Sections 120.1 through 120.9 establish requirements for the design and installation of building envelopes, ventilation, space-conditioning and service water-heating systems and equipment in nonresidential, high-rise residential and hotel/motel buildings as well as covered processes that are within the scope of Section 100.0(a).
NOTE: The requirements of Sections 120.1 through 120.9 apply to newly constructed buildings. Section 141.0 specifies which requirements of Sections 120.1 through 120.9 also apply to additions or alterations to existing buildings.
Nonresidential, high-rise residential and hotel/motel buildings shall comply with the requirements of Sections 120.1(a) through 120.1(e).
(a) General requirements.
- The outdoor air-ventilation rate and air-distribution assumptions made in the design of the ventilating system shall be clearly identified on the plans required by Section 10-103 of Title 24, Part 1.
(b) Design requirements for minimum quantities of outdoor air. Every space in a building shall be designed to have outdoor air ventilation according to Item 1 or 2 below:
- The means to open required operable openings shall be readily accessible to building occupants whenever the space is occupied.
- The conditioned floor area of the space times the applicable ventilation rate from Table 120.1-A; or
- None of the spaces from which air is transferred have any unusual sources of indoor air contaminants; and
- The outdoor air that is supplied to all spaces combined is sufficient to meet the requirements of Section 120.1(b)2 for each space individually.
(c) Operation and control requirements for minimum quantities of outdoor air.
- Pre-occupancy. The lesser of the minimum rate of outdoor air required by Section 120.1(b)2 or three complete air changes shall be supplied to the entire building during the one-hour period immediately before the building is normally occupied.
- They have an air economizer; and
- They serve a space with a design occupant density, or a maximum occupant load factor for egress purposes in the California Building Code, greater than or equal to 25 people per 1,000 square feet (40 square feet or less per person); and
- Single zone systems with any controls; or
- For each system with demand control ventilation, CO2 sensors shall be installed in each room that meets the criteria of Section 120.1(c)3 with no less than one sensor per 10,000 square feet of floor space. When a zone or a space is served by more than one sensor, a signal from any sensor indicating that CO2 is near or at the setpoint within a space shall trigger an increase in ventilation to the space;
- CO2 sensors shall be located in the room between 3 feet and 6 feet above the floor or at the anticipated height of the occupants heads;
- CO2 concentration shall be assumed to be 400 ppm without any direct measurement; or
- CO2 concentration shall be dynamically measured using a CO2 sensor located within 4 feet of the outdoor air intake.
- When the system is operating during hours of expected occupancy, the controls shall maintain system outdoor air ventilation rates no less than the rate listed in Table 120.1-A times the conditioned floor area for spaces with CO2 sensors, plus the rate required by Section 120.1(b)2 for other spaces served by the system, or the exhaust air rate, whichever is greater.
- CO2 sensors shall be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate within plus or minus 75 ppm at a 600 and 1000 ppm concentration when measured at sea level and 25°C, factory calibrated and certified by the manufacturer to require calibration no more frequently than once every 5 years. Upon detection of sensor failure, the system shall provide a signal which resets to supply the minimum quantity of outside air to levels required by Section 120.1(b)(2) to the zone serviced by the sensor at all times that the zone is occupied.
- The CO2 sensor(s) reading for each zone shall be displayed continuously, and shall be recorded on systems with DDC to the zone level.
- Occupant sensors shall meet the requirements in Section 110.9(b)4 and shall have suitable coverage and placement to detect occupants in the entire space ventilated. Occupant sensors controlling lighting may be used for ventilation as long as the ventilation signal is independent of daylighting, manual lighting overrides or manual control of lighting. When a single zone damper or a single zone system serves multiple rooms, there shall be an occupancy sensor in each room and the zone is not considered vacant until all rooms in the zone are vacant.
- One hour prior to normal scheduled occupancy, the occupancy sensor ventilation control shall allow pre-occupancy purge as described in Section 120.1(c)2.
- Within 30 minutes after being vacant for all rooms served by a zone damper on a multiple zone system, and the space temperature is between the heating and cooling setpoints, then no outside air is required and supply air shall be zero.
- Within 30 minutes after being vacant for all rooms served by a single zone system, the single zone system shall cycle off the supply fan when the space temperature is between the heating and cooling setpoints.
(d) Ducting for zonal heating and cooling units. Where a return plenum is used to distribute outdoor air to a zonal heating or cooling unit, which then supplies the air to a space in order to meet the requirements of Section 120.1(b)2, the outdoor air shall be ducted to discharge either:
- Within 5 feet of the unit; or
- Within 15 feet of the unit, substantially toward the unit, and at a velocity not less than 500 feet per minute.
(e) Design and control requirements for quantities of outdoor air.
- All mechanical ventilation and space-conditioning systems shall be designed with and have installed ductwork, dampers and controls to allow outside air rates to be operated at the larger of (1) the minimum levels specified in Section 120.1(b)1; or (2) the rate required for make-up of exhaust systems that are required for an exempt or covered process, for control of odors, or for the removal of contaminants within the space.
- All variable air volume mechanical ventilation and space-conditioning systems shall include dynamic controls that maintain measured outside air ventilation rates within 10 percent of the required outside air ventilation rate at both full and reduced supply airflow conditions. Fixed minimum damper position is not considered to be dynamic and is not an allowed control strategy.
- Measured outdoor air rates of constant volume mechanical ventilation and space-conditioning systems shall be within 10 percent of the required outside air rate.
MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES
|TYPE OF USE||CFM PER SQUARE FOOT OF CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA|
|Auto repair workshops||1.50|
|Bars, cocktail lounges and casinos||0.2|
|Coin-operated dry cleaning||0.30|
|Commercial dry cleaning||0.45|
|High-rise residential||Ventilation rates specified by the California Building Code|
|Hotel guest rooms (less than 500 ft2)||30 cfm/guest room|
|Hotel guest rooms (500 ft2 or greater)||0.15|
Nonresidential, high-rise residential, and hotel/motel buildings shall comply with the applicable requirements of Sections 120.2(a) through 120.2(k).
(a) Thermostatic controls for each zone. The supply of heating and cooling energy to each space-conditioning zone or dwelling unit shall be controlled by an individual thermostatic control that responds to temperature within the zone and that meets the applicable requirements of Section 120.2(b). An energy management control system (EMCS) may be installed to comply with the requirements of one or more thermostatic controls if it complies with all applicable requirements for each thermostatic control.
Exception to Section 120.2(a): An independent perimeter heating or cooling system may serve more than one zone without individual thermostatic controls if:
- All zones are also served by an interior cooling system;
- The perimeter system is designed solely to offset envelope heat losses or gains;
- The perimeter system has at least one thermostatic control for each building orientation of 50 feet or more; and
- The perimeter system is controlled by at least one thermostat located in one of the zones served by the system.
(b) Criteria for zonal thermostatic controls. The individual thermostatic controls required by Section 120.2(a) shall meet the following requirements as applicable:
- Where used to control comfort heating, the thermostatic controls shall be capable of being set, locally or remotely, down to 55°F or lower.
- Where used to control comfort cooling, the thermostatic controls shall be capable of being set, locally or remotely, up to 85°F or higher.
(c) Hotel/motel guest room and high-rise residential dwelling unit thermostats.
- Have numeric temperature setpoints in °F and °C; and
- Have setpoint stops, which are accessible only to authorized personnel, such that guest room occupants cannot adjust the setpoint more than ±5°F (±3°C); and
- High-rise residential dwelling unit thermostats shall meet the requirements of Section 150.0(i).
(d) Heat pump controls. All heat pumps with supplementary electric resistance heaters shall be installed with controls that comply with Section 110.2(b).
(e) Shut-off and reset controls for space-conditioning systems. Each space-conditioning system shall be installed with controls that comply with the following:
- An automatic time switch control device complying with Section 110.9(c), with an accessible manual override that allows operation of the system for up to 4 hours; or
- An occupancy sensor; or
- Automatically set up the operating cooling temperature set point by 2°F or more and set back the operating heating temperature set point by 2°F or more; and
- Hotel and motel guest rooms shall have captive card key controls, occupancy sensing controls or automatic controls such that, no longer than 30 minutes after the guest room has been vacated, setpoints are set up at least +5°F (+3°C) in cooling mode and set down at least -5°F (-3°C) in heating mode.
(f) Dampers for air supply and exhaust equipment. Outdoor air supply and exhaust equipment shall be installed with dampers that automatically close upon fan shutdown.
Exception 1 to Section 120.2(f): Where it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the enforcing agency that the equipment serves an area that must operate continuously.
Exception 2 to Section 120.2(f): Gravity and other non-electrical equipment that has readily accessible manual damper controls.
Exception 3 to Section 120.2(f): At combustion air intakes and shaft vents.
Exception 4 to Section 120.2(f): Where prohibited by other provisions of law.
(g) Isolation area devices. Each space-conditioning system serving multiple zones with a combined conditioned floor area of more than 25,000 square feet shall be designed, installed and controlled to serve isolation areas.
- Each zone, or any combination of zones not exceeding 25,000 square feet, shall be a separate isolation area.
- Each isolation area shall be provided with isolation devices, such as valves or dampers, that allow the supply of heating or cooling to be reduced or shut off independently of other isolation areas.
(h) Automatic demand shed controls. HVAC systems with DDC to the Zone level shall be programmed to allow centralized demand shed for noncritical zones as follows:
- The controls shall have a capability to remotely set up the operating cooling temperature set points by four degrees or more in all noncritical zones on signal from a centralized contact or software point within an Energy Management Control System (EMCS).
- The controls shall have a capability to remotely set down the operating heating temperature set points by four degrees or more in all noncritical zones on signal from a centralized contact or software point within an EMCS.
- The controls shall have capabilities to remotely reset the temperatures in all noncritical zones to original operating levels on signal from a centralized contact or software point within an EMCS.
- The controls shall be programmed to provide an adjustable rate of change for the temperature setup and reset.
- Disabled. Disabled by authorized facility operators; and
- Manual control. Manual control by authorized facility operators to allow adjustment of heating and cooling set points globally from a single point in the EMCS; and
- Automatic demand shed control. Upon receipt of a demand response signal, the space-conditioning systems shall conduct a centralized demand shed, as specified in Subsections 120.2(h)1 and 120.2(h)2, for noncritical zones during the demand response period.
(i) Economizer fault detection and diagnostics (FDD). All newly installed air-cooled packaged direct-expansion units with an air handler, mechanical cooling capacity greater than 54,000 Btu/hr with an installed air economizer shall include a stand alone or integrated Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) system in accordance with Subsections 120.2(i)1 through 120.2(i)8.
- The following temperature sensors shall be permanently installed to monitor system operation: outside air, supply air, and when required for differential economizer operation a return air sensor, and
- Temperature sensors shall have an accuracy of ±2°F over the range of 40°F to 80°F; and
- The controller shall have the capability of displaying the value of each sensor; and
- Free cooling available;
- Economizer enabled;
- Compressor enabled;
- Heating enabled, if the system is capable of heating; and
- Mixed-air low limit cycle active.
