent areas, when measured with the door closed, shall remain unchanged and the minimum total air change rate shall be 6 ach. Switching controls for reversible airflow provisions shall not be permitted. The anteroom shall have positive air pressure in relation to the airborne infection isolation room. A door louver, transfer grille, or other acceptable means may be provided to allow for airflow from the anteroom to the airborne infection isolation room.
  22. When required, appropriate hoods and exhaust devices for the removal of noxious gases or chemical vapors shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 99.8
  23. The requirement that all room air is exhausted directly to outdoors applies only to radiology waiting rooms programmed to hold patients who are waiting for chest x-rays for diagnosis of respiratory disease.
  24. If the planned space is designated in the organization's operational plan to be utilized for both bronchoscopy and gastrointestinal endoscopy, the design parameters for "bronchoscopy, sputum collection, and pentamidine administration" shall be used.
  25. For single-bed patient rooms using Group D diffusers, a minimum of six total ach shall be provided and calculated based on the volume from finished floor to 6 ft (1.83 m) above the floor.
  26. This table is based on Table 7.1 in ASHRAE 170, "Ventilation of Healthcare Facilities", and is used with expressed written permission from ASHRAE.
  27. Nurse station pressure relationship and ventilation requirements shall match the area in which it is located.
  28. HD segregated compounding area shall have a differential pressure of -0.01 to -0.03 inches water column in relation to adjacent areas and a minimum of 12 air changes per hour.
[Not permitted for OSHPD 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5] Natural ventilation systems shall be designed in accordance with this section and shall include mechanical ventilation systems designed in accordance with Section 403.0, Section 404.0, or both.

Exceptions:
  1. An engineered natural ventilation system where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction need not comply with Section 402.2.
  2. A mechanical ventilation system is not required where:
    1. natural ventilation openings comply with the requirements of Section 402.2 and are permanently open or have controls that prevent the openings from being closed during periods of expected occupancy or
    2. the zone is not served by heating or cooling equipment. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.4]
Spaces, or portions of spaces, to be naturally ventilated shall be located within a distance based on the ceiling height, in accordance with Section 402.2.1.1, Section 402.2.1.2, or Section 402.2.1.3, from operable wall openings in accordance with Section 402.2.2. For spaces with ceilings which are not parallel to the floor, the ceiling height shall be determined in accordance with Section 402.2.1.4. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.4.1]
For spaces with operable openings on one side of the space, the distance from the operable openings shall be not more than 2H, where H is the ceiling height. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.4.1.1]
For spaces with operable openings on two opposite sides of the space, the distance from the operable openings shall be not more than 5H, where H is the ceiling height. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.4.1.2]
For spaces with operable openings on two adjacent sides of a space, such as two sides of a corner, the distance from the operable openings shall be not more than 5H along a line drawn between the two openings that are farthest apart. Floor area outside that line shall comply with Section 402.2.1.1. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.4.1.3]
The ceiling height, H, to be used in Section 402.2.1.1 through Section 402.2.1.3 shall be the minimum ceiling height in the space.

Exception: For ceilings that are increasing in height as distance from the openings is increased, the ceiling height shall be determined as the average height of the ceiling within 20 feet (6096 mm) from the operable openings. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.4.1.4]
Spaces, or portions of spaces, to be naturally ventilated shall be permanently open to operable wall openings directly to the outdoors, the openable area of which is a minimum of 4 percent of the net occupiable floor area. Where openings are covered with louvers or otherwise obstructed, openable area shall be based on the net free unobstructed area through the opening. Where interior rooms, or portions of rooms, without direct openings to the outdoors are ventilated through adjoining rooms, the opening between rooms shall be permanently unobstructed and shall have a free area of not less than 8 percent of the area of the interior room nor less than 25 square feet (2.3 m2). [ASHRAE 62.1:6.4.2]
The means to open required operable openings shall be readily accessible to building occupants where the space is occupied. Controls shall be designed to coordinate operation of the natural and mechanical ventilation systems. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.4.3]
[Not permitted for OSHPD 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5] Where natural ventilation is not permitted by this section or the California Building Standards Code, mechanical ventilation systems shall be designed, constructed, and installed to provide a method of supply air and exhaust air. Mechanical ventilation systems shall include controls, manual or automatic, that enable the fan system to operate wherever the spaces served are occupied. The system shall be designed to maintain minimum outdoor airflow as required by Section 403.0 under any load conditions.
Required outdoor-air intakes shall be covered with a screen having not less than 1/4 of an inch (6.4 mm) openings, and shall have not more than 1/2 of an inch (12.7 mm) openings.
Outdoor air intakes that are part of the mechanical ventilation system shall be designed to manage rain entrainment, to prevent rain intrusion, and manage water from snow in accordance with ASHRAE 62.1.
[HCD 1 & HCD 2] Each bathroom shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with Division 4.5 of the California Green Building Standards Code (CALGreen).
[Not permitted for OSHPD 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 spaces listed in Table 4-A]
The design outdoor air intake flow rate for a ventilation system shall be determined in accordance with Section 403.2 through Section 403.9.4.
Ventilation zone parameters shall be determined in accordance with Section 403.2.1 through Section 403.2.3 for each ventilation zone served by the ventilation system. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2]
The outdoor airflow required in the breathing zone of the occupiable space or spaces in a ventilation zone, i.e., the breathing zone outdoor airflow (Vbz), shall be not less than the value determined in accordance with Equation 403.2.1.

