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ARTICLE 400 — FLEXIBLE CORDS AND FLEXIBLE CABLES
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
Adopt Entire Article
X X X X X X X X X X X X
Adopt entire Article as amended
(amended sections listed below)
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
Article/Section
ARTICLE 402 — FIXTURE WIRES
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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X X X X X X X X X X X X
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(amended sections listed below)
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
Article/Section
ARTICLE 404 — SWITCHES
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
Adopt Entire Article
X X X X X X X X
Adopt entire Article as amended
(amended sections listed below)
X X X X
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
X
Article/Section
404 FPN X
404.4(C) Exceptions X X X X
ARTICLE 406RECEPTACLES, CORD CONNECTORS, AND ATTACHMENT PLUGS (CAPS)
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
Adopt Entire Article
X X X X X X X X
Adopt entire Article as amended
(amended sections listed below)
X X X X
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
X
Article/Section
406 FPN X
406.9(C) X X X X
ARTICLE 408SWITCHBOARDS, SWITCHGEAR, AND PANELBOARDS
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH CEC
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
Adopt Entire Article
X X X X X X X X X X X X
Adopt entire Article as amended
(amended sections listed below)
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
X
Article/Section
408.2(A) & (B) X
ARTICLE 409INDUSTRIAL CONTROL PANELS
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
Adopt Entire Article
X X X X X X X X X X X X
Adopt entire Article as amended
(amended sections listed below)
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
Article/Section
ARTICLE 410LUMINAIRES, LAMPHOLDERS, AND LAMPS
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
Adopt Entire Article
X X X X X X X X X X X X
Adopt entire Article as amended
(amended sections listed below)
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
Article/Section
ARTICLE 411LOW-VOLTAGE LIGHTING
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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X X X X X X X X X X X X
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(amended sections listed below)
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
Article/Section
ARTICLE 422APPLIANCES
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH CEC
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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X X X X X X X X X X X X
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(amended sections listed below)
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
X
Article/Section
422.3(A) & (B) X
ARTICLE 424 — FIXED ELECTRIC SPACE-HEATING EQUIPMENT
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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X X X X X X X X X X X X
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(amended sections listed below)
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Article/Section
ARTICLE 425 — FIXED RESISTANCE AND ELECTRODE INDUSTRIAL PROCESS HEATING EQUIPMENT
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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X X X X X X X X X X
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(amended sections listed below)
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Article/Section
440.3(E) & (F)
ARTICLE 426 — FIXED OUTDOOR ELECTRIC DEICING AND SNOW-MELTING EQUIPMENT
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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X X X X X X X X X X X X
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(amended sections listed below)
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Article/Section
ARTICLE 427 — FIXED ELECTRIC HEATING EQUIPMENT FOR PIPELINES AND VESSELS
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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X X X X X X X X X X X X
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(amended sections listed below)
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Article/Section
ARTICLE 430 — MOTORS, MOTOR CIRCUITS, AND CONTROLLERS
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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X X X X X X X X X X X X
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(amended sections listed below)
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
Article/Section
ARTICLE 440 — AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATING EQUIPMENT
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH CEC
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
Adopt Entire Article
X X X X X X X X X X X X
Adopt entire Article as amended
(amended sections listed below)
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
X
Article/Section
440.3(E) & (F) X
ARTICLE 445 — GENERATORS
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BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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X X X X X X X X X X X X
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ARTICLE 450 — TRANSFORMERS AND TRANSFORMER VAULTS (INCLUDING SECONDARY TIES)
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BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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X X X X X X X X X X
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(amended sections listed below)
X X
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450.23 Note X X
ARTICLE 455PHASE CONVERTERS
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BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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ARTICLE 460 — CAPACITORS
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BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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ARTICLE 470 — RESISTORS AND REACTORS
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BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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ARTICLE 480STORAGE BATTERIES
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BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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ARTICLE 490EQUIPMENT OVER 1000 VOLTS, NOMINAL
Adopting Agency
BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD DPH
1 2 AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
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X X X X X X X X X X X X
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(amended sections listed below)
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Article/Section
This article covers general requirements, applications, and construction specifications for flexible cords and flexible cables.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall comply with this article and with the applicable provisions of other articles of this Code.
Flexible cords and flexible cables and their associated fittings shall be suitable for the conditions of use and location.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall conform to the description in Table 400.4. The use of flexible cords and flexible cables other than those in Table 400.4 shall require permission by the authority having jurisdiction.
