CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2015 (IFC 2015)

Copyright

Preface

Acknowledgements

California Code of Regulations, Title 24

How to Distinguish Between Model Code Language and California Amendments

Coordination Between the International Building and Fire Codes

Maintenance

Code Development Committee Responsibilities (Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers)

Effective Use of the International Fire Code

Legislation

Part I Administrative

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Part II General Safety Provisions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Part III Building and Equipment Design Features

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 12 Through 19 Reserved

Part IV Special Occupancies and Operations

Chapter 20 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 21 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 22 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 23 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 24 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 25 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 26 Fumigation and Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 27 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 28 Lumber Yards and Agro-Industrial, Solid Biomass and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 29 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 30 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 31 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 32 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 33 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 34 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 35 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 36 Marinas

Chapter 37 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 38 Through 47 Reserved

Chapter 48 Motion Picture and Television Production Studio Sound Stages, Approved Production Facilities and Production Locations

Chapter 49 Requirements for Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Areas

Part V Hazardous Materials

Chapter 50 Hazardous Materials—general Provisions

Chapter 51 Aerosols

Chapter 52 Reserved

Chapter 53 Compressed Gases

Chapter 54 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 55 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 56 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 57 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 58 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 59 Flammable Solids

Chapter 60 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 61 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 62 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 63 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 64 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 65 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 66 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 67 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 68 Through 79 Reserved

Part VI Referenced Standards

Chapter 80 Referenced Standards

Appendix Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Part VII Appendices

Appendix A Board of Appeals

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix BB Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix CC Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids—weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plans and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statements

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems—noncompliant Conditions

Appendix J Building Information Sign

Appendix K Construction Requirements for Existing Ambulatory Care Facilities

Appendix L Requirements for Fire Fighter Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix M High-Rise Buildings—retroactive Automatic Sprinkler Requirement

Appendix N Temporary Haunted Houses, Ghost Walks and Similar Amusement Uses

History Note Appendix

The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appliances and heating systems, emergency and standby power systems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical refrigeration systems, elevator recall, stationary storage battery systems and commercial kitchen equipment.
Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration systems, battery systems and solar photovoltaic power systems as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD-ACID.

BATTERY TYPES.

COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES.

CRITICAL CIRCUIT.

EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM.

HOOD.

Type I.

Type II.

REFRIGERANT.

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM.

STANDBY POWER SYSTEM.

The installation of nonportable fuel gas appliances and systems shall comply with the California Mechanical Code. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances, other than internal combustion engines, oil lamps and portable devices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed burners, shall comply with this section and the California Mechanical Code.
The installation shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and applicable federal, state and local rules and regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify or alter a manufacturer’s instructions in any way, written approval shall first be obtained from the manufacturer.
The design, construction and installation of fuel-fired appliances shall be in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.
Electrical wiring and equipment used in connection with oil-burning equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 605 and California Electrical Code.
The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline shall not be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an acceptable fuel in Group F, M and S occupancies where utilized in equipment listed for use with waste oil and where such equipment is installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the terms of its listing.
The installation shall be readily accessible for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regulators and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning and lubricating parts.
After installation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combustion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that the burner is in proper operating condition and that all accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function properly.
Contractors installing industrial oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burning equipment and another at an approved location that will be accessible in case of emergency.
After completing the installation, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall furnish the owner or operator with the name and telephone number of persons to contact for technical information or assistance and routine or emergency services.
Working clearances between oil-fired appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment shall be in accordance with California Electrical Code. Clearances between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in accordance with NFPA 31.
Masonry chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the California Building Code. Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with the California Mechanical Code. Metal chimneys shall be constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 211.
Fuel oil storage systems shall be installed in accordance with this code. Fuel-oil piping systems shall be installed in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.
Where connected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above ground without additional protection shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). The storage of fuel oil above ground in quantities exceeding 660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with NFPA 31.
Fuel oil storage inside buildings shall comply with Sections 603.3.2.1 through 603.3.2.5 or Chapter 57.

One or more fuel oil storage tanks containing Class II or III combustible liquid shall be permitted in a building. The aggregate capacity of all such tanks shall not exceed 660 gallons (2498 L).

Exception: The aggregate capacity limit shall be permitted to be increased to 3,000 gallons (11 356 L) of Class II or III liquid for storage in protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 5704.2.9.7, where all of the following conditions are met:

  1. The entire 3,000-gallon (11 356 L) quantity shall be stored in protected above-ground tanks.
  2. The 3,000-gallon (11 356 L) capacity shall be permitted to be stored in a single tank or multiple smaller tanks.
  3. The tanks shall be located in a room protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1.
Tanks installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2 shall be used only to supply fuel oil to fuel-burning or generator equipment installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2.4. Connections between tanks and equipment supplied by such tanks shall be made using closed piping systems.
The quantity of combustible liquid stored in tanks complying with Section 603.3.2 shall not be counted towards the maximum allowable quantity set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1), and such tanks shall not be required to be located in a control area.

