CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2015 (IFC 2015)

Copyright

Preface

Acknowledgements

California Code of Regulations, Title 24

How to Distinguish Between Model Code Language and California Amendments

Coordination Between the International Building and Fire Codes

Maintenance

Code Development Committee Responsibilities (Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers)

Effective Use of the International Fire Code

Legislation

Part I Administrative

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Part II General Safety Provisions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Part III Building and Equipment Design Features

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 12 Through 19 Reserved

Part IV Special Occupancies and Operations

Chapter 20 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 21 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 22 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 23 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 24 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 25 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 26 Fumigation and Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 27 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 28 Lumber Yards and Agro-Industrial, Solid Biomass and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 29 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 30 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 31 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 32 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 33 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 34 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 35 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 36 Marinas

Chapter 37 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 38 Through 47 Reserved

Chapter 48 Motion Picture and Television Production Studio Sound Stages, Approved Production Facilities and Production Locations

Chapter 49 Requirements for Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Areas

Part V Hazardous Materials

Chapter 50 Hazardous Materials—general Provisions

Chapter 51 Aerosols

Chapter 52 Reserved

Chapter 53 Compressed Gases

Chapter 54 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 55 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 56 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 57 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 58 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 59 Flammable Solids

Chapter 60 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 61 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 62 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 63 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 64 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 65 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 66 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 67 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 68 Through 79 Reserved

Part VI Referenced Standards

Chapter 80 Referenced Standards

Appendix Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Part VII Appendices

Appendix A Board of Appeals

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix BB Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix CC Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids—weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plans and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statements

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems—noncompliant Conditions

Appendix J Building Information Sign

Appendix K Construction Requirements for Existing Ambulatory Care Facilities

Appendix L Requirements for Fire Fighter Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix M High-Rise Buildings—retroactive Automatic Sprinkler Requirement

Appendix N Temporary Haunted Houses, Ghost Walks and Similar Amusement Uses

History Note Appendix

The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and maintenance of all fire protection systems.
The fire code official shall have the authority to require construction documents and calculations for all fire protection systems and to require permits be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation.
Before requesting final approval of the installation, where required by the fire code official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written statement to the fire code official that the subject fire protection system has been installed in accordance with approved plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and the appropriate installation standard. Any deviations from the design standards shall be noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall be attached to the written statement.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.
Fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with the original installation standards for that system. Required systems shall be extended, altered or augmented as necessary to maintain and continue protection where the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alterations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance with applicable standards.
Fire protection systems required by this code or the California Building Code shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and maintained in accordance with this code. A fire protection system for which a design option, exception or reduction to the provisions of this code or the California Building Code has been granted shall be considered to be a required system.
A fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code or the California Building Code shall be allowed to be furnished for partial or complete protection provided such installed system meets the applicable requirements of this code and the California Building Code.
Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the California Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the California Building Code, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10 of the California Building Code.
In occupancies of a hazardous nature, where special hazards exist in addition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where the fire code official determines that access for fire apparatus is unduly difficult, the fire code official shall have the authority to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards include, but shall not be limited to, the following: automatic fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment required under this section shall be installed in accordance with this code and the applicable referenced standards.
Any device that has the physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equipment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protection function shall be prohibited.
Where provided, fire pump rooms and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working space around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with a door(s) and an unobstructed passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment.
Fire detection and alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant systems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurtenances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained in the installation standards and as approved by the fire code official. The fire code official shall be notified before any required acceptance testing.
It shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the required fire detection, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and approved.

Fire detection, alarm, and extinguishing systems, mechanical smoke exhaust systems, and smoke and heat vents shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or repaired where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or removed.

All fire alarm systems, fire detection systems, automatic sprinkler or extinguishing systems, communication systems, and all other equipment, material or systems required by these regulations shall be maintained in an operable condition at all times in accordance with this code and California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1. Upon disruption or diminishment of the fire protective qualities of such equipment, material or systems, immediate action shall be instituted to effect a reestablishment of such equipment, material or systems to their original normal and operational condition.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §1.14] Maintenance.

Every fire alarm system or device, sprinkler system, fire extinguisher, fire hose, fire-resistive assembly or any other fire safety assembly, device, material or equipment installed and retained in service in any building or structure subject to California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1 regulations shall be maintained in an operable condition at all times in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1 regulations and with their intended use.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §3.24] Maintenance of Equipment.

All fire alarm systems, fire detection systems, automatic sprinkler or extinguishing systems, communication systems, and all other equipment, material or systems required by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1 shall be maintained in an operable condition at all times. Upon disruption or diminishment of the fire protective qualities of such equipment, material or systems, immediate action shall be instituted to effect a reestablishment of such equipment material or systems to their original normal and operational condition.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904(a)] Required Inspection, Testing and Maintenance Frequencies.

  1. All automatic fire extinguishing systems, including systems installed as an alternate to other building requirements, shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the following frequencies. Local authorities may require more frequent inspection, testing and maintenance and additional procedures.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904(a)(1)] Required Inspection, Testing and Maintenance Frequencies.

  1. Water-based fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the frequencies required by NFPA 25 (2011 edition) including Annexes A, B, C, D, E, F and G as amended by the State of California. (Published as NFPA 25, 2013 California Edition.)

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904(b)] Required Inspection, Testing and Maintenance Frequencies.

  1. (b) When proof of the installation date of standpipe systems or automatic fire sprinkler systems cannot be furnished, such systems shall receive initial testing and maintenance by July 1, 1985.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.2(a)] Testing and Maintenance Requirements.

  1. All testing and maintenance on automatic fire extinguishing systems in accordance with Health & Safety Code Section 13195 shall be performed by those licensed in accordance with Health and Safety Code Section 13196.5.

    Exceptions:

    1. The State Fire Marshal may waive, in writing, licensing of fire departments which conduct fire sprinkler and standpipe system testing and maintenance.
    2. Service on fire alarm systems and industrial systems as specified in Health and Safety Code Sections 13196.5(b) and (c) may be conducted without a license.
    3. Testing and maintenance on automatic fire extinguishing systems exempted in writing by the State Fire Marshal, when the building owner or occupant has the staff and equipment to conduct testing and maintenance.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.2(b)] Testing and Maintenance Requirements.

  1. (b) Any testing and maintenance of automatic fire extinguishing systems shall be performed in accordance with these requirements.

    Exceptions:

    1. The State Fire Marshal may waive, in writing, the requirement that testing and maintenance be performed in accordance with these requirements when a licensee can demonstrate that a system cannot functionally be tested and maintained in accordance with the California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5.
    2. If at any time a licensee encounters a specialized or modified system which cannot be tested and maintained in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5, the licensee shall contact the State Fire Marshal and test and maintain the system as directed.

      1. The intent of this section is to cover automatic fire extinguishing systems as originally designed, installed and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. It is not, however, intended to require that such systems be upgraded to current adopted standards.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.2(h)] Testing and Maintenance Requirements.

  1. (h) At the time of testing and maintenance, building management shall be consulted to avoid unnecessary disturbance of normal building operation.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.2(i)] Testing and Maintenance Requirements.

  1. The licensee shall contact the local fire authority having jurisdiction prior to testing and maintenance of a system when required by the local fire authority having jurisdiction to do so.

Fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the referenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1 and California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapters 3 and 5.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.1(a)] Inspection Requirements.

  1. A license shall not be required to perform inspections. Inspections may be conducted by any person designated by the building owner or occupant who has developed competence through training and experience.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.2(g)] Testing and Maintenance Requirements.

  1. (g) Prior to activating any fire alarm component of an automatic fire extinguishing system, the licensee shall insure that the licensee is capable of restoring the fire alarm system.

TABLE 901.6.1

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

SYSTEMSTANDARD
Portable fire extinguishersCalifornia Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3
Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systemNFPA 12
Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systemsNFPA 12A
Dry-chemical extinguishing systemsNFPA 17
Wet-chemical extinguishing systemsNFPA 17A
Water-based fire protection systemsCalifornia Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5
Fire alarm systemsNFPA 72
Smoke and heat ventsNFPA 204
Water-mist systemsNFPA 750
Clean-agent extinguishing systemsNFPA 2001

Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.1(b)] Inspection Requirements.

  1. (b) Records of all inspections shall be retained on the premises by the building or system owner for a period of five years after the next required inspection.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.2(c)] Testing and Maintenance Requirements.

  1. (c) Records of all testing and maintenance shall be retained on the premises by the building or system owner for a period of five years after the next required test or maintenance.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.2(j)] Testing and Maintenance Requirements.

  1. (j) It is the responsibility of the contractor, company or licensee to provide a written report of the test and maintenance results to the building owner and the local fire authority having jurisdiction at the completion of the testing and maintenance.
Initial records shall include the name of the installation contractor, type of components installed, manufacturer of the components, location and number of components installed per floor. Records shall also include the manufacturers’ operation and maintenance instruction manuals. Such records shall be maintained for the life of the installation.

Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code official shall be notified immediately and, where required by the fire code official, the building shall be either evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire protection system has been returned to service.

Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with not less than one approved means for notification of the fire department and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.1(c)] Inspection Requirements.

