Storage, handling and transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LP-gas) and the installation of LP-gas equipment pertinent to systems for such uses shall comply with this chapter and NFPA 58. Properties of LP-gases shall be determined in accordance with Appendix B of NFPA 58.
[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §3.22(a) and (c)] Liquefied Petroleum Gas.
(a) When liquefied petroleum gas is used, the storage and handling thereof shall conform to the appropriate provisions referenced in California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Sections 3.02 and 3.03.
(c) California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 475 is hereby adopted as a part of Title 19, Division 1 regulations.
LP-gas containers shall not be used in a basement, pit or similar location where heavier-than-air gas might collect. LP-gas containers shall not be used in an above-grade underfloor space or basement unless such location is provided with an approved means of ventilation.
In Group E and I occupancies, portable LP-gas containers are allowed to be used for research and experimentation. Such containers shall not be used in classrooms. Such containers shall not exceed a 50-pound (23 kg) water capacity in occupancies used for educational purposes and shall not exceed a 12-pound (5 kg) water capacity in occupancies used for institutional purposes. Where more than one such container is present in the same room, each container shall be separated from other containers by a distance of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).
[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §3.22(b)] Liquefied Petroleum Gas.
(b) All liquefied petroleum gas tanks located in school yards shall be surrounded by a rugged steel fence or equivalent. Tanks in other occupancies shall also be so protected if in the opinion of the enforcement agency such protection is needed to prevent unauthorized tampering. The fence shall be at least 6 feet in height and, if it completely surrounds the tank, shall be located a minimum of 3 feet from the tanks. Fenced areas shall be locked when unattended.
Within the limits established by law restricting the storage of liquefied petroleum gas for the protection of heavily populated or congested areas, the aggregate capacity of any one installation shall not exceed a water capacity of 2,000 gallons (7570 L) (see Section 3 of the Sample Legislation for Adoption of the California Fire Code on page xxi).
Exception: In particular installations, this capacity limit shall be determined by the fire code official, after consideration of special features such as topographical conditions, nature of occupancy, and proximity to buildings, capacity of proposed LP-gas containers, degree of fire protection to be provided and capabilities of the local fire department.
LOCATION OF LP-GAS CONTAINERS
|LP-GAS CONTAINER CAPACITY (water gallons)||MINIMUM SEPARATION BETWEEN LP-GAS CONTAINERS AND BUILDINGS, PUBLIC WAYS OR LOT LINES OF ADJOINING PROPERTY THAT CAN BE BUILT UPON||MINIMUM SEPARATION BETWEEN LP-GAS CONTAINERSb, c (feet)|
|Mounded or underground LP-gas containersa (feet)||Above-ground LP-gas containersb (feet)|
|Less than 125c, d||10||5e||None|
|125 to 250||10||10||None|
|251 to 500||10||10||3|
|501 to 2,000||10||25e, f||3|
|2,001 to 30,000||50||50||5|
|30,001 to 70,000||50||75||(0.25 of sum of diameters of adjacent LP-gas containers)|
|70,001 to 90,000||50||100|
|90,001 to 120,000||50||125|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
- Minimum distance for underground LP-gas containers shall be measured from the pressure relief device and the filling or liquid-level gauge vent connection at the container, except that all parts of an underground LP-gas container shall be not less than 10 feet from a building or lot line of adjoining property that can be built upon.
- For other than installations in which the overhanging structure is 50 feet or more above the relief-valve discharge outlet. In applying the distance between buildings and ASME LP-gas containers with a water capacity of 125 gallons or more, not less than 50 percent of this horizontal distance shall also apply to all portions of the building that project more than 5 feet from the building wall and that are higher than the relief valve discharge outlet. This horizontal distance shall be measured from a point determined by projecting the outside edge of such overhanging structure vertically downward to grade or other level upon which the LP-gas container is installed. Distances to the building wall shall be not less than those prescribed in this table.
- Where underground multicontainer installations are composed of individual LP-gas containers having a water capacity of 125 gallons or more, such containers shall be installed so as to provide access at their ends or sides to facilitate working with cranes or hoists.
- At a consumer site, if the aggregate water capacity of a multicontainer installation, comprised of individual LP-gas containers having a water capacity of less than 125 gallons, is 500 gallons or more, the minimum distance shall comply with the appropriate portion of Table 6104.3, applying the aggregate capacity rather than the capacity per LP-gas container. If more than one such installation is made, each installation shall be separated from other installations by not less than 25 feet. Minimum distances between LP-gas containers need not be applied.
- LP-gas containers of less than a 125-gallon water capacity are allowed next to the building they serve where in compliance with Items 2, 3 and 4.
- Department of Transportation (DOTn) specification LP-gas containers shall be located and installed so that the discharge from the container pressure relief device is not less than 3 feet horizontally from building openings below the level of such discharge and shall not be beneath buildings unless the space is well ventilated to the outside and is not enclosed for more than 50 percent of its perimeter. The discharge from LP-gas container pressure relief devices shall be located not less than 5 feet from exterior sources of ignition, openings into direct-vent (sealed combustion system) appliances or mechanical ventilation air intakes.
- ASME LP-gas containers of less than a 125-gallon water capacity shall be located and installed such that the discharge from pressure relief devices shall not terminate in or beneath buildings and shall be located not less than 5 feet horizontally from building openings below the level of such discharge and not less than 5 feet from exterior sources of ignition, openings into direct vent (sealed combustion system) appliances, or mechanical ventilation air intakes.