Tanks and piping systems shall be installed and separated from other uses in accordance with Section 915 and Chapter 13, both of the California Mechanical Code, as applicable.

Exception: Protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 5704.2.9.7 shall not be required to be separated from surrounding areas.

Tanks in basements shall be located not more than two stories below grade plane.
The storage of fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with NFPA 31.

Portable unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies in Groups A, E, I, R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3, R-3.1 and R-4.

Exception:Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be allowed in accordance with Section 603.4.2.

Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping rooms, bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets.
Portable gas-fired heating appliances located outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1 through 603.4.2.3.4.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1.1 through 603.4.2.1.4.

The storage or use of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances is prohibited in any of the following locations:

  1. Inside of any occupancy where connected to the fuel gas container.
  2. Inside of tents, canopies and membrane structures.
  3. On exterior balconies.

    Exception: As allowed in Section 6.20 of NFPA 58.

Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from buildings.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located beneath, or closer than 5 feet (1524 mm) to combustible decorations and combustible overhangs, awnings, sunshades or similar combustible attachments to buildings.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of exits or exit discharges.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and operated in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.2.1 through 603.4.2.2.4.
Only listed and approved portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances utilizing a fuel gas container that is integral to the appliance shall be used.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be equipped with a tilt or tip-over switch that automatically shuts off the flow of gas if the appliance is tilted more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from the vertical.
The heating element or combustion chamber of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.
Fuel gas containers for portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall comply with Sections 603.4.2.3.1 through 603.4.2.3.4.
Only approved DOTn or ASME gas containers shall be used.
Replacement of fuel gas containers in portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be conducted while the public is present.
The maximum individual capacity of gas containers used in connection with portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not exceed 20 pounds (9 kg).
Gas containers shall not be stored inside of buildings except in accordance with Section 6109.9.

Heating appliances shall be listed and shall comply with Sections 603.5.1 and 603.5.2.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §3.17(a) and (b)] Guards for Heating Appliances.

Every heating appliance in any occupancy governed by California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1 regulations which does not have protective features incorporated in its design, shall be provided with guards that will provide protection against ignition of clothing and other combustible material.

  1. Appliances employing open flame radiated heat shall have fixed and substantially constructed metallic guards located not less than 10 inches from the radiating flame and the guard members shall be spaced not more than 2 inches apart.
  2. Cabinet type appliances that are not provided with an inner combustion chamber and an air circulating space between the combustion chamber and the outer shell, shall have fixed and substantially constructed metallic guards located not less than 3 inches from the shell and spaced not more than 2 inches apart.
The heating element or combustion chamber shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.
Heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, the California Building Code, the California Mechanical Code, and the California Electrical Code.
Chimneys, incinerators, smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boilers to which such devices are connected, shall be maintained so as not to create a fire hazard.
Masonry chimneys that, upon inspection, are found to be without a flue liner and that have open mortar joints which will permit smoke or gases to be discharged into the building, or which are cracked as to be dangerous, shall be repaired or relined with a listed chimney liner system installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions or a flue lining system installed in accordance with the requirements of the California Building Code and appropriate for the intended class of chimney service.
Metal chimneys which are corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.
Decorative shrouds installed at the termination of factory-built chimneys shall be removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and are installed in accordance with the chimney manufacturer’s instructions.
Existing factory-built chimneys that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.
Existing chimney and vent connectors that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.
The fire code official is authorized to order that measures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing device or appliance found to be defective or in violation of code requirements for existing appliances after giving notice to this effect to any person, owner, firm or agent or operator in charge of the same. The fire code official is authorized to take measures to prevent the operation of any device or appliance without notice when inspection shows the existence of an immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The defective device shall remain withdrawn from service until all necessary repairs or alterations have been made.
It shall be a violation of this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue the utilization of any device or appliance (the operation of which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in accordance with Section 603.7) unless written authority to resume operation is given by the fire code official. Removing or breaking the means by which operation of the device is prevented shall be a violation of this code.
Commercial, industrial and residential-type incinerators and chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the California Building Code and the California Mechanical Code. Unless other approved means are provided for the prompt disposal of rubbish, an approved incinerator shall be provided and maintained for the disposal of combustible waste. Incinerators shall be constructed, located, and maintained in such manner that waste material can be safely burned at any hour of the day, where local ordinances permit. Fuel-fired and garbage burning incinerators shall be constructed and maintained in conformance with NFPA 82-2009 Incinerators, Waste and Linen Handling Systems and Equipment or U.L. 791-2006 Standard for Residential Incinerators, whichever is applicable.
Residential incinerators shall be of an approved type.
Incinerators shall be equipped with an effective means for arresting sparks.
Where the fire code official determines that burning in incinerators located within 500 feet (152 m) of mountainous, brush or grass-covered areas will create an undue fire hazard because of atmospheric conditions, such burning shall be prohibited.
Burning shall take place only during approved hours.
The fire code official is authorized to require incinerator use to be discontinued immediately if the fire code official determines that smoke emissions are offensive to occupants of surrounding property or if the use of incinerators is determined by the fire code official to constitute a hazardous condition.
In Group I-2 occupancies, the continued use of existing flue-fed incinerators is prohibited.
Incinerators in Group I-2 occupancies shall be inspected not less than annually in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Inspection records shall be maintained on the premises and made available to the fire code official upon request.
Above-ground gas meters, regulators and piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier complying with Section 312 or otherwise protected in an approved manner.
Emergency power systems and standby power systems required by this code or the California Building Code shall comply with Sections 604.1.1 through 604.1.8.
Stationary emergency and standby power generators required by this code shall be listed in accordance with UL 2200.
Emergency power systems and standby power systems shall be installed in accordance with the California Building Code, the California Electrical Code, NFPA 110 and NFPA 111.
Emergency power systems shall automatically provide secondary power within 10 seconds after primary power is lost, unless specified otherwise in this code. Standby power systems shall automatically provide secondary power within 60 seconds after primary power is lost unless specified otherwise in this code.
Emergency power systems and standby power systems shall be designed to provide the required power for a minimum duration of 2 hours without being refueled or recharged, unless specified otherwise in this code.

