Appendix C governs the installation, testing, or repair of oil or liquid fuel burners, oil or liquid fuel-burning systems, oil or liquid fuel-burning equipment, and the oil or liquid fuel piping systems used in connection with buildings or structures and equipment within the property lines of the premises.
Anti-Flooding Device. A primary safety control that causes the flow of oil or fuel to be shut off after a rise in oil or fuel level, or after receiving excess oil or fuel, and that operates before the hazardous discharge of oil or fuel can occur.

Burner, Automatically Ignited. A burner equipped so that main burner fuel may be turned on and ignited automatically.

Burner, Manually Ignited. A burner equipped so that main burner fuel is turned on only by hand and ignited under supervision.

Burner, Mechanical Draft Type. A burner that includes a power-driven fan, blower, or other mechanism as the primary means for supplying the air for combustion.

Burner, Natural Draft Type. A burner that depends primarily on the natural draft created in the chimney or venting system to induce air required for combustion into the burner.

Constant level Valve. A device for maintaining within a reservoir a constant level of oil or fuel for delivery to a burner.

Control Limit. An automatic safety control that is responsive to changes in fluid flow or level, pressure, or temperature, and that is normally set beyond the operating range for limiting the operation of the controlled equipment by shutting off the energy supply.

Control Safety. Automatic interlock controls, including relays, switches, and other auxiliary equipment used in conjunction with them, to form a safety control system that is intended to prevent unsafe operation of the controlled equipment.

Draft Booster. A power-operated fan, blower, or other device installed in the chimney connector to increase the natural draft developed in the connected chimney.

Draft Regulator, Barometric. A device built into a fuel-burning appliance or made part of a chimney connector or vent connector that functions to reduce excessive draft through an appliance to a desired value by admitting ambient air into the appliance chimney, chimney connector, vent, or vent connector.

Fuel. Natural, manufactured, or liquefied petroleum gas, or a mixture of these gases; all grades of fuel oil, wood, or any other combustible or flammable material or any mixture of combustible or flammable materials.

Fuel Burner. A device used to convey the appropriate fuel into the combustion chamber zone in close proximity to its primary and secondary air supply to permit a stable controlled heat release compatible with the burner design, listing, and applicable approvals in a boiler, furnace, device or appliance. It includes, but is not limited to burning oil or liquid fuel.

Fuel Burner System. The fuel burner and a conveyance system or piping system for the purpose of introducing the appropriate fuel into the combustion chamber zone.

Fuel-Burning Equipment/Appliance. An oil or fuel burner of any type including all oil or liquid fuel burners, oil or liquid fuel-fired units, dual, or multi-fuel burners and heating and cooking appliances with their fuel burner system and with their tank or fuel storage system, piping system, vent connectors, vent flues, fans, blowers, valves, control devices, combustion air, wiring, controls, and related devices including all accessories and appurtenances for safe and proper operation of the appliance.

Fuel Oil. Hydrocarbon oil as specified by ASTM D396, or the Canadian Government Specification Board, 3-GP-28, and having a flashpoint of not less than 100°F (38°C).

Fuel-Piping System. Method of conveying liquid, vapor, steam, gases, or slurry from one point to another, including accessories, appurtenances, and equipment necessary for its proper operation.

Indirect-Fired Appliance. An oil or fuel-burning appliance in which products of combustion (flue gasses) are not mixed in the appliance with the air or other medium being heated.

Labeled. Having attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an organization acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction and concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of production of labeled equipment or materials and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.

Premixing. A power burner in which all or nearly all of the air for combustion is mixed with the gas as primary air.

Pump, Oil or Fuel Transfer. An oil or fuel pump, automatically or manually operated, that transfers oil or fuel through continuous piping from a supply tank to an oil or fuel-burning appliance or to an auxiliary tank, and that is not designed to stop pumping automatically in case of total breakage of the oil or fuel supply line between the pump and the appliance.

Tank, Auxiliary. A tank having a capacity of not over 60 gallons (227 L) listed for installation in the supply piping between a burner and its main fuel supply tank. It shall be permitted to be included as an integral part of an automatic pump or a transfer pump, or it shall be permitted to be a separate tank.

Tank, Gravity. A supply tank from which the oil or fuel is delivered directly to the burner by gravity.

Tank, Integral. A tank that is furnished by the manufacturer as an integral part of an oil or fuel-burning appliance.

