California Code of Regulations, Title 24

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Provisions for All Compliance Methods

Chapter 4 Prescriptive Compliance Method

Chapter 5 Classification of Work

Chapter 6 Repairs

Chapter 7 Alterations - Level 1

Chapter 8 Alterations - Level 2

Chapter 9 Alterations - Level 3

Chapter 10 Change of Occupancy

Chapter 11 Additions

Chapter 12 Historic Buildings

Chapter 13 Relocated or Moved Buildings

Chapter 14 Performance Compliance Methods

Chapter 15 Construction Safeguards

Chapter 16 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Guidelines for the Seismic Retrofit of Existing Buildings

Referenced Standards

Chapter A3 Prescriptive Provisions for Seismic Strengthening of Cripple Walls and Sill Plate Anchorage of Light, Wood-Frame Residential Buildings

Chapter A4 Earthquake Risk Reduction in Wood-Frame Residential Buildings With Soft, Weak or Open Front Walls

Chapter A6 Referenced Standards

History Note Appendix California Existing Building Code

The repair, alteration, change of occupancy, addition or relocation of all existing buildings shall comply with one of the methods listed in Sections 301.1.1 through 301.1.3 as selected by the applicant. Sections 301.1.1 through 301.1.3 shall not be applied in combination with each other. Where this code requires consideration of the seismic force-resisting system of an existing building subject to repair, alteration, change of occupancy, addition or relocation of existing buildings, the seismic evaluation and design shall be based on Section 301.1.4 regardless of which compliance method is used.

Exceptions:

  1. Subject to the approval of the code official, alterations complying with the laws in existence at the time the building or the affected portion of the building was built shall be considered in compliance with the provisions of this code unless the building is undergoing more than a limited structural alteration as defined in Section 907.4.4. New structural members added as part of the alteration shall comply with the California Building Code. Alterations of existing buildings in flood hazard areas shall comply with Section 701.3.
  2. Existing state-owned structures. [BSC] The repair, alteration, change of occupancy, addition or relocation of all existing buildings shall comply with the provisions of Sections 317 through 322 as the minimum standards for earthquake evaluation and design for retrofit of existing state-owned structures, including buildings owned by the University of California, the California State University, or the Judicial Council.

    The provisions of Sections 317 through 322 may be adopted by a local jurisdiction for earthquake evaluation and design for retrofit of existing buildings.

  3. Public school buildings [DSA-SS] The provisions of Sections 317 through 323 establish minimum standards for earthquake evaluation and design for the rehabilitation of existing buildings for use as public school buildings under the jurisdiction of the Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety (DSA-SS, refer to Section 1.9.2.1) where required by Sections 4-307 and 4-309(c) of the California Administrative Code.

    The provisions of Sections 317 through 323 also establish minimum standards for earthquake evaluation and design for rehabilitation of existing public school buildings currently under the jurisdiction of DSA-SS.

  4. Community college buildings. [DSA-SS/CC] The provisions of Sections 317 through 323 establish minimum standards for earthquake evaluation and design for the rehabilitation of existing buildings for use as community college buildings under the jurisdiction of the Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Colleges (DSA-SS/CC, refer to Section 1.9.2.2) where required by Sections 4-307 and 4-309(c) of the California Administrative Code.

    The provisions of Sections 317 through 323 also establish minimum standards for earthquake evaluation and design for rehabilitation of existing community college buildings currently under the jurisdiction of DSA-SS/CC.

Repairs, alterations, additions and changes of occupancy complying with Chapter 4 of this code in buildings complying with the California Fire Code shall be considered in compliance with the provisions of this code.
Repairs, alterations, additions, changes in occupancy and relocated buildings complying with the applicable requirements of Chapters 5 through 13 of this code shall be considered in compliance with the provisions of this code.
Repairs, alterations, additions, changes in occupancy and relocated buildings complying with Chapter 14 of this code shall be considered in compliance with the provisions of this code.
The seismic evaluation and design shall be based on the procedures specified in the California Building Code or ASCE 41. The procedures contained in Appendix A of this code shall be permitted to be used as specified in Section 301.1.4.2.

Where compliance with the seismic design provisions of the California Building Code is required, the criteria shall be in accordance with one of the following:

  1. One-hundred percent of the values in the California Building Code. Where the existing seismic force-resisting system is a type that can be designated as “Ordinary,” values of R, Ω0 and Cd used for analysis in accordance with Chapter 16 of the California Building Code shall be those specified for structural systems classified as “Ordinary” in accordance with Table 12.2-1 of ASCE 7, unless it can be demonstrated that the structural system will provide performance equivalent to that of a “Detailed,” “Intermediate” or “Special” system.
  2. ASCE 41, using a Tier 3 procedure and the two-level performance objective in Table 301.1.4.1 for the applicable risk category.

[BS] TABLE 301.1.4.1

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES FOR USE IN ASCE 41 FOR COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE-LEVEL SEISMIC FORCES

RISK CATEGORY (Based on IBC Table 1604.5)STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE LEVEL FOR USE WITH BSE-1N EARTHQUAKE HAZARD LEVELSTRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE LEVEL FOR USE WITH BSE-2N EARTHQUAKE HAZARD LEVEL
ILife Safety (S-3)Collapse Prevention (S-5)
IILife Safety (S-3)Collapse Prevention (S-5)
IIIDamage Control (S-2)Limited Safety (S-4)
IVImmediate Occupancy (S-1)Life Safety (S-3)

Where seismic evaluation and design is permitted to meet reduced California Building Code seismic force levels, the criteria used shall be in accordance with one of the following:

  1. The California Building Code using 75 percent of the prescribed forces. Values of R, Ω0 and Cd used for analysis shall be as specified in Section 301.1.4.1 of this code.
  2. Structures or portions of structures that comply with the requirements of the applicable chapter in Appendix A as specified in Items 2.1 through 2.5 and subject to the limitations of the respective Appendix A chapters shall be deemed to comply with this section.

    1. 2.1. The seismic evaluation and design of unreinforced masonry bearing wall buildings in Risk Category I or II are permitted to be based on the procedures specified in Appendix Chapter A1.
    2. 2.2. Seismic evaluation and design of the wall anchorage system in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry wall buildings with flexible diaphragms in Risk Category I or II are permitted to be based on the procedures specified in Chapter A2.
    3. 2.3. Seismic evaluation and design of cripple walls and sill plate anchorage in residential buildings of light-frame wood construction in Risk Category I or II are permitted to be based on the procedures specified in Chapter A3.
    4. 2.4. Seismic evaluation and design of soft, weak, or open-front wall conditions in multiunit residential buildings of wood construction in Risk Category I or II are permitted to be based on the procedures specified in Chapter A4.
    5. 2.5. Seismic evaluation and design of concrete buildings assigned to Risk Category I, II or III are permitted to be based on the procedures specified in Chapter A5.
  3. ASCE 41, using the performance objective in Table 301.1.4.2 for the applicable risk category.

[BS] TABLE 301.1.4.2

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES FOR USE IN ASCE 41 FOR COMPLIANCE WITH REDUCED INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE-LEVEL SEISMIC FORCES

RISK CATEGORY (Based on IBC Table 1604.5)STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE LEVEL FOR USE WITH BSE-1E EARTHQUAKE HAZARD LEVEL
ILife Safety (S-3)
IILife Safety (S-3)
IIIDamage Control (S-2). See Note a
IVImmediate Occupancy (S-1)
  1. Tier 1 evaluation at the Damage Control performance level shall use the Tier 1 Life Safety checklists and Tier 1 Quick Check provisions midway between those specified for Life Safety and Immediate Occupancy performance.
The provisions of Section 302 apply to all alterations, repairs, additions, relocations of structures and changes of occupancy regardless of compliance method.
Alterations, repairs, additions and changes of occupancy to, or relocation of, existing buildings and structures shall comply with the provisions for alterations, repairs, additions and changes of occupancy or relocation, respectively, in this code and the California Energy Code, California Fire Code, California Mechanical Code, California Plumbing Code, California Residential Code and the California Electrical Code. Where provisions of the other codes conflict with provisions of this code, the provisions of this code shall take precedence.
Materials already in use in a building in compliance with requirements or approvals in effect at the time of their erection or installation shall be permitted to remain in use unless determined by the building official to be unsafe.
Except as otherwise required or permitted by this code, materials permitted by the applicable code for new construction shall be used. Like materials shall be permitted for repairs and alterations, provided no unsafe condition is created. Hazardous materials shall not be used where the code for new construction would not permit their use in buildings of similar occupancy, purpose and location.
When determining the appropriate application of the referenced sections of this code, the occupancy and use of a building shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 3 of the California Building Code.