Emergency power systems and standby power systems shall be designed to provide the required power for a minimum duration of 6 hours without being refueled or recharged. The minimum required fuel supply shall be maintained at all times.

An uninterrupted source of power shall be provided for equipment where required by the manufacturer’s instructions, the listing, this code or applicable referenced standards.
Emergency power systems shall be an acceptable alternative for installations that require standby power systems.
In Group I-2 occupancies, where an essential electrical system is located in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3 of the California Building Code and where new or replacement essential electrical system generators are installed, the system shall be located and installed in accordance with ASCE 24.
Existing installations shall be maintained in accordance with the original approval and Section 604.4.
Emergency and standby power systems shall be provided where required by Sections 604.2.1 through 604.2.16.
Standby power shall be provided for elevators and platform lifts as required in Sections 607.2, 1009.4, and 1009.5.
Emergency power shall be provided for emergency alarm systems as required by Section 414 of the California Building Code.
Standby power shall be provided for emergency responder radio coverage systems as required in Section 510.4.2.3. The standby power supply shall be capable of operating the emergency responder radio coverage system for a duration of not less than 24 hours.
Emergency power shall be provided for emergency voice/alarm communication systems as required in Section 907.5.2.2.5. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 24 hours, as required in NFPA 72.
Emergency power shall be provided for exit signs as required in Section 1013.6.3. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 90 minutes.
Essential electrical systems for Group I-2 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 407.10 of the California Building Code.

Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group I-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door. Emergency power shall be provided for the doors and locks in accordance with Section 604.

Exceptions:

  1. Emergency power is not required in facilities where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required as set forth in the California Building Code.
  2. Emergency power is not required where remote mechanical operating releases are provided.

Emergency and standby power shall be provided in occupancies with hazardous materials as required in the following sections:

  1. Sections 5004.7 and 5005.1.5 for hazardous materials.
  2. Sections 6004.2.2.8 and 6004.3.4.2 for highly toxic and toxic gases.
  3. Section 6204.1.11 for organic peroxides.
Standby power and emergency power shall be provided for high-rise buildings and Group I-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access as required in Section 403 of the California Building Code, and shall be in accordance with Section 604.
Standby power shall be provided for horizontal sliding doors as required in Section 1010.1.4.3. The standby power supply shall have a capacity to operate not fewer than 50 closing cycles of the door.
Standby power shall be provided for hydrogen fuel gas rooms as required by Section 5808.7.
Emergency power shall be provided for means of egress illumination in accordance with Sections 1008.3 and 1104.5.1.
Standby power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation systems in permanent membrane structures in accordance with Section 2702 of the California Building Code. Auxiliary inflation systems shall be provided in temporary air-supported and air-inflated membrane structures in accordance with Section 3103.10.4.
Emergency power shall be provided for semiconductor fabrication facilities as required in Section 2703.15.
Standby power shall be provided for smoke control systems as required in Section 909.11.
Emergency and standby power shall be provided in underground buildings as required in Section 405 of the California Building Code and shall be in accordance with Section 604.
Cables used for survivability of required critical circuits shall be listed in accordance with UL 2196. Electrical circuit protective systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements.
Emergency and standby power systems shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111 such that the system is capable of supplying service within the time specified for the type and duration required.
Inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall be in accordance with an approved schedule established upon completion and approval of the system installation.
Records of the inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall include the date of service, name of the servicing technician, a summary of conditions noted and a detailed description of any conditions requiring correction and what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be maintained.
Emergency and standby power system transfer switches shall be included in the inspection, testing and maintenance schedule required by Section 604.4.1. Transfer switches shall be maintained free from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include examination of the transfer switch contacts for evidence of deterioration. When evidence of contact deterioration is detected, the contacts shall be replaced in accordance with the transfer switch manufacturer’s instructions.

Emergency power systems, including all appurtenant components, shall be inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111.

Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for scheduled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate records are maintained.