Table 400.4 Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables
Trade Name Type
Letter
Voltage AWG or
kcmil
Number of
Conductors
Insulation AWG
or kcmil
Nominal
Insulation
Thickness
Braid
on Each
Conductor
Outer
Covering
Use
mm mils
Lamp cord C 300 18—16 2 or more Thermoset or
thermoplastic
18—16 0.76 30 Cotton None Pendant or
portable
Dry locations Not
hard
usage
600 15—10 15—10 1.14 45
Elevator cable E1,2,3,4 300
or 600
20—2 2 or more Thermoset 20—16 0.51 20 Cotton Three cotton;
outer one
flame-retardant
and
moisture-resistant
Elevator lighting
and control
Unclassified locations
15—12 0.76 30
12—10 1.14 45
8—2 1.52 60
20—16 0.51 20 Flexible
nylon
jacket
15—12 0.76 30
12—10 1.14 45
8—2 1.52 60
Elevator cable EO1,2,4 300
or 600
20—2 2 or more Thermoset 20—16 0.51 20 Cotton Three cotton;
outer one
flame-retardant
and
moisture-resistant
Elevator lighting
and control
Unclassified locations
15—12 0.76 30
12—10 1.14 45
8—2 1.52 60
      One cotton and
a neoprene
jacket
Hazardous (classified)
locations
Elevator cable ETP2,4 300
or 600
            Rayon Thermoplastic Hazardous (classified) locations
ETT2,4 300
or 600
None One cotton or
equivalent
and a
thermoplastic
jacket
Electric vehicle
cable
EV5,6 1000 18—500 2 or more plus
equipment
grounding
conductor(s),
plus optional
hybrid data, signal
communications,
and optical fiber
cables
Thermoset with
optional nylon
18—15 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Optional Oil-resistant
thermoset
Electric vehicle
charging
Wet locations Extra-hard
usage
14—10 1.14
(0.76)
45
(30)
8—2 1.52
(1.14)
60
(45)
1—4/0 2.03
(1.52)
80
(60)
250—500 2.41
(1.90)
95
(75)
EVJ5,6 300 18—12 18—12 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Hard
usage
EVE5,6 1000 18—500 2 or more plus
equipment
grounding
conductor(s),
plus optional
hybrid data, signal
communications,
and optical fiber
cables
Thermoplastic
elastomer
with optional
nylon
18—15 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Extra-hard
usage
14—10 1.14
(0.76)
45
(30)
8—2 1.52
(1.14)
60
(45)
1—4/0 2.03
(1.52)
80
(60)
250—500 2.41
(1.90)
95
(75)
EVJE5,6 300 18—12 18—12 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Hard
usage
EVT5,6 1000 18—500 2 or more plus
equipment
grounding
conductor(s),
plus optional
hybrid data, signal
communications,
and optical fiber
cables
Thermoplastic
with optional
nylon
18—15 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Extra-hard
usage
14—10 1.14
(0.76)
45
(30)
8—2 1.52
(1.14)
60
(45)
1—4/0 2.03
(1.52)
80
(60)
250—500 2.41
(1.90)
95
(75)
EVJT5,6 300 18—12 18—12 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Hard
usage
Portable power
cable
G 2000 12—500 2—6 plus
equipment
grounding
conductor(s)
Thermoset 12—2 1.52 60   Oil-resistant
thermoset
Portable and extra-hard usage
1—4/0 2.03 80
250—500 2.41 95
G-GC7 2000 12—500 3—6 plus
equipment
grounding
conductors and
1 ground check
conductor
Thermoset 12—2 1.52 60   Oil-resistant
thermoset
1—4/0 2.03 80
250—500 2.41 95
Heater cord HPD 300 18—12 2, 3, or 4 Thermoset 18—16 0.38 15 None Cotton or rayon Portable
heaters
Dry
locations
Not hard
usage
15—12 0.76 30
Parallel heater cord HPN8 300 18—12 2 or 3 Oil-resistant
thermoset
18—16 1.14 45 None Oil-resistant
thermoset
Portable Damp
locations
Not hard
usage
15 1.52 60
14 2.41 95
12    
Thermoset jacketed
heater cords
HSJ 300 18—12 2, 3, or 4 Thermoset 18—16 0.76 30 None Cotton and
thermoset
Portable or
portable
heater
Damp
locations
Hard
usage
15—12 1.14 45
HSJW 300 18—12 Thermoset       Cotton and
thermoset
Damp
locations
HSJO 300 18—12         Cotton and
oil-resistant
thermoset
Damp
and wet
Locations
HSJOW9 300 18—12       Damp
locations
HSJOO 300 18—12 Oil-resistant
thermoset
     
HSJOOW9 300 18—12       Damp
and wet
Locations
Non-integral
parallel cords
NISP-1 300 20—18 2 or 3 Thermoset 20—18 0.38 15 None Thermoset Pendant or
portable
Damp
locations