The provisions of this section are intended to maintain or increase the current degree of public safety, health and general welfare in existing buildings classified as Group R Occupancies.

In accordance with Health and Safety Code Section 13143.2, the provisions of Sections 313.2 through 313.12 shall only apply to multiple-story structures existing on January 1, 1975, let for human habitation, including, and limited to, apartment houses, hotels, and motels wherein rooms used for sleeping are let above the ground floor.

Every apartment and every other sleeping room shall have access to not less than two exits when the occupant load is 10 or more (exits need not be directly from the apartment or sleeping room). A fire escape as specified herein may be used as one required exit.

Subject to approval of the authority having jurisdiction, a ladder device as specified herein may be used in lieu of a fire escape when the construction feature or the location of the building on the property cause the installation of a fire escape to be impractical.

All stairs shall have a minimum run of 9 inches (229 mm) and a maximum rise of 8 inches (203 mm) and a minimum width exclusive of handrails of 30 inches (762 mm). Every stairway shall have at least one handrail. A landing having a minimum horizontal dimension of 30 inches (762 mm) shall be provided at each point of access to the stairway.

Every interior stairway shall be enclosed with walls of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction. Where existing partitions form part of a stairwell enclosure, wood lath and plaster in good condition will be acceptable in lieu of one-hour fire-resistive construction. Doors to such enclosures shall be protected by a self-closing door equivalent to a solid wood door with a thickness of not less than 13/4 inches (44.5 mm).

Enclosures shall include all landings between flights and any corridors, passageways or public rooms necessary for continuous exit to the exterior of the buildings. The stairway need not be enclosed in a continuous shaft if cut off at each story by the fire-resistive construction required by this subsection for stairwell enclosures. Enclosures shall not be required if an automatic sprinkler system is provided for all portions of the building except bedrooms, apartments and rooms accessory thereto. Interior stairs and vertical openings need not be enclosed in two-story buildings.

Exterior stairways shall be noncombustible or of wood of not less than 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness with solid treads and risers.

Fire escapes may be used as one means of egress if the pitch does not exceed 60 degrees, the width is not less than 18 inches (457 mm), the treads are not less than 4 inches (102 mm) wide, and they extend to the ground or are provided with counterbalanced stairs reaching to the ground. Access shall be by an opening having a minimum dimension of 29 inches (737 mm) when open. The sill shall not be more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor and landing.

A ladder device, when used in lieu of a fire escape, shall conform to Section 313.6.1 and the following:

Serves an occupant load of nine people or less or a single dwelling unit or hotel room.

The building does not exceed three stories in height.

The access is adjacent to an opening as specified for emergency egress or rescue or from a balcony.

The device does not pass in front of any building opening below the unit being served.

The availability of activating the ladder device is accessible only to the opening or balcony served.

The device as installed will not cause a person using it to be within 12 feet (3658 mm) of exposed energized high-voltage conductors.

This standard for exit ladder devices is applicable where such devices are permitted by the building official for installation on existing apartment houses and hotels in conformance with the California Building Code.

Installation shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Instructions shall be illustrated and shall include directions and information adequate for attaining proper and safe installation of the product. Where exit ladder devices are intended for mounting on different support surfaces, specific installation instructions shall be provided for each surface.

All load-bearing surfaces and supporting hardware shall be of noncombustible materials. Exit ladder devices shall have a minimum width of 12 inches (305 mm) when in the position intended for use. The design load shall not be less than 400 pounds (1780N) for 16-foot (4877 mm) length and 600 pounds (2699N) for 25-foot (7620 mm) length.

Exit ladder devices shall be capable of withstanding an applied load of four times the design load when installed in the manner intended for use. Test loads shall be applied for a period of one hour.

Exit ladder devices of the retractable type shall, in addition to the static load requirements of Section 413.6.1.4.1 of the California Building Code, be capable of withstanding the following tests:

  1. Rung strength
  2. Rung-to-side-rail shear strength
  3. Release mechanism
  4. Low temperature

Rungs of retractable exit ladder devices shall be capable of withstanding a load of 1,000 pounds (4448N) when applied to a 31/2-inch-wide (89 mm) block resting at the center of the rung. The test load shall be applied for a period of one hour. The ladder shall remain operational following this test.

Rungs of retractable exit ladder devices shall be capable of withstanding 1,000 (4448N) when applied to a 31/2-inch-wide (89 mm) block resting on the center rung as near the side rail as possible. The test load shall be applied for a period of one hour. Upon removal of the test load the fasteners attaching the rung to the side rail shall show no evidence of failure. The ladder shall remain operational following the test.

The release mechanism of retractable exit ladder devices shall operate with an average applied force of not more than 5 pounds (22.2N) for hand-operated releasing mechanisms and an average applied force of not more than 25 pounds (111N) for foot-pedal types of releasing mechanisms. For these tests, a force gauge shall be applied to the release mechanism, and the average of three consecutive readings shall be computed.

Representative samples of the exit ladder devices shall be subjected to a temperature of -40°C in an environmental chamber for a period of 24 hours. The release mechanism shall be operated immediately upon removal from the chamber. The ladder device shall function as intended without any restriction of operation.

Exit doors and openings shall meet the requirements of Sections 1008.1.2, 1008.8.1.8, 1008.1.9 and 708.6 of the California Building Code. Doors shall not reduce the required width of stairway more than 6 inches (152 mm) when open. Transoms and openings other than doors from corridors to rooms shall be fixed closed and shall be covered with a minimum of 3/4-inch (19 mm) plywood or 1/2-inch (13 mm) gypsum wallboard or equivalent material.

Exceptions:

  1. Existing solid-bonded wood-core doors 13/8 inches thick (34.9 mm), or their equivalent may be continued in use.
  2. Where the existing frame will not accommodate a door complying with Section 708.6 of the California Building Code, a 13/8-inch-thick (35 mm) solid-bonded wood-core door may be used.

Every exit doorway or change of direction of a corridor shall be marked with a well-lighted exit sign having letters at least 5 inches (127 mm) high.

Elevators, shafts, ducts and other vertical openings shall be enclosed as required for stairways in Section 313.5 or by wired glass set in metal frames. Doors shall be noncombustible or as regulated in Section 313.5.

Occupancy separations shall be provided as specified in Section 508 of the California Building Code. Lobbies and public dining rooms, not including cocktail lounges, shall not require a separation if the kitchen is so separated from the dining room. Every room containing a boiler or central heating plant shall be separated from the rest of the building by not less than a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation.

Exception: A separation shall not be required for such rooms with equipment serving only one dwelling unit.

In lieu of the separation of occupancies required by Section 313.10, equivalent protection may be permitted when approved by the enforcement agency.

Exception: The provisions of Sections 313.3 through 313.11 above shall not apply to any existing apartment house, hotel or motel having floors (as measured from the top of the floor surface) used for human occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest floor level having building access which is subject to the provisions of Section 314 and the California Fire Code, relating to existing high-rise buildings.

Note: In accordance with Health and Safety Code Section 17920.7, the provisions of Sections 313.3 through 313.11 above shall apply only to multiple-story structures existing on January 1, 1975, let for human habitation including, and limited to, apartments, houses, hotels and motels wherein rooms used for sleeping are let above the ground floor.

Every apartment house three or more stories in height or containing more than 15 apartments, every hotel three or more stories in height or containing 20 or more guest rooms, shall have installed therein an automatic or manually operated fire alarm system. Such fire alarm systems shall be so designed that all occupants of the building may be warned simultaneously and shall be in accordance with the California Fire Code. See Section 314.14 for special requirements in buildings over 75 feet (22 860 mm) in height.