Vbz = Rp.Pz + Rα.Az (Equation 403.2.1)

Where:

Az = zone floor area: the net occupiable floor area of the ventilation zone, square feet (m2).
pz = zone population: The number of people in the ventilation zone during typical usage.
Rp = outdoor airflow rate required per person as determined from Table 402.1.
Rα = outdoor airflow rate required per unit area as determined from Table 402.1. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2.1]
The zone air distribution effectiveness (Ez) shall be not greater than the default value determined in accordance with Table 403.2.2. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2.2]

TABLE 403.2.2
ZONE AIR DISTRIBUTION EFFECTIVENESS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
[ASHRAE 62.1:TABLE 6.2.2.2]
AIR DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION Ez
Ceiling supply of cool air. 1.0
Ceiling supply of warm air and floor return. 1.0
Ceiling supply of warm air 15°F or more above space temperature and ceiling return 0.8
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15° F above space temperature and ceiling return provided that the 150 feet per minute (fpm) supply air jet reaches to within 4.5 feet of floor level. 1.06
Floor supply of cool air and ceiling return provided that the vertical throw is more than 50 fpm at a height of 4.5 feet or more above the floor. 1.0
Floor supply of cool air and ceiling return, provided low-velocity displacement ventilation achieves unidirectional flow and thermal stratification, or underfloor air distribution systems where the vertical throw is 50 fpm or less at a height of 4.5 feet above the floor. 1.2
Floor supply of warm air and floor return. 1.0
Floor supply of warm air and ceiling return. 0.7
Makeup supply drawn in on the opposite side of the room from the exhaust, return, or both. 0.8
Makeup supply drawn in near to the exhaust, return, or both locations. 0.5
For SI units: °C = (°F-32)/1.8, 1 foot per minute = 0.005 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
Notes:
  1. 1 "Cool air" is air cooler than space temperature.
  2. 2 "Warm air" is air warmer than space temperature.
  3. 3 "Ceiling supply" includes any point above the breathing zone.
  4. 4 "Floor supply" includes any point below the breathing zone.
  5. 5  As an alternative to using the above values, Ez shall be permitted to be regarded as equal to air change effectiveness determined in accordance with ASHRAE 129 for air distribution configurations except unidirectional flow.
  6. 6 For lower velocity supply air, Ez = 0.8
The zone outdoor airflow (Voz), i.e., the outdoor airflow rate that shall be provided to the ventilation zone by the supply air distribution system, shall be determined in accordance with Equation 403.2.3. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2.3]

Voz = Vhz/Ez (Equation 403.2.3)
For ventilation systems where one or more air handlers supply a mixture of outdoor air and recirculated air to only one ventilation zone, the outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 403.3. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.3]

Vot = Voz (Equation 403.3)
For ventilation systems where one or more air handlers supply only outdoor air to one or more ventilation zones, the outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 403.4. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.4]

Vot = Σ all zones Voz (Equation 403.4)
For ventilation systems where one or more air handlers supply a mixture of outdoor air and recirculated air to more than one ventilation zone, the outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall be determined in accordance with Section 403.5.1 through Section 403.5.4. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5]
The primary outdoor air fraction (Zpz) shall be determined for ventilation zones in accordance with Equation 403.5.1. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.1]

Zpz = Voz/Vpz (Equation 403.5.1)

Where:

Vpz is the zone primary airflow, i.e., the primary airflow rate to the ventilation zone from the air handler, including outdoor air and recirculated air. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.1]
The system ventilation efficiency (Ev) shall be determined in accordance with Table 403.5.2 or Section 404.0. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.2]

TABLE 403.5.2
SYSTEM VENTILATION EFFICIENCY1, 2, 3
[ASHRAE 62.1: TABLE 6.2.5.2]
MAX (Zpz) Ev
≤ 0.15 1.0
≤ 0.25 0.9
≤ 0.35 0.8
≤ 0.45 0.7
≤ 0.55 0.6
> 0.55 Use Section 404.0
Notes:
  1. 1  "Max Zpz" refers to the largest value of Zpz, calculated in accordance with Equation 403.5.1, among the ventilation zones served by the system.
  2. 2  For values of Max (Zpz) between 0.15 and 0.55, the corresponding value of Ev shall be permitted to be determined by interpolating the values in the table.
  3. 3  The values of Ev in this table are based on a 0.15 average outdoor air fraction for the system (i.e., the ratio of the uncorrected outdoor air intake (Vou) to the total zone primary airflow for the zones served by the air handler). For systems with higher values of the average outdoor air fraction, this table is capable of resulting in unrealistically low values of Ev and the use of Section 404.0 is capable of yielding more practical results.
The uncorrected outdoor air intake (Vou) flow shall be determined in accordance with Equation 403.5.3(1). [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.3]

Vou = D Σall zones (Rp•Pz) + Σall zones (Rα•Az) [Equation 403.5.3(1)]

     The occupant diversity ratio (D) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 403.5.3(2) to account for variations in population within the ventilation zones served by the system.

D = Psall zones Pz [Equation 403.5.3(2)]

     Where the system population (Ps) is the total population in the area served by the system.

Exception: Alternative methods to account for occupant diversity shall be permitted, provided that the resulting (Vou) value is not less than that determined in accordance with Equation 403.5.3(1). [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.3.1]
The design outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 403.5.4. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.4]

Vot = Vou/Ev (Equation 403.5.4)
Ventilation systems shall be designed to be capable of providing not less than the minimum ventilation rates required in the breathing zone where the zones served by the system are occupied, including all full and part-load conditions. The minimum outdoor air intake flow shall be permitted to be less than the design value at part-load conditions. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.6.1]
Where it is known that peak occupancy will be of short duration, or the ventilation will be varied or interrupted for a short period of time, the design shall be permitted to be based on the average conditions over a time period (T) determined in accordance with Equation 403.6.1.