  1. (c) The owner or occupant shall promptly correct or repair deficiencies, damaged parts, or impairments found while performing the inspection, test, and maintenance requirements of this standard. Recalled products shall be replaced or remedied. Such replacement or remedial product shall be installed in accordance with the listing requirements, the manufacturer’s instructions and the appropriate NFPA installation standards. A recalled product is a product subject to a statute or administrative regulation specifically requiring the manufacturer, importer, distributor, wholesaler, or retailer of a product, or any combination of such entities, to recall the product, or a product voluntarily recalled by a combination of such entities.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.2(d)] Testing and Maintenance Requirements.

  1. (d) The building or system owner shall insure immediate correction of any deficiencies noted during the service. A tag or label shall be affixed to a system only after all deficiencies have been corrected. The owner or occupant shall promptly correct or repair deficiencies, damaged parts, or impairments found while performing the inspection, test, and maintenance requirements of this standard. Recalled products shall be replaced or remedied. Such replacement or remedial product shall be installed in accordance with the listing requirements, the manufacturer’s instructions and the appropriate NFPA installation standards. A recalled product is a product subject to a statute or administrative regulation specifically requiring the manufacturer, importer, distributor, wholesaler, or retailer of a product, or any combination of such entities, to recall the product, or a product voluntarily recalled by a combination of such entities.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.2(e)] Testing and Maintenance Requirements.

  1. (e) At the time of testing and maintenance, or at any time parts are replaced, an itemized invoice showing work performed and parts replaced shall be provided by the licensee to the system owner. If testing and maintenance is performed more than thirty (30) days prior to the next required testing and maintenance date, the invoice shall bear a statement indicating the system was tested and maintained early.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.2(f)] Testing and Maintenance Requirements.

  1. (f) The licensee shall offer to return all replaced parts to the system owner or owners representative, except those parts that are required to be returned to the manufacturer under conditions of warranty.
The building owner shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment coordinator.
A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service.
The tag shall be posted at each fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command center, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been removed from service. The fire code official shall specify where the tag is to be placed.

Preplanned impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordinator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following procedures have been implemented:

  1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.
  2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.
  3. Recommendations have been submitted to management or the building owner/manager.
  4. The fire department has been notified.
  5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, the building owner/manager and other authorities having jurisdiction have been notified.
  6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified.
  7. A tag impairment system has been implemented.
  8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.
Where unplanned impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impairment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Section 901.7.4.

When impaired equipment is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall verify that all of the following procedures have been implemented:

  1. Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational.
  2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored.
  3. The fire department has been advised that protection is restored.
  4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm company and other involved parties have been advised that protection is restored.
  5. The impairment tag has been removed.
It shall be unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire suppression system or other fire appliance required by this code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training purposes, recharging or making necessary repairs or where approved by the fire code official.
Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, tags or seals that have been installed by or at the direction of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any manner.

The fire code official is authorized to permit the removal of existing occupant-use hose lines where all of the following conditions exist:

  1. Installation is not required by this code or the California Building Code.
  2. The hose line would not be utilized by trained personnel or the fire department.
  3. The remaining outlets are compatible with local fire department fittings.
For fire alarm systems required to be monitored by this code, notice shall be made to the fire code official whenever alarm monitoring services are terminated. Notice shall be made in writing, to the fire code official by the monitoring service provider being terminated.
Any fire protection system component regulated by this code that is the subject of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the recalled component parts have been replaced.

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

ALARM SIGNAL.

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE.

ANNUNCIATOR.

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

AUTOMATIC.

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM.

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM.

AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM.

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL.

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

CLEAN AGENT.

COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE.

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION.

DELUGE SYSTEM.

DETECTOR, HEAT.

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.

ELEVATOR GROUP.

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM.

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §902.4(b)] “E” Definitions

  1. (b) Engineered Fixed Extinguishing System. A system which is custom designed for a particular hazard, using components which are approved or listed only for their broad performance characteristics. Components may be arranged into a variety of configurations. These systems shall include but not be limited to:

    1. Dry chemical systems
    2. Carbon dioxide systems
    3. Halogenated agent systems
    4. Steam systems
    5. High expansion foam systems
    6. Foam extinguishing systems
    7. Liquid agent systems
    8. Clean agent systems

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT.

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL.

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM.

FIRE APPLIANCE [SFM] is apparatus or equipment provided or installed for use in the event of an emergency.

FIRE AREA.

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS.

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO).

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR.

INITIATING DEVICE.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §902.9(a)] “I” Definitions.

  1. Inspection. A visual examination of a system or portion thereof to verify that it appears to be in operating condition and is free of physical damage.

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX.

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE.

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §902.12(a)] “M” Definitions.

  1. Maintenance. Work performed to keep equipment operable or to make repairs.

NOTIFICATION ZONE.

NUISANCE ALARM.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §902.15(a)] “P” Definitions.

  1. Pre-engineered Fixed Extinguishing System. A system where the number of components and their configurations are included in the description of the systems approval and listing. These systems shall include but not be limited to:

    1. Dry chemical systems
    2. Carbon dioxide systems
    3. Halogenated agent systems
    4. Liquid agent systems
    5. Clean agent systems

PRIVATE GARAGE.

RECORD DRAWINGS.

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

SLEEPING UNIT.

SMOKE ALARM.

SMOKE DETECTOR.

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF.

Class I system.

Class II system.

Class III system.

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF.

Automatic dry.

Automatic wet.

Manual dry.

Manual wet.

Semiautomatic dry.

SUPERVISING STATION.

SUPERVISORY SERVICE.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §902.18(a)] “S” Definitions.

  1. Service. The performance of testing and maintenance on an automatic fire extinguishing system.

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF.

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT.

TROUBLE SIGNAL.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §902.19(a)] “T” Definitions.

  1. Testing. A procedure used to determine the status of a system as intended by conducting periodic physical checks.

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM.

ZONE.

ZONE, NOTIFICATION.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.
Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted instead of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.
Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the story where the fire area containing the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and throughout all stories from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the levels of exit discharge serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-1 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
  4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-2 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
  4. The structure exceeds 5,000 square feet (465 m2), contains more than one fire area containing a Group A-2 occupancy, and is separated into two or more buildings by fire walls of less than 4-hour fire-resistance rating without openings.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-3 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
  4. The structure exceeds 12,000 square feet (1155 m2), contains more than one fire area containing exhibition and display rooms, and is separated into two or more buildings by fire walls of less than 4-hour fire-resistance rating without openings.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-4 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2).

Where an occupied roof has an assembly occupancy with an occupant load exceeding 100 for Group A-2 and 300 for other Group A occupancies, all floors between the occupied roof and the level of exit discharge shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

Exception: Open parking garages of Type I or Type II construction.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided where multiple fire areas of Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancies share exit or exit access components and the combined occupant load of these fire areas is 300 or more.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor containing an ambulatory care facility where either of the following conditions exist at any time:

  1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.
  2. One or more care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility.

In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided as well as all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:

  1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area.
  2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.

    Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has not fewer than one exterior exit door at ground level.

  3. In rooms or areas with special hazards such as laboratories, vocational shops and other such areas where hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity are used or stored.
  4. Throughout any Group E structure greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area, which contains more than one fire area, and which is separated into two or more buildings by fire walls of less than 4-hour fire-resistance rating without openings.
  5. For public school state-funded construction projects see Section 903.2.19.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group F-1 occupancy used for the manufacture of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet in area (232 m2) that generate finely divided combustible waste or use finely divided combustible materials. [SFM] A fire wall of less than 4-hour fire-resistance rating without openings, or any fire wall with openings, shall not be used to establish separate fire areas.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required under the California Building Code for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2.

Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

TABLE 903.2.5.2

GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA

LOCATIONOCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSIFICATION
Fabrication areasOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Service corridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms without dispensingOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms with dispensingExtra Hazard Group 2
CorridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).

The fire sprinkler system shall be designed and zoned to provide separate indication upon water-flow for each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier above the 10th story.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.

Exceptions:

  1. Those areas exempted by Section 407.6 of the California Building Code.
  2. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13113 (d), Group I-2 occupancies, or any alterations thereto, located in Type IA construction in existence on March 4, 1972.

An existing, unsprinklered Group I-2, nurses’ station open to fire-resistive exit access corridors shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system located directly above the nurses’ station. It shall be permitted to connect the automatic sprinkler system to the domestic water service.

Every building, or portion thereof, where inmates or persons are in custody or restrained shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system conforming to NFPA 13. The main sprinkler control valve or valves and all other control valves in the system shall be locked in the open position and electrically supervised so that at least an audible and visual alarm will sound at a constantly attended location when valves are closed. The sprinkler branch piping serving cells may be embedded in the concrete construction.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
  5. [SFM] The structure exceeds 24,000 square feet (465 m2), contains more than one fire area containing a Group M occupancy, and is separated into two or more buildings by fire walls of less than 4-hour fire-resistance rating without openings.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided as required in Chapter 32 in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.

An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area.

Exceptions:

  1. Existing Group R-3 occupancies converted to Group R-3.1 occupancies not housing bedridden clients, not housing nonambulatory clients above the first floor, and not housing clients above the second floor.
  2. Existing Group R-3 occupancies converted to Group R-3.1 occupancies housing only one bedridden client and complying with Section 435.8.3.3 of the California Building Code.
  3. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code, Section 13113, occupancies housing ambulatory children only, none of whom are mentally ill children or children with intellectual disabilities, and the buildings or portions thereof in which such children are housed are not more than two stories in height, and buildings or portions thereof housing such children have an automatic fire alarm system activated by approved smoke detectors.
  4. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code, Section 13143.6, occupancies licensed for protective social care which house ambulatory clients only, none of whom is a child (under the age of 18 years), or who is elderly (65 years of age or over).