- The unit controller shall manually initiate each operating mode so that the operation of compressors, economizers, fans and heating system can be independently tested and verified; and
- Reported to an Energy Management Control System regularly monitored by facility personnel.
- On the thermostat, device, or an adjacent written sign, display instructions to contact appropriate building personnel or an HVAC technician; and
- In buildings with multiple tenants, the annunciation shall either be within property management offices or in a common space accessible by the property or building manager.
- Reported to a fault management application which automatically provides notification of the fault to a remote HVAC service provider.
- Air temperature sensor failure/fault;
- Not economizing when it should;
- Economizing when it should not;
- Damper not modulating; and
- Excess outdoor air.
- The FDD System shall be certified by the Energy Commission as meeting requirements of Subsections 120.2(i)1 through 120.2(i)7 in accordance with Section 110.0 and JA6.3.
(j) Direct Digital Controls (DDC). Direct Digital Controls to the zone shall be provided as specified by Table 120.2-A.
The provided DDC system shall meet the control logic requirements of Sections 120.1(c) and 120.2(h), and be capable of the following:
- Monitoring zone and system demand for fan pressure, pump pressure, heating and cooling;
- Transfering zone and system demand information from zones to air distribution system controllers and from air distribution systems to heating and cooling plant controllers;
- Automatically detecting the zones and systems that may be excessively driving the reset logic and generate an alarm or other indication to the system operator;
- Readily allow operator removal of zones(s) from the reset algorithm;
- For new buildings, trending and graphically displaying input and output points; and
- Resetting heating and cooling setpoints in all noncritical zones upon receipt of a signal from a centralized contact or software point as described in Section 120.2(h).
(k) Optimum start/stop controls. Space conditioning systems with DDC to the zone level shall have optimum start/stop controls. The control algorithm shall, as a minimum, be a function of the difference between space temperature and occupied setpoint, the outdoor air temperature, and the amount of time prior to scheduled occupancy. Mass radiant floor slab systems shall incorporate floor temperature onto the optimum start algorithm.
DDC APPLICATIONS AND QUALIFICATIONS
|Newly Constructed Buildings||Air handling system and all zones served by the system||Individual systems supplying more than three zones and with design heating or cooling capacity of 300 kBtu/h and larger|
|Chilled water plant and all coils and terminal units served by the system||Individual plants supplying more than three zones and with design cooling capacity of 300 kBtu/h (87.9 kW) and larger|
|Hot water plant and all coils and terminal units served by the system||Individual plants supplying more than three zones and with design heating capacity of 300 kBtu/h (87.9 kW) and larger|
|Additions or Alterations||Zone terminal unit such as VAV box||Where existing zones served by the same air handling, chilled water, or hot water systems that have DDC|
|Air handling system or fan coil||Where existing air handling system(s) and fan coil(s) served by the same chilled or hot water plant have DDC|
|New air handling system and all new zones served by the system||Individual systems with design heating or cooling capacity of 300 kBtu/h and larger and supplying more than three zones and more than 75 percent of zones are new|
|New or upgraded chilled water plant||Where all chillers are new and plant design cooling capacity is 300 kBtu/h (87.9 kW) and larger|
|New or upgraded hot water plant||Where all boilers are new and plant design heating capacity is 300 kBtu/h (87.9 kW) and larger|
Nonresidential, high-rise residential, and hotel/motel buildings shall comply with the applicable requirements of Sections 120.3(a) through 120.3(c).
(a) General requirements. The piping conditions listed below for space-conditioning and service water-heating systems with fluid temperatures listed in Table 120.3-A, shall have the amount of insulation specified in Subsection (c):
- Space cooling systems. All refrigerant suction, chilled water and brine lines.
- Space heating systems. All steam, steam condensate and hot water lines.
- Recirculating system piping, including the supply and return piping of the water heater.
- The first 8 feet of hot and cold outlet piping for a nonrecirculating storage system.
- The inlet pipe between the storage tank and a heat trap in a nonrecirculating storage system.
- Pipes that are externally heated.
Insulation conductivity shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C335 at the mean temperature listed in Table 120.3-A, and shall be rounded to the nearest 1/100 Btu-inch per hour per square foot per °F.
(b) Insulation protection. Insulation shall be protected from damage, including that due to sunlight, moisture, equipment maintenance and wind, including but not limited to, the following:
- Insulation exposed to weather shall be installed with a cover suitable for outdoor service. The cover shall be water retardant and provides shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of the material.
- Insulation covering chilled water piping and refrigerant suction piping located outside the conditioned space shall have a Class I or Class II vapor retarder. All penetrations and joints of which shall be sealed.
(c) Insulation thickness
- For insulation with a conductivity in the range shown in Table 120.3-A for the applicable fluid temperature range, the insulation shall have the applicable thickness shown in Table 120.3-A.
PIPE INSULATION THICKNESS
|FLUID TEMPERATURE RANGE, (°F)||CONDUCTIVITY RANGE (in Btu-inch per hour per square foot per °F)||INSULATION MEAN RATING TEMPERATURE (°F)||NOMINAL PIPE DIAMETER (in inches)|
|< 1||1 to < 1.5||1.5 to < 4||4 to < 8||8 and larger|
|INSULATION THICKNESS REQUIRED (in inches)|
|Space heating, hot water systems (steam, steam condensate and hot water) and service water heating systems (recirculating sections, all piping in electric trace tape systems, and the first 8 feet of piping from the storage tank for nonrecirculating systems)|
|Space cooling systems (chilled water, refrigerant and brine)|
|40-60||0.21-0.27||75||Nonres 0.5||Res 0.75||Nonres 0.5||Res 0.75||1.0||1.0||1.0|
Nonresidential, high-rise residential, and hotel/motel buildings shall comply with the applicable requirements of Sections 120.4(a) through 120.4(f).