Tank Storage. A separate tank that is not connected to the oil or fuel-burning appliance.

Tank Supply. A separate tank connected directly or by a pump to the oil or fuel-burning appliance.

Tank, Vacuum or Barometric. A tank not exceeding 5 gallons (19 L) capacity that maintains a definite level of oil or fuel in a sump or similar receptacle by barometric feed. Fuel is delivered from the sump to the burner by gravity.

Valve, Manual Oil, Gas, or Fuel Shutoff. A manually operated valve in a fuel line for the purpose of turning on or completely shutting off the fuel supply to the burner.

Valve, Oil, Gas, or Fuel Control. An automatically or manually operated device consisting essentially of a fuel valve for controlling the fuel supply to a burner.
The installation, testing, and repair of oil or liquid fuel-burning equipment systems shall be in accordance with Section C 103.0, the standards listed in Chapter 17, and other information outlined in this code such as, but not limited to, combustion air, flue and breeching requirements, room clearances and dimensions, and control requirements.
Oil or liquid fuel-burning equipment shall be approved.
After completion of installations, the installer shall test safety and operating controls and venting before placing the burner in service. The correct input of liquid fuel shall be determined and the fuel-to-air ratio shall be set. Each oil or liquid fuel burner shall be adjusted to its input according to the manufacturer's instructions. Overrating the burners or the appliance is prohibited. The input range shall be appropriate to the appliance:
  1. For conversion burners installed in hot water (liquid) boilers or warm air furnaces, the rate of flow of the oil or liquid fuel in British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) (kW) shall be adjusted to within plus or minus 5 percent of the design load, not to exceed the design rate of the appliance.
  2. For conversion burners installed in steam boilers, the oil or liquid fuel hourly input demand shall be adjusted to be in accordance with the steam load requirements. The oil or liquid fuel input demand necessitated by an oversized boiler shall be established and added to total input demand.
Igniter or pilot flames shall be effective to ignite the oil or liquid fuel at the main burner or burners and shall be adequately protected from drafts. Pilot flames shall not become extinguished during the pilot cycle where the main burner or burners are turned on or off in a normal manner either manually or by automatic controls.
In making tests to determine compliance with the requirements of Section C 107.1, the following care shall be exercised to prevent the accumulation of unburned liquid fuel in the appliance that will result in an explosion or fire:
  1. The flames from the burner shall ignite freely the liquid fuel where operating at the lowest firing position.
  2. Burner flames shall not flash back where the liquid fuel is turned on or off by an automatic control mechanism.
  3. Main burner flames shall ignite freely from the pilot where the pilot flame is reduced to a minimum point that will actuate the pilot safety device.
  4. Where ignition is made in a normal manner, the flame will not flash outside the appliance.
  5. Burners shall not expel liquid fuel through air openings where operating at prevailing pressure.
  6. Burners shall have a liquid-fuel air mixture to ensure smooth ignition of the main burner.
  1. The flue gas, venting, safety, and operating controls of the appliance shall be checked by the installer to ensure their proper and safe operation.
  2. Method of test - atmospheric, induced draft, or fan assisted types.

    1. The appliance shall be allowed to operate until the stack temperature becomes stabilized, after which a sample of the undiluted flue products shall be taken from the appliance flue outlet. The sample taken shall be analyzed for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Stack temperature shall be noted.

          Appliance designs incorporating induced-draft assemblies require a flue gas sample to be taken ahead of the draft regulator or induced draft fan.
  3. Performance standards for atmospheric type shall be provided in accordance with the following:

    1. Shall be not less than 75 percent efficiency as determined by flue gas analysis method at the appliance flue outlet.
    2. Carbon monoxide concentration in flue gas shall not exceed 0.04 percent.
    3. Stack temperature shall not exceed 700°F (371°C) plus ambient.
    4. Carbon dioxide concentration shall be between 8 percent and 13 percent.
    5. Oxygen concentration shall be between 4 percent and 10 percent.
    6. Smoke test shall not exceed number 2 for light oils or number 4 for oils heavier than number 4.
    7. Draft shall comply with the burner manufacturer's instructions.
  4. Performance standards for induced-draft or fan-assisted types shall comply with the following:

    1. Shall be not less than 75 percent efficiency, as determined by flue gas analysis method at appliance flue outlet.
    2. Carbon monoxide concentration in flue gas not exceeding 0.04 percent.
    3. Stack temperature shall not exceed 700°F (371°C) plus ambient.
    4. Carbon dioxide concentration shall be between 8 percent and 13 percent
    5. Oxygen concentration shall be between 4 percent and 10 percent.
    6. Smoke test shall not exceed number 2 for light oils or number 4 for oils heavier than number 4.
    7. Draft shall comply with the burner manufacturer's instructions.