When not used in accordance with Section 504.2 or 506.3 of the California Building Code, an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be allowed in Group R-2.1 occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system designed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall not be utilized in Group R-2.1 or R-4 occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group R-4 occupancies. Attics shall be protected in accordance with Section 903.2.8.3.1 or 903.2.8.3.2.
Attics used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.

Attics not used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Attics protected throughout by a heat detector system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with Section 907.2.10.
  2. Attics constructed of noncombustible materials.
  3. Attics constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood framing complying with Section 2303.2 of the California Building Code.
  4. The automatic sprinkler system shall be extended to provide protection throughout the attic space.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3.1 occupancies with six or fewer individuals in a single-family dwelling.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
  5. A Group S-1 occupancy used for the storage of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406.8 of the California Building Code, as shown:

  1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).
  2. Buildings not more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.
  4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.6 of the California Building Code where either of the following conditions exists:

  1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
In all occupancies other than Group U, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basements, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m2) and where there is not provided not fewer than one of the following types of exterior wall openings:

  1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
  2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling not less than 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The height of the bottom of the clear opening shall not exceed 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor.
Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner such that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system or openings as specified above shall be provided on not fewer than two sides of the story.
Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, or where walls, partitions or other obstructions are installed that restrict the application of water from hose streams, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes shall have additional sprinkler heads installed at alternate floors and at the lowest intake. Where a rubbish chute extends through a building more than one floor below the lowest intake, the extension shall have sprinklers installed that are recessed from the drop area of the chute and protected from freezing in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Such sprinklers shall be installed at alternate floors beginning with the second level below the last intake and ending with the floor above the discharge. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings that have one or more stories with an occupant load of 30 or more located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, measured to the finished floor.

Exceptions:

  1. Open parking structures.
  2. Occupancies in Group F-2.

Where required by the California Mechanical Code, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying hazardous exhaust or flammable or combustible materials.

Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct systems where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.

In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

TABLE 903.2.11.6

ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

SECTIONSUBJECT
914.2.1Covered and open mall buildings
914.3.1High rise buildings and Group I-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access
914.4.1Atriums
914.5.1Underground structures
914.6.1Stages
914.7.1Special amusement buildings
914.8.2Airport traffic control towers
914.8.3, 914.8.6Aircraft hangars
914.9Flammable finishes
914.10Drying rooms
914.11.1Ambulatory care facilities
1029.6.2.3Smoke-protected assembly seating
1103.5.1Pyroxylin plastic storage in existing buildings
1103.5.2Existing Group I-2 occupancies
1103.5.3Existing Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies
1103.5.4Pyroxylin plastics
2108.2Dry cleaning plants
2108.3Dry cleaning machines
2309.3.2.6.2Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies
2404.2Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R
2404.4Spray booths and spray rooms
2405.2Dip-tank rooms in Group A, I or R
2405.4.1Dip tanks
2405.9.4Hardening and tempering tanks
2703.10HPM facilities
2703.10.1.1HPM work station exhaust
2703.10.2HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures
2703.10.3HPM exit access corridor
2703.10.4HPM exhaust ducts
2703.10.4.1HPM noncombustible ducts
2703.10.4.2HPM combustible ducts
2807.3Lumber production conveyor enclosures
2808.7Recycling facility conveyor enclosures
3006.1Class A and B ovens
3006.2Class C and D ovens
Table 3206.2Storage fire protection
3206.4Storage
5003.8.4.1Gas rooms
5003.8.5.3Exhausted enclosures
5004.5Indoor storage of hazardous materials
5005.1.8Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials
5104.4.1Aerosol warehouses
5106.3.2Aerosol display and merchandising areas
5204.5Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose combustible fibers
5306.2.1Exterior medical gas storage room
5306.2.2Interior medical gas storage room
5306.2.3Medical gas storage cabinet
5606.5.2.1Storage of smokeless propellant
5606.5.2.3Storage of small arms primers
5704.3.7.5.1Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms
5704.3.8.4Flammable and combustible liquid storage warehouses
5705.3.7.3Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or H-3 areas
6004.1.2Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas
6004.1.3Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas
6004.2.2.6Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas
6004.3.3Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas
6504.1.1Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets
6504.1.3Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults
6504.2Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing
California Building Code Section 440Horse racing stables
California Building CodeSection 441Pet kennels
California Building CodeSection 449Public libraries

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot = 0.023 m3.

Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3313.

All existing sound stages and approved production facilities equipped with an automatic fire sprinkler system shall be maintained in accordance with the provisions in this chapter.

All new sound stages shall be equipped with an approved automatic fire sprinkler system. The system shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of the California Fire Code, Chapter 9, and shall meet the minimum design requirements of an Extra Hazard, Group 2 system.

Regardless of any other provisions of these regulations, every existing high-rise building of Type II-B, Type III-B or Type V-B construction shall be provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system conforming to NFPA 13.

Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed in any existing high-rise structure in which a Group R-1 or a Group R-2 occupancy is located shall have an approved flow indicator electrically interconnected to the required fire alarm system.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings housing Group L occupancies. Sprinkler system design for research laboratories and similar areas of a Group L occupancy shall not be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard Group 2 with a design area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

In mixed occupancies, portions of floors or buildings not classified as Group L occupancies shall be provided with sprinkler protection designed of not less than that required for Ordinary Hazard Group 1 with a design area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

The automatic sprinkler system shall be designed and zoned to provide separate indication upon water-flow for each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier above the 10th story.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in all stations of fixed guideway transit systems.

Exceptions:

  1. Guideways when the closest sprinkler heads to the guideway are within 3 feet (914 mm) of the edge, over the platform and spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) on center, parallel to the guideway.
  2. Station agent booths not exceeding 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area, when provided with an approved smoke detector connected to the building fire alarm system.
  3. Power substations.
  4. Machinery rooms, electrical rooms and train control rooms protected by an approved automatic fixed fire-extinguishing system.
  5. Open stations.
  6. Station platform areas open to three or more sides.

Underground stations and stations in open cuts with walls 5 feet (1524 mm) above the top of the running rail and with a raised platform shall be provided with an undervehicle guideway manually activated deluge sprinkler system. In open cut stations, such system shall be provided in guideways which are situated between a raised platform edge and a retaining wall.

Systems shall be provided along the entire length of track at each station platform.

Deluge nozzles with caps shall be located in the approximate center of track with spacing designed to completely wet the undersides of the vehicle at the applied density.

System density shall be a minimum of 0.19 gallon per minute (gpm) per square foot (0.72 L/m per m2) for the design area. When more than one zone is provided, two adjacent zones are required to be considered operating for calculating purposes.

Deluge systems shall be directly connected to a water supply capable of supplying the required flow rate for a minimum 30-minute duration.

Controls or manually operable valves shall be in a location acceptable to the Fire Code Official. All deluge systems shall be monitored by the station fire alarm system.

Each valve shall be monitored by a separate circuit. The alarm panel shall be located in an area normally occupied by station personnel or signals shall be transmitted to the operations control center (OCC).

Carports with habitable space above and attached garages, accessory to Group R-3 occupancies, shall be protected by residential fire sprinklers in accordance with this section. Residential fire sprinklers shall be connected to, and installed in accordance with, an automatic residential fire sprinkler system that complies with Section R313 of the California Residential Code or with NFPA 13D. Fire sprinklers shall be residential sprinklers or quick-response sprinklers, designed to provide a minimum density of 0.05 gpm/ft2 (2.04 mm/min) over the area of the garage and/or carport, but not to exceed two sprinklers for hydraulic calculation purposes. Garage doors shall not be considered obstructions with respect to sprinkler placement.

Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall not be required when additions or alterations are made to existing carports and/or garages that do not have an automatic residential fire sprinkler system installed in accordance with this section.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in all occupancies. The provisions of this section shall apply to any public school project consisting of one or more buildings on a new school campus and receiving state funds pursuant to Leroy F. Greene School Facilities Act of 1998, California Education Code, Sections 17070.10 through 17079. For purposes of this section, new campus refers to a school site, where an application for construction of original buildings was made to DSA on or after July 1, 2002.

Exceptions:

  1. A relocatable building that is sited with the intent that it be at the site for less than three years and is sited upon a temporary foundation in a manner that is designed to permit easy removal. Also see CCR, Title 24, Part 1, California Administrative Code, Section 4-314 for definition of relocatable building.
  2. Detached buildings designed and used for non-instructional purposes that meet the applicable requirements for that occupancy. Buildings would include, but not be limited to:

    Concession stand

    Press box

    Restroom facilities

    Shade structure

    Snack bar

    Storage building

    Ticket booth

Sprinklers shall be installed in spaces where the ceiling creates a “ceiling-plenum” or the space above the ceiling is utilized for environmental air.

A new public school campus shall be entitled to include in the design and construction documents all of the applicable fire-resistive construction substitutions as permitted by this code.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.9.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2 and 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as applicable.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 as amended in Chapter 80 except as provided in Sections 903.3.1.1.1 and 903.3.1.1.2.

In other than Group I-2, I-2.1 and I-3 occupancies, automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from a room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.