Exception: A fire alarm system need not be installed provided such apartment house or hotel is separated by an unpierced wall of not less than four-hour fire resistance in buildings of Type IA, Type IIB, Type III or Type IV construction and two-hour fire resistance in buildings of all other types of construction provided:

  1. Areas do not exceed the number of apartments or guest rooms stipulated.
  2. The fire-resistive wall conforms to the requirements of Section 706.6 of the California Building Code.
  3. The wall complies with all other applicable provisions of the California Building Code.
  4. The wall extends to all outer edges of horizontal projecting elements, such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees or architectural projections.
  5. No openings are permitted for air ducts or similar penetrations, except that openings for pipes, conduits and electrical outlets of copper, sheet steel or ferrous material shall be permitted through such wall and need not be protected, provided they do not unduly impair the required fire resistance of the assembly.
  6. Tolerances around such penetrations shall be filled with approved noncombustible materials.

The installation of all fire alarm equipment shall be in accordance with the California Fire Code.

Regardless of other provisions of these regulations relating to existing high-rise buildings, requirements relative to existing Group R-1 or Group R-2 Occupancies shall not be less restrictive than those established pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.2.

Openings in corridor walls and ceilings shall be protected by not less than 13/4-inch (44.5 mm) solid-bonded wood-core doors, 1/4-inch-thick (6 mm) wired glass conforming to Section 715.1 of the California Building Code, by approved fire dampers or by equivalent protection in lieu of any of these items. Transoms shall be fixed closed with material having a fire-resistive rating equal to 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) Type X gypsum wallboard or equivalent material installed on both sides of the opening.

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 403 of the California Building Code, every existing high-rise building used for the housing of a Group R-1 or Group R-2 Occupancies shall have installed therein a fire alarm system conforming to this subsection.

Every apartment house and every hotel shall have installed therein an automatic or manually operated fire alarm system. Such fire alarm systems shall be so designed that all occupants of the building may be warned simultaneously.

The installation of all fire alarm equipment shall be in accordance with the California Fire Code.

Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed in any structure subject to these regulations shall have an approved flow indicator electrically interconnected to the required fire alarm system.

The provisions of Sections 314.1 through 314.27 shall apply to every existing high-rise building of any type of construction or occupancy having floors (as measured from the top of the floor surface) used for human occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest floor level having building access.

Exceptions:

  1. Hospitals, as defined in Section 1250 of the Health and Safety Code.
  2. The following structures, while classified as high-rise buildings, shall not be subject to the provisions of Sections 314.1 through 314.27, but shall conform to all applicable provisions of these regulations.

    1. 2.1. Building used exclusively as open parking garages.
    2. 2.2. Buildings where all floors above the 75 foot (22 860 mm) level are used exclusively as open parking garages.
    3. 2.3. Floors of buildings used exclusively as open parking garages and located above all other floors used for human occupancy.
    4. 2.4. Buildings such as power plants, look-out towers, steeples, grain houses, and similar structures, when so determined by the enforcing agency.
    5. 2.5. Buildings used exclusively for jails and prisons. For the purposes of this section, “building access” shall mean an exterior door opening conforming to all of the following:

      1. Suitable and available for fire department use.
      2. Located not more than 2 feet (610 mm) above the adjacent ground level.
      3. Leading to a space, room or area having foot traffic communication capabilities with the remainder of the building.
      4. Designed to permit penetration through the use of fire department forcible-entry tools and equipment unless other approved arrangements have been made with the fire authority having jurisdiction.

“Existing high-rise structure” means a high-rise structure, the construction of which is commenced or completed prior to July 1, 1974.

For the purpose of this section, construction shall be deemed to have commenced when plans and specifications are more than 50 percent complete and have been presented to the local jurisdiction prior to July 1, 1974. Actual construction of such buildings shall commence on or before January 1, 1976, unless all provisions for new buildings have been met.

Note: it is the intent of this section that, in determining the level form which the highest occupied floor is to be measured, the enforcing agency should exercise reasonable judgment, including consideration of overall accessibility to the building by fire department personnel and vehicular equipment. When a building is situated on sloping terrain and there is building access on more than one level, the enforcing agency may select the level which provides the most logical and adequate fire department access.

Except as may be otherwise specified, existing high-rise building shall conform to the applicable requirements of these regulations by April 26, 1979.

Exception: The period of compliance may be extended upon showing of good cause for such extension if a systematic and progressive plan of correction is submitted to, and approved by, the enforcing agency. Such extension shall not exceed two years from the date of approval of such plan. Any plan of correction submitted pursuant to this exception shall be submitted and approved on or before April 26, 1979.

Existing high-rise building may have their use continued if they conform, or are made to conform, to the intent of the provisions of Sections 314.5 through 314.27 to provide for the safety of the occupants of the high-rise buildings and person involved in fire-suppression activities.

Alternate means of egress, fire walls or fire barriers, smoke barriers, automatic fire detection or fire-extinguishing systems, or other fire-protection devices, equipment or installations may be approved by the enforcing agency to provide reasonable and adequate life safety as intended by Sections 314.5 through 314.27 for existing high-rise buildings.

The provisions outlined in Sections 314.1 through 314.27 are applicable to every existing highrise building.

Existing wood lath and plaster, existing 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard, existing installations of 1/2-inch thick (12.7 mm) wired glass which are or are rendered inoperative and fixed in a closed position, or other existing materials having similar fire-resistive capabilities shall be acceptable. All such assemblies shall be in good repair, free of any condition which would diminish their original fire-resistive characteristics.

Where 13/4-inch (44.5 mm) solid-bonded wood-core doors are specified in these regulations for existing high-rise buildings, new or existing 13/8-inch (34.9 mm) doors shall be acceptable where existing framing will not accommodate a 13/4-inch (44.5 mm) door.

Note: It is the intent of this provisions that existing wood frames may have their use continued.

All new construction shall be composed of materials and assemblies of materials conforming to the fire-resistive provisions of these regulations. In no case shall enclosure walls be required to be of more than one-hour fire-resistive construction.

Exception: When approved by the enforcing agency, materials specified in Section 314.6 may be used for new construction when necessary to maintain continuity of design and measurement of existing construction.

Every floor from an existing high-rise building shall have access to two separate means of egress, one of which, when approved by the enforcing agency, may be an existing exterior fire escape. New installations of smoke-proof enclosures shall not be required.

Note: In determining the adequacy of exits and their design, Chapter 10 of the California Building Code may be used as a guide. It is the intent of this section that every existing high-rise building need not mandatorily conform or be made to conform with the requirements for new high-rise buildings. Reasonable judgment in the application of requirements must be exercised by the enforcing agency.

An existing fire escape in good structural condition may be acceptable as one of the required means of egress from each floor. Access to such fire escapes may be by any one of the following:

Through a room between the corridor and the fire escape if the door to the room is operable from the corridor side without the use of any key, special knowledge or effort.

By a door operable to a fire escape from the interior without the use of any key, special knowledge or effort.

By a window operable from the interior. Such window shall have a minimum dimension of 29 inches (737 mm) when open.

The sill shall not be more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor and landing.

When an existing fire escape is accepted as one of the require means of egress, openings onto the fire escape landing and openings within 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally of the landings shall be protected in a manner acceptable to the enforcing agency.

When exit doors from corridors to exit stairways are locked to prohibit access from the stairway side, the locking mechanisms shall be retracted to the unlocked position upon failure of electrical power and a telephone or other two-way communication system connected to an approved emergency service that operates continuously shall be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each required stairway. In lieu thereof, master keys which will unlock all such doors from the stairway side shall be provided in such numbers and locations as approved by the enforcing agency.

Interior vertical shafts, including but not limited to, elevators, stairway and utility, shall be enclosed with construction as set forth in Section 314.6.

Doors in other than elevators, which shall be of a type acceptable to the enforcing agency, shall be approved one-hour, fire-rated, tight-fitting or gasketed doors or equivalent protection, and shall be of the normally closed type, self-closing or a type which will close automatically in accordance with Section 715 of the California Building Code.

Exception: In lieu of stairway enclosures, smoke barriers may be provided in such a manner that fire and smoke will not spread to other floors or otherwise impair exit facilities. In these instances, smoke barriers shall not be less than one-hour fire resistive with openings protected by not less than approved one-third-hour, fire-rated, tight-fitting or gasketed doors. Such doors shall be of the self-closing type or of a type which will close automatically in the manner specified in Section 715 of the California Building Code.

Doors crossing corridors shall be provided with wired-glass vision panels set in approved steel frames. Doors for elevators shall not be of the open-grille type.

Every existing high-rise building shall be provided with an approved fire alarm system. In department stores, retail sales stores and similar occupancies where the general public is admitted, such systems shall be of a type capable of alerting staff and employees. In office buildings and all other high-rise buildings, such systems shall be of a type capable of alerting all occupants simultaneously.