          Induced-draft and fan-assisted types of appliances require a sample be taken after the induceddraft fan that will cause oxygen figures in excess of the limits stated. In such cases, safe liquid fuel combustion ratios shall be maintained and be consistent with approvals and listings of the appliance.
  5. Method of test - power type.

    1. The appliance shall be allowed to operate until the stack temperature becomes stabilized; after that, a sample of the undiluted flue products shall be taken from the appliance flue outlet. The sample shall be analyzed for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Stack temperature shall be noted.
  6. Performance standards for power type.

    1. Shall be not less than 80 percent efficiency as determined by flue gas analysis method at the appliance flue outlet.
    2. Carbon monoxide concentration in the flue gas shall not exceed 0.04 percent.
    3. Stack temperature shall not exceed 700°F (371°C) plus ambient.
    4. Carbon dioxide concentration shall be between 8 percent and 13 percent.
    5. Oxygen concentration shall be between 4 percent and 10 percent.
    6. Smoke test shall not exceed number 2 for light oils or number 4 for oils heavier than nurnber 4.
    7. Draft shall comply with the burner manufacturer's instructions.
  7. After completion of the test of newly installed oil or liquid fuel burner equipment as provided in this section, the installer shall file with the Authority Having Jurisdiction complete records of the test on a form approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. The tag stating the date of the test and the name of the installer shall be attached to the appliance at the main valve.
  8. Listing and approval.

    1. The concentration of oxygen in the undiluted flue products of oil or liquid fuel burners shall in no case be less than 3 percent nor exceed 10 percent and shall be in accordance with performance standards and shall be consistent with the listing and approval of the equipment.
    2. The allowable limit of carbon monoxide shall not exceed 0.04 percent.
    3. The flue gas temperature of an oil appliance, as taken on the appliance side of the draft regulator, shall not exceed applicable performance standards and shall be consistent with the listing and approvals of the equipment.
  9. The oxygen figures shall not apply where there is an approved oxygen trim system on the burner that is designed for that use, including a low oxygen interlock where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
  10. Supervision shall be as follows:

    1. Supervised startup shall be required to verify the safe operation of an oil or liquid fuel burner and to provide documentation that operation is consistent with this code, listing, and approval. Supervised startup shall be required for liquid fuel burners in Section C 109.1 (2), Section C 109.1(3), and Section C 109.1(4). Supervised startup requires that the liquid-fuel burner shall be tested in the presence of the mechanical official in a manner set forth by the Authority Having Jurisdiction before the installation is approved. Testing shall include safety and operating controls, input, flue gas analysis, and venting. Flue gas shall be tested at high, medium, and low fires. Provisions shall be made in the system to allow a firing test in warm weather. After completion of the test of newly installed oil or liquid fuel burner equipment, as provided in this section, the installer shall file with the Authority Having Jurisdiction complete records of the test on a form approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. The tag stating the date of the test and the name of the tester shall be attached to the appliance at the main valve.
    2. Oil and liquid fuel burners of 1000000 Btu/h (293 kW) input or more require a supervised startup in accordance with Section C 108.1(10)(a).
    3. Installation of oxygen trim systems, modulating dampers, or other draft control or combustion devices require a supervised startup in accordance with Section C 108.1(10)(a).
    4. Direct-fired heaters shall require a supervised startup in accordance with Section C 108.1(10)(a).
  11. The complete control diagram of the installation and operating instructions shall be supplied and posted by the installer of the appliance.
  1. Zero to 400000 Btu/h (0 kW to 117 kW) per burner.