(a) CMC compliance. All air distribution system ducts and plenums, including but not limited to building cavities, mechanical closets, air-handler boxes and support platforms used as ducts or plenums, shall be installed, sealed and insulated to meet the requirements of the CMC Sections 601.0, 602.0, 603.0, 604.0, and 605.0, and ANSI/SMACNA-006-2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible, 3rd Edition incorporated herein by reference. Connections of metal ducts and the inner core of flexible ducts shall be mechanically fastened. Openings shall be sealed with mastic, tape, aerosol sealant or other duct-closure system that meets the applicable requirements of UL 181, UL 181A, or UL 181B. If mastic or tape is used to seal openings greater than 1/4 inch, the combination of mastic and either mesh or tape shall be used.
Portions of supply-air and return-air ducts conveying heated or cooled air located in one or more of the following spaces shall be insulated to a minimum installed level of R-8:
- Outdoors; or
- In a space between the roof and an insulated ceiling; or
- In a space directly under a roof with fixed vents or openings to the outside or unconditioned spaces; or
- In an unconditioned crawlspace; or
- In other unconditioned spaces.
Portions of supply-air ducts that are not in one of these spaces, including ducts buried in concrete slab, shall be insulated to a minimum installed level of R-4.2 (or any higher level required by CMC Section 605.0) or be enclosed in directly conditioned space.
(b) Duct and plenum materials.
- All factory-fabricated duct systems shall comply with UL 181 for ducts and closure systems, including collars, connections and splices, and be labeled as complying with UL 181. UL 181 testing may be performed by UL laboratories or a laboratory approved by the Executive Director.
- All pressure-sensitive tapes, heat-activated tapes, and mastics used in the manufacture of rigid fiberglass ducts shall comply with UL 181 and UL 181A.
- All pressure-sensitive tapes and mastics used with flexible ducts shall comply with UL 181 and UL 181B.
- Joints and seams of duct systems and their components shall not be sealed with cloth-back rubber adhesive duct tapes unless such tape is used in combination with mastic and drawbands.
- Factory-made rigid fiberglass and flexible ducts for field-fabricated duct systems shall comply with UL 181. All pressure-sensitive tapes, mastics, aerosol sealants or other closure systems used for installing field-fabricated duct systems shall meet the applicable requirements of UL 181, UL 181A and UL 181B.
- Sealants shall comply with the applicable requirements of UL 181, UL 181A and UL 181B, and be nontoxic and water resistant.
- Sealants for interior applications shall pass ASTM C731 (extrudability after aging) and D2202 (slump test on vertical surfaces), incorporated herein by reference.
- Sealants for exterior applications shall pass ASTM tests C731, C732 (artificial weathering test), and D2202, incorporated herein by reference.
- Sealants and meshes shall be rated for exterior use.
- Pressure-sensitive tape. Pressure-sensitive tapes shall comply with the applicable requirements of UL 181, UL 181A and UL 181B.
- Joints and seams of duct systems and their components shall not be sealed with cloth-back rubber adhesive duct tapes unless such tape is used in combination with mastic and drawbands.
- Drawbands shall be either stainless-steel worm-drive hose clamps or UV-resistant nylon duct ties.
- Drawbands shall have a minimum tensile strength rating of 150 pounds.
- Drawbands shall be tightened as recommended by the manufacturer with an adjustable tensioning tool.
- Aerosol sealants shall meet the requirements of UL 723 and be applied according to manufacturer specifications.
- Tapes or mastics used in combination with aerosol sealing shall meet the requirements of this section.
(c) All duct insulation product R-values shall be based on insulation only (excluding air films, vapor retarders or other duct components) and tested C-values at 75°F mean temperature at the installed thickness, in accordance with ASTM C518 or ASTM C177, incorporated herein by reference, and certified pursuant to Section 110.8.
(d) The installed thickness of duct insulation used to determine its R-value shall be determined as follows:
- For duct board, duct liner and factory-made rigid ducts not normally subjected to compression, the nominal insulation thickness shall be used.
- For duct wrap, installed thickness shall be assumed to be 75 percent (25 percent compression) of nominal thickness.
- For factory-made flexible air ducts, the installed thickness shall be determined by dividing the difference between the actual outside diameter and nominal inside diameter by two.
(e) Insulated flexible duct products installed to meet this requirement must include labels, in maximum intervals of 3 feet, showing the thermal performance R-value for the duct insulation itself (excluding air films, vapor retarder or other duct components), based on the tests in Section 120.4(c) and the installed thickness determined by Section 120.4(d)3.
(f) Protection of insulation. Insulation shall be protected from damage, including that due to sunlight, moisture, equipment maintenance and wind, but not limited to the following:
Insulation exposed to weather shall be suitable for outdoor service, e.g., protected by aluminum, sheet metal, painted canvas or plastic cover. Cellular foam insulation shall be protected as above or painted with a coating that is water retardant and provides shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of the material.
Nonresidential, high-rise residential, and hotel/motel buildings shall comply with the applicable requirements of Sections 120.5(a) through 120.5(b).
(a) Before an occupancy permit is granted, the following equipment and systems shall be certified as meeting the Acceptance Requirements for Code Compliance, as specified by the Reference Nonresidential Appendix NA7. A Certificate of Acceptance shall be submitted to the enforcement agency that certifies that the equipment and systems meet the acceptance requirements:
- Outdoor air ventilation systems shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.1.
- Constant volume, single zone unitary air conditioning and heat pump unit controls shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.2.