Exceptions:

  1. In areas of public assemblage, the type and location of audible appliances shall be as determined by the enforcing agency.
  2. When acceptable to the enforcing agency, the occupant voice notification system required by Section 314.20 may be used in lieu of the fire alarm system required by Section 314.14.

Existing fire systems, when acceptable to the enforcing agency, shall be deemed as conforming to the provisions of these regulations. For requirements for existing Group R-1 Occupancies, see Section 312.13.

When a new fire alarm system is installed, it shall be connected to an annunciator panel installed in a location approved by the enforcing agency. For purposes of annunciation, zoning shall be in accordance with Section 907.6.3 of the California Building Code.

Shall be in accordance with Section 907.6.5 of the California Building Code.

When an automatic fire detection system or automatic extinguishing system is installed, activation of such system shall cause the sounding of the fire alarm notification appliances at locations designated by the enforcing agency.

A manual fire alarm box shall be provided in the locations designated by the enforcing agency. Such locations shall be where boxes are readily accessible and visible and in normal paths of daily travel by occupants of the building.

An approved emergency voice/alarm system shall be provided in every existing high-rise building which exceeds 150 feet (45 720 mm) in height measured in the manner set forth in Section 312.1. Such system shall provide communication from a location available to and designated by the enforcing agency to not less than all public areas. The emergency voice/alarm system may be combined with a fire alarm system provide the combined system has been approved and listed by the State Fire Marshal. The sounding of a fire alarm signal in any given area or floor shall not prohibit voice communication to other areas of floors. Combination systems shall be designed to permit voice transmission to override the fire alarm signal, but the fire alarm signal shall not terminate in less than three minutes.

When it is determined by test that portable fire department communication equipment is ineffective, a communication system acceptable to the enforcing agency shall be installed within the building to permit emergency communication between fire-suppression personnel.

Interior wall and ceiling finish of exitways shall conform to the provisions of Chapter 8 of the California Building Code. Where the materials used in such finishes do not conform to the provisions of Chapter 8 of the California Building Code, such finishes may be surfaced with an approved fire-retardant coating.

Natural or mechanical ventilation for the removal of products of combustion shall be provided in every story of an existing high-rise building. Such ventilation shall be any one or combination of the following: Panels or windows in the exterior wall which can be opened. Such venting facilities shall be provided at the rate of at least 20 square feet (1.86 m2) of opening per 50 lineal feet (15 240 lineal mm) of exterior wall in each story, distributed around the perimeter at not more than 50-foot (15 240 mm) intervals on at least two sides of the building. Approved fixed tempered glass may be used in lieu of openable panels or windows. When only selected panels or windows are of tempered glass, they shall be clearly identified as required by the enforcing agency. Any other design which will produce equivalent results.

Existing air-circulation systems shall be provided with an override switch in a location approved by the enforcing agency which will allow for the manual control of shutdown of the systems.

Exception: Systems which serve only a single floor, or portion thereof, without any penetration by ducts or other means into adjacent floors.

Smoke detectors for emergency operation of elevators shall be provided as required by Section 3003 of the California Building Code.

Exits and stairways shall be provided with exit signs and illumination as required by Sections 1011.1 and 1011.2 of the California Building Code.

Regardless of any other provisions of these regulations, every existing high-rise building of Type II-B, Type III-B or Type V-B construction shall be provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system conforming to NFPA 13.

Existing buildings housing existing protective social-care homes or facilities established prior to March 4, 1972 may have their use continued if they conform, or are made to conform, to the following provisions:

The use of floor levels in buildings of Type III, IV or V nonfire-rated construction may be as follows: Nonambulatory—first floor only; Ambulatory—not higher than the third-floor level, provided walls and partitions are constructed of materials equal in fireresistive quality to that of wood lath and plaster in good repair and all walls are firestopped at each floor level.

Except for two-story structures housing ambulatory guests, all interior stairs shall be enclosed in accordance with Chapter 10 of the California Building Code. In lieu of stairway enclosures, floor separations or smoke barriers may be provided in such a manner that fire and smoke will not spread rapidly to floors above or otherwise impair exit facilities. In these instances, floor separations or smoke barriers shall have a fire resistance equal to not less than 1/2-inch (13 mm) gypsum wall board on each side of wood studs with openings protected by not less than a 13/4-inch (44.5 mm) solid bonded wood-core door of the self-closing type. All other vertical openings shall be enclosed in accordance with the provisions of Section 314.6 and 314.13.

Each floor or portion thereof of buildings used for the housing of existing protective social-care homes or facilities shall have access to not less than two exits in such a manner as to furnish egress from the building or structure in the event of an emergency substantially equivalent to the provisions of Chapter 10 of the California Building Code.

Openings from rooms to interior corridors shall be protected by not less than 13/4-inch (44.5 mm) solid-bonded wood-core doors. Transoms and other similar openings shall be sealed with materials equivalent to existing corridor wall construction.

Interior wall and ceiling finishes shall conform to the requirements for a Group R-1 Occupancy as specified in Chapter 8 of the California Building Code.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in existing protective social-care occupancies in accordance with the provisions of Section 903.2.6 of the California Building Code.

Automatic fire alarm systems shall be installed in existing protective social-care homes or facilities in accordance with the provisions of Section 907.2.6 of the California Building Code.

Exception: When an approved automatic sprinkler system conforming to Section 903.2.6 of the California Building Code is installed, a separate fire alarm system as specified in this section need not be provided.

Additions, alterations or repairs may be made to any building or structure without requiring the existing building or structure to comply with all the requirements of this code section, provided the addition, alteration, or repair conforms to the requirements of this section.

Additions, repairs or alterations shall not be made to an existing building or structure that will cause the existing building or structure to be in violation of any of the provisions of this code, nor shall such additions or alterations cause the existing building or structure to become unsafe, or to be in violation of any of the provisions of this code. An unsafe condition shall be deemed to have been created if an addition or alteration will cause the existing building or structure to become structurally unsafe or overloaded; will not provide adequate egress in compliance with the provisions of this code or will obstruct existing exits; will create a fire hazard; will reduce required fire resistance or will otherwise create conditions dangerous to human life.

Any buildings that have alternations or additions, which involves a change in use or occupancy, shall not exceed the height, number of stories and area permitted for new buildings

Additions or alterations shall not be made to an existing building or structure when such existing building or structure is not in full compliance with the provisions of this code except when such addition or alteration will result in the existing building or structure being no more hazardous, based on life safety, fire safety and sanitation, than before such additions or alterations are undertaken.

Alterations or repairs to an existing building or structure that are nonstructural and do not adversely affect any structural member of any part of the building or structure having required fire resistance may be made with the same materials of which the building or structure is constructed. The installation or replacement of glass shall be as required for new installations.

Buildings in existence at the time of the adoption of this code may have their existing use or occupancy continued if such use or occupancy was legal at the time of the adoption of this code, provided such continued use is not dangerous to life.

Laboratory suites approved prior to January 1, 2008 shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities listed in Tables 316.1 and 316.2.

TABLE 316.7(1)

EXEMPT AMOUNTS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, LIQUIDS AND CHEMICALS PRESENTING A PHYSICAL HAZARD BASIC QUANTITIES PER LABORATORY SUITE1 When two units are given, values within parentheses are in cubic feet (cu. ft) or pounds (lb)