  1. A room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.
  2. A room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, where approved by the fire code official.
  3. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.
  4. Machine rooms, machinery spaces, control rooms and control spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008 of the California Building Code.
  5. Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, and associated electrical power distribution equipment, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the California Building Code or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the California Building Code, or both.
  6. Solar photovoltaic panel structures with no use underneath. Signs may be provided, as determined by the enforcing agency prohibiting any use underneath including storage.
  7. Solar photovoltaic (PV) panels supported by framing that have sufficient uniformly distributed and unobstructed openings throughout the top of the array (horizontal plane) to allow heat and gases to escape, as determined by the enforcing agency.
In Group R occupancies, other than Group R-4 occupancies, sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms that do not exceed 55 square feet (5 m2) in area and are located within individual dwelling units or sleeping units, provided that walls and ceilings, including the walls and ceilings behind a shower enclosure or tub, are of non-combustible or limited-combustible materials with a 15-minute thermal barrier rating.

Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height in buildings not exceeding 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height above grade plane shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R as amended in Chapter 80.

The number of stories of Group R occupancies constructed in accordance with Sections 510.2 and 510.4 of the California Building Code shall be measured from the horizontal assembly creating separate buildings.

Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units and sleeping units where the building is of Type V construction, provided there is a roof or deck above. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.
Sprinkler protection shall be provided in open-ended corridors and associated exterior stairways and ramps as specified in Section 1027.6, Exception 3.
Automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- and two-family dwellings; Group R-3; and townhouses shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D, as amended in Chapter 80.

Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in all of the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:

  1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with the California Building Code.
  2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.
  3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R occupancies.
  4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.

Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.
Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with Health and Safety Code 13114.7. For connections to public waterworks systems, the water supply test used for design of fire protection systems shall be adjusted to account for seasonal and daily pressure fluctuations based on information from the water supply authority and as approved by the fire code official.
Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.
A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R.
Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.
Fire department connections for automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 912.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with the standards listed in Section 903.3.1 except as provided in Sections 903.3.8.1 through 903.3.8.5.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall not exceed six sprinklers in any single fire area.
Only areas classified by NFPA 13 as Light Hazard or Ordinary Hazard Group 1 shall be permitted to be protected by limited area sprinkler systems.
Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building with an automatic wet standpipe system, sprinklers shall be supplied by the standpipe system. Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building without an automatic wet standpipe system, water shall be permitted to be supplied by the plumbing system provided that the plumbing system is capable of simultaneously supplying domestic and sprinkler demands.
Control valves shall not be installed between the water supply and sprinklers unless the valves are of an approved indicating type that are supervised or secured in the open position.
Hydraulic calculations in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be provided to demonstrate that the available water flow and pressure are adequate to supply all sprinklers installed in any single fire area with discharge densities corresponding to the hazard classification.

Floor control valves and waterflow detection assemblies shall be installed at each floor where any of the following occur:

  1. Buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
  2. Buildings that are four or more stories in height.
  3. Buildings that are two or more stories below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.

    Exception: Group R-3 and R-3.1 occupancies floor control valves and waterflow detection assemblies shall not be required.

Valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.

Exceptions:

  1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
  2. Limited area sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.3.8.
  3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.
  4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.

Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, where approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

Exceptions:

  1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.
  2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.
One exterior approved audible device, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required except when required by Section 907.
Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings and Group I-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 11.

Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904(a)(2)] Required Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Frequencies.

  1. (2) Engineered and pre-engineered fixed extinguishing systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained at least semi-annually, and immediately after a system activation.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904(c)] Required Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Frequencies.

  1. (c) Engineered and pre-engineered fixed extinguishing systems, regardless of installation date, shall be inspected, tested and maintained within the time periods specified in California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 904(a)(2) above.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §904.7(a) through (c)] Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements for Engineered and Pre-engineered Fixed Extinguishing Systems.

Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance shall be performed in accordance with:

  1. California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 904(a)(2),
  2. the manufacturer’s written instructions, which are approved and on file with the Office of the State Fire Marshal; and
  3. the applicable standards adopted in California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 9, (California Fire Code).
Service personnel providing or conducting maintenance on automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall possess a valid certificate issued by an approved governmental agency, or other approved organization for the type of system and work performed.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code official.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed for automatic sprinkler systems or by other requirements of this code.
Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with the California Electrical Code.

Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved.

Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously.

Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.

Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, the following items shall be inspected:

  1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.
  2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.
  3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.
  4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.
  5. Identification of devices with proper designations.
  6. Operating instructions.
Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems, and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.
The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.
Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 17A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 17 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 12 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5.
High-pressure cylinders shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall be verified at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder shall be refilled or replaced.
The liquid-level gauges of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain the minimum gas requirements.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
Hoses shall be tested at not less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure that such components are in proper operating condition.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 12A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
For Halon 1301 systems, hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating condition.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 2001 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of the containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at five-year intervals.
Automatic water mist systems shall be permitted in applications that are consistent with the applicable listing or approvals and shall comply with Sections 904.11.1 through 904.11.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 904.11.1.1 through 904.11.1.4.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and NFPA 750 and the manufacturer’s instructions.
Automatic water mist systems shall be automatically actuated.
Connections to a potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the California Plumbing Code.
Where a secondary water supply is required for an automatic sprinkler system, an automatic water mist system shall be provided with an approved secondary water supply.
Supervision and alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.
Monitoring shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.1.
Alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.2.
Floor control valves shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5.

Commercial cooking equipment that produce grease laden vapors shall be provided with a Type I Hood, in accordance with the California Mechanical Code, and an automatic fire extinguishing system that is listed and labeled for its intended use as follows:

  1. Wet chemical extinguishing system, complying with UL 300.
  2. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems.
  3. Automatic fire sprinkler systems.

All existing dry chemical and wet chemical extinguishing systems shall comply with UL 300.

Exception: Public schools kitchens, without deep-fat fryers, shall be upgraded to a UL 300 compliant system during state-funded modernization projects that are under the jurisdiction of the Division of the State Architect.

All systems shall be installed in accordance with the California Mechanical Code, appropriate adopted standards, their listing and the manufacturers’ installation instructions.

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested, listed, labeled and installed in accordance with UL 710B and the California Mechanical Code.

A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) and not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) nor less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.

The actuation of the fire extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.
Where carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.
Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.
Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.
Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.

Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided and maintained in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §573(a) through (c)] Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Commercial Cooking Operations.

  1. Fire extinguishers with a Class K rating shall be provided for hazards where there is a potential for fires involving combustible cooking media (vegetable or animal oils and fats).
  2. Maximum travel distance shall not exceed 30 feet (9.15 m) from the hazard to the extinguishers.
  3. Additional fire extinguishers, required for the control of other classes of fires, shall be provided for commercial cooking areas as required by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 567.
Solid fuel cooking appliances, whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 5 cubic feet (0.14 m3) or less in volume shall have a minimum 2.5-gallon (9 L) or two 1.5-gallon (6 L) Class K wet-chemical portable fire extinguishers located in accordance with Section 904.12.5.

Where hazard areas include deep fat fryers, listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3 and as follows:

  1. For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon (6 L) capacity.
  2. For every additional group of four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one additional Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon (6 L) capacity shall be provided.
  3. For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet (0.55 m2) in surface area: Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with the extinguisher manufacturer’s recommendations.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be maintained in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5 and Sections 904.12.6.1 through 904.12.6.3.
Where changes in the cooking media, positioning of cooking equipment or replacement of cooking equipment occur in existing commercial cooking systems, the automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be required to comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 904.12 through 904.12.4.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least every six months and after activation of the system. Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and a certificate of inspection shall be forwarded to the fire code official upon completion.

Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall be replaced at least annually, and other protection devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be replaced annually.

Manual actuation and system interconnection for the hood suppression system shall be in accordance with Sections 904.12.1 and 904.12.2, respectively.

Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 905.2 through 905.10. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 32.
Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14 as amended in Chapter 80. Fire department connections for standpipe systems shall be in accordance with Section 912.

Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.11.1. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.

In other than Group R-3 and R-3.1 occupancies, Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout at each floor where any of the following occur:

  1. Buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
  2. Buildings that are four or more stories in height.
  3. Buildings where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.
  4. Buildings that are two or more stories below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.

    Exceptions:

    1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
    2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
    3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.
    4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
    5. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider either of the following:

      1. 5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less.
      2. 5.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.

Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.

Exceptions:

  1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.
  2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings that are not high-rise buildings.

Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed not to exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:

  1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.
  2. At each floor-level landing within interior exit stairways opening directly on the mall.
  3. At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building.
  4. At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.
  5. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.

Stages greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 11/2-inch and 21/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 11/2 inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.

The 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack.
Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.
Buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 2007.5.
Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36.
Buildings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located.

For smokeproof enclosures, see California Building Code, Section 909.20.

Housing units within cell complexes where 50 or more inmates are restrained shall be provided with Class I wet standpipes. In addition, Class I wet standpipes shall be located so that it will not be necessary to extend hose lines through interlocking security doors and any doors in smoke-barrier walls, horizontal fire walls or fire barrier walls. Standpipes located in cell complexes may be placed in secured pipe chases.

Fixed-guideway and passenger rail transit systems shall be provided with a Class I standpipe system in accordance with this section.

Underground stations shall be provided with an automatic Class I standpipe system.

All other stations shall be provided with a Class I standpipe system.

Exception: Open at-grade stations with unrestricted fire department access need not be provided with a standpipe system.

Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:

  1. In every required interior exit stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each story above and below grade plane. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate landing between stories, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official. See Section 909.20.2.3 of the California Building Code for additional provisions in smokeproof enclosures.
  2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.

    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose as measured along the path of travel, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.

  3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.

    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.

  4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.
  5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of an interior exit stairway with access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1011.12.
  6. Where the most remote portion of a floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations. The distances from a hose connection shall be measured along the path of travel.

Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an interior exit stairway shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an interior exit stairway are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.

In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a listed variable stream fog nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose.
In Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony, and on each tier of dressing rooms.
Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.
A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.
Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.
In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire department valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.

Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.

Exceptions:

  1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.
  2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.

Cabinets shall be unlocked.

Exceptions:

  1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.
  2. Approved locking arrangements.
  3. Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas of Group I-2 occupancies.

Dry standpipes shall not be installed.

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.

Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted to the control unit.

Exceptions:

  1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.
  2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.
Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3313.
Where required in Chapter 11, existing structures shall be equipped with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905.

Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in all of the following locations:

  1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, L, M, R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3.1, R-4 and S occupancies.

    Exception: In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C.

  2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.
  3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.
  4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1.
  5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1.
  6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.
  7. Large and small family day-care homes shall be equipped with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum 2-A:10-B:C rating.
  8. Where required by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1.
  9. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of domestic cooking equipment located in a Group I-2.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §3.29(a) through (d)] Portable Fire Extinguishing Equipment.

  1. General. Portable fire extinguishers conforming to the requirements of California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3, shall be installed and maintained in accordance with guides established therein.
  2. Special Coverage. Additional Class A, B and C units of adequate extinguishing potential shall be provided for any other hazard, as determined by the enforcing agency.
  3. Group A Occupancies.

    1. One additional Class 2–A unit shall be provided in Group A Occupancies as follows:

      1. On each side of the stage or platform.

        Exception: Platforms 1000 square feet or less in area need have only one such extinguishing unit.

      2. On each side of every fly gallery.
      3. In basements beneath the stage or platform.
      4. In every hallway or passageway leading to a dressing room.
      5. In every property room, carpenter shop, or similar workroom.
    2. Not less than one 10–B:C unit (not less than 4–B:C for existing extinguishers in existing occupancies) shall be provided:

      1. For each motor and fan room.
      2. Adjacent to each switchboard on the stage or platform.
      3. For each motion picture machine in projection rooms.

        Exception: One 20–B:C unit (not less than 8–B:C for existing extinguishers in existing occupancies) in each projection room may be accepted as providing substantially equal protection.

    3. The enforcing agency may allow modifications or deviations relative to the number and location of portable fire extinguishers as required by this section provided such authority finds that the basic intent of this section and the ease of accessibility to extinguishers is otherwise achieved.
  4. Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 Occupancies. In Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies, a continuously attached garden hose, equipped with a water flow control nozzle, may be provided in lieu of one or more required fire extinguishers when acceptable to the enforcing agency. The location and length of such hose shall be as designated or approved by the enforcing agency.

NOTE: It is recommended that, wherever possible, portable fire extinguishers be located adjacent to manual fire alarm sending stations.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §565(a)] Selection of Fire Extinguishers.

  1. The selection of extinguishers for a given situation shall be determined by the authority having jurisdiction in accordance with adopted codes or ordinances. The character of the fires anticipated, the construction and occupancy of the individual property, the vehicle or hazard to be protected, ambient-temperature conditions, and other factors shall be considered. The number, size, placement, and limitations of use of extinguishers required shall be determined by using California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Sections 567 through 573.

TABLE 906.1

ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SECTIONSUBJECT
303.5Asphalt kettles
307.5Open burning
308.1.3Open flames—torches
309.4Powered industrial trucks
2005.2Aircraft towing vehicles
2005.3Aircraft welding apparatus
2005.4Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles
2005.5Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles
2005.6Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations
2007.7Heliports and helistops
2108.4Dry cleaning plants
2305.5Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2310.6.4Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2311.6Repair garages
2404.4.1Spray-finishing operations
2405.4.2Dip-tank operations
2406.4.2Powder-coating areas
2804.3Lumberyards/woodworking facilities
2808.8Recycling facilities
2809.5Exterior lumber storage
2903.5Organic-coating areas
3006.3Industrial ovens
3104.12Tents and membrane structures
3206.1Rack storage
3315.1Buildings under construction or demolition
3317.3Roofing operations
3408.2Tire rebuilding/storage
3504.2.6Welding and other hot work
3604.4Marinas
5203.6Combustible fibers
5703.2.1Flammable and combustible liquids, general
5704.3.3.1Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
5704.3.7.5.2Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids
5705.4.9Solvent distillation units
5706.2.7Farms and construction sites—flammable and combustible liquids storage
5706.4.10.1Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids
5706.5.4.5Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments—fuel dispensing
5706.6.4Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids
5906.5.7Flammable solids
6108.2LP-gas

Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.

Exceptions:

  1. The distance of travel to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.
  2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required for portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 2.1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.
    2. 2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.
    3. 2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.
    4. 2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested when extinguisher maintenance is performed.
    5. 2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.
  3. In Group I-3, and in mental health areas of Group I-2, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §565.1(a) through (c)] Classification of Hazards.

  1. Light (Low) Hazard. Locations where the total amounts of Class A combustible materials, including furnishings, decorations and contents, is of minor quantity. These shall include buildings or rooms occupied as offices, classrooms, churches, assembly halls, etc. This classification anticipates that the majority of the contents are either noncombustible or so arranged that a fire is not likely to spread rapidly. Small amounts of Class B flammables used for duplicating machines, art departments, etc., are included provided that they are kept in closed containers and safely stored.
  2. Ordinary (Moderate) Hazard. Locations where the total amounts of Class A combustibles and Class B flammables are present in greater amounts than expected under Light (Low) Hazard occupancies. These occupancies could consist of offices, classrooms, mercantile shops and allied storage, light manufacturing, research operations, auto showrooms, parking garages, workshop or support service areas of Light (Low) Hazard occupancies, and warehouses containing Class I or Class II commodities.
  3. Extra (High) Hazard. Locations where the total amount of Class A combustibles and Class B flammables are present, in storage, production use, and/or finished product over and above those expected and classed as Ordinary (Moderate) Hazards. These occupancies could consist of woodworking, vehicle repair, aircraft and boat servicing, individual product display showrooms, product convention center displays, storage and manufacturing processes such as painting, dipping, coating, including flammable liquid handling. Also, included in warehousing of, or in-process storage of other Class I and Class II commodities.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §565.2(a) through (e)] Selection by Hazard.

  1. Extinguishers shall be selected for the specific class or classes of hazards to be protected in accordance with the following subdivisions (b), (c), (d) and (e).
  2. Extinguishers for protecting Class A hazards shall be selected from the following: Water-type, halogenated agent types, multipurpose dry chemical and wet chemical type.
  3. Extinguishers for protection of Class B hazards shall be selected from the following: carbon dioxide, dry chemical types, halogenated agent types, and water-type and water chemical extinguishers rated for Class B hazards.
  4. Extinguishers for protection of Class C hazards shall be selected from the following: carbon dioxide, dry chemical types, halogenated agent types, and water mist types rated for Class C. Carbon dioxide extinguishers equipped with metal horns are not considered safe for use on fires in energized electrical equipment and, therefore, are not classified for use on Class C hazards.
  5. Extinguishers and extinguishing agents for the protection of Class D hazards shall be of types approved for use on the specific combustible metal hazard.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §566(a) through (f)] Application for Specific Hazards.

  1. Class B Fire Extinguishers for Pressurized Flammable Liquids and Pressurized Gas Fires. Fires of this nature are considered to be a special hazard. Class B fire extinguishers containing agents other than dry chemical are relatively ineffective on this type of hazard due to stream and agent characteristics. Selection of extinguishers for this type of hazard shall be made on the basis of recommendations by manufacturers of this specialized equipment. The system used to rate extinguishers on Class B fires (flammable liquids in depth) is not applicable to these types of hazards. It has been determined that special nozzle design and rates of agent application are required to cope with such hazards. Caution: It is undesirable to attempt to extinguish this type of fire unless there is reasonable assurance that the source of fuel can be promptly shut off.
  2. Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking appliances that use combustible cooking media (vegetable or animal oils and fats) shall be listed and labeled Class K fires.
  3. Three-dimensional Class B Fires. A three-dimensional Class B fire involves Class B materials in motion such as pouring, running or dripping flammable liquids and generally includes vertical as well as one or more horizontal surfaces. Fires of this nature are considered to be a special hazard. Selection of extinguishers for this type of hazard shall be made on the basis of recommendations by manufacturers of this specialized equipment. The system used to rate extinguishers on Class B fires (flammable liquids in depth) is not directly applicable to this type of hazard.
  4. Water Soluble Flammable Liquid Fires (Polar Solvents). Extinguishers used for the protection of water soluble flammable liquids, such as alcohols, acetones, esters, ketones, etc., shall be selected in accordance with Section 565.2. AFFF-type and FFFP-type fire extinguishers shall not be used for the protection of water soluble flammable liquids, such as alcohols, acetone, esters, ketones, etc., unless specifically referenced on the extinguisher nameplate.
  5. Electronic Equipment Fires. Extinguishers for the protection of delicate electronic equipment shall be selected from the following: carbon dioxide type or a halogenated agent type, or a distilled water mist type with a minimum Class A:C Rating.
  6. In patient care areas and sleeping rooms of health care facilities, fire extinguishers, including the agents and expelling means, should be selected and utilized that would not be detrimental to patients and are appropriate for the type of fire expected, such as distilled water mist type fire extinguishers with a minimum 2-A:C rating.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §567.8] Installation Temperatures.