T = 3ν/Vbz (Equation 403.6.1)

Where:

T = averaging time period, minutes.
ν = the volume of the ventilation zone for which averaging is being applied, cubic foot (m3).
Vbz = the breathing zone outdoor airflow determined in accordance with Equation 403.2.1 and design value of the zone population (Pz), cubic foot per minute (cfm) (m3/min).


     Acceptable design adjustments based on this optional provision shall be in accordance with the following:
  1. Zones with fluctuating occupancy: The zone population (Pz) shall be permitted to be averaged over time(T).
  2. Zones with intermittent interruption of supply air: The average outdoor airflow supplied to the breathing zone over time (T) shall be not less than the breathing zone outdoor airflow (Vbz) calculated using Equation 403.2.1.
  3. Systems with intermittent closure of the outdoor air intake: The average outdoor air intake over time (T) shall be not less than the minimum outdoor air intake (Vot) calculated using Equation 403.3, Equation 403.4, or Equation 403.5.4. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.6.2]
Exhaust airflow shall be provided in accordance with the requirements in Table 403.7. Exhaust makeup air shall be permitted to be a combination of outdoor air, recirculated air, and transfer air.

TABLE 403.7
MINIMUM EXHAUST RATES
[ASHRAE 62.1:TABLE 6.5]
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY8 EXHAUST RATE (cfm/unit) EXHAUST RATE (cfm/ft2) AIR CLASS
Arenas2 - 0.50 1
Art classrooms - 0.70 2
Auto repair rooms1 - 1.50 2
Barber shops - 0.50 2
Bathroom11, 12 20/50 - 2
Beauty and nail salons - 0.60 2
Cells with toilet - 1.00 2
Copy, printing rooms
- 0.50 2
Darkrooms - 1.00 2
Educational science laboratories - 1.00 2
Janitor closets, trash rooms, recycling - 1.00 3
Kitchens - commercial - 0.70 2
Kitchenettes - 0.30 2
Locker rooms for athletic, industrial and health care facilities - 0.50 2
Other locker rooms - 0.25 2
Shower rooms7, 10 20/50 - 2
Paint spray booths - - 4
Parking garages3 - 0.75 2
Pet shops (animal areas) - 0.90 2
Refrigerating machinery rooms6 - - 3
Residential - kitchens7 50/100 - 2
Soiled laundry storage rooms - 1.00 3
Storage rooms, chemical - 1.50 4
Toilets - private5, 9 25/50 - 2
Toilets - public4, 9 50/70 - 2
Woodwork shop/classrooms - 0.50 2
For SI units: 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.0283 m3/min, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2
Notes:
  1. 1  Stands where engines are run shall have exhaust systems that directly connect to the engine exhaust and prevent escape of fumes.
  2. 2  Where combustion equipment is intend ed to be used on the playing surface, additional dilution ventilation, source control, or both shall be provided.
  3. 3  Exhaust rate is not required for open parking garages as defined in accordance with the building code.
  4. 4  Rate is per water closet, urinal, or both. Provide the higher rate where periods of heavy use are expected to occur, e.g., toilets in theatres, schools, and sports facilities. Otherwise the lower rate shall be permitted to be used.
  5. 5  Rate is for a toilet room intended to be occupied by one person at a time. For continuous system operation during normal hours of use, the lower rate shall be permitted to be used. Otherwise the higher rate shall be used.
  6. 6  For refrigeration machinery rooms, the exhaust rate shall comply with Chapter 11.
  7. 7  For continuous system operation, the lower rates shall be permitted. Otherwise the higher rate shall be used.
  8. 8  For unlisted occupancies for a proposed space not listed in the table, the requirements for the listed occupancy that is most similar in terms of occupant density and occupancy type shall be used.
  9. 9  Exhaust air that has been cleaned in accordance with the criteria of Class 1 shall be permitted to be recirculated.
  10. 10  Rate is per shower head.
  11. 11  [HCD 1 & HCD 2] A bathroom is any room containing a bathtub, a shower, a spa, or a similar source of moisture.
  12. 12  [HCD 1 & HCD 2] ANSI/ASHRAE 62.2: Tables 5.1 and 5.2.
Exhaust rate for parking garages shall be in accordance with Table 403.7. Exhaust rate shall not be required for enclosed parking garages having a floor area of 1000 square feet (92.9 m2) or less and used for the storage of 5 or less vehicles.
Mechanical ventilation systems for enclosed parking garages shall operate continuously.

Exceptions:
  1. Mechanical ventilation systems shall be permitted to operate intermittently where the system is designed to operate automatically upon detection of vehicle operation or the presence of occupants by approved automatic detection devices.
  2. Approved automatic carbon monoxide sensing devices shall be permitted to be employed to modulate the ventilation system to not exceed a maximum average concentration of carbon monoxide of 50 parts per million during an eight-hour period, with a concentration of not more than 200 parts per million for a period not exceeding one hour. Automatic carbon monoxide sensing devices installed to modulated parking garage ventilation systems shall be approved in accordance with Section 301.2.
[HCD 1 & 2] In lieu of the exhaust rates in Table 403.7, ventilation systems shall be capable of providing 14,000 cfm (6608 L/s) of exhaust air for each operating vehicle. Number of operating vehicles shall be determined based on 2.5 percent of all parking spaces (and not less than one vehicle).
[HCD 1 & 2] To ensure proper exhaust of contaminated air and fumes from parking garages, exhaust systems utilizing multiple exhaust inlets shall be designed so that exhaust inlets are distributed in such a manner that no portion of the parking garage is more than 50 feet (15240 mm) from an exhaust inlet. Such exhaust inlets shall be installed so that the highest elevation of the exhaust inlet is no greater than 12 inches (305 mm) below the lowest ceiling level.