CONDITIONSTORAGEUSE CLOSED SYSTEMSUSE OPEN SYSTEMS
MATERIALCLASSSolid Pounds (cu. ft)LiquidGallons(lb)Gas (cu. ft)Solid Pounds (cu. ft)LiquidGallons(lb)Gas (cu. ft)Solid Pounds (cu. ft)LiquidGallons(lb)Gas (cu. ft)
1.1 Combustible liquidII120212030
II-A330233080
III-B13,200213,2003,300
1.2 Combustible dust lbs./1000 cu. ft.111
1.3 Combustible fiber
(loose)
(baled)
(100)
(1,000)
(100)
(1,000)
(20)
(200)
1.4 Cryogenic, flammable or oxidizing454510
2.1 Explosives12(1)21/4(1/4)1/4(1/4)
3.1 Flammable solid12522525
3.2. Flammable gas
(gaseous)
(liquefied)
152
7502
152
7502
3.3 Flammable liquid Combination I-A, I-B, I-CI-A3023010
I-B6026015
I-C9029020
120212030
4.1 Organic peroxide, unclassified detonatable12(1)21/4(1/4)1/4(1/4)
4.2 Organic peroxideI52(5)2(1)(1)11
II502(50)250(50)10(10)
III1252(125)2125(125)25(25)
IV500(500)500(500)100(100)
VN.L.N.L.N.L.N.L.N.L.N.L.
4.3 Oxidizer412(1)21/42(1/4)1/4(1/4)
3102(10)22(2)2(2)
22502(250)250(250)50(50)
11,0002(1,000)21,000(1,000)200(200)
4.4 Oxidizer. Gas
(gaseous)
(liquefied)
152
1,5002
152
1,5002
5.1 Pyrophoric42(4)25021(1)102000
6.1 Unstable (reactive)412(1)21021/4(1/4)221/4(1/4)0
352(5)25021(1)1021(1)0
2502(50)2250250(50)250210(10)0
11252(125)27502125(125)750225(25)0
7.1 Water (reactive)352(5)25(5)1(1)
2502(50)250(50)10(10)
11252(125)2125(125)225(25)
  1. A laboratory suite is a space up to 10,000 square feet (929 m2) bounded by not less than a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation within which the exempt amounts of hazardous materials may be stored, dispensed, handled or used. Up through the third floor and down through the first basement floor, the quantity in this table shall apply. Fourth, fifth and sixth floors and the second and third basement floor level quantity shall be reduced to 75 percent of this table. The seventh through 10th floor and below the third basement floor level quantity shall be reduced to 50 percent of this table.
  2. Quantities may be increased 100 percent when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or fume hoods.

TABLE 316.7(2)

EXEMPT AMOUNTS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, LIQUIDS AND CHEMICALS PRESENTING A PHYSICAL HAZARD BASIC QUANTITIES PER LABORATORY SUITE1 When two units are given, values within parentheses are in pounds (lbs.)

MATERIALSTORAGEUSE CLOSED SYSTEMSUSE OPEN SYSTEMS
Solid lbLiquid Gallons (lb)Gas cu. ftSolid lbLiquid Gallons (lb)Gas (cu. ft)Solid lbLiquid Gallons (lb)
1. Corrosives5,00050065025,0005006501,000100
2a. Highly toxics2401065516521/4
2b. Toxics5005065025005065051/2
3. Irritants5,0005006505,0005006501,000100
4. Sensitizers5,0005006505,0005006501,000100
5. Other health hazards5,0005006505,0005006501,000100
  1. A laboratory suite is a space up to 10,000 square feet (929 m2) bounded by not less than a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation within which the exempt amounts of hazardous materials may be stored, dispensed, handled or used. Up through the third floor and down through the first basement floor, the quantity in this table shall apply. Fourth, fifth and sixth floors and the second and third basement floor level quantity shall be reduced to 75 percent of this table. The seventh through 10th floor and below the third basement floor level quantity shall be reduced to 50 percent of this table.
  2. Permitted only when stored or used in approved exhausted gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or fume hoods. Quantities of high toxics in use in open systems need not be reduced above the third floor or below the first basement floor level. Individual container size shall be limited to 2 pounds (0.91 kg) for solids and 1/4 gallon (0.95 L) for liquids.

[BSC] The provisions of Sections 317 through 322 establish minimum standards for earthquake evaluation and design for retrofit of existing state-owned structures, including buildings owned by the University of California and the California State University.

The provisions of Sections 317 through 323 may be adopted by a local jurisdiction for earthquake evaluation and design for retrofit of existing buildings.

[DSA-SS] The provisions of Sections 317 through 323 establish minimum standards for earthquake evaluation and design for the rehabilitation of existing buildings for use as public school buildings under the jurisdiction of the Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety [DSA-SS], refer to Section 1.9.2.1.

The provisions of Section 317 through 323 also establish minimum standards for earthquake evaluation and design for rehabilitation of existing public buildings currently under the jurisdiction of DSA-SS.

For public schools, where reference within this chapter is made to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 21 or 22 of the California Building Code, the provisions in Chapters 16A, 17A, 18A, 19A, 21A and 22A of the California Building Code respectively shall apply instead.

[DSA-SS/CC] The provisions of Sections 317 through 323 establish minimum standards for earthquake evaluation and design for the rehabilitation of existing buildings for use as community college buildings under the jurisdiction of the Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Colleges [DSA-SS/CC], refer to Section 1.9.2.2.

The provisions of Section 317 through 323 also establish minimum standards for earthquake evaluation and design for rehabilitation of existing community college buildings currently under the jurisdiction of DSA-SS/CC.

For community colleges, where reference within this chapter is made to sections in Chapters 17 or 18 of the California Building Code, the provisions in Chapters 17A and 18A of the California Building Code respectively shall apply instead.

All modifications, structurally connected additions and/or repairs to existing structures or portions thereof shall, at a minimum, be designed and constructed to resist the effects of seismic ground motions as provided in this section. The structural system shall be evaluated by a registered design professional and, if not meeting or exceeding the minimum seismic design performance requirements of this section, shall be retrofitted in compliance with these requirements.

Exception: Those structures for which Section 317.3 determines that assessment is not required, or for which Section 317.4 determines that retrofit is not needed, then only the requirements of Section 317.11 apply.

[BSC] For existing state-owned structures including all buildings owned by the University of California and the California State University, the requirements of Section 317 apply whenever the structure is to be retrofitted, repaired or modified and any of the following apply:

  1. Total construction cost, not including cost of furnishings, fixtures and equipment, or normal maintenance, for the building exceeds 25 percent of the construction cost for the replacement of the existing building. The changes are cumulative for past modifications to the building that occurred after adoption of the 1995 California Building Code and did not require seismic retrofit.
  2. There are changes in risk category.
  3. The modification to the structural components increases the seismic forces in or strength requirements of any structural component of the existing structure by more than 10 percent cumulative since the original construction, unless the component has the capacity to resist the increased forces determined in accordance with Section 319. If the building's seismic base shear capacity has been increased since the original construction, the percent change in base shear may be calculated relative to the increased value.
  4. Structural elements need repair where the damage has reduced the lateral-load-resisting capacity of the structural system by more than 10 percent.
  5. Changes in live or dead load increase story shear by more than 10 percent.

[DSA-SS] For public schools, the provisions of Section 317 apply when required in accordance with Sections 4-307 and 4-309(c) of the California Administrative Code.

[DSA-SS/CC] For community colleges, the provisions of Section 317 apply when required in accordance with Sections 4-307 and 4-309(c) of the California Administrative Code.

If the criteria in Section 317.3 apply to the project under consideration, the design professional of record shall provide an evaluation in accordance with Section 317 to determine the seismic performance of the building in its current configuration and condition. If the structure's seismic performance as required by Section 317.5 is evaluated as satisfactory and the peer reviewer(s), when Method B of Section 321 is used, concur, then no structural retrofit is required.

Following the notations of ASCE 41, the seismic requirements for design and assessment are based upon a prescribed Earthquake Hazard Level (BSE-1N, BSE-2N, BSE-1E, BSE-R or BSE-C), a specified structural performance level (S-1 through S-5) and a non-structural performance level (N-A through N-D). The minimum seismic performance criteria are given in Table 317.5 according to the Building Regulatory Authority and the Risk Category as determined in Chapter 16 of the California Building Code or by the regulatory authority. The building shall be evaluated in accordance with a Tier 3 Systematic Evaluation and Retrofit per ASCE 41 Chapter 6 for both the Level 1 and Level 2 performance levels, and the more restrictive requirements shall apply.

Exception: If the floor area of an addition is greater than the larger of 50 percent of the floor area of the original building or 1,000 square feet (93 m2), then the Table 317.5 entries for BSE-R (or BSE-1E) and BSE-C are replaced by BSE-1N and BSE-2N, respectively.

TABLE 317.5

SEISMIC PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS BY BUILDING REGULATORY AUTHORITY AND RISK CATEGORY.