The test of the transfer switch shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch from the normal position to the alternate position and then return to the normal position.
Emergency lighting shall be inspected and tested in accordance with Sections 604.6.1 through 604.6.2.1.
An activation test of the emergency lighting equipment shall be completed monthly. The activation test shall ensure the emergency lighting activates automatically upon normal electrical disconnect and stays sufficiently illuminated for not less than 30 seconds.
Records of tests shall be maintained. The record shall include the location of the emergency lighting tested, whether the unit passed or failed, the date of the test and the person completing the test.
For battery-powered emergency lighting, a power test of the emergency lighting equipment shall be completed annually. The power test shall operate the emergency lighting for not less than 90 minutes and shall remain sufficiently illuminated for the duration of the test.
Records of tests shall be maintained. The record shall include the location of the emergency lighting tested, whether the unit passed or failed, the date of the test and the person completing the test.
Routine maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be over-seen by a properly instructed individual.
Identified electrical hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical conditions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of the responsible code official. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and other equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes an electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be used.
Illumination shall be provided for service equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical panelboards.

A working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical service equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working space shall be not less than the width of the equipment. Storage of materials shall not be located within the designated working space.

Exceptions:

  1. Where other dimensions are required or allowed by California Electrical Code.
  2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches (559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm).
Doors into electrical control panel rooms shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stating ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless such purpose is clearly evident.
Multiplug adapters, such as cube adapters, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying with California Electrical Code shall be prohibited.
Relocatable power taps shall be of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with over-current protection, and shall be listed in accordance with UL 1363.
Relocatable power taps shall be directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle.
Relocatable power tap cords shall not extend through walls, ceilings, floors, under doors or floor coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical damage.
Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor coverings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with portable appliances.
Extension cords shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension cords, shall serve only one portable appliance.
The ampacity of the extension cords shall be not less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied by the cord.
Extension cords shall be maintained in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage.
Extension cords shall be grounded where serving grounded portable appliances.
Open junction boxes and open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes.
Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be tested and listed in published reports of inspected electrical equipment by an approved agency and installed and maintained in accordance with all instructions included as part of such listing.
Electrical motors shall be maintained free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and debris.

Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the applicable provisions of California Electrical Code.

Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed during periods of construction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or similar activities.

Temporary wiring attached to a structure shall be attached in an approved manner.

Where not prohibited by other sections of this code, portable, electric space heaters shall be permitted to be used in all occupancies other than Group I-2 and in accordance with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.4.

Exception: The use of portable, electric space heaters in which the heating element cannot exceed a temperature of 212°F (100°C) shall be permitted in nonsleeping staff and employee areas in Group I-2 occupancies.

Only listed and labeled portable, electric space heaters shall be used.
Portable, electric space heaters shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle.
Portable, electric space heaters shall not be plugged into extension cords.
Portable, electric space heaters shall not be operated within 3 feet (914 mm) of any combustible materials. Portable, electric space heaters shall be operated only in locations for which they are listed.
Solar photovoltaic power systems shall be installed in accordance with Sections 605.11.1 through 605.11.2, the California Building Code or California Residential Code, and California Electrical Code.

Roof access, pathways, and spacing requirements shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.11.1.1 through 605.11.1.3.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Detached, nonhabitable Group U structures including, but not limited to, parking shade structures, carports, solar trellises and similar structures.
  2. Roof access, pathways and spacing requirements need not be provided where the fire chief has determined that rooftop operations will not be employed.
Roof access points shall be located in areas that do not require the placement of ground ladders over openings such as windows or doors, and located at strong points of building construction in locations where the access point does not conflict with overhead obstructions such as tree limbs, wires or signs.

Solar photovoltaic systems for Group R-3 buildings shall comply with Sections 605.11.1.2.1 through 605.11.1.2.5.

Exception: These requirements shall not apply to structures designed and constructed in accordance with the California Residential Code.

Each photovoltaic array shall be limited to 150 feet (45 720 mm) by 150 feet (45 720 mm). Multiple arrays shall be separated by a 3-foot-wide (914 mm) clear access pathway.

Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings with hip roof layouts shall be located in a manner that provides a 3-foot-wide (914 mm) clear access pathway from the eave to the ridge on each roof slope where panels and modules are located. The access pathway shall be at a location on the building capable of supporting the fire fighters accessing the roof.

Exception: These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.

Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings with a single ridge shall be located in a manner that provides two, 3-foot-wide (914 mm) access pathways from the eave to the ridge on each roof slope where panels and modules are located.

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.

Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings with roof hips and valleys shall not be located closer than 18 inches (457 mm) to a hip or a valley where panels/modules are to be placed on both sides of a hip or valley. Where panels are to be located on only one side of a hip or valley that is of equal length, the panels shall be permitted to be placed directly adjacent to the hip or valley.

Exception: These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.

Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings shall be located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the ridge in order to allow for fire department smoke ventilation operations.

Exception: Panels and modules shall be permitted to be located up to the roof ridge where an alternative ventilation method approved by the fire chief has been provided or where the fire chief has determined vertical ventilation techniques will not be employed.