Exception: Garage exhaust systems designed without distributed exhaust inlets may have their exhaust inlets designed based on the principles of engineering and mechanics and shall provide the minimum required exhaust rate in Table 403.7.
[HCD 1 & 2] Exhaust systems shall operate continuously unless one of the exceptions to continuous operation of Section 403.7.2 is utilized.
The system shall be permitted to be designed to reset the outdoor air intake flow (Vot), the space or ventilation zone airflow (Voz) as operating conditions change. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.7)
Air shall be classified, and the recirculation or transfer shall be limited in accordance with Section 403.9.1 through Section 403.9.4. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.16) Recirculated air shall not be taken from prohibited locations in accordance with Section 311.3.
Recirculation or transfer of Class 1 air to other spaces shall be permitted. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.16.3.1]
Recirculation of Class 2 air within the space of origin shall be permitted. Recirculation or transfer of Class 2 air to other Class 2 or Class 3 spaces shall be permitted, provided the other spaces are used for the same or similar purpose or task and involve the same or similar pollutant sources as the Class 2 space. Transfer of Class 2 air to toilet rooms shall be permitted. Recirculation or transfer of Class 2 air to Class 4 spaces shall be permitted. Class 2 air shall not be recirculated or transferred to Class 1 spaces. Where using an energy recover device, recirculation from leakage, carryover, or transfer from the exhaust side of the energy recovery device shall be permitted and the recirculated Class 2 air shall not exceed 10 percent of the outdoor air intake flow. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.16.3.2]
Recirculation of Class 3 air within the space of origin shall be permitted. Class 3 air shall not be recirculated or transferred to other spaces. Where using an energy recover device, recirculation from leakage, carryover, or transfer from the exhaust side of the energy recovery device shall be permitted and the recirculated Class 3 air shall not exceed 5 percent of the outdoor air intake flow. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.16.3.3]
Class 4 air shall not be recirculated or transferred to other spaces or be recirculated within the space of origin. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.16.3.4]
This section presents an alternative procedure for calculating the system ventilation efficiency (Ev) where values in Table 403.5.2 are not used. The system ventilation efficiency shall equal the lowest zone ventilation efficiency among the ventilation zones served by the air handler in accordance with Equation 404.1. [ASHRAE 62.1:A1.3]

Ev = minimum (Evz) (Equation 404.1)
The average outdoor air fraction (Xs) for the ventilation system shall be determined in accordance with Equation 404.2.

Xs = Vou/Vps (Equation 404.2)

     The uncorrected outdoor air intake (Vou) shall be determined in accordance with Section 403.5.3, and the system primary airflow (Vps) shall be determined at the condition analyzed. [ASHRAE 62.1:A1.1]
The zone ventilation efficiency (Evz) shall be the efficiency with which a system distributes outdoor air from the intake to an individual breathing zone, and shall be determined in accordance with Section 404.3.1 or Section 404.3.2. [ASHRAE 62.1:A1.2]
For single supply systems, where the air supplied to a ventilation zone is a mixture of outdoor air and system-level recirculated air, zone ventilation efficiency (Evz) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 404.3.1. Examples of single supply systems include constant-volume reheat, single-duct VAV, single-fan dual-duct, and multizone systems.

Evz = 1 + Xs - Zpz (Equation 404.3.1)

     The average outdoor air fraction for the system (Xs) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 404.2 and the primary outdoor air fraction for the zone (Zpz) shall be determined in accordance with Section 403.5.1. [ASHRAE 62.1:A1.2.1]
For secondary-recirculation systems where the supply air or a portion thereof to each ventilation zone is recirculated air (air that has not been directly mixed with outdoor air) from other zones, zone ventilation efficiency (Evz) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 404.3.2(1). Examples of secondary-recirculation systems include dual-fan dual-duct and fan-powered mixing-box systems, and systems that include transfer fans for conference rooms.

Evz =(Fα + Xs•Fb -Zpz•Ep•Fc)/Fα [Equation 404.3.2(1))

     The system air fractions Fa, Fb, and Fe shall be determined in accordance with Equation 404.3.2(2), Equation 404.3.2(3), and Equation 404.3.2(4). The zone primary air fraction (Ep) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 404.3.2(5). For single-zone and single- supply systems Ep shall equal to 1.0. The zone secondary recirculation fraction (Er) shall be determined by the designer based on system configuration. The zone air distribution effectiveness (Ez) shall be determined in accordance with Section 403.2.2. [ASHRAE 62.1:A1.2.2]

Fα = Ep + (1-Ep)•Er [Equation 404.3.2(2)]

Fb = Ep [Equation 404.3.2(3)]

Fc = 1-(1-Ez)•(1-Er)•(1-Ep) [Equation 404.3.2(4)]

Ep = Vpz/Vdz [Equation 404.3.2(5)]


Where:

Ep - Primary air fraction: The fraction of primary air in tlie discharge air to the ventilation zone.

Er - Secondary recirculation fraction: In systems with secondary recirculation of return air, the fraction of secondary recirculated air to the zone that is representative of average system return air rather than air directly recirculated from the zone.

Evz - Zone ventilation efficiency: The efficiency with which the system distributes air from the outdoor air intake to the breathing zone in any particular ventilation zone.

Ez - Zone air distribution effectiveness: A measure of the effectiveness of supply air distribution to the breathing zone. Ez is determined in accordance with Section 403.2.2.

Fα - Supply air fraction: The fraction of supply air to the ventilation zone from sources or air outside the zone.

Fb - Mixed air fraction: The fraction of supply air to the ventilation zone from fully mixed primary air.

Fc - Outdoor air fraction: The fraction of outdoor air to the ventilation zone from sources of air outside the zone.