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
Building Regulatory AuthorityRisk CategoryLevel 1Level 2
State-Owned [BSC]I, II, IIIBSE-R, S-3, N-CBSE-C, S-5, N-D
State-Owned [BSC]IVBSE-R, S-2, N-BBSE-C, S-4, N-D
Division of the State Architect - [DSA-SS]IBSE-1N, S-3, N-BBSE-2N, S-5, N-D
Division of the State Architect - [DSA-SS]II, IIIBSE-1N, S-2, N-BBSE-2N, S-4, N-D
Division of the State Architect - [DSA-SS]IVBSE-1N, S-2, N-ABSE-2N, S-4, N-D
Division of the State Architect - [DSA-SS/CC]I, IIBSE-1E, S-3, N-CBSE-2N, S-5, N-D
Division of the State Architect - [DSA-SS/CC]IIIBSE-1E, S-3, N-BBSE-2N, S-5, N-D
Division of the State Architect - [DSA-SS/CC]IVBSE-1E, S-2, N-BBSE-2N, S-4, N-D
  1. ASCE 41 provides acceptance criteria (e.g. m, rotation) for Immediate Occupancy (S1), Life Safety (S3), and Collapse Prevention (S5), and specifies in Section 2.3.1.2.1 and 2.3.1.4.1 the method to interpolate values for S-2 and S-4, respectively.

    For nonstructural components, N-A corresponds to the Operational level, N-B to the Position Retention, and N-C to the Life Safety level, and N-D to the Not Considered.
  2. Buildings evaluated and retrofitted to meet the requirements for a new building, Chapter 16 of the California Building Code, in accordance with the exception in Section 319.1, are deemed to meet the seismic performance requirements of this section.

Where the evaluation indicates the building does not meet the required performance objectives of this section, the owner shall take appropriate steps to ensure that the building’s structural system is retrofitted in accordance with the provisions of Section 317. Appropriate steps are either: 1) undertake the seismic retrofit as part of the additions, modifications and/or repairs of the structure; or 2) provide a plan, acceptable to the building official, to complete the seismic retrofit in a timely manner. The relocation or moving of an existing building is considered to be an alteration requiring filing of the plans and specifications approved by the building official.

The additions, modification or repair to any existing building are permitted to be prepared in accordance with the requirements for a new building, Chapter 16 of the California Building Code, applied to the entire building.

The requirements of ASCE 41 Chapter 14 are to apply to the use of seismic isolation or passive energy systems for the repair, modification or retrofit of an existing structure. When seismic isolation or passive energy dissipation is used, the project must have project peer review as prescribed in Section 322.

Any construction required by this chapter shall include structural observation by the registered design professional who is responsible for the structural design in accordance with Section 319.10.

Where Method B of Section 321 is used or is required by Section 319.7, the proposed method of building evaluation and design procedures must be accepted by the building official prior to the commencement of the work.

Where the exception of Section 317.2 applies, modifications of existing structural components and additions of new structural components that are initiated for the purpose of improving the seismic performance of an existing structure and that are not required by other portions of this chapter are permitted under the requirements of Section 319.12.

In addition to the definitions given in Section 202, for the purposes of Sections 317 through 323, certain terms are defined as follows:

ADDITION means any work that increases the floor or roof area or the volume of enclosed space of an existing building, and is structurally attached to the existing building by connections that are required for transmitting vertical or horizontal loads between the addition and the existing structure.

ALTERATION means any change within or to an existing building, which does not increase and may decrease the floor or roof area or the volume of enclosed space.

BSE-C RESPONSE ACCELERATION PARAMETERS [BSC] are the parameters (SXS and SX1) taken from 5-percent/50-year maximum direction spectral response acceleration curves or by a Site Specific Response Spectrum developed in accordance with ASCE 41, Section 2.4.2.1.

BSE-R RESPONSE ACCELERATION PARAMETERS [BSC] are the parameters (SXS and SX1) taken from 20-percent/50-year maximum direction spectral response acceleration curves or by a Site Specific Response Spectrum developed in accordance with ASCE 41, Section 2.4.2.1.

BUILDING OFFICIAL is that individual within the agency or organization charged with responsibility for compliance with the requirements of this code. For some agencies this person is termed the “enforcement agent.”

DESIGN is the procedure that includes both the evaluation and retrofit design of an existing component, element or structural system, and design of a new component, element or structural system.

ENFORCEMENT AGENCY (Authority Having Jurisdiction in ASCE 41) is the agency or organization charged with responsibility for agency or organization compliance with the requirements of this code.

METHOD A refers to the procedures prescribed in Section 320.

METHOD B refers to the procedures allowed in Section 321.

MODIFICATIONS. For this chapter, modification is taken to include repairs to structures that have been damaged.

N-A, N-B, N-C, N-D are seismic nonstructural component performance measures as defined in ASCE 41. N-A corresponds to the highest performance level, and N-C the lowest, while N-D is not considered.

PEER REVIEW refers to the procedures contained in Section 322.

REPAIR as used in this chapter means the design and construction work undertaken to restore or enhance the structural and nonstructural load-resisting system participating in the lateral response and stability of a structure that has experienced damage from earthquakes or other destructive events.

S-1, S-2, S-3, S-4, S-5, S-6 are seismic structural performance measures as defined in ASCE 41. S-1 corresponds to the highest performance level, and S-5 the lowest, while S-6 is not considered.

SPECIFIC PROCEDURES are the procedures listed in Section 319.1.1.

STRUCTURAL REPAIRS are any changes affecting existing or requiring new structural components primarily intended to correct the effects of damage, deterioration or impending or actual failure, regardless of cause.

This section determines what technical approach is to be used for the seismic evaluation and design for existing buildings. For those buildings or portions of buildings for which Section 317 requires action, the procedures and limitations for the evaluation of existing buildings and design of retrofit systems and/or repair thereof shall be implemented in accordance with this section.

One of the following approaches must be used:

  1. Method A of Section 320;
  2. Method B of Section 321, with independent review of a peer reviewer as required in Section 322; or
  3. For state-owned buildings only, the use of one of the specific procedures listed in Section 319.1.1.

When Method B is chosen it must be approved by the building official, and, where applicable, by the peer reviewer. All referenced standards in ASCE 41 shall be replaced by referenced standards listed in Chapter 35 of the California Building Code.

Exceptions:

  1. [BSC] For buildings constructed to the requirements of California Building Code, 2007 or later edition as adopted by the governing jurisdiction, that code is permitted to be used in place of those specified in Section 319.1.
  2. [DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] For public schools and community colleges constructed to the requirements of California Building Code, 2007 or later edition, that code is permitted to be used in place of those specified in Section 319.1 provided the building complies with Seismic Design Category D or higher.

[BSC] For state-owned buildings, the following specific procedures located in Appendix A may be used, without peer review, for their respective types of construction to comply with the seismic performance requirements for Risk Category I, II or III buildings:

  1. Seismic Strengthening Provisions for Unreinforced Masonry Bearing Wall Buildings (Chapter A1).
  2. Prescriptive Provisions for Seismic Strengthening of Cripple Walls and Sill Plate Anchorage of Light Wood-Frame, Residential Buildings (Chapter A3).
  3. Earthquake Hazard Reduction in Existing Reinforced Concrete and Reinforced Masonry Wall Buildings with Flexible Diaphragms (Chapter A2).

When a design project is begun under Method B the selection of the peer reviewer is subject to the approval of the building official. Following approval by the peer reviewer, the seismic criteria for the project and the planned evaluation provisions must be approved by the building official. The approved seismic criteria and evaluation provisions shall apply. Upon approval of the building official these are permitted to be modified.

For state-owned and community college buildings, where unreinforced masonry is not bearing, it may be used only to resist applied lateral loads. Where unrein-forced masonry walls are part of the structure they must be assessed for stability under the applicable nonstructural evaluation procedure.

[DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC]For public schools, unreinforced masonry shall not be used to resist in-plane or out-of-plane seismic forces or superimposed gravity loads.

For public schools of light-frame construction, horizontal diaphragms and vertical shear walls shall consist of either diagonal lumber sheathing or structural panel sheathing. Braced horizontal diaphragms may be acceptable when approved by DSA. Straight lumber sheathing may be used in combination with diagonal or structural panel sheathing as diaphragms or shear walls. Let-in bracing, plaster (stucco), hollow clay tile, gypsum wallboard and particle-board sheathing shall not be assumed to resist seismic forces.

The existing condition and properties of the entire structure must be determined and documented by thorough inspection of the structure and site, review of all available related construction documents, review of geotechnical and engineering geologic reports, and performance of necessary testing and investigation. Where samples from the existing structure are taken or in situ tests are performed, they shall be selected and interpreted in a statistically appropriate manner to ensure that the properties determined and used in the evaluation or design are representative of the conditions and structural circumstances likely to be encountered in the structure as a whole. Adjacent structures or site features that may affect the retrofit design shall be identified.