Water-type (water, AFFF, FFFP) extinguishers shall not be installed in areas where temperatures are outside the range of 40°F to 120°F (4°C to 49°C). Other types shall not be installed in areas where temperatures are outside the range of -40°F to 120°F (-40°C to 49°C). Fire extinguishers shall not be exposed to temperatures outside of the range shown on the fire extinguisher label.

Exceptions:

  1. Where fire extinguishers are installed in locations subject to temperatures outside these ranges, they shall be of a type approved and listed for the temperature to which they are exposed, or they shall be placed in an enclosure capable of maintaining the stipulated temperature range.
  2. Fire extinguishers containing plain water only can be protected to temperatures as low as -40°F (-40°C) by the addition of an antifreeze stipulated on the extinguisher nameplate. Calcium chloride solutions shall not be used in stainless steel fire extinguishers.
  3. Some fire extinguishers are approved or listed for use at temperatures as low as -65°F (-54°C).

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §574.1] Frequency of Inspection.

Fire extinguishers shall be manually inspected when initially placed in service. Thereafter, extinguishers shall be manually inspected at least monthly by the building owner, occupant, or his/her authorized agent, or electronically monitored. Fire extinguishers shall be inspected at more frequent intervals when circumstances require, as determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §574.2] Inspection Procedures.

  1. In addition to California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 574.1, fire extinguishers shall be manually inspected in accordance with this section if they are located where any of the following conditions exist:

    1. High frequency of fires in the past.
    2. Extra (high) hazard areas.
    3. Location that makes fire extinguishers susceptible to mechanical or physical damage.
    4. Exposure to abnormal temperatures or corrosive atmospheres.
  2. Manual inspection of extinguishers shall include a check of at least the following items:

    1. Located in designated place.
    2. No obstruction to access or visibility.
    3. Operating instructions on nameplate legible and facing outward.
    4. Safety seals and tamper indicators not broken or missing.
    5. Examine for obvious physical damage, corrosion, leakage or clogged nozzle.
    6. Pressure gauge reading or indicator in the operable range or position.
    7. Fullness determined by weighing or hefting.
    8. For wheeled units, the condition of tires, wheels, carriage, hose, and nozzle shall also be checked.
    9. For nonrechargeable extinguishers using push-to-test pressure indicators, test the indicator.
  3. Electronic monitoring shall include monitoring of the following items:

    1. Located in the designated place.
    2. No obstruction to access or visibility.
    3. Pressure gauge reading or indicator in the operable range or position.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §567.1] Operating Conditions.

Portable extinguishers shall be maintained in a fully charged and operable condition, and kept in their designated places at all times when they are not being used.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §574.3] Corrective Action.

When an inspection of any extinguisher reveals a deficiency in any of the conditions listed in Title 19, Division 1, Sections 574.2(b)(c), immediate corrective action shall be taken.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §574.4] Nonrechargeable Extinguishers.

When an inspection of any nonrechargeable fire extinguisher reveals a deficiency in any of the conditions listed in (3), (4), (5), (6), (7) or (9) of Title 19, Division 1, Section 574.2(b), it shall be discharged and removed from service.

Exception: Nonrechargeable extinguishers containing a halon agent shall be removed from service, not discharged, and returned to the manufacturer or local fire extinguisher distributor having the capability of recovering the halon agent.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §575.10] Out of Service.

Fire extinguishers removed from service for maintenance or recharge shall be replaced by fire extinguishers suitable for the type of hazard protected and shall be of at least equal rating.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §591.5] Replacement Extinguishers.

Portable fire extinguishers shall not be removed from the premises for hydrostatic testing or any other purpose, without first replacing the extinguisher with a unit rated for the hazard being protected. The customer’s original unit shall be returned within 60 calendar days.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §596.7(a) and (b)] Removal of Tag.

  1. No person shall remove any tag, collar or label required by Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3, Article 9 from a portable fire extinguisher except when service is performed.
  2. No person shall deface, modify, or alter any tag collar or label required by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3, Article 9 to be attached to any portable fire extinguisher.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §574.5(a) through (c)] Inspection Record Keeping.

  1. The fire extinguisher owner shall maintain records of all fire extinguishers inspected, including those extinguishers that were found to require corrective actions. Records shall be maintained until next required maintenance.
  2. At least monthly, the date the manual inspection was performed and the initials of the person performing the inspection shall be recorded on a tag or label attached to the fire extinguisher, or an inspection checklist maintained on file, or an electronic system (e.g., bar coding) that provides a permanent record.
  3. Fire extinguishers being inspected via electronic monitoring, whereby the extinguisher causes a signal at a control unit when a deficiency in any of the conditions listed in California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 574.2(c) occurs, shall provide record keeping in the form of an electronic event log at the control panel.
Service personnel providing or conducting maintenance on portable fire extinguishers shall possess a valid certificate in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.

The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §567(a) through (k)] Distribution of Fire Extinguishers.

  1. The minimum number of fire extinguishers needed to protect a property shall be determined as outlined in this section. Additional extinguishers may be installed to provide more suitable protection.
  2. Fire extinguishers shall be provided for the protection of both the building structure and the occupancy hazards contained therein.
  3. Required building protection shall be provided by fire extinguishers suitable for Class A fires.
  4. Occupancy hazard protection shall be provided by fire extinguishers suitable for such Class A, B, C, D or K fire potentials as may be present.
  5. Extinguishers provided for building protection may be considered also for the protection of occupancies having a Class A fire potential.
  6. Buildings having an occupancy hazard subject to Class B and/or Class C fires shall have a standard complement of Class A fire extinguishers for building protection, plus additional Class B and/or Class C extinguishers. Where fire extinguishers have more than one letter classification (such as 2-A:20-B:C), they may be considered to satisfy the requirements of each letter class. When using multipurpose extinguishers for the protection of Class B hazards, the maximum travel distances described in California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 568, Table 2 must be observed.
  7. Rooms or areas shall be classified generally as light (low) hazard, ordinary (moderate) hazard, or extra (high) hazard. Limited areas of greater or lesser hazard shall be protected as required.
  8. On each floor level, the area protected and the travel distances shall be based on fire extinguishers installed in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 568, Tables 2 and 3.
  9. Fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view.

    Exception: In large rooms, and in certain locations where visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be proved to indicate the fire extinguisher’s location.

  10. Fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located along normal paths of travel where they will be readily accessible and immediately available in the event of a fire.
  11. Where wheeled extinguishers are installed, aisles and doorways through which such extinguishers are to be moved shall have a clear and unobstructed width not less than one foot wider than the overall width of the extinguisher.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §568(a) through (e)] Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class A Hazards.

  1. Minimum sizes of fire extinguishers for the listed grades of hazards shall be provided on the basis of California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 568, Table 2, except as modified by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 568(d). Extinguishers shall be located so that the maximum travel distances shall not exceed those specified in California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 568, Table 2, except as modified by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 568(d).
  2. Certain smaller fire extinguishers which are charged with a multipurpose dry chemical or halogenated agent are rated on Class B and Class C fires, but having insufficient effectiveness to earn the minimum 1-A rating even though they have value in extinguishing smaller Class A fires. They shall not be used to meet the requirements of California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 568, Table 2.
  3. Extinguishers as specified in California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 568, Table 2 may be replaced by uniformly spaced 11/2 inch (3.810 cm) hose stations for use by the occupants of the building. When hose stations are so provided, they shall conform to Part 9, Title 24, California Code of Regulations, Chapter 9. The location of hose stations and the placement of fire extinguishers shall be in such a manner that the hose stations do not replace more than every other extinguisher.
  4. Where the floor area of a building is less than that specified in California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 568, Table 2, at least one extinguisher of the minimum size recommended shall be provided.
  5. The protection requirements may be fulfilled with extinguishers of a higher rating provided the travel distance from anywhere in the building to such larger extinguishers shall not exceed 75 feet (22.7 m), as shown in California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 568, Table 2 above.
TITLE 19, DIVISION 1, SECTION 568, TABLE 2
Light (Low) Hazard OccupancyOrdinary (Moderate) Hazard OccupancyExtra (High) Hazard Occupancy
Minimum rated single extinguisher2-A2-A4-A*
Maximum floor area per unit of A3,000 square feet1,500 square feet1,000 square feet
Maximum floor area for extinguisher11,250 square feet11,250 square feet11,250 square feet
Maximum travel distance to extinguisher75 feet75 feet75 feet

* Two 21/2 gallon (9.46 L) water type extinguishers can be used to fulfill the requirement of one 4-A rated extinguisher.

Note: 1 foot = 0.305 m, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §569(a) through (c)] Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class B Fires Other than for Fires in Flammable Liquids of Appreciable Depth.

  1. Minimum sizes of fire extinguishers for the listed grades of hazard shall be provided on the basis of California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 569, Table 3. Extinguishers shall be located so that the maximum travel distances from anywhere in the building shall not exceed those specified in the table used.

    Exception: Extinguishers of lesser rating, desired for small specific hazards within the general hazard area, may be used, but shall not be considered as fulfilling any part of the requirements of California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 569, Table 3.