Conduit, wiring systems, and raceways for photovoltaic circuits shall be located as close as possible to the ridge or hip or valley and from the hip or valley as directly as possible to an outside wall to reduce trip hazards and maximize ventilation opportunities. Conduit runs between sub arrays and to DC combiner boxes shall be installed in a manner that minimizes the total amount of conduit on the roof by taking the shortest path from the array to the DC combiner box. The DC combiner boxes shall be located such that conduit runs are minimized in the pathways between arrays. DC wiring shall be installed in metallic conduit or raceways when located within enclosed spaces in a building. Conduit shall run along the bottom of load bearing members.

Access to systems for buildings, other than those containing Group R-3 occupancies, shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.11.1.3.1 through 605.11.1.3.3.

Exception: Where it is determined by the fire code official that the roof configuration is similar to that of a Group R-3 occupancy, the residential access and ventilation requirements in Sections 605.11.1.2.1 through 605.11.1.2.5 shall be permitted to be used.

There shall be a minimum 6-foot-wide (1829 mm) clear perimeter around the edges of the roof.

Exception: Where either axis of the building is 250 feet (76 200 mm) or less, the clear perimeter around the edges of the roof shall be permitted to be reduced to a minimum 4 foot wide (1290 mm).

The solar installation shall be designed to provide designated pathways. The pathways shall meet the following requirements:

  1. The pathway shall be over areas capable of supporting fire fighters accessing the roof.
  2. The centerline axis pathways shall be provided in both axes of the roof. Centerline axis pathways shall run where the roof structure is capable of supporting fire fighters accessing the roof.
  3. Pathways shall be a straight line not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear to roof standpipes or ventilation hatches.
  4. Pathways shall provide not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear around roof access hatch with not less than one singular pathway not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear to a parapet or roof edge.

The solar installation shall be designed to meet the following requirements:

  1. Arrays shall be not greater than 150 feet (45 720 mm) by 150 feet (45 720 mm) in distance in either axis in order to create opportunities for fire department smoke ventilation operations.
  2. Smoke ventilation options between array sections shall be one of the following:

    1. 2.1. A pathway 8 feet (2438 mm) or greater in width.
    2. 2.2. A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width pathway and bordering roof skylights or gravity-operated dropout smoke and heat vents on not less than one side.
    3. 2.3. A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width pathway and bordering all sides of nongravity-operated dropout smoke and heat vents.
    4. 2.4. A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width pathway and bordering 4-foot by 8-foot (1290 mm by 2438 mm) “venting cutouts” every 20 feet (6096 mm) on alternating sides of the pathway.

Conduit, wiring systems, and raceways for photovoltaic circuits shall be located as close as possible to the ridge or hip or valley and from the hip or valley as directly as possible to an outside wall to reduce trip hazards and maximize ventilation opportunities. Conduit runs between sub arrays and to DC combiner boxes shall be installed in a manner that minimizes the total amount of conduit on the roof by taking the shortest path from the array to the DC combiner box. The DC combiner boxes shall be located such that conduit runs are minimized in the pathways between arrays. DC wiring shall be installed in metallic conduit or raceways when located within enclosed spaces in a building. Conduit shall run along the bottom of load bearing members.

Ground-mounted photovoltaic arrays shall comply with Section 605.11 and this section. Setback requirements shall not apply to ground-mounted, free-standing photovoltaic arrays. A clear, brush-free area of 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be required for ground-mounted photovoltaic arrays.
Accessible portions of abandoned cables in air-handling plenums shall be removed. Cables that are unused and have not been tagged for future use shall be considered abandoned.
Refrigeration systems shall be installed in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.
The use and purity of new, recovered and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.
Refrigerants shall be classified in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.
A change in the type of refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.
Refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be accessible to the fire department at all times as required by the fire code official.
Refrigeration equipment and systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accordance with Section 606.6.1. Records of tests shall be maintained. Tests of emergency devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems.

The following emergency devices or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and as required by the fire code official.