The entire load path of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be determined, documented and evaluated. The load path includes all the horizontal and vertical elements participating in the structural response: such as diaphragms, diaphragm chords, diaphragm collectors, vertical elements such as walls frames, braces; foundations and the connections between the components and elements of the load path. Repaired or retrofitted elements and the standards under which the work was constructed shall be identified.

Data collection in accordance with ASCE 41 Section 6.2 shall meet the following minimum levels:

  1. [BSC] For state-owned buildings, the requirements shall be met following the data collection requirements of ASCE 41, Section 6.2.
  2. [DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC] For public schools and community college buildings constructed in conformance with the Field Act, the “Usual” level as defined in ASCE 41, Section 6.2.2.
  3. [DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC] For public schools and community college buildings not constructed in conformance with the Field Act, the “Comprehensive” level as defined in ASCE 41, Section 6.2.3.

Concrete material requirements and testing for public school and community college buildings shall also comply with Sections 1911A and 1909.5 of the California Building Code, respectively.

Qualified test data from the original construction may be accepted, in part or in whole, by the enforcement agency to fulfill the data collection requirements.

Exceptions:

  1. The number of samples for data collection may be adjusted with approval of the enforcement agency when it has been determined that adequate information has been obtained or additional information is required.
  2. Welded steel moment frame connections of buildings that may have experienced potentially damaging ground motions shall be inspected in accordance with Chapters 3 and 4, FEMA 352, Recommended Post Earthquake Evaluation and Repair Criteria for Welded Moment-Frame Construction for Seismic Applications (July 2000).

Where original building plans and specifications are not available, “as-built” plans shall be prepared that depict the existing vertical and lateral structural systems, exterior elements, foundations and nonstructural systems in sufficient detail to complete the design.

Data collection shall be directed and observed by the project structural engineer or design professional in charge of the design.

Soil profile shall be assigned in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 18 of the California Building Code.

For purposes of earthquake-resistant design, each structure shall be placed in one of the risk categories in accordance with the requirements of the California Building Code.

Each structure shall be designated structurally regular or irregular in accordance with the requirements of ASCE 41, Sections 7.3.1.1.1 to 7.3.1.1.4.

The requirements of Method B (Section 321) may be used for any existing building.

The requirements of Method A (Section 320) or the specific procedures for applicable building types given in Section 319.1.1 are permitted to be used except under the following conditions, where the requirements of Method B (Section 321) must be used.

When the building contains prestressed or posttensioned structural components (beams, columns, walls or slabs) or contains precast structural components (beams, columns, walls or flooring systems).

When the building is classified as irregular in vertical or horizontal plan by application of ASCE 7, Section 12.3 and/or ASCE 41, Sections 7.3.1.1.1 to 7.3.1.1.4, unless the irregularity is demonstrated not to affect the seismic performance of the building.

Exception: If the retrofit design removes the configurational attributes that caused the building to be classified as irregular, then Section 319.7.2 does not apply and Method A may be used.

For any building that is assigned to Risk Category IV.

For any building using undefined or hybrid structural systems.

When seismic isolation or energy dissipation systems are used in the retrofit or repair, either as part of the existing structure or as part of the modifications.

When the height of the structure exceeds 240 feet (73 152 mm).

When ASCE 41 is the evaluation standard and its application requires the use of nonlinear procedures.

All components of the lateral-force-resisting system must have the strength to meet the acceptance criteria prescribed in ASCE 41, Chapter 7 or as prescribed in the applicable Appendix A chapter of this code if a specific procedure in Section 319.1.1 is used. Any component not having this strength shall have its capacity increased by modifying or supplementing its strength so that it exceeds the demand, or the demand is reduced to less than the existing strength by making other modifications to the structural system.

Exception: A component’s strength is permitted to be less than that required by the specified seismic load combinations if it can be demonstrated that the associated reduction in seismic performance of the component or its removal due to the failure does not result in a structural system that does not comply with the required performance objectives of Section 317. If this exception is taken for a component, then it cannot be considered part of the primary lateral-load-resisting system.

Where the nonstructural performance levels required by Section 317, Table 317.5 are N-C or higher, mechanical, electrical and plumbing components shall comply with the provisions of ASCE 41, Chapter 13, Section 13.2.

Exception: Modifications to the procedures and criteria may be made subject to approval by the building official, and concurrence of the peer reviewer if applicable. All reports and correspondence shall also be forwarded to the building official.

Structural, geotechnical and construction observation, testing and inspection as used in this section shall mean meeting the requirements of Chapter 17 of the California Building Code, with a minimum allowable level of investigation corresponding to seismic design category (SDC) D. At a minimum the project site will be visited by the responsible design professional to observe existing conditions and to review the construction work for general compliance with approved plans, specifications and applicable structural regulations. Such visits shall occur at significant construction stages and at the completion of the structural retrofit. Structural observation shall be provided for all structures. The plan for testing and inspection shall be submitted to the building official for review and approval with the application for permit.

Additional requirements: For public schools and community colleges, construction material testing, inspection and observation during construction shall also comply with Section 4-333 of the California Administrative Code.

The registered design professional, or their designee, responsible for the structural design shall be retained to perform structural observation and independently report to the owner of observations and findings as they relate to adherence to the permitted plans and good workmanship.

At the conclusion of construction, the structural observer shall submit to the enforcement agency and the owner a final written statement that the required site visits have been made, that the work, to the best of the structural observers knowledge and belief, is or is not in general conformity to the approved plans and that the observed structural deficiencies have been resolved and/or listing those that, to the best of the structural observers knowledge and belief, have not been satisfactorily corrected.

The requirement for structural observation shall be noted and prominently displayed on the front sheet of the approved plans and incorporated into the general notes on the approved plans.

A preconstruction meeting is mandatory for all projects which require structural observation. The meeting shall include, but is not limited to, the registered design professional, structural observer, general constructor, affected subcontractors, the project inspector and a representative of the enforcement agency (designated alternates may attend if approved by the structural observer). The structural observer shall schedule and coordinate this meeting. The purpose of the meeting is to identify and clarify all essential structural components and connections that affect the lateral and vertical load systems and to review scheduling of the required observations for the project’s structural system retrofit.

When compatible with the building use, and the time phasing for both use and the retrofit program, temporary shoring or other structural support is permitted to be considered. Temporary bracing, shoring and prevention of falling hazards are permitted to be used to qualify for Exception 1 in Section 319.12 that allows inadequate capability in some existing components, as long as the required performance levels given in Section 317 can be provided by the permanent structure. The consideration for such temporary actions shall be noted in the design documents.

Where modifications of existing structural components and additions of new structural components are initiated for the purpose of improving the lateral-force resisting strength or stiffness of an existing structure and they are not required by other sections of this code, then they are permitted to be designed to meet an approved seismic performance criteria provided that an engineering analysis is submitted that follows:

  1. The capacity of existing structural components required to resist forces is not reduced, unless it can be demonstrated that reduced capacity meets the requirements of Section 319.8.
  2. The lateral loading to or strength requirement of existing structural components is not increased beyond their capacity.
  3. New structural components are detailed and connected to the existing structural components as required by the California Building Code.
  4. New or relocated nonstructural components are detailed and connected to existing or new structural components as required by the California Building Code.
  5. A dangerous condition is not created.

Use of ASCE 41 Tier 1 and Tier 2 deficiency only retrofit procedures are pre-approved for use where Section 317.3 does not require an assessment.

[BSC] Voluntary modifications to lateral force-resisting systems conducted in accordance with Appendix A of this code and the referenced standards of the California Building Code shall be permitted.

[BSC]When Section 319.12 is the basis for structural modifications, the approved design documents must clearly state the scope of the seismic modifications and the accepted criteria for the design. The approved design documents must clearly have the phrase “The seismic requirements of the California Existing Building Code have not been checked to determine if these structural modifications meet the full seismic evaluation and strengthening requirements of Sections 317-322: the modifications proposed are to a different seismic performance standard than would be required in Section 319 if they were not voluntary as allowed in Section 319.12.”

[DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC] When Section 319.12 is the basis for structural modifications, the approved design documents must clearly indicate the scope of modifications and the acceptance criteria for the design.