Vdz - Zone discharge airflow: The expected discharge (supply) airflow to the zone that includes primary airflow and secondary recirculated airflow, cfm (m3/min).

Vpz - Zone primary airflow: Determine in accordance with Section 403.5.1.

Xs - Average outdoor air fraction: At the primary air handler, the fraction of outdoor air intake flow in the system primary airflow.

Zpz - Primary outdoor air fraction: The outdoor air fraction required in the primary air supplied to the ventilation zone prior to the introduction of secondary recirculation air. [ASHRAE 62.1:A3]
[For OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5] Direct evaporative cooling systems where the air directly contacts the wetted surface or spray shall be limited in health facilities to non patient areas such as laundry rooms, food preparation areas, and boiler or machinery rooms. Similar rooms with high heating-producing equipment will be considered when specifically approved by the enforcing agency. The evaporative pads shall be a synthetic type. Filters shall be required in accordance with Tables 4-B and 4-C except utility rooms, i.e.: boiler or machinery rooms.
[OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5]
All supply-air, return air, and exhaust-air systems shall be mechanically operated and such systems for areas listed in Table 4-A shall be operated continuously. Natural ventilation through windows or other openings such as louvers will be considered as supplemental to the required mechanical ventilation systems.

Exceptions:
  1. Natural ventilation shall not be used in airborne infection isolation rooms and protective environment rooms.
  2. The number of air changes may be reduced to 25 percent of the indicated value in Table 4-A, when the room is unoccupied, if provisions are made to ensure the following:
    1. The number of air changes per hour indicated is reestablished whenever the space is occupied.
    2. The pressure relationship with the surrounding rooms is maintained when the air changes per hour are reduced. In areas requiring no continuous directional control as identified in accordance with Table 4-A, ventilation systems may be shut down when the space is unoccupied and ventilation is not otherwise required. Ventilation shall not be reduced in rooms specifically used for airborne infection control, such as waiting rooms, triage rooms, corridors, reception areas, areas adjacent to waiting areas, airborne infection isolation rooms, negative pressure exam room, negative pressure x -ray treatment rooms, and protective environment rooms. All operating and delivery rooms shall maintain a minimum of six air changes per hour of• total air when not in use.
Fans serving exhaust systems shall be located at the discharge end of the system. The ventilation rates shown in Table 4-A shall be considered as minimum acceptable rates and shall not be construed as precluding the use of higher ventilation rates if they are required to meet design conditions.
Outdoor air intakes shall be located at least 25 feet (7.62 m) from exhaust outlets of ventilating systems, combustion equipment stacks, medical-surgical vacuum systems, cooling towers, and areas that may collect vehicular exhaust or other noxious fumes. Plumbing vents shall be located in relation to outdoor air intakes per California Plumbing Code. The bottom of outdoor air intakes shall be located a s high as practicable, but not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above ground level. If installed above the roof, they shall be located 18 inches (457 mm) above roof level or 3 feet (914 mm) above a flat roof where heavy snowfall is anticipated.

Exceptions:
  1. These dimensions may be reduced if it is demonstrated by the submission of details and calculations that location of intakes with respect to exhausts and their orientation, or the use of special filters, provides equal performance.
  2. The requirements regarding the bottom of outdoor air intakes and installation through the roof do not apply to skilled nursing facilities, intermediate-care facilities or nonsensitive areas in correctional treatment centers.
Exhaust outlets shall be located a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining grade and 10 feet (3048 mm) from doors, occupied areas, and operable windows.

Exception: Airborne infection isolation rooms shall comply with Section 414.1.
The ventilation systems shall be designed and balanced to provide the general air balance relationship to adjacent areas, shown in Table 4-A. The ventilation systems shall be balanced in accordance with the latest edition of standards published by the Associated Air Balance Council (AABC), the National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEEB), or the Testing, Adjusting and Balancing Bureau (TABB).
Design of the ventilation system shall provide air movement that is generally from clean to less clean areas.
Air supplied to operating rooms, cesarean operating rooms, cardiac catheterization labs, cystoscopy rooms, delivery rooms, and nurseries shall be delivered at or near the ceiling of the area served. In these areas and in morgues and autopsy rooms all air removed from the area shall be removed near floor level. Exhaust or recirculation inlets shall be located not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the finished floor, except in morgues and autopsy rooms where all of the exhaust air is removed through an autopsy table designed for this purpose. At least two exhaust or recirculation air inlets of equal capacity shall be used in all cardiac catheterization labs, cystoscopy rooms, operating rooms, and delivery rooms and shall be located not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the finished floor.

Exception: For airborne infection isolation rooms and protective environment rooms, see Sections 414.0 and 415.0.
Room supply air outlets and room recirculation and exhaust air inlets installed in nonsensitive areas shall be located not less than 3 inches (76 mm) above the floor:

Exception: For airborne infection isolation rooms and protective environment rooms, see Sections 414.0 and 415.0.
Corridors shall not be used to convey supply, return, transfer or exhaust air to or from any room if the corridor is required to be fire resistive construction per the California Building Code.

Exceptions:
  1. Mechanically exhausted toilet rooms of 50 square feet (4.7 m2) or less and small rooms of 30 square feet (2.79 m2) or less such as janitor closets, housekeeping rooms, and electrical or telephone closets opening directly onto corridor.
  2. Air transfer caused by pressure differentials in rooms required to have a positive or negative air balance by Table 4-A.
No space above a ceiling may be utilized as an outside-air, relief-air, supply-air, exhaust-air, or return-air plenum.

Exception: Designs specifically approved by the enforcing agency.
Air from a patient room, exam room, treatment room shall not be transferred to another similar room without first having passed through air filters as required by Table 4-B or Table 4-C.