Not hard
usage
NISP-2 300 18—16 18—16 0.76 30
NISPE-18 300 20—18 Thermoplastic
elastomer
20—18 0.38 15 Thermoplastic
elastomer
NISPE-28 300 18—16 18—16 0.76 30
NISPT-18 300 20—18 Thermoplastic 20—18 0.38 15 Thermoplastic
NISPT-28 300 18—16 18—16 0.76 30
Twisted portable
cord
PD 300 18—16 2 or more Thermoset or
thermoplastic
18—16 0.76 30 Cotton Cotton or rayon Pendant or
portable
Dry
locations
Not hard
usage
600 14—10 15—10 1.14 45
Portable power
cable
PPE7 2000 12—500 1—6 plus optional
equipment
grounding
conductor(s)
Thermoplastic
elastomer
12—2 1.52 60   Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Portable, extra-hard usage
1—4/0 2.03 80
250—500 2.41 95
Hard service cord S7 600 18—2 2 or more Thermoset 18—15 0.76 30 None Thermoset Pendant or
portable
Damp
locations
Extra-hard
usage
14—10 1.14 45
8—2 1.52 60
Flexible stage and
lighting power
cable
SC7,10 600 8—250 1 or more Thermoset 8—2 1.52 60   Thermoset Portable, extra-hard usage
SCE7,10 600 Thermoplastic
elastomer
1—4/0 2.03 80 Thermoplastic
elastomer
SCT7,10 600 Thermoplastic 250 2.41 95 Thermoplastic
Hard service cord SE7 600 18—2 2 or more Thermoplastic
elastomer
18—15
14—9
8—2
0.76
1.14
1.52
30
45
60
None Thermoplastic
elastomer
Pendant or
portable
Damp
locations
Extra-hard
usage
SEW7,9 600 Damp and
wet
Locations
SEO7 600 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Damp
locations
SEOW7,9 600 Damp and
wet
Locations
SEOO7 600 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Damp
locations
SEOOW7,9 600 Damp and
wet
Locations
Junior hard service
cord
SJ 300 18—10 2—6 Thermoset 18—11
10
0.76
1.14
30
45
None Thermoset Pendant or
portable
Damp
locations
Hard
usage
SJE 300 Thermoplastic
elastomer
Thermoplastic
elastomer
SJEW9 300 Damp
and wet
Locations
SJEO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Damp
locations
SJEOW9 300 Damp and
wet
Locations
SJEOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Damp
locations
SJEOOW9 300 Damp and
wet
Locations
SJO 300 Thermoset Oil-resistant
thermoset
Damp
locations
SJOW9 300 Damp and
wet
Locations
SJOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoset
Damp
locations
SJOOW9 300 Damp and
wet
Locations
SJT 300 Thermoplastic Thermoplastic Damp
locations
SJTW9 300 Damp and
wet
locations
SJTO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Damp
locations
SJTOW9 300 Damp and
wet
locations
SJTOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Damp
locations
SJTOOW9 300 Damp and
wet
locations
Hard service cord SO7 600 18—2 2 or more Thermoset 18—15 0.76 30 None Oil-resistant
thermoset
Pendant or
portable
Damp
locations
Extra-hard
usage
SOW7,9 600 Damp and
wet
locations
SOO7 600 Oil-resistant
thermoset
14—9
8—2
1.14
1.52
45
60
Damp
locations
SOOW7,9 600 Damp and
wet
locations
All thermoset
parallel cord
SP-1 300 20—18 2 or 3 Thermoset 20—18 0.76 30 None None Pendant or
portable
Damp
locations
Not
hard
usage
SP-2 300 18—16 18—16 1.14 45
SP-3 300 18—10 18—16
15—14
12
10
1.52
2.03
2.41
2.80
60
80
95
110
Refrigerators,
room air
conditioners,
and as
permitted in
422.16(B)
All elastomer
(thermoplastic)
parallel cord
SPE-18 300 20—18 2 or 3 Thermoplastic
elastomer
20—18 0.76 30 None None Pendant or
portable
Damp
locations
Not
hard
usage
SPE-28 300 18—16 18—16 1.14 45
SPE-38 300 18—10 18—16
15—14
12
10
1.52
2.03
2.41
2.80
60
80
95
110
Refrigerators,
room air
conditioners,
and as
permitted in
422.16(B)
All thermoplastic
parallel cord
SPT-1 300 20—18 2 or 3 Thermoplastic 20—18 0.76 30 None None Pendant or
portable
Damp
locations
Not
hard
usage
SPT-1W9 300 2 Damp and
wet
locations
SPT-2 300 18—16 2 or 3 18—16 1.14 45 Damp
locations
SPT-2W9 300 2 Damp and
wet
locations
SPT-3 300 18—10 2 or 3 18—16
15—14
12
10
1.52
2.03
2.41
2.80
60
80
95
110
Refrigerators,
room air
conditioners,
and as
permitted in
422.16(B)
Damp
locations
Not
hard
usage
Range, dryer cable SRD 300 10—4 3 or 4 Thermoset 10—4 1.14 45 None Thermoset Portable Damp