  2. Two or more extinguishers of lower rating shall not be used to fulfill the protection requirements of California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 569, Table 3.
  3. The protection requirements may be fulfilled with extinguishers of high ratings, provided the travel distance to such larger extinguishers shall not exceed 50 feet (15.25 m), as shown in California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 569, Table 3.
TITLE 19, DIVISION 1, SECTION 569, TABLE 3
Type of HazardBasic Minimum Extinguisher RatingMaximum Travel Distance to Extinguishers (in feet)(in meters)
Light (low)5B309.15
10B5015.25
Ordinary (moderate)10B309.15
20B5015.25
Extra (high)40B309.15
80B5015.25

Note 1. The specified rating does not imply that fires of the magnitudes indicated by these ratings will occur, but rather to give the operators more time and agent to handle difficult spill fires that may occur.

Note 2. For fires involving water soluble flammable liquids, see California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 566(d).

Note 3. For specific hazard applications, see California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 566.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §570(a) through (e)] Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class B Fires in Flammable Liquids of Appreciable Depth.

  1. Portable fire extinguishers shall not be installed as the sole protection for flammable liquid hazards of appreciable depth [greater than 1/4 inch (0.64 cm)] where the surface area exceeds 10 square feet (0.93 m2).

    Exception: Where personnel who are trained in extinguishing fires in the protected hazards are available on the premises, the maximum surface area shall not exceed 20 square feet. (1.86 m2).

  2. For flammable liquid hazards of appreciable depth, a Class B fire extinguisher shall be provided on the basis of at least two numerical units of Class B extinguishing potential per square feet (0.0929 m2) of flammable liquid surface of the largest hazard area. For fires involving cooking grease or water-soluble flammable liquids, see California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 566(b) and 566(d).

    Exception: AFFF- or FFFP-type extinguishers may be provided on the basis of a 1B rating of protection per square foot of hazard.

  3. Two or more extinguishers of lower ratings shall not be used in lieu of the extinguisher required for the largest hazard area.

    Exception: Up to three AFFF or FFFP extinguishers may be used to fulfill the requirements provided the sum of the Class B ratings meets or exceeds the value required for the largest hazard area.

  4. Travel distances for portable extinguishers shall not exceed 50 feet (15.25 m) as shown in California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 569, Table 3.
  5. Scattered or widely separated hazards shall be individually protected. An extinguisher in the proximity of a hazard shall be carefully located to be accessible in the presence of a fire without undue danger to the operator.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §571(a)] Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class C Hazards.

  1. Fire extinguishers with Class C ratings shall be required where energized electrical equipment can be encountered which would require a nonconducting extinguishing medium. This requirement includes situations where fire either directly involves or surrounds electrical equipment. Since the fire itself is a Class A or Class B hazard, the fire extinguishers shall be sized and located on the basis of the anticipated Class A or Class B hazard.

Note: Electrical equipment should be de-energized as soon as possible to prevent reigniting.

TABLE 906.3(1)

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

LIGHT (Low) HAZARD OCCUPANCYORDINARY (Moderate) HAZARD OCCUPANCYEXTRA (High) HAZARD OCCUPANCY
Minimum rated single extinguisher2-Ac2-A4-Aa
Maximum floor area per unit of A3,000 square feet1,500 square feet1,000 square feet
Maximum floor area for extinguisherb11,250 square feet11,250 square feet11,250 square feet
Maximum distance of travel to extinguisher75 feet75 feet75 feet

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

  1. Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
  2. California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3 concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.
  3. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.

TABLE 906.3(2)

FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCHa

TYPE OF HAZARDBASIC MINIMUM EXTINGUISHER RATINGMAXIMUM DISTANCE OF TRAVEL TO EXTINGUISHERS (feet)
Light (Low)5-B30
10-B50
Ordinary (Moderate)10-B30
20-B50
Extra (High)40-B30
80-B50

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 906.3(1).

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.

Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 3.

Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.12.5.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §573(a) through (c)] Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Commercial Cooking Operations.

  1. Fire extinguishers with a Class K rating shall be provided for hazards where there is a potential for fires involving combustible cooking media (vegetable or animal oils and fats).
  2. Maximum travel distance shall not exceed 30 feet (9.15 m) from the hazard to the extinguishers.
  3. Additional fire extinguishers, required for the control of other classes of fires, shall be provided for commercial cooking areas as required by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Section 567.

Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §567.5] Physical Damage Protection.

Extinguishers installed under conditions where they are subject to physical damage, (e.g., from impact, vibration, the environment) shall be adequately protected.

Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.

Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §567.3] Installation.

Portable fire extinguishers other than wheeled types shall be securely installed on the hanger or in the bracket supplied or placed in cabinets or wall recesses. The hanger or bracket shall be securely and properly anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Wheeled-type fire extinguishers shall be located in a designated location.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §567.4] Brackets.

Extinguishers installed under conditions where they are subject to dislodgement shall be installed in brackets specifically designed to cope with this problem.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §567.6] Mounting.

Fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18.14 kg) shall be installed so that the top of the fire extinguisher is not more than 5 feet (1.53 m) above the floor. Fire extinguishers having a gross weight greater than 40 pounds (18.14 kg) (except wheeled types) shall be so installed that the top of the fire extinguisher is not more than 3 1/2 feet (1.07 m) above the floor. In no case shall the clearance between the bottom of the extinguisher and the floor be less than 4 inches (10.2 cm).

Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.

Exceptions:

  1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.
  2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §567.2] Cabinets.

Cabinets housing extinguishers shall not be locked.

Exception: Where extinguishers are subject to malicious use, locked cabinets may be used provided they include a means of emergency access and are approved by the authority having jurisdiction.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §567.7] Sealed Cabinets.

Where extinguishers are installed in closed cabinets that are exposed to elevated temperatures, the cabinets shall be provided with screened openings and drains.

The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.
The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.
This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components in new and existing buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to new buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.9 are applicable to existing buildings and structures.
Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the California Building Code, and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.

Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following where applicable to the system being installed:

  1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.
  2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices.
  3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.
  4. Design minimum audibility level for occupant notification.
  5. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.
  6. Annunciators.
  7. Power connection.
  8. Battery calculations.
  9. Conductor type and sizes.
  10. Voltage drop calculations.
  11. Manufacturers’ data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.
  12. Details of ceiling height and construction.
  13. The interface of fire safety control functions.
  14. Classification of the supervising station.
  15. All plans and shop drawings shall use the symbols identified in NFPA 170, Standard for Fire Safety and Emergency Symbols.

    Exception: Other symbols are allowed where approved by the enforcing agency.

Systems and components shall be California State Fire Marshal listed and approved in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1 for the purpose for which they are installed.

For the purpose of Section 907, fire walls and fire barrier walls shall not define separate buildings.

A fire alarm system shall not be used for any purpose other than fire warning or mass notification and where permitted by NFPA 72.

An approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code.

Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or waterflow detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, or automatic fire alarm systems, a single fire alarm box shall be installed at a location approved by the enforcing agency.

Exceptions:

  1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm control units dedicated to elevator recall control, supervisory service and fire sprinkler monitoring.
  2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the public.
  3. The manual fire alarm box is not required to be installed when approved by the fire code official.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies where the occupant load due to the assembly occupancy is 300 or more. Group A occupancies not separated from one another in accordance with Section 707.3.10 of the California Building Code shall be considered as a single occupancy for the purposes of applying this section. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 1000 shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

Every Group A building used for educational purposes shall be provided with a manual or automatic fire alarm system. This provision shall apply to, but shall not necessarily be limited to, every community college and university.

Exception: Privately owned trade or vocational schools or any firm or company which provides educational facilities and instructions for its employees.

Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. For Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 10,000 or more, see Section 907.2.1.3.

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.

Stadiums, arenas and grandstands required to caption audible public announcements shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.4.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13108.9, for all buildings or structures constructed on or after July 1, 1991, which are intended for public assemblies of 10,000 or more persons, a public address system with an emergency backup power system shall be required.

A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 500 or more.
  2. The Group B occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
  3. The fire area contains an ambulatory care facility.
  4. For Group B occupancies containing educational facilities, see Section 907.2.2.2.

    Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

Fire areas containing ambulatory care facilities shall be provided with an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system installed within the ambulatory care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies.

Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 provided the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

Every Group B building used for educational purposes shall be provided with a manual or automatic fire alarm system. This provision shall apply to, but shall not necessarily be limited to, every community college and university.

Exception: Privately owned trade or vocational schools or any firm or company which provides educational facilities and instructions for its employees.

A manual and automatic fire alarm system that initiates the occupant notification signal utilizing an emergency voice/alarm communication system meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or more persons or containing more than one classroom or one or more rooms used for Group E or I-4 day care purposes in accordance with this section. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.

Exceptions:

  1. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall not be required in Group E occupancies with occupant loads of 100 or less, provided that activation of the manual fire alarm system initiates an approved occupant notification signal in accordance with Section 907.5.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:

    1. 2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors.
    2. 2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and similar areas are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
    3. 2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:

    1. 3.1. The building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
    2. 3.2. The emergency voice/alarm communication system will activate on sprinkler water flow.
    3. 3.3. Manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.
    4. 3.4. The capability to activate the evacuation signal from a central point is provided.
  4. For public school state funded construction projects see Section 907.2.29.

Where more than one fire alarm control unit is used at the school campus, they shall be interconnected and shall operate all notification appliances.