The retrofit design shall employ the Linear Static or Linear Dynamic Procedures of ASCE 41, Section 7.4.1 or 7.4.2, and comply with the applicable general requirements of ASCE 41, Chapters 6 and 7. The earthquake hazard level and performance level given specified in Section 317.5 for the building’s risk category shall be used. Structures shall be designed for seismic forces coming from any horizontal direction.

The existing or retrofitted structure shall be demonstrated to have the capability to sustain the deformation response due to the specified earthquake ground motions and meet the seismic performance requirements of Section 317. The registered design professional shall provide an evaluation of the response of the existing structure in its modified configuration and condition to the ground motions specified. If the building’s seismic performance is evaluated as satisfactory and the peer reviewer(s,) and the enforcement agency concurs, then no further structural modifications of the lateral load-resisting system are required.

When the evaluation indicates the building does not meet the required performance levels given in Table 317.5 for the risk category, then a retrofit and/or repair design shall be prepared that provides a structure that meets these performance objectives and reflects the appropriate consideration of existing conditions. Any approach to analysis and design is permitted to be used, provided that the approach shall be rational, shall be consistent with the established principals of mechanics and shall use the known performance characteristics of materials and assemblages under reversing loads typical of severe earthquake ground motions.

Exception: Further consideration of the structure’s seismic performance may be waived by the enforcement agency if both the registered design professional and peer reviewer(s) conclude that the structural system can be expected to perform at least as well as required by the provisions of this section without completing an analysis of the structure’s compliance with these requirements. A detailed report shall be submitted to the responsible building official that presents the reasons and basis for this conclusion. This report shall be prepared by the registered design professional. The peer reviewer(s) shall concur in this conclusion and affirm to it in writing. The building official shall either approve this decision or require completion of the indicated work specified in this section prior to approval.

The approach, models, analysis procedures, assumptions on material and system behavior and conclusions shall be peer reviewed in accordance with the requirements of Section 322 and accepted by the peer reviewer(s).

Exceptions:

  1. The enforcement agency may perform the work of peer review when qualified staff is available within the jurisdiction.
  2. The enforcement agency may modify or waive the requirements for peer review when appropriate.

The approach used in the development of the design shall be acceptable to the peer reviewer and the enforcement agency and shall be the same method as used in the evaluation of the building. Approaches that are specifically tailored to the type of building, construction materials and specific building characteristics may be used, if they are acceptable to the independent peer reviewer. The use of Method A allowed procedures may also be used under Method B.

Any method of analysis may be used, subject to acceptance by the peer reviewer(s) and the building official. The general requirements given in ASCE 41, Chapters 6 and 7, shall be complied with unless exceptions are accepted by the peer reviewer(s) and building official. Use of other than ASCE 41 procedures in Method B requires building official concurrence before implementation.

Prior to implementation, the procedures, methods, material assumptions and acceptance/rejection criteria proposed by the registered design professional will be peer reviewed as provided in Section 322. Where nonlinear procedures are used, prior to any analysis, the representation of the seismic ground motion shall be reviewed and approved by the peer reviewer(s) and the building official.

The conclusions and design decisions shall be reviewed and accepted by the peer reviewer(s) and the building official.

Independent peer review is an objective, technical review by knowledgeable reviewer(s) experienced in the structural design, analysis and performance issues involved. The reviewer(s) shall examine the available information on the condition of the building, the basic engineering concepts employed and the recommendations for action.

The independent reviewer(s) shall be selected prior to initiation of substantial portions of the design and/or analysis work that is to be reviewed, and review shall start as soon as practical after Method B is adopted and sufficient information defining the project is available.

The reviewer(s) shall be independent from the design and construction team.

The reviewer(s) shall have no other involvement in the project before, during or after the review, except in a review capacity.

The reviewer(s) shall be selected and paid by the owner and shall have technical expertise in the evaluation and retrofit of buildings similar to the one being reviewed, as determined by the enforcement agency.

The reviewer (or in the case of review teams, the chair) shall be a California-licensed structural engineer who is familiar with the technical issues and regulations governing the work to be reviewed.

Exception: Other individuals with acceptable qualifications and experience may be a peer reviewer(s) with the approval of the building official.

The reviewer shall serve through completion of the project and shall not be terminated except for failure to perform the duties specified herein. Such termination shall be in writing with copies to the enforcement agency, owner and the registered design professional. When a reviewer is terminated or resigns, a qualified replacement shall be appointed within 10 working days, and the reviewer shall submit copies of all reports, notes and correspondence to the responsible building official, the owner and the registered design professional within 10 working days of such termination.

The peer reviewer shall have access in a timely manner to all documents, materials and information deemed necessary by the peer reviewer to complete the peer review.

Review activities shall include, where appropriate, available construction documents, design criteria and representative observations of the condition of the structure, all inspection and testing reports, including methods of sampling, analytical models and analyses prepared by the registered design professional and consultants, and the retrofit or repair design. Review shall include consideration of the proposed design approach, methods, materials, details and constructability.

Changes observed during construction that affect the seismic-resisting system shall be reported to the reviewer in writing for review and recommendation.

The reviewer(s) shall prepare a written report to the owner and building official that covers all aspects of the review performed, including conclusions reached by the reviewer(s). Reports shall be issued after the schematic phase, during design development, and at the completion of construction documents but prior to submittal of the project plans to the enforcement agency for plan review. When acceptable to the building official, the requirement for a report during a specific phase of the project development may be waived.

Such reports should include, at the minimum, statements of the following:

  1. Scope of engineering design peer review with limitations defined.
  2. The status of the project documents at each review stage.
  3. Ability of selected materials and framing systems to meet performance criteria with given loads and configuration.
  4. Degree of structural system redundancy and the deformation compatibility among structural and nonstructural components.
  5. Basic constructability of the retrofit or repair system.
  6. Other recommendations that would be appropriate to the specific project.
  7. Presentation of the conclusions of the reviewer identifying any areas that need further review, investigation and/or clarification.
  8. Recommendations.

The last report prepared prior to submittal of permit documents to the enforcement agency shall include a statement indicating that the design is in conformance with the approved evaluation and design criteria.

The registered design professional shall review the report from the reviewer(s) and shall develop corrective actions and responses as appropriate. Changes observed during construction that affect the seismic-resisting system shall be reported to the reviewer in writing for review and recommendations. All reports, responses and resolutions prepared pursuant to this section shall be submitted to the responsible enforcement agency and the owner along with other plans, specifications and calculations required. If the reviewer resigns or is terminated prior to completion of the project, then the reviewer shall submit copies of all reports, notes and correspondence to the responsible building official, the owner and the registered design professional within 10 working days of such termination.

When the conclusions and recommendations of the peer reviewer conflict with the registered design professional’s proposed design, the enforcement agency shall make the final determination of the requirement for the design.

The requirements of Section 323 apply only to public schools under the jurisdiction of the Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety (DSA-SS, refer to Section 1.9.2.1) and community colleges under the jurisdiction of the Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Colleges (DSA-SS/CC, refer to Section 1.9.2.2).

During the schematic phase of the project, the owner or the registered design professional in charge of the design shall prepare and sign an Evaluation and Design Criteria Report in accordance with Sections 4-306 and 4-307(a) of the California Administrative Code. The report shall be submitted to the DSA for review and approval prior to proceeding with design development of the rehabilitation.

The Evaluation and Design Criteria Report shall:

  1. Identify the building(s) structural and nonstructural systems, potential deficiencies in the elements or systems and the proposed method for retrofit.
  2. Identify geological and site-related hazards.
  3. Propose the methodology for evaluation and retrofit design.
  4. Propose the complete program for data collection (Section 319.2).
  5. Include existing or “as-built” building plans, reports and associated documents of the existing construction.

Where only a portion(s) of a structure is to be rehabilitated, the public school or community college portion of the structure shall:

  1. Be seismically separated from the unrehabilitated portion in accordance with Chapter 16 of the California Building Code, or the entire structure shall be rehabilitated in accordance with this section. For structures in which the unrehabilitated portion is above or below the school or community college portion, the entire structure shall be rehabilitated in accordance with this division.
  2. Be retrofitted as necessary to protect the occupants from falling hazards of the unrehabilitated portion of the building, and;
  3. Be retrofitted as necessary to protect required exitways being blocked by collapse or falling hazards of the unrehabilitated portion.
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