- Demand control ventilation systems required by Section 120.1(c)3 shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.5.
- Supply fan variable flow controls shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.6.
- Hydronic system variable flow controls shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.7 and NA7.5.9.
- Boiler or chillers that require isolation controls as specified by Section 140.4(k)2 or 140.4(k)3 shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.7.
- Hydronic systems with supply water temperature reset controls shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.8.
- Automatic demand shed controls shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.10.
- Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) for Packaged Direct-Expansion Units shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.11.
- Automatic fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) for air handling units and zone terminal units shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.12.
- Distributed Energy Storage DX AC Systems shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.13.
- Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Systems shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.14.
- Supply air temperature reset controls shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.15.
- Water-cooled chillers served by cooling towers with condenser water reset controls shall be tested in accordance with NA7.5.16.
- When an energy management control system is installed, it shall functionally meet all of the applicable requirements of Part 6.
(b) When certification is required by Title 24, Part 1, Section 10-103.2, the acceptance testing specified by Section 120.5(a) shall be performed by a certified mechanical acceptance test technician (CMATT). If the CMATT is operating as an employee, the CMATT shall be employed by a certified mechanical acceptance test employer. The CMATT shall disclose on the certificate of acceptance a valid CMATT certification identification number issued by an approved acceptance test technician certification provider. The CMATT shall complete all certificate of acceptance documentation in accordance with the applicable requirements in Section 10-103(a)4.
Note: Authority cited: Sections 25402, 25402.1 and 25213 Public Resources Code. Reference: Sections 25007, 25402(a)-(b), 25402.1, 25402.4, 25402.5, 25402.8 and 25910 Public Resources Code.
Nonresidential, high-rise residential, and hotel/motel buildings shall comply with the applicable requirements of Sections 120.6(a) through 120.6(g).
(a) Mandatory requirements for refrigerated warehouses.
Refrigerated warehouses that are greater than or equal to 3,000 square feet shall meet the requirements of Subsections 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 of Section 120.6(a).
Refrigerated spaces that are less than 3,000 square feet shall meet the requirements of the Appliance Efficiency Regulations for walk-in coolers or freezers contained in the Appliance Efficiency Regulations (California Code of Regulations, Title 20, Sections 1601 through 1608).
Refrigerated spaces that (i) comprise a total of 3,000 square feet or more; and (ii) are collectively served by the same refrigeration system compressor(s) and condenser(s) shall meet the requirements of Subsections 4, 5 and 7 of Section 120.6(a).
- Insulation requirements. Exterior surfaces of refrigerated warehouses shall be insulated at least to the R-values in Table 120.6-A.
- Single phase fan motors less than 1 hp and less than 460 Volts in newly installed evaporators shall be electronically-commutated motors or shall have a minimum motor efficiency of 70 percent when rated in accordance with NEMA Standard MG 1-2006 at full load rating conditions.
- The design wetbulb temperature plus 20°F in locations where the design wetbulb temperature is less than or equal to 76°F;
- The design wetbulb temperature plus 19°F in locations where the design wetbulb temperature is between 76°F and 78°F; or
- The design wetbulb temperature plus 18°F in locations were the design wetbulb temperature is greater than or equal to 78°F.
- All condenser fans for evaporative-cooled condensers or fans on cooling towers or fluid coolers shall be continuously variable speed, and the condensing temperature control system shall control the speed of all fans serving a common condenser high side in unison. The minimum condensing temperature setpoint shall be less than or equal to 70°F.
- All condenser fans for air-cooled condensers shall be continuously variable speed, and the condensing temperature or pressure control system shall control the speed of all condenser fans serving a common condenser high side in unison. The minimum condensing temperature setpoint shall be less than or equal to 70°F.
- Fan-powered condensers shall meet the condenser efficiency requirements listed in Table 120.6-B. Condenser efficiency is defined as the total heat of rejection (THR) capacity divided by all electrical input power including fan power at 100 percent fan speed, and power of spray pumps for evaporative condensers.
- Compressors shall be designed to operate at a minimum condensing temperature of 70°F or less.
- New screw compressors with nominal electric motor power greater than 150 HP shall include the ability to automatically vary the compressor volume ratio (Vi) in response to operating pressures.
- Electric resistance underslab heating systems shall be tested in accordance with NA7.10.1.
- Evaporators fan motor controls shall be tested in accordance with NA7.10.2.
- Evaporative condensers shall be tested in accordance with NA220.127.116.11.
- Air-Cooled condensers shall be tested in accordance with NA18.104.22.168.
- Variable speed compressors shall be tested in accordance with NA7.10.4.
(b) Mandatory requirements for commercial refrigeration.
Retail food stores with 8,000 square feet or more of conditioned area, and that utilize either:
Refrigerated display cases, or
Walk-in coolers or freezers connected to remote compressor units or condensing units, shall meet the requirements of Subsections 1 through 4.
- All condenser fans for air-cooled condensers, evaporative-cooled condensers, air- or water-cooled fluid coolers or cooling towers shall be continuously variable speed, with the speed of all fans serving a common condenser high side controlled in unison.
- The refrigeration system condenser controls for systems with air-cooled condensers shall use variable-setpoint control logic to reset the condensing temperature setpoint in response to ambient drybulb temperature.
- The minimum condensing temperature setpoint shall be less than or equal to 70°F.
- Automatic time switch controls to turn off lights during nonbusiness hours. Timed overrides for any line-up or walk-in case may only be used to turn the lights on for up to one hour. Manual overrides shall time-out automatically to turn the lights off after one hour.
- Motion sensor controls on each case that reduce display case lighting power by at least 50 percent within 30 minutes after the area near the case is vacated.