    1. One approved manual shutoff valve lever handle.
    2. One approved fuel-oil filter, installed on the supply piping.
    3. Approved automatic safety shutoff valve to provide 100 percent shutoff of all oil.
    4. A flame safeguard control capable of providing 100 percent shutoff in the event of flame failure. Flame failure response timing shall not exceed the control manufacturer's instructions.
    5. Two controls, one operating and one high limit, activated by temperature or pressure, as appropriate.
    6. Burners relying on mechanical means to provide air for combustion shall have actual proof-of-air interlock device.
    7. Installations with dampered combustion air openings shall prove damper open position before trial for burner ignition.
    8. Vent dampers and flue dampers shall be properly interlocked to prevent burner ignition unless safely open.
  2. Four hundred thousand and one to 999999 Btu/h (117.2 kW to 292.9 kW) per burner.

    1. One approved manual shutoff valve lever handle.
    2. One approved fuel-oil filter, installed on the supply piping.
    3. Two safety shutoff valves in series, maximum five seconds closing time.
    4. One electronic flame safeguard pilot control providing a separately supervised and proven pilot, 100 percent shutoff manual reset. Flame failure response time shall not exceed the control manufacturer's instructions.

          Direct-spark ignition shall be allowed where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction and where used on number 2 or lighter oil.
    5. Two controls, one operating and one high limit, activated by temperature or pressure, as appropriate.
    6. Burners relying on mechanical means to provide air for combustion shall have actual proof-of-air interlock device.
    7. Power burners shall include proven prepurge of not less than 60 seconds at high-fire damper settings. This prepurge shall occur before every burner cycle, regardless of reason.
    8. Installations with dampered combustion air openings shall prove damper open position before trial for burner ignition.
    9. Vent dampers and flue dampers shall be interlocked to prevent burner ignition unless safely open.
    10. One high oil or liquid fuel-pressure interlock, reset from flame safeguard or manua1ly.
    11. Where hot water or steam, one low water cutoff.
    12. An atomizing medium proving switch.
    13. A low oil temperature switch for oil or liquid fuel requiring preheating.
    14. A high oil temperature interlock for oil or liquid fuel requiring preheating.
    15. The burner oil pump shall automatica1ly not operate or rotate while the alternate fuel is tiring.
    16. A pressure-relief valve shall be provided between safety shutoff valves and between pump and safety valves where an integral valve is used with a pump.
    17. A separate relief device is required on each transfer pump.
  3. One mi1lion to 249 999 Btu/h (293 kW to 732 kW) input per burner.
    1. One approved manual shutoff valve lever handle.
    2. One approved fuel-oil filter, installed on the supply piping.
    3. Two safety shutoff valves in series with a combined flame failure response and valve closing time not to exceed 5 seconds with strainer directly before the valves.
    4. Programmed electronic flame safeguard including proven low-fire start, manual reset lockout, 100 percent shutoff (both pilot and main burner), and a separately supervised and proven pilot.

          Flame-sensing systems utilizing a UV scanner shall prove pilot and interrupt ignition spark prior to main burner valves being energized.
    5. Two controls, one operating and one high limit, activated by temperature or pressure.
    6. Burners relying on mechanical means to provide air for combustion shall have actual proof-of-air interlock device.
    7. Power burners shall include proven prepurge of not less than 60 seconds at high-fire damper settings. This prepurge shall occur before every burner cycle, regardless of reason.
    8. Installations with dampered combustion air openings shall prove damper open position before trial for burner ignition.
    9. Vent dampers and flue dampers shall be interlocked to prevent burner ignition unless safely open.
    10. One high oil or liquid fuel-pressure interlock, reset from flame safeguard or manually.
    11. Where hot water or steam, two low water cutoffs.
    12. An atomizing medium proving switch.
    13. A low oil temperature switch for oil or liquid fuel requiring preheating.
    14. A high oil temperature interlock for oil or liquid fuel requiring preheating.
    15. The burner oil pump shall automatically not operate or rotate while the alternate fuel is firing.
    16. A pressure-relief valve shall be provided betwecn safety shutoff valves and between pump and safety valves where an integral valve is used with a pump.
    17. A separate relief device is required on each transfer pump.
    18. One low oil or liquid fuel-pressure interlock, reset from flame safeguard or manually.
    19. Burners with automatic controls, prepurge, proofof-closure, modulation, or postpurge shall not use relays external to the flame safeguard to accomplish these functions.
  4. Two million five hundred thousand to 12499999 Btu/h (733 k W to 3663.3 kW) per burner.