  1. Treatment and flaring systems.
  2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation of emergency refrigeration control boxes.
  3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate emergency ventilation systems.
  4. Detection and alarm systems.
Refrigeration units or systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be in accordance with the California Mechanical Code for the classification of refrigerants listed therein.
Machinery rooms shall contain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concentrate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the California Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification. Detectors and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. The detector shall transmit a signal to an approved location.
Where flammable refrigerants are used and compliance with Section 1106 of the California Mechanical Code is required, remote control of the mechanical equipment and appliances located in the machinery room as required by Sections 606.9.1 and 606.9.2 shall be provided at an approved location immediately outside the machinery room and adjacent to its principal entrance.
A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide off-only control of refrigerant compressors, refrigerant pumps and normally closed automatic refrigerant valves located in the machinery room. Additionally, this equipment shall be automatically shut off when the refrigerant vapor concentration in the machinery room exceeds the vapor detector’s upper detection limit or 25 percent of the LEL, whichever is lower.
A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide on-only control of the machinery room ventilation fans.
Permanently installed refrigeration systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with Sections 606.10.1 and 606.10.2.
Each high- and intermediate-pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a single automatic valve providing a crossover connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic crossover valves shall comply with Sections 606.10.1.1 through 606.10.1.3.
Automatic crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone if the pressure in a high- or intermediate-pressure zone rises to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices.
Where required by the fire code official, automatic crossover valves shall be capable of manual operation.
Refrigeration system zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone by an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to safely contain the maximum pressure that can be achieved by interconnection of the two zones.
An automatic emergency stop feature shall be provided in accordance with Sections 606.10.2.1 and 606.10.2.2.
Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices located immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall be permitted as a means for determining operation of a valve. To ensure that the automatic crossover valve system provides a redundant means of stopping compressors in an overpressure condition, high-pressure cutout sensors associated with compressors shall not be used as a basis for determining operation of a crossover valve.
The lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise in system pressure to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices. Activation of the overpressure sensing device shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop.

Flammable and combustible materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 50, 53, 55 and 57.

Exception: This provision shall not apply to spare parts, tools and incidental materials necessary for the safe and proper operation and maintenance of the system.

Pressure relief devices, fusible plugs and purge systems discharging to the atmosphere from refrigeration systems containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants or ammonia shall comply with Sections 606.12.3 through 606.12.5.
Refrigeration systems and the buildings in which such systems are installed shall be in accordance with ASHRAE 15.
Refrigeration systems using ammonia refrigerant and the buildings in which such systems are installed shall comply with IIAR-2 for system design and installation and IIAR-7 for operating procedures.
Discharge piping and devices connected to the discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event the fusible plug or rupture member functions.
Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7. Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable refrigerants having a density less than the density of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmosphere provided that the point of discharge is located outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.
Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7.

Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere in accordance with one of the following methods:

  1. Directly to atmosphere where the fire code official determines, on review of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environmental hazard would not result from atmospheric discharge of ammonia.
  2. Through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6.
  3. Through a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7.
  4. Through an approved ammonia diffusion system in accordance with Section 606.12.8.
  5. By other approved means.

Exception: Ammonia/water absorption systems containing less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for which the ammonia circuit is located entirely outdoors.

Treatment systems shall be designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accordance with Chapter 60.
Flaring systems for incineration of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be designed to prevent blowback and shall not expose structures or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP-gas, and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for one and one-half the required time for complete incineration of refrigerant in the system. Standby electrical power, where required to complete the incineration process, shall be in accordance with Section 604.
Ammonia diffusion systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of water for each pound of ammonia (8.3 L of water for each 1 kg of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the bottom of the tank, but not lower than 33 feet (10 058 mm) below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the volume of water and ammonia without overflowing.
Exhaust from mechanical ventilation systems serving refrigeration machinery rooms containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants, other than ammonia, capable of exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH shall be equipped with approved treatment systems to reduce the discharge concentrations to those values or lower.
The fire code official shall be notified immediately when a discharge becomes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in accordance with Section 5003.3.1.
A record of refrigerant quantities brought into and removed from the premises shall be maintained.

Where refrigerants of Groups A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the California Mechanical Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of the California Electrical Code.

Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided with ventilation in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.

Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more shall comply with the requirements in Chapter 11. New elevators shall be provided with Phase I emergency recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Division 1, Chapter 4, Subchapter 6, Elevator Safety Orders.
In buildings and structures where standby power is required or furnished to operate an elevator, standby power shall be provided in accordance with Section 604. Operation of the system shall be in accordance with Sections 607.2.1 through 607.2.4.
Standby power shall be manually transferable to all elevators in each bank.
Where only one elevator is installed, the elevator shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power.
Where two or more elevators are controlled by a common operating system, all elevators shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power where the standby power source is of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time. Where the standby power source is not of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time, all elevators shall transfer to standby power in sequence, return to the designated landing and disconnect from the standby power source. After all elevators have been returned to the designated level, not less than one elevator shall remain operable from the standby power source.
Where standby power is connected to elevators, the machine room ventilation or air conditioning shall be connected to the standby power source.

An approved pictorial sign of a standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit stairways and not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVATOR. USE EXIT STAIRS.

Exceptions:

  1. The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are part of an accessible means of egress complying with Section 1009.4.
  2. The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008 of the California Building Code.
Where fire service access elevators are required by Section 3007 of the California Building Code, fire service access elevator lobbies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture.
Where occupant evacuation elevators are provided in accordance with Section 3008 of the California Building Code, occupant evacuation elevator lobbies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture.
Methods to prevent water from infiltrating into a hoistway enclosure required by Section 3007.4 and Section 3008.4 of the California Building Code shall be maintained.
Keys for the elevator car doors and fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location for immediate use by the fire department.

Buildings with elevators equipped with Phase I emergency recall, Phase II emergency in-car operation, or a fire service access elevator shall be equipped to operate with a standardized fire service elevator key approved by the fire code official.