locations
Ranges,
dryers
SRDE 300 10—4 3 or 4 Thermoplastic
elastomer
None Thermoplastic
elastomer
SRDT 300 10—4 3 or 4 Thermoplastic None Thermoplastic
Hard service cord ST7 600 18—2 2 or more Thermoplastic 18—15
14—9
8—2
0.76
1.14
1.52
30
45
60
None Thermoplastic Pendant or
portable
Damp
locations
Extra-hard
usage
STW7,9 600 Damp and
wet
locations
STO7 600 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Damp
locations
STOW7, 9 600 Damp and
wet
locations
STOO7 600 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Damp
locations
STOOW7 600 Damp and
wet
locations
Vacuum cleaner
cord
SV 300 18—16 2 or 3 Thermoset 18—16 0.38 15 None Thermoset Pendant or
portable
Damp
locations
Not
hard
usage
SVE 300 Thermoplastic
elastomer
Thermoplastic
elastomer
SVEO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
SVEOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
SVO 300 Thermoset Oil-resistant
thermoset
SVOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoset
Oil-resistant
thermoset
SVT 300 Thermoplastic Thermoplastic
SVTO 300 Thermoplastic Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
SVTOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Parallel tinsel cord TPT11 300 27 2 Thermoplastic 27 0.76 30 None Thermoplastic Attached to an
appliance
Damp
locations
Not
hard
usage
Jacketed tinsel
cord
TST11 300 27 2 Thermoplastic 27 0.38 15 None Thermoplastic Attached to an
appliance
Damp
locations
Not
hard
usage
Portable power
cable
W7 2000 12—500 1—6 Thermoset 12—2 1.52 60   Oil-resistant
thermoset
Portable, extra-hard usage
501—1000 1 1—4/0 2.03 80
    250—500 2.41 95
    501—1000 2.80 110
Notes:
All types listed in Table 400.4 shall have individual conductors twisted together, except for Types HPN, SP-1, SP-2, SP-3, SPE-1, SPE-2,
SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-2, SPT-3, SPT-1W, SPT-2W, TPT, NISP-1, NISP-2, NISPT-1, NISPT-2, NISPE-1, NISPE-2, and three-conductor parallel versions of SRD, SRDE, and SRDT.
The individual conductors of all cords, except those of heat-resistant cords, shall have a thermoset or thermoplastic insulation, except
that the equipment grounding conductor, where used, shall be in accordance with 400.23(B).
1Rubber-filled or varnished cambric tapes shall be permitted as a substitute for the inner braids.
2Elevator traveling cables for operating control and signal circuits shall contain nonmetallic fillers as necessary to maintain concentricity.
Cables shall have steel supporting members as required for suspension by 620.41. In locations subject to excessive moisture or corrosive
vapors or gases, supporting members of other materials shall be permitted. Where steel supporting members are used, they shall run
straight through the center of the cable assembly and shall not be cabled with the copper strands of any conductor.
In addition to conductors used for control and signaling circuits, Types E, EO, ETP, and ETT elevator cables shall be permitted to
incorporate in the construction one or more 20 AWG telephone conductor pairs, one or more coaxial cables, or one or more optical fibers.
The 20 AWG conductor pairs shall be permitted to be covered with suitable shielding for telephone, audio, or higher frequency
communications circuits; the coaxial cables shall consist of a center conductor, insulation, and a shield for use in video or
other radio frequency communications circuits. The optical fiber shall be suitably covered with flame-retardant thermoplastic.
The insulation of the conductors shall be rubber or thermoplastic of a thickness not less than specified for the other conductors
of the particular type of cable. Metallic shields shall have their own protective covering. Where used, these components shall be
permitted to be incorporated in any layer of the cable assembly but shall not run straight through the center.