TABLE 4-B
FILTER EFFICIENCIES FOR CENTRAL VENTILATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL ACUTE CARE HOSPITALS, ACUTE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS, OUTPATIENT FACILITIES, AND LICENSED CLINICS1

AREA DESIGNATION

MINIMUM NUMBER OF FILTER BANKS FILTER EFFICIENCY % FILTER BANK
(MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REPORTING VALUE MERV)5
NO. 11 NO. 21 NO. 31
Orthopedic operating room, bone marrow transplant operating room, organ transplant operating room, NICU formula preparation room, NICU treatment area/room

3

30%

90%

99.97%3

(8)

(14)

(17)

Protective environment rooms

3

30%

90%

99.97%4

(8)

(14)

(17)

Angiography; cardiac catheterization labs; operating
rooms; interventional imaging procedure
rooms; delivery rooms nurseries; patient care, treatment, cystoscopy, cesarean operating room, diagnostic,
and related areas; airborne infection
isolation rooms; areas providing direct patient service or clean supplies such a s sterile and clean
processes, and patient area corridors

2

30%

90%

-

(8)

(14)

-

Laboratories

2

30%

80%

-

(8)

(13)

 
Administrative, med staff support areas, bulk storage,
soiled holding areas, food preparation areas, public cafeterias, and laundries

1

30%

-

-

(8)

-

-

Psychiatric hospitals intended for the care and
treatment of inpatients who do not require acute medical services

1

30%

-

-

(8)

-

-

  1. 1 Based on ASHRAE 52.2.
  2. 2 Based on DOP test in accordance with MIL-STD-282 or based on ASHRAE 52.2.
  3. 3 HEPA filters at air outlet or other locations when approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
  4. 4 HEPA filter located in the supply duct which serves the positive-pressure isolation room or rooms may serve more than one supply outlet and more than one positive-pressure isolation room. HEPA filter or a filter with minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 17 installation shall be designed and equipped to permit safe removal, disposal and replacement of filters.
  5. 5 The numbers in parentheses represent MERV rating based on ASHRAE 52.2.
TABLE 4-C
FILTER EFFICIENCIES FOR CENTRAL VENTILATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS IN SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES AND INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES AND CORRECTIONAL TREATMENT CENTERS1

AREA DESIGNATION

MINIMUM NUMBER OF FILTER BANKS FILTER EFFICIENCY % FILTER BANK

(MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REPORTING VALUE MERV)3

NO. 11

NO. 21

All areas for inpatient care, treatment and/or diagnosis, and those areas providing direct service or cleaning supplies)

2

30%

80%

(8)

(13)

Administrative, bulk storage, soiled holding, laundries and food prep areas

1

30%2

-

(8)

-

  1. 1 Based on ASHRAE 52.2.
  2. 2 Filters are not required for evaporative coolers serving laundries and food preparation areas.
  3. 3 The numbers in parentheses represent MERV rating based on ASHRAE 52.2.
Supply outlets and return and exhaust air inlets shall be located to prevent short-circuiting.
For spaces where Table 4-A permits air to be recirculated by room units, the portion of the minimum total air changes per hour required for a space that is greater than the minimum outdoor air changes per hour required component may be provided by recirculating room HVAC units. Such recirculating room HVAC units shall:
  1. not receive nonfiltered, nonconditioned outdoor air;
  2. serve only a single space; and
  3. provide filtration per Section 408.2 and Section 408.3 for airflow passing over any surface that is designed to condense water. This filter shall be located upstream of any such cold surface, so that all of the air passing over the cold surface is filtered.
Variable air volume systems subjecting the patient to a fluctuating air movement are not acceptable for airborne infection isolation rooms, protective environment rooms or those critically sensitive areas listed in Section 322.0. For nonsensitive areas, variable air volume systems meeting the following criteria can be considered:
The VAV system shall comply with code requirements for outside air, total air, and pressure relationship through the full range of operation from minimum to maximum.
The central return or exhaust fan shall be controlled to accomplish the variable air volume requirements of the individual rooms served by the fan as described in Section 407.5.1.3.
Variable air volume for return or exhaust air shall be accomplished by utilizing an automatic modulating damper in the return or exhaust air for each zone. The damper will modulate from full open to minimum position in conjunction with the supply air VAV terminal box.
[OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5]
Filter efficiencies shall be certified by the manufacturer and shall be based on ASHRAE 52.2 Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size when specifically set forth in these standards.
A filter gauge shall be installed across each filter bank serving central air systems. The gauge shall be red lined or a filter alarm light installed to signal when the recommended maximum static pressure drop has been reached.
Central air-handling systems are defined as any unit requiring duct work on the supply or inlet side that serve more than one room.
Filter banks shall be visually inspected for torn media and bypass in filter frames by means of a flashlight or equivalent, both with fans in operation and stopped. Tears in media and bypass in filter frames shall be eliminated in accordance with the manufacturer's directions and the requirements of the enforcing agency prior to commencing operation of the system.
Central air-handling systems shall be maintained in a reasonably clean condition during construction and shall be cleaned as necessary prior to replacement of temporary filter used during construction to ensure that clean air will be delivered to the occupied spaces.
Filter bank No. 1 shall be located upstream of the air-conditioning equipment. Filter bank No. 2 and filter bank No. 3 shall be located downstream of the supply fan and all cooling and humidification equipment with efficiencies as indicated in Table 4-B or Table 4-C.