Exception: The owner shall be permitted to place the building’s nonstandardized fire service elevator keys in a key box installed in accordance with Section 506.1.2.

Standardized fire service elevator keys shall comply with all of the following:

  1. All fire service elevator keys within the jurisdiction shall be uniform and specific for the jurisdiction. Keys shall be cut to a uniform key code.
  2. Fire service elevator keys shall be of a patent-protected design to prevent unauthorized duplication.
  3. Fire service elevator keys shall be factory restricted by the manufacturer to prevent the unauthorized distribution of key blanks. Uncut key blanks shall not be permitted to leave the factory.
  4. Fire service elevator keys subject to these rules shall be engraved with the words “DO NOT DUPLICATE.”

Access to standardized fire service elevator keys shall be restricted to the following:

  1. Elevator owners or their authorized agents.
  2. Elevator contractors.
  3. Elevator inspectors of the jurisdiction.
  4. Fire code officials of the jurisdiction.
  5. The fire department and other emergency response agencies designated by the fire code official.
A person shall not duplicate a standardized fire service elevator key or issue, give, or sell a duplicated key unless in accordance with this code.
The building owner shall provide up to three standardized fire service elevator keys where required by the fire code official, upon installation of a standardized fire service key switch or switches in the building.

Where elevator hoistways or elevator machine rooms containing elevator control equipment are protected with automatic sprinklers, a means installed in accordance with NFPA 72, Section 21.4, Elevator Shutdown, shall be provided to automatically disconnect the main line power supply to the affected elevator prior to the application of water. This means shall not be self-resetting. The activation of sprinklers outside the hoistway or machine room shall not disconnect the main line power supply.

Stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L) for flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA), or more than 1,000 pounds (454 kg) for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer, used for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterruptible power supplies shall comply with this section and Table 608.1.

TABLE 608.1

BATTERY REQUIREMENTS

REQUIREMENTNONRECOMBINANT BATTERIESRECOMBINANT BATTERIESOTHER BATTERIES
Vented (Flooded) Lead Acid BatteriesVented (Flooded) Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) BatteriesValve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) CellsLithium-Ion CellsLithium Metal Cells
Safety caps
Venting caps
(608.2.1)
Venting caps
(608.2.1)
Self-resealing flame-arresting caps
(608.2.2)
No capsNo caps
Thermal runaway managementNot requiredNot required
Required
(608.3)
Not required
Required
(608.3)
Spill control
Required
(608.5)
Required
(608.5)
Not requiredNot requiredNot required
Neutralization
Required
(608.5.1)
Required
(608.5.1)
Required
(608.5.2)
Not requiredNot required
Ventilation
Required
(608.6.1; 608.6.2)
Required
(608.6.1; 608.6.2)
Required
(608.6.1; 608.6.2)
Not requiredNot required
Signage
Required
(608.7)
Required
(608.7)
Required
(608.7)
Required
(608.7)
Required
(608.7)
Seismic protection
Required
(608.8)
Required
(608.8)
Required
(608.8)
Required
(608.8)
Required
(608.8)
Smoke detection
Required
(608.9)
Required
(608.9)
Required
(608.9)
Required
(608.9)
Required
(608.9)
Safety caps for stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.2.1 and 608.2.2.
Vented lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of nonrecombinant batteries shall be provided with safety venting caps.
VRLA batteries shall be equipped with self-resealing flame-arresting safety vents.
VRLA and lithium metal polymer battery systems shall be provided with a listed device or other approved method to preclude, detect and control thermal runaway.
Enclosure of stationary battery systems shall comply with the California Building Code. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same room with the equipment they support.
Where stationary batteries are installed in a separate equipment room accessible only to authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be installed on an open rack for ease of maintenance.
Where a system of VRLA, lithium-ion, or other type of sealed, nonventing batteries is situated in an occupied work center, it shall be allowed to be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to prevent access by unauthorized personnel.
Where stationary batteries are contained in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the equipment that they support.

An approved method and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing liquid electrolyte. For purposes of this paragraph, a “spill” is defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte.

Exception: VRLA, lithium-ion, lithium metal polymer or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electrolyte shall not require spill control.

For battery systems containing lead acid, nickel cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing electrolyte, the method and materials shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of the total capacity from the largest cell or block to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

For VRLA or other types of batteries with immobilized electrolyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of 3.0 percent of the capacity of the largest cell or block in the room to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer batteries shall not require neutralization.

Ventilation of stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2.

Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the California Mechanical Code and the following:

  1. For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cd and VRLA batteries, the ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1.0 percent of the total volume of the room; or
  2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (1 ft3/min/ft2) [0.0051 m3/s • m2] of floor area of the room.

    Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer batteries shall not require additional ventilation beyond that which would normally be required for human occupancy of the space in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.

Where VRLA batteries are installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be approved for use in occupied spaces and shall be mechanically or naturally vented by one of the following methods:

  1. The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total volume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of simultaneous “boost” charging of all the batteries in the cabinet.
  2. Where calculations are not available to substantiate the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [1 ft3/min/ft2 or 0.0051 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area covered by the cabinet. The room in which the cabinet is installed shall be ventilated as required in Section 608.6.1.
Mechanical ventilation systems where required by Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2 shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.
Signs shall comply with Sections 608.7.1 and 608.7.2.