- The increase in hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant charge associated with refrigeration heat recovery equipment and piping shall be no greater than 0.35 lbs per 1,000 Btu/h of heat recovery heating capacity.
(c) Mandatory requirements for enclosed parking garages.
Mechanical ventilation systems for enclosed parking garages where the total design exhaust rate for the garage is greater than or equal to 10,000 cfm shall conform to all of the following:
- Automatically detect contaminant levels and stage fans or modulate fan airflow rates to 50 percent or less of design capacity, provided acceptable contaminant levels are maintained.
- Have controls and/or devices that will result in fan motor demand of no more than 30 percent of design wattage at 50 percent of design airflow.
- CO shall be monitored with at least one sensor per 5,000 square feet, with the sensor located in the highest expected concentration locations, with at least two sensors per proximity zone. A proximity zone is defined as an area that is isolated from other areas either by floor or other impenetrable obstruction.
- CO concentration at all sensors is maintained at ≤ 25 ppm or less at all times.
- The ventilation rate shall be at least 0.15 cfm/ft2 when the garage is scheduled to be occupied.
- The system shall maintain the garage at negative or neutral pressure relative to other occupiable spaces when the garage is scheduled to be occupied.
- Certified by the manufacturer to be accurate within plus or minus 5 percent of measurement.
- Factory calibrated.
- Certified by the manufacturer to drift no more than 5 percent per year.
- Certified by the manufacturer to require calibration no more frequently than once a year.
- If any sensor has not been calibrated according to the manufacturer’s recommendations within the specified calibration period, the sensor has failed.
- During unoccupied periods the system compares the readings of all sensors, e.g., if any sensor is more than 15 ppm above or below the average of all sensors for longer than four hours, the sensor has failed.
- During occupied periods the system compares the readings of sensors in the same proximity zone, e.g., if the 30 minute rolling average for any sensor in a proximity zone is more than 15 ppm above or below the 30 minute rolling average for other sensor(s) in that proximity zone, the sensor has failed.
(d) Mandatory requirements for process boilers.
- All process boilers with an input capacity of 2.5 MMBtu/h (2,500,000 Btu/h) and above, in which the boiler is designed to operate with a nonpositive vent static pressure.
- All process boilers where one stack serves two or more boilers with a total combined input capacity per stack of 2.5 MMBtu/h (2,500,000 Btu/h).
- The fan motor shall be driven by a variable speed drive; or.
- The fan motor shall include controls that limit the fan motor demand to no more than 30 percent of the total design wattage at 50 percent of design air volume.
- Newly installed process boilers with an input capacity of 5 MMBtu/h (5,000,000 Btu/h) to 10 MMBtu/h (10,000,000 Btu/h) shall maintain excess (stack- gas) oxygen concentrations at less than or equal to 5.0 percent by volume on a dry basis over firing rates of 20 percent to 100 percent. Combustion air volume shall be controlled with respect to firing rate or measured flue gas oxygen concentration. Use of a common gas and combustion air control linkage or jack shaft is prohibited.
- Newly installed process boilers with an input capacity greater than 10 MMBtu/h (10,000,000 Btu/h) shall maintain excess (stack-gas) oxygen concentrations at less than or equal to 3.0 percent by volume on a dry basis over firing rates of 20 to 100 percent. Combustion air volume shall be controlled with respect to measured flue gas oxygen concentration. Use of a common gas and combustion air control linkage or jack shaft is prohibited.
(e) Mandatory requirements for compressed air systems.
All new compressed air systems, and all additions or alterations of compressed air systems where the total combined online horsepower (hp) of the compressor(s) is 25 horsepower or more shall meet the requirements of Subsections 1 through 3. These requirements apply to the compressors and related controls that provide compressed air and do not apply to any equipment or controls that use or process the compressed air.
Exception to Section 120.6(e): Alterations of existing compressed air systems that include one or more centrifugal compressors.
- The compressed air system shall include one or more variable speed drive (VSD) compressors. For systems with more than one compressor, the total combined capacity of the VSD compressor(s) acting as trim compressors must be at least 1.25 times the largest net capacity increment between combinations of compressors. The compressed air system shall include primary storage of at least one gallon per actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) of the largest trim compressor; or
- The compressed air system shall include a compressor or set of compressors with total effective trim capacity at least the size of the largest net capacity increment between combinations of compressors, or the size of the smallest compressor, whichever is larger. The total effective trim capacity of single compressor systems shall cover at least the range from 70 to 100 percent of rated capacity. The effective trim capacity of a compressor is the size of the continuous operational range where the specific power of the compressor (kW/100 acfm) is within 15 percent of the specific power at its most efficient operating point. The total effective trim capacity of the system is the sum of the effective trim capacity of the trim compressors. The system shall include primary storage of at least 2 gallons per acfm of the largest trim compressor.
- Controls. Compressed air systems with more than one compressor online, having a combined horsepower rating of more than 100 hp, must operate with a controller that is able to choose the most energy efficient combination of compressors within the system based on the current air demand as measured by a sensor.
- Compressed air system acceptance. Before an occupancy permit is granted for a compressed air system subject to Section 120.6(e), the following equipment and systems shall be certified as meeting the acceptance requirements for code compliance, as specified by the Reference Nonresidential Appendix NA7. A certificate of acceptance shall be submitted to the enforcement agency that certifies that the equipment and systems meet the acceptance requirements specified in NA 7.13.
(f) Mandatory requirements for elevators.
- The light power density for the luminaires inside the elevator cab shall be no greater than 0.6 watts per square foot.
- Elevator cab ventilation fans for cabs without space conditioning shall not exceed 0.33 watts per CFM as measured at maximum speed.