Exception: Dry steam-type humidifiers for local room humidity control may be installed in the supply air duct downstream of the final filter bank where designs are specifically approved by the enforcing agency. Dry steam is that which is defined in the ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook.
Filter bank No. 2 and filter bank No. 3 media shall be rigid or supported (noncollapsing type) and shall operate on the principles of impingement, straining, and diffusion.
All air-ventilation systems shall comply with code requirements of this section and shall have filter bank efficiencies as listed in Table 4-B.
Noncentral recirculating air systems providing cooling to high heat producing equipment located in nonsensitive areas shall have a filter with minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 6 based on ASHRAE 52.2.
Noncentral air systems serving any areas not listed in Table 4-B shall have a filter with minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 6 based on ASHRAE 52.2.
Noncentral recirculating air handling systems, for example, through-the-wall units, fan coil units, and heat pumps may be utilized for single patient rooms of one or more beds. Filtration for these units shall have a filter with minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 6, based on ASHRAE 52.2. The air ventilation system providing the minimum air changes of outdoor air shall comply with Table 4-B. These units may be used as recirculating units only. All outdoor air requirements shall be met by a separate central air handling systems.
The air ventilation systems shall comply with code requirements of this section for skilled nursing facilities, intermediate care facilities and correctional treatment centers and shall have filter bank efficiencies as listed in Table 4-C.
Noncentral air systems serving single patient rooms of one or more beds shall comply with Table 4-C.
Noncentral recirculating air-handling systems, i.e. through the wall units, may be utilized for each patient room with one or more beds. Filtration for these units shall have a filter with minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 6, based on ASHRAE 52.2. The air ventilation system providing the minimum air changes of outdoor air shall comply with Table 4-C. These units may be used as recirculating units only. All outdoor air requirements shall be met by a separate central air handling system.
Airborne infection isolation rooms, protective environment rooms, and sensitive areas in correctional treatment centers shall comply with Section 408.2.
The air ventilation systems shall comply with code requirements of this section for outpatient facilities and shall have filter bank efficiencies as listed in Table 4-B.
Noncentral air systems serving individual rooms shall comply with Table 4-B.
[OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 3, 4 & 5]
Ducts which penetrate construction, intended for X-ray or other radiation protection, shall not impair the effectiveness of the protection.
Duct linings and their use shall meet the requirements of Chapter 6, California Mechanical Code.
Cold air ducts shall be insulated wherever necessary or to prevent condensation.
The anchorage and supporting structural elements for airducts shall be designed to withstand the lateral forces as required by the California Building Code, Title 24, Part 2.
Laboratory ventilating systems shall comply with NFPA 99, as required by Section 1224.4.6.4 of the California Building Code.
Hoods and safety cabinets may be used for normal exhaust of a space provided minimum air change rates are maintained. If air change standards in Table 4-A do not provide sufficient air for proper operation of exhaust hoods and safety cabinets (when in use), supplementary makeup air (filtered and preheated) shall be provided around these units to maintain the required airflow direction and exhaust velocity. Makeup systems for hoods shall be arranged to minimize "short circuiting" of air and to avoid reduction in air velocity at the point of contaminant capture.
Laboratory fume hoods shall meet the following standards:
Average face velocity shall be at least 75 feet per minute (0.38 meters per second). Exhaust system shall be separate from the building exhaust system. Exhaust fan shall be located at the discharge end of the system. Exhaust duct system shall be of noncombustible corrosion-resistant material as required to meet the planned usage of the hood.
Fume hoods and their associated equipment in the air stream intended for use with perchloric acid and other strong oxidants shall be constructed of stainless steel or other material consistent with special exposures. Hoods and equipment shall be provided with a water wash and drain system to permit periodic flushing of duct and hood. When perchloric acid or other strong oxidants are only transferred from one container to another, standard laboratory fume hoods and the associated equipment may be used in lieu of stainless steel construction.
Each hood shall have a minimum face velocity of 90 to 110 feet per minute (0.45 to 0.56 meters per second) with suitable pressure-independent air-modulating devices and alarms to alert staff of fan shutdown or loss of airflow. Each hood shall have filters with a 99.97 percent efficiency (based on the DOP test method) in the exhaust stream and be designed and equipped to permit the safe removal, disposal, and replacement of contaminated filters. Filters shall be as close to the hood as practical to minimize duct contamination. Fume hoods intended for use with radioactive isotopes shall be constructed of stainless steel or other material suitable for the particular exposure.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5]
The air from dining areas may be used to ventilate the food preparation areas only after it has passed through a filter with at least an 80 percent average efficiency based on ASHRAE 52.2 or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 13, based on ASHRAE 52.2.