- The filling connection and the vent from liquid-level gauges on either DOTn or ASME LP-gas containers filled at the point of installation shall be not less than 10 feet from exterior sources of ignition, openings into direct vent (sealed combustion system) appliances or mechanical ventilation air intakes.
- This distance is allowed to be reduced to not less than 10 feet for a single LP-gas container of 1,200-gallon water capacity or less, provided such container is not less than 25 feet from other LP-gas containers of more than 125-gallon water capacity.
Multiple LP-gas container installations with a total water storage capacity of more than 180,000 gallons (681 300 L) [150,000-gallon (567 750 L) LP-gas capacity] shall be subdivided into groups containing not more than 180,000 gallons (681 300 L) in each group. Such groups shall be separated by a distance of not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm), unless the containers are protected in accordance with one of the following:
- Mounded in an approved manner.
- Protected with approved insulation on areas that are subject to impingement of ignited gas from pipelines or other leakage.
- Protected by fire walls of approved construction.
- Protected by an approved system for application of water as specified in Table 6.4.2 of NFPA 58.
- Protected by other approved means.
Where one of these forms of protection is provided, the separation shall be not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) between LP-gas container groups.
“No Smoking” signs complying with Section 310 shall be posted where required by the fire code official. Smoking within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a point of transfer, while filling operations are in progress at LP-gas containers or vehicles, shall be prohibited.
Control of other sources of ignition shall comply with Chapter 3 of this code and Section 6.22 of NFPA 58.
Storage of portable LP-gas containers of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) or less, whether filled, partially filled or empty, at consumer sites or distribution points, and for resale by dealers or resellers shall comply with Sections 6109.2 through 6109.15.1.
LP-gas containers shall not be stored in a basement, pit or similar location where heavier-than-air gas might collect. LP-gas containers shall not be stored in above-grade underfloor spaces or basements unless such location is provided with an approved means of ventilation.
Exception: Department of Transportation (DOTn) specification cylinders with a maximum water capacity of 21/2 pounds (1 kg) for use in completely self-contained hand torches and similar applications. The quantity of LP-gas shall not exceed 20 pounds (9 kg).
The construction of such buildings and rooms shall comply with requirements for Group H occupancies in the California Building Code, Chapter 10 of NFPA 58 and both of the following:
- Adequate vents shall be provided to the outside at both top and bottom, located not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from building openings.
- The entire area shall be classified for the purposes of ignition source control in accordance with Section 6.22 of NFPA 58.
SEPARATION FROM EXPOSURES OF LP-GAS CONTAINERS AWAITING USE, RESALE OR EXCHANGE STORED OUTSIDE OF BUILDINGS
|QUANTITY OF LP-GAS STORED (pounds)||MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCE FROM STORED LP-GAS CYLINDERS TO (feet):|
|Nearest important building or group of buildings or line of adjoining property that may be built upon||Line of adjoining property occupied by schools, places of religious worship, hospitals, athletic fields or other points of public gathering; busy thoroughfares; or sidewalks||LP-gas dispensing station||Doorway or opening to a building with two or more means of egress||Doorway or opening to a building with one means of egress||Combustible materials||Motor vehicle fuel dispenser|
|720 or less||0||0||5||5||10||10||20|
|721 – 2,500||0||10||10||5||10||10||20|
|2,501 – 6,000||10||10||10||10||10||10||20|
|6,001 – 10,000||20||20||20||20||20||10||20|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
- Cylinders shall be secured in a lockable, ventilated metal cabinet or other approved enclosure.
- Cylinders shall be accessible only by authorized personnel or by use of an automated exchange system in accordance with Section 6109.15.1.
- A sign shall be posted on the entry door of the business operating the cylinder exchange stating “DO NOT BRING LP-GAS CYLINDERS INTO THE BUILDING” or similar approved wording.
- An emergency contact information sign shall be posted within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the cylinder storage cabinet. The content, lettering, size, color and location of the required sign shall be as required by the fire code official.
- The vending system shall only permit access to a single cylinder per individual transaction.
- Cabinets storing cylinders shall be designed such that cylinders can only be placed inside when they are oriented in the upright position.
- Devices operating door releases for access to stored cylinders shall be permitted to be pneumatic, mechanical or electrically powered.
- Electrical equipment inside of or within 5 feet (1524 mm) of a cabinet storing cylinders, including but not limited to electronics associated with vending operations, shall comply with the requirements for Class I, Division 2 equipment in accordance with the California Electrical Code.
- A manual override control shall be permitted for use by authorized personnel. On newly installed cylinder exchange stations, the vending system shall not be capable of returning to automatic operation after a manual override until the system has been inspected and reset by authorized personnel.
- Inspections shall be conducted by authorized personnel to verify that all cylinders are secured, access doors are closed and the station has no visible damage or obvious defects that necessitate placing the station out of service. The frequency of inspections shall be as specified by the fire code official.
LP-gas containers whose use has been temporarily discontinued shall comply with all of the following:
LP-gas tank vehicles parked at any one point for longer than 1 hour shall be located as follows:
- Off public streets, highways, public avenues or public alleys.
- Inside of a bulk plant.
- At other approved locations not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from buildings other than those approved for the storage or servicing of such vehicles.