Doors into electrical equipment rooms or buildings containing stationary battery systems shall be provided with approved signs. The signs shall state that:

  1. The room contains energized battery systems.
  2. The room contains energized electrical circuits.
  3. The battery electrolyte solutions, where present, are corrosive liquids.
Cabinets shall have exterior labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the contained battery system. There shall be signs within the cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical, chemical and fire hazards.
The battery systems shall be seismically braced in accordance with the California Building Code.
An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2 in rooms containing stationary battery systems.
Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall comply with the requirements of the California Mechanical Code.

A Type I hood shall be installed at or above all commercial cooking appliances and domestic cooking appliances used for commercial purposes that produce grease vapors.

Exception: A Type I hood shall not be required for an electric cooking appliance where an approved testing agency provides documentation that the appliance effluent contains 5 mg/m3 or less of grease when tested at an exhaust flow rate of 500 cfm (0.236 m3/s) in accordance with UL 710B.

Commercial cooking systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Sections 609.3.1 through 609.3.4.
The ventilation system in connection with hoods shall be operated at the required rate of air movement, and classified grease filters shall be in place when equipment under a kitchen grease hood is used.
Where grease extractors are installed, they shall be operated when the commercial-type cooking equipment is used.
Hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be cleaned at intervals as required by Sections 609.3.3.1 through 609.3.3.3.

Hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be inspected at intervals specified in Table 609.3.3.1 or as approved by the fire code official. Inspections shall be completed by qualified individuals.

TABLE 609.3.3.1

COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM INSPECTION FREQUENCY

TYPE OF COOKING OPERATIONSFREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
High-volume cooking operations such as 24-hour cooking, charbroiling or wok cooking3 months
Low-volume cooking operations such as places of religious worship, seasonal businesses and senior centers12 months
Cooking operations utilizing solid fuel-burning cooking appliances1 month
All other cooking operations6 months
If during the inspection it is found that hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts or other appurtenances have an accumulation of grease, such components shall be cleaned in accordance with ANSI/IKECA C 10.
Records for inspections shall state the individual and company performing the inspection, a description of the inspection and when the inspection took place. Records for cleanings shall state the individual and company performing the cleaning and when the cleaning took place. Such records shall be completed after each inspection or cleaning and maintained.
When a commercial kitchen hood or duct system is inspected, a tag containing the service provider name, address, telephone number and date of service shall be provided in a conspicuous location. Prior tags shall be covered or removed.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be serviced as required in Section 904.12.6.
Gas-fired commercial cooking appliances installed on casters and appliances that are moved for cleaning and sanitation purposes shall be connected to the piping system with an appliance connector listed as complying with ANSI Z21.69. The commercial cooking appliance connector installation shall be configured in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Movement of appliances with casters shall be limited by a restraining device installed in accordance with the connector and appliance manufacturer’s instructions.
Storage of cooking oil (grease) in commercial cooking operations utilizing above-ground tanks with a capacity greater than 60 gal (227 L) installed within a building shall comply with Sections 610.2 through 610.7 and NFPA 30. For purposes of this section, cooking oil shall be classified as a Class IIIB liquid unless otherwise determined by testing.
Metallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be listed in accordance with UL 142 or UL 80, and shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer’s instructions.

Nonmetallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer’s instructions and shall also comply with all of the following:

  1. Tanks shall be listed for use with cooking oil, including maximum temperature to which the tank will be exposed during use.
  2. Tank capacity shall not exceed 200 gallons (757 L) per tank.
Cooking oil storage system components shall include but are not limited to piping, connections, fittings, valves, tubing, hose, pumps, vents and other related components used for the transfer of cooking oil, and are permitted to be of either metallic or non-metallic construction.
The design, fabrication and assembly of system components shall be suitable for the working pressures, temperatures and structural stresses to be encountered by the components.
System components that come in contact with heated cooking oil shall be rated for the maximum operating temperatures expected in the system.
Normal and emergency venting shall be provided for cooking oil storage tanks.
Normal vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall have a minimum effective area not smaller than the largest filling or withdrawal connection. Normal vents shall be permitted to vent inside the building.
Emergency relief vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall be in the form of a device or devices that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by an exposure fire. For nonmetallic tanks, the emergency relief vent shall be allowed to be in the form of construction. Emergency vents shall be permitted to vent inside the building.
Electrical equipment used for heating cooking oil in cooking oil storage systems shall be listed to UL 499 and shall comply with California Electrical Code. Use of electrical immersion heaters shall be prohibited in nonmetallic tanks.
Electrical equipment used for the operation of cooking oil storage systems shall comply with California Electrical Code.
Hyperbaric facilities shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 99.
Records shall be maintained of all testing and repair conducted on the hyperbaric chamber and associated devices and equipment. Records shall be available to the fire code official.
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