Exception: For skilled nursing facilities, intermediate care facilities and correctional treatment centers, the air from dining area may be used to ventilate food preparation areas only after it has passed through a filter with a 50 percent average efficiency based on ASHRAE 52.2 or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 10, based on ASHRAE 52.2.
Boiler, heater and electrical equipment rooms shall be provided with outdoor air so as to maintain combustion rates of equipment and temperatures in the rooms and in adjoining areas as rated in this chapter.
Floor surfaces in occupied spaces above such rooms should not exceed a temperature of 85°F (29.4°C), and suitable insulation may be required.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5]
Rooms in areas where excessive heat or moisture is generated, where objectional odors or dust are present, or where flammable or toxic gases may accumulate, which are used by health facility personnel or patients, shall be provided with exhaust ventilation to change the air a minimum of ten times per hour.
Kitchen, morgues and laundries located inside a hospital building or skilled nursing facility in which patients are accommodated, or treated, shall be ventilated with exhaust systems which will provide a minimum of ten air changes per hour and prevent odors from entering patient areas.
A separate, dedicated exhaust system shall be provided for airborne infection isolation rooms. The dedicated system may serve more than one airborne infection isolation room, adjoining toilet room and anteroom. The exhaust ducts shall be identified by appropriate labeling with the words "Caution Airborne Infection Isolation Rooms Exhaust" or similar terminology. Such labeling shall be in a manner which is not readily removable and shall appear on the exhaust duct at intervals of not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) and at least once near each room and each story traversed by the exhaust system. Exhaust fans shall comply with Section 407.1.2. The discharge from exhaust fans shall be located above the roof and shall be located a minimum of 25 feet (7620 mm) from areas that may be occupied, doors, operable windows, outdoor air intakes, or other openings into the building. The exhaust fan discharge shall be labeled in a manner which readily identifies the precautions which should be observed. To ensure that the airborne contaminates do not reenter the building, one of the following shall be provided:
Exhaust discharge from fan shall extend at least 7 feet (2134 mm) above the roof and discharge vertically upward. Self-draining stacks or equivalent shall be used for rain protection. Rain caps which divert the exhaust toward the roof shall be prohibited.
Exhaust shall discharge above roof level and through an accessible HEPA filter. The HEPA filter shall be located upstream of the exhaust fan and have a minimum efficiency of 99.97 percent based on the DOP method in accordance with Mil-Std. 282 or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 17, based on ASHRAE 52.2. Filter gage shall be installed across the filter. For maintenance of air balance relationship, see Section 407.3.2. The 25-foot (7620 mm) dimension required by Section 414.1 may be reduced when a 99.97 percent HEPA filter or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 17, based on ASHRAE 52.2 is used and the reduced dimension is specifically approved by the enforcing agency.
The supply outlets and exhaust inlets shall be located to provide airflow patterns that prevent stagnation of the air and eliminate short circuiting of the supply to the exhaust, and minimize exposure of health care workers to airborne infectious particles. Supply-air outlets shall be located at or near the ceiling and at the end of the airborne infection isolation room which is opposite the head of the bed. Exhaust registers shall be located on the wall behind the patient's head, or as close to that wall as practical and shall be located not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 24 inches (610 mm) above the finished floor.

Exception: For correctional treatment centers, the location and design of the supply outlets an exhaust or return inlets shall not compromise the safety, security and protection of staff inmates and property.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5]
The supply outlets and exhaust and return inlets shall be located to provide airflow patterns that prevent stagnation of the air and eliminate short circuiting of the supply to the exhaust or return. Supply air shall be delivered at or near the ceiling and near the patient's bed. All exhaust or return registers shall be located near the entrance to the protective environment room and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the finished floor.

Exception: For correctional treatment centers, the location and design of the supply outlets and exhaust or return inlets shall not compromise the safety, security, and protection of staff, inmates and property.
An alarm system which is based on static pressure control, volumetric control, or directional flow measurement shall be provided for each isolation room. The alarm system shall consist of a display monitor located on the corridor wall near the door to the room and a visual and audible alarm which annunciates at the room and at a nurses' station or other suitable location that will provide responsible surveillance. A time delay shall be provided to allow for routine openings of doors. The alarm shall annunciate when the supply, return, or exhaust fans are interrupted or when the minimum required pressure differential per ASHRAE 170 between the airborne infection isolation room and corridor or between the protective environment room and corridor is not being met during closed door conditions.
Other acceptable alarm systems will be allowed when designs are specifically approved by the enforcing agency.
[For OSHPD 4] For correctional treatment centers, the alarm system shall not create false alarms or security hazards.
Prior to acceptance of the rooms, the alarm system shall be tested and operated to demonstrate to the owner or designated representative that the installation and performance of the system conforms to design intent.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5] Prior to acceptance of the rooms, all mechanical systems shall be tested, balanced, and operated to demonstrate to the owner or designated representative that the installation and performance of the systems conform to design intent. All testing and balancing shall be performed by a qualified independent agency certified by the Associated Air Balance Council (AABC): the National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB); or the Testing, Adjusting and Balancing Bureau (TABB).
The ETO sterilization equipment room shall be provided with minimum air changes per hour per Table 4-A and be maintained at a negative air balance.
All air from the ETO sterilizer equipment room shall be exhausted to the outside by a dedicated system or other approved method.
The exhaust fan for the dedicated system shall be located at the discharge point of the system and identified as ETO Equipment Room Exhaust.
The discharge point shall be a minimum of 25 feet (7620 mm) away from any outside intake, operable window or personnel passage.
The aeration units shall be ventilated through a nonrecirculating dedicated ventilation exhaust system.
When the drain is not located in the ETO sterilizer equipment room, ventilation is required by a capture box.
When not located in the ETO sterilizer equipment room, exhaust during cylinder change is required by installing a hood that is part of a dedicated ventilation exhaust system, positioned no more than 1 foot (305 mm) above or behind the point where the change of cylinders takes place.
The ventilation of sterilizer relief valve is required through a pipe connected to the outlet of the relief valve exhausted directly to the out doors at a point high enough to be away from passers by, and not near any windows that open, nor near any air-conditioning or ventilation air intakes.
The system shall be designed to capture the ETO when the door is opened following the completion of the sterilization process. A hood or canopy closed on each end should be installed over the sterilization door. A hood or canopy shall be connected to a dedicated exhaust ventilation system.
Installation of gas line hand valves at the connection to the supply cylinders are required to minimize leakage during cylinder change.
An Audible and visual alarm system shall be installed to alert sterilizer operating personnel if the airflow falls below design cubic feet per minute (L/s).
Air shall be supplied over the formulation preparation area by group E, nonaspirating supply diffusers. Air shall be returned or exhausted by registers located not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the finished floor in the cleanup area.
Air shall be supplied over the treatment surface by group E, nonaspirating supply diffusers. Air shall be returned or exhausted by registers located not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the finished floor, adjacent to the treatment surface.
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