- When the elevator cab is stopped and unoccupied with doors closed for over 15 minutes, the cab interior lighting and ventilation fans shall be switched off until elevator cab operation resumes.
- Lighting and ventilation shall remain operational in the event that the elevator cabin gets stuck when passengers are in the cabin.
(g) Mandatory requirements for escalators and moving walkways.
- Escalators and moving walkways located in airports, hotels, and transportation function areas shall automatically slow to the minimum permitted speed in accordance with ASME A17.1/CSA B44 when not conveying passengers.
- Escalators and Moving Walkways Acceptance. Before an occupancy permit is granted for escalators and moving walkways subject to 120.6(g), the following equipment and systems shall be certified as meeting the Acceptance Requirement for Code Compliance, as specified by the Reference Nonresidential Appendix NA7. A Certificate of Acceptance shall be submitted to the enforcement agency that certifies that the equipment and systems meet the acceptance requirements specified in NA7.15.
REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE INSULATION
|SPACE||SURFACE||MNIMUM R-VALUE (°F•hr•sf/Btu)|
|Floor with all heating from productive refrigeration capacity1||R-20|
- All underslab heating is provided by a heat exchanger that provides refrigerant subcooling or other means that result in productive refrigeration capacity on the associated refrigerated system.
FAN-POWERED CONDENSERS – MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS
|CONDENSER TYPE||REFRIGERANT TYPE||MINIMUM EFFICIENCY||RATING CONDITION|
|Outdoor evaporative cooled with THR Capacity > 8,000 MBH||All||350 Btuh/Watt||100°F saturated condensing temperature (SCT), 70°F outdoor wetbulb temperature|
|Outdoor evaporative cooled with THR Capacity < 8,000 MBH and indoor evaporative cooled||All||160 Btuh/Watt|
|Outdoor air cooled||Ammonia||75 Btuh/Watt||105°F saturated condensing temperature (SCT), 95°F outdoor drybulb temperature|
|Indoor air cooled||All||Exempt|
FAN-POWERED CONDENSERS – SPECIFIC EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS
|CONDENSER TYPE||MINIMUM SPECIFIC EFFICIENCYa||RATING CONDITION|
|Evaporative cooled||160 Btuh/Watt||100°F saturated condensing temperature (SCT), 70°F outdoor wetbulb temperature|
|Air cooled||160 Btuh/Watt||105°F saturated condensing temperature (SCT), 95°F outdoor drybulb temperature|
- See Section 100.1 for definition of condenser specific efficiency.
Nonresidential, high-rise residential, and hotel/motel buildings shall comply with the applicable requirements in Sections 120.7(a) through 120.7(c).
(a) Roof/Ceiling insulation. The opaque portions of the roof/ceiling that separates conditioned spaces from unconditioned spaces or ambient air shall meet the applicable requirements of Items 1 through 3 below:
- Metal building. The weighted average U-factor of the roof assembly shall not exceed 0.098.
- Wood framed and others. The weighted average U-factor of the roof assembly shall not exceed 0.075.
- Insulation shall be installed in direct contact with a continuous roof or ceiling, which is sealed to limit infiltration and exfiltration as specified in Section 110.7, including but not limited to placing insulation either above or below the roof deck or on top of the finished ceiling; and
- When insulation is installed at the roof in nonresidential buildings, fixed vents or openings to the outdoors or to unconditioned spaces shall not be installed and the space between the ceiling and the roof is either directly or indirectly conditioned space and shall not be considered an attic for the purposes of complying with CBC attic ventilation requirements; and
(b) Wall insulation. The opaque portions of walls that separate conditioned spaces from unconditioned spaces or ambient air shall meet the applicable requirements of Items 1 through 7 below:
- Metal building. The weighted average U-factor of the wall assembly shall not exceed 0.113.
- Metal framed. The weighted average U-factor of the wall assembly shall not exceed 0.151.
- Light mass walls. A 6-inch or greater hollow core concrete masonry unit shall have a U-factor not to exceed 0.440.
- Heavy mass walls. An 8-inch or greater hollow core concrete masonry unit shall have a U-factor not to exceed 0.690.
- Wood framed and others. The weighted average U-factor of the wall assembly shall not exceed 0.110.
- Spandrel panels and opaque curtain wall. The weighted average U-factor of the spandrel panels and opaque curtain wall assembly shall not exceed 0.280.
- Wood framed walls shall be insulated to meet a U-factor not greater than 0.099.
- Metal framed walls shall be insulated to meet a U-factor not greater than 0.151.
(c) Floor and soffit insulation. The opaque portions of floors and soffits that separate conditioned spaces from unconditioned spaces or ambient air shall meet the applicable requirements of Items 1 and 2 below:
- Raised mass floors. Shall have a minimum of 3 inches of lightweight concrete over a metal deck, or the weighted average U-factor of the floor assembly shall not exceed 0.269.
- Other floors. The weighted average U-factor of the floor assembly shall not exceed 0.071.
- Heated slab floor. A heated slab floor shall be insulated to meet the requirements of Section 110.8(g).
Exception to Section 120.7: A dedicated building used solely as a data center that has a total covered process load exceeding 750 kW.
Nonresidential buildings with conditioned space of 10,000 square feet or more, shall comply with the applicable requirements of Sections 120.8(a) through 120.8(i) in the building design and construction processes. All building systems and components covered by Sections 110.0, 120.0, 130.0, and 140.0 shall be included in the scope of the commissioning requirements in this Section, excluding those related solely to covered processes.
Nonresidential buildings with conditioned space of less than 10,000 square feet shall comply with the design review requirements specified in Sections 120.8(d), and shall include any measures or requirements necessary for completing this review in the construction documents in a manner consistent with Section 120.8(e).