    1. One approved manual shutoff valve lever handle.
    2. One approved fuel-oil filter, installed on the supply piping.
    3. Two safety shutoff valves in series, with a combined flame failure response and valve closing time not to exceed 5 seconds with strainer directly before the valves.
    4. Programmed electronic flame safeguard including proven low-fire start, manual reset lockout, 100 percent shutoff (both pilot and main burner), and a separately supervised and proven pilot.

          Flame-sensing systems utilizing a UV scanner shall prove pilot and interrupt ignition spark prior to main burner valves being energized.
    5. Two controls, one operating and one high limit, activated by temperature or pressure.
    6. Burners relying on mechanical means to provide air for combustion shall have actual proof-of-air interlock device.
    7. Power burners shall include proven prepurge of not less than 60 seconds at high-fire damper settings. This prepurge shall occur before every burner cycle, regardless of reason.
    8. Installations with dampered combustion air openings shall prove damper open position before trial for burner ignition.
    9. Vent dampers and flue dampers shall be interlocked to prevent burner ignition unless safely open.
    10. One high oil or liquid fuel-pressure interlock, reset from flame safeguard or manually.
    11. Where hot water or steam, two low water cutoffs.
    12. An atomizing medium proving switch.
    13. A low oil temperature switch for oil or liquid fuel requiring preheating.
    14. A high oil temperature interlock for oil or liquid fuel requiring preheating.
    15. A separate firing rate eontrol valve.
    16. The burner oil pump shall automatically not operate or rotate while the alternate fuel is firing.
    17. A pressure-relief valve shall be provided between safety shutoff valves and between pump and safety valves where an integral valve is used with a pump.
    18. A separate relief device is required on each transfer pump.
    19. One low oil or liquid fuel-pressure interlock reset from flame safeguard or manually.
    20. Burners with automatic controls, prepurge, proof-of-closure, modulation, or postpurge shall not use relays external to the flame safeguard to accomplish these functions.
  5. More than 12500000 Btu/h (3663.4 kW) per burner inputs. These burners shall comply with the requirements of the appropriate standards listed in Chapter 17 and the following:

    1. One approved manual shutoff valve lever handle.
    2. One approved fuel-oil filter, installed on the supply piping.
    3. Two safety shutoff valves in series, one with proof of closure, with a combined flame failure response and valve closing time not to exceed 2 seconds with strainer directly before the valves.
    4. Programmed electronic flame safeguard including proven low-fire start, manual reset lockout, 100 percent shutoff (both pilot and main burner), and a separately supervised and proven pilot.

          Flame-sensing systems utilizing a UV scanner shall prove pilot and interrupt ignition spark prior to main burner valves being energized.
    5. Two controls, one operating and one high limit, activated by temperature or pressure.
    6. Burners relying on mechanical means to provide air for combustion shall have actual proof-of-air interlock device.
    7. Power burners must include proven prepurge of not less than 60 seconds at high-fire damper settings. This prepurge shall occur before every burner cycle, regardless of reason.
    8. Installations with dampered combustion air openings shall prove damper open position before trial for burner ignition.
    9. Vent dampers and Hue dampers shall be interlocked to prevent burner ignition unless safely open.
    10. One high oil or liquid fuel-pressure interlock; reset from flame safeguard or manually.
    11. A manual firing cock.
    12. Where hot water or steam, two low water cut-offs.
    13. An atomizing medium proving switch.
    14. A low oil temperature switch for oil or liquid fuel requiring preheating.
    15. A high oil temperature interlock for oil or liquid fuel requiring pre-heating.
    16. A separate firing rate control valve.
    17. The burner oil pump shall automatically not operate or rotate while the alternate fuel is firing.
    18. A pressure-relief valve shall be provided between safety shutoff valves and between pump and safety valves where an integral valve is used with a pump.
    19. A separate relief device is required on each transfer pump.
    20. One low oil or liquid fuel-pressure interlock, reset from flame safeguard or manually.
    21. Burners with automatic controls, prepurge, proof-of-closure, modulation, or postpurge shall not use relays external to the flame safeguard to accomplish these functions.
  6. Shutoff Valve.

    1. Oil or liquid fuel burner installations shall include a non-electric shutoff valve that is held open by a fusible link designed to close at 165°F (74°C), installed near the burner in the same room as the burner. This shall prevent the flow of oil or liquid fuel to the burner through the supply pipe. A check valve is required in the return line if the tank is higher than the burner.
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