Exception: Interconnection of fire alarm control units is not required when all of the following are provided:

  1. Buildings that are separated a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) and in accordance with the California Building Code; and
  2. There is a method of two-way communication between each classroom and the school administrative office approved by the fire enforcing agency; and
  3. A method of manual activation of each fire alarm system is provided.

Assembly occupancies with an occupant load of less than 1,000 and located within a Group E occupancy campus or building shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.

The fire alarm system notification shall comply with the requirements of Section 907.5.

Annunciation of the fire alarm system shall comply with the requirements of Section 907.6.4.1.

School fire alarm systems shall be monitored in accordance with Section 907.6.6.3.

Automatic detection shall be provided in accordance with this section.

Smoke detectors shall be installed at the ceiling of every room and in “ceiling-plenums” utilized for environmental air. Where the ceiling is attached directly to the underside of the roof structure, smoke detectors shall be installed on the ceiling only.

Exception: Where the environment or ambient conditions exceed smoke detector installation guidelines, heat detectors or fire sprinklers shall be used.

Heat detectors shall be installed in combustible spaces where sprinklers or smoke detectors are not installed.

An automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in new buildings of private schools.

Exception: Automatic detection devices are not required where an approved automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate on sprinkler water flow and manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.

An automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in all buildings used as or containing a Group E day care.

Exception: Automatic detection devices are not required where an approved automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate on sprinkler water flow and manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.

Smoke detectors shall be installed in every room used for sleeping or napping.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group F occupancies where both of the following conditions exist:

  1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in height; and
  2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 60, 62 and 63, respectively.

Manual fire alarm boxes shall be required on each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier and at each exit above the 10th story.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group I occupancies. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1, 907.2.6.2 and 907.2.6.3.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Large family day care.
  2. Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official and staff evacuation responsibilities are included in the fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404.

A manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I-2 and I-2.1 occupancies. Where automatic fire suppression systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.

Exception: Where an entire facility is used for the housing of persons, none of whom are physically or mentally handicapped or nonambulatory, and are between the ages of 18 and 64, the buildings or structures comprising such facility shall be exempt from the provisions of this subsection relating to the installation of an automatic fire alarm system.

The fire alarm notification system shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.5.

Smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section.

  1. In patient and client sleeping rooms. Actuation of such detectors shall cause a visual display on the corridor side of the room in which the detector is located and shall cause an audible and visual alarm at the respective nurses’ station. A nurse call system listed for this function is an acceptable means of providing the audible and visual alarm at the respective nurses’ station and corridor room display. Operation of the smoke detector shall not include any alarm verification feature.

    Exception: In patient and client rooms equipped with existing automatic door closers having integral smoke detector, the integral detector is allowed to substitute for the room smoke detector, provided it meets all the required alerting functions.

  2. Group I-2 nurses’ stations. A minimum of one (1) smoke detector shall be installed at the nurses’ station and centrally located.
  3. In waiting areas and corridors onto which they open, in the same smoke compartment, in accordance with Section 407.2.1 of the California Building Code.

Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system and automatic smoke detection system installed for alerting staff.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required within temporary holding cells.

Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, automatic sprinkler system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal that automatically notifies staff.
Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4.2 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted.
Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.

An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally accessible to inmates.

Exceptions:

  1. Other approved smoke detection arrangements may be used to prevent damage or tampering or for other purposes provided the function of detecting any fire is fulfilled and the location of the detectors is such that the speed of detection will be equivalent to that provided by the spacing and location required in accordance with NFPA 72 as referenced in Chapter 80. This may include the location of detectors in return air ducts from cells, behind grilles or in other locations. Spot type, combination duct and open area smoke detectors may be used when located not more than 14 inches (356 mm) from the return air grill. For initiation and annunciation purposes, these detectors may be combined in groups of four. The fire code official having jurisdiction, however, must approve the proposed equivalent performance of the design.
  2. For detention housing and/or mental health housing area(s), including correctional medical and mental health uses, automatic smoke detection system in sleeping units shall not be required when all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 2.1. All rooms, including the inmate cells, are provided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
    2. 2.2. Building is continuously staffed by a correctional officer at all times.
  3. Smoke detectors are not required to be installed in inmate cells with two or fewer occupants in detention facilities which do not have a correctional medical and mental health use.
  4. Smoke detectors are not required to be installed in inmate day rooms of detention facilities where 24-hour direct visual supervision is provided by a correctional officer(s) and a manual fire alarm box is located in the control room.

A staff alerting fire alarm shall sound at all staff control stations on the floor of activation and an audible and visual signal shall be indicated on an annunciator at the facility control center upon activation of any automatic extinguishing system, automatic detection system, or any smoke detector or manual actuating or initiating device. In addition, where there are staff-control stations on the floor, an audible, visual and manual alarm shall be located in each staff control station.

Fire and trouble signals of fire alarm systems and sprinkler water-flow and supervisory signals of extinguishing systems shall be annunciated in an area designated as the facility control center which shall be constantly attended by staff personnel. All such signals shall produce both an audible signal and visual display at the facility control center indicating the building, floor zone or other designated area from which the signal originated, in accordance with Section 907.6.4.

All local detention facilities within the scope of Section 6031.4 of the Penal Code shall have an automatic smoke detection system. A manual fire alarm-initiating device shall be installed in all guard control stations and shall be capable of alerting personnel in a central control point to the presence of fire or smoke within the facility.

Every large family day-care home shall be provided with at least one manual fire alarm box at a location approved by the enforcing agency. Such device shall actuate a fire alarm signal, which shall be audible throughout the facility at a minimum level of 15 db above ambient noise level. These devices need not be interconnected to any other fire alarm device, have a control panel or be electrically supervised or provided with emergency power. Such device or devices shall be attached to the structure and must be a device that is listed and approved by the Office of the State Fire Marshal.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group M occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons.
  2. The Group M occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions:

  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered or open mall buildings complying with Section 402 of the California Building Code.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
During times that the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box or from a water flow switch shall not be required to activate the alarm notification appliances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly attended location from which evacuation instructions shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies.

Exceptions:

  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when the following conditions are met:

    1. 2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2;
    2. 2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow; and
    3. 2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Groups R-2 and R-2.1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.9.1 and 907.2.9.4.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where any of the following conditions apply:

  1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge;
  2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit; or
  3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.
  4. Congregate residences with more than 16 occupants.

Exceptions:

  1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler water flow.
  3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1027.6, Exception 3.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing in all of the following locations:

  1. Common spaces outside of dwelling units and sleeping units.
  2. Laundry rooms, mechanical equipment rooms and storage rooms.
  3. All interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units.

    Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units and where each sleeping unit or dwelling unit either has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit or a means of egress door opening directly to an exit.

Required smoke alarms in dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing shall be interconnected with the fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.

Licensed Group R-2.1 occupancies housing more than six nonambulatory, elderly clients shall be provided with an approved manual and automatic fire alarm system.

Exceptions: Buildings housing nonambulatory clients on the first story only and which are protected throughout by the following:

  1. An approved and supervised automatic sprinkler system, as specified in Sections 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, which upon activation will initiate the fire alarm system to notify all occupants.
  2. A manual fire alarm system.
  3. Smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11.

Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies.

Exceptions:

  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
    2. 2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow.
    3. 2.3. Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits where located at all nurses’ control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that the distances of travel required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens.

Exceptions:

  1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11.1 through 907.2.11.6 and NFPA 72.

Exception: For Group R occupancies. A fire alarm system with smoke detectors located in accordance with this section may be installed in lieu of smoke alarms. Upon actuation of the detector, only those notification appliances in the dwelling unit or guest room where the detector is actuated shall activate.

Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1:

  1. In sleeping areas.
  2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.
  3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

See Section 907.2.11.8 for specific location requirements.

Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-2.1, R-3, R-3.1, and R-4 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:

  1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.
  2. In each room used for sleeping purposes.
  3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
  4. In a Group R-3.1 occupancies, in addition to the above, smoke alarms shall be provided throughout the habitable areas of the dwelling unit except kitchens.

See Section 907.2.11.8 for specific location requirements.

Large family day-care homes shall be equipped with State Fire Marshal approved and listed single station residential type smoke alarms.

In all facilities housing a bedridden client, smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring when such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms shall be electrically interconnected so as to cause all smoke alarms to sound a distinctive alarm signal upon actuation of any single smoke alarm. Such alarm signal shall be audible throughout the facility at a minimal level of 15 db above ambient noise level. These devices need not be interconnected to any other fire alarm device, have a control panel, or be electronically supervised or provided with emergency power.

Smoke alarms shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Smoke alarms that no longer function shall be replaced.

See Section 907.2.11.8.

See Section 907.2.11.8.

Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R occupancies, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.

In new construction and in newly classified Group R-3.1 occupancies, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery back-up shall be connected to an emergency electrical system in accordance with Section 604. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup where they are connected to an emergency electrical system that complies with Section 604.

Smoke detectors listed in accordance with UL 268 and provided as part of the building fire alarm system shall be an acceptable alternative to single- and multiple-station smoke alarms and shall comply with the following:

  1. The fire alarm system shall comply with all applicable requirements in Section 907.
  2. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall initiate alarm notification in the dwelling unit or sleeping unit in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
  3. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall not activate alarm notification appliances outside of the dwelling unit or sleeping unit, provided that a supervisory signal is generated and monitored in accordance with Section 907.6.6.