NOTE: Nonresidential buildings include nonresidential spaces such as nonresidential function areas within hotel/motel and high-rise residential buildings. The requirements of Section 120.8 apply based on the square footage of the nonresidential spaces.
The commissioning described in this Section is in addition to any commissioning required by Title 24, Part 11, Section 5.410.2, 5.410.4 and subsections.
(a) Summary of commissioning requirements. Commissioning shall include completion of the following items:
- Owner’s or owner representative’s project requirements;
- Basis of design;
- Design phase design review;
- Commissioning measures shown in the construction documents;
- Commissioning plan;
- Functional performance testing;
- Documentation and training; and
- Commissioning report.
(b) Owner’s or Owner Representative’s Project Requirements (OPR). The energy-related expectations and requirements of the building shall be documented before the design phase of the project begins. This documentation shall include the following:
- Energy efficiency goals;
- Ventilation requirements;
- Project documentation requirements, including facility functions and hours of operation, and need for after hours operation;
- Equipment and systems expectations; and
- Building envelope performance expectations.
(c) Basis of design (BOD). A written explanation of how the design of the building systems and components meets the OPR shall be completed at the design phase of the building project, and updated as necessary during the design and construction phases. The basis of design document shall cover the following systems and components:
- Heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) systems and controls;
- Indoor lighting system and controls;
- Water heating systems and controls; and
- Any building envelope component considered in the OPR.
(d) Design phase design review.
- Design reviewer requirements. The design reviewer shall be the signer of the Design Review Kickoff Certificate(s) of Compliance and Construction Document Design Review Checklist Certificate(s) of Compliance as specified in Part 1 Section 10-103(a)1.
- Design review kickoff. During the schematic design phase of the building project, the owner or owner’s representative, design team and design reviewer must meet to discuss the project scope, schedule and how the design reviewer will coordinate with the project team. The building owner or owner’s representative shall include the Design Review Kickoff Certificate of Compliance form in the certificate of compliance documentation (as specified in Part 1 Section 10-103).
- Construction documents design review. The construction documents design review Checklist Certificate of Compliance shall list the items checked by the design reviewer during the construction document review. The completed form shall be returned to the owner and design team for review and sign-off. The building owner or owner’s representative shall include this form in the certificate of compliance documentation (as specified in Part 1 Section 10-103).
(e)Commissioning measures shown in the construction documents. Complete descriptions of all measures or requirements necessary for commissioning shall be included in the construction documents (plans and specifications). Commissioning measures or requirements shall be clear, detailed and complete to clarify the commissioning process.
(f) Commissioning plan. Prior to permit issuance a commissioning plan shall be completed to document how the project will be commissioned and shall be started during the design phase of the building project. The commissioning plan shall include the following:
- General project information; and
- Commissioning goals; and
- Systems to be commissioned; and
- An explanation of the original design intent; and
- Equipment and systems to be tested, including the extent of tests; and
- Functions to be tested; and
- Conditions under which the test shall be performed; and
- Measurable criteria for acceptable performance; and
- Commissioning team information; and
- Commissioning process activities, schedules and responsibilities. Plans for the completion of commissioning requirements listed in Sections 120.8(g) through 120.8(i) shall be included.
(g) Functional performance testing. Functional performance tests shall demonstrate the correct installation and operation of each component, system and system-to-system interface in accordance with the acceptance test requirements in Sections 120.5, 130.4 and 140.9. Functional performance testing reports shall contain information addressing each of the building components tested, the testing methods utilized, and include any readings and adjustments made.
(h) Documentation and training. A systems manual and systems operations training shall be completed.
- Site information, including facility description, history and current requirements; and
- Site contact information; and
- Instructions for basic operations and maintenance, including general site operating procedures, basic troubleshooting, recommended maintenance requirements, and a site events log; and
- Description of major systems; and
- Site equipment inventory and maintenance notes; and
- A copy of all special inspection verifications required by the enforcing agency or the standards.
- System and equipment overview (i.e., what the equipment is, what it does and with what other systems or equipment it interfaces)
- Review and demonstration of operation, servicing and preventive maintenance procedures
- Review of the information in the systems manual
- Review of the record drawings on the systems and equipment
(i) Commissioning report. A complete report of commissioning process activities undertaken through the design, construction and reporting recommendations for post-construction phases of the building project shall be completed and provided to the owner or owner’s representative.
(a) Combustion air positive shut-off shall be provided on all newly installed boilers as follows:
- All boilers with an input capacity of 2.5 MMBtu/h (2,500,000 Btu/h) and above, in which the boiler is designed to operate with a nonpositive vent static pressure.
- All boilers where one stack serves two or more boilers with a total combined input capacity per stack of 2.5 MMBtu/h (2,500,000 Btu/h).
(b) Boiler combustion air fans with motors 10 horsepower or larger shall meet one of the following for newly installed boilers:
- The fan motor shall be driven by a variable speed drive, or
- The fan motor shall include controls that limit the fan motor demand to no more than 30 percent of the total design wattage at 50 percent of design air volume.
(c) Newly installed boilers with an input capacity 5 MMBtu/h (5,000,000 Btu/h) and greater shall maintain excess (stack-gas) oxygen concentrations at less than or equal to 5.0 percent by volume on a dry basis over firing rates of 20 to 100 percent. Combustion air volume shall be controlled with respect to firing rate or flue gas oxygen concentration. Use of a common gas and combustion air control linkage or jack shaft is prohibited.
Exception to Section 120.9(c): Boilers with steady state full-load thermal efficiency 85 percent or higher.