3Insulations and outer coverings that meet the requirements as flame retardant, limited smoke, and are so listed, shall be
permitted to be marked for limited smoke after the Code type designation.
4Elevator cables in sizes 20 AWG through 14 AWG are rated 300 volts, and sizes 10 AWG through 2 AWG are rated 600 volts.
12 AWG is rated 300 volts with a 0.76 mm (30 mil) insulation thickness and 600 volts with a 1.14 mm (45 mil) insulation thickness.
5Conductor size for Types EV, EVJ, EVE, EVJE, EVT, and EVJT cables apply to nonpower-limited circuits only.
Conductors of power-limited (data, signal, or communications) circuits may extend beyond the stated AWG size range.
All conductors shall be insulated for the same cable voltage rating.
6Insulation thickness for Types EV, EVJ, EVEJE, EVT, and EVJT cables of nylon construction is indicated in parentheses.
7Types G, G-GC, S, SC, SCE, SCT, SE, SEO, SEOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SO, SOO, SOW, SOOW, ST, STO, STOO, STW, STOW,
STOOW, PPE, and W shall be permitted for use on theater stages, in garages, and elsewhere where flexible cords are permitted by this Code.
8The third conductor in Type HPN shall be used as an equipment grounding conductor only. The insulation of the
equipment grounding conductor for Types SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-2, SPT-3, NISPT-1, NISPT-2, NISPE-1, and
NISPE-2 shall be permitted to be thermoset polymer.
9Cords that comply with the requirements for outdoor cords and are so listed shall be permitted to be designated as
weather and water resistant with the suffix "W" after the Code type designation. Cords with the "W" suffix are suitable for use in wet locations and are sunlight resistant.
10The required outer covering on some single-conductor cables may be integral with the insulation.
11Types TPT and TST shall be permitted in lengths not exceeding 2.5 m (8 ft) where attached directly, or by means of
a special type of plug, to a portable appliance rated at 50 watts or less and of such nature that extreme flexibility of the cord is essential.
Table 400.5(A)(1) provides the ampacities, and Table 400.5(A)(2) provides the ampacities for flexible cords and flexible cables with not more than three current-carrying conductors. These tables shall be used in conjunction with applicable end-use product standards to ensure selection of the proper size and type. Where cords and cables are used in ambient temperatures other than 30°C (86°F), the temperature correction factors from Table 310.15(B)(1) that correspond to the temperature rating of the cord or cable shall be applied to the ampacity in Table 400.5(A)(1) and Table 400.5(A)(2). Cords and cables rated 105°C shall use correction factors in the 90°C column of Table 310.15(B)(1) for temperature correction. Where the number of current-carrying conductors exceeds three, the ampacity of each conductor shall be reduced from the three-conductor rating as shown in Table 400.5(A)(3).
Informational Note: See Informative Annex B, Table B.2(11), for adjustment factors for more than three current-carrying conductors in a raceway or cable with load diversity.
A neutral conductor that carries only the unbalanced current from other conductors of the same circuit shall not be required to meet the requirements of a current-carrying conductor.
In a 3-wire circuit consisting of two phase conductors and the neutral conductor of a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye-connected system, a common conductor carries approximately the same current as the line-to-neutral currents of the other conductors and shall be considered to be a current-carrying conductor.
On a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye circuit where more than 50 percent of the load consists of nonlinear loads, there are harmonic currents present in the neutral conductor and the neutral conductor shall be considered to be a current-carrying conductor.
An equipment grounding conductor shall not be considered a current-carrying conductor.
Where a single conductor is used for both equipment grounding and to carry unbalanced current from other conductors, as provided for in 250.140 for electric ranges and electric clothes dryers, it shall not be considered as a current-carrying conductor.
Table 400.5(A)(1) Ampacity for Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables
[Based on Ambient Temperature of 30°C (86°F). See 400.13 and Table 400.4.]
Copper Conductor Size (AWG) Thermoplastic Types TPT, TST Thermoset Types C, E, EO, PD, S, SJ, SJO, SJOW, SJOO, SJOOW, SO, SOW, SOO, SOOW, SP-1, SP-2, SP-3, SRD, SV, SVO, SVOO, NISP-1, NISP-2 Types HPD, HPN, HSJ, HSJO, HSJOW, HSJOO, HSJOOW
Thermoplastic Types ETP, ETT, NISPE-1, NISPE-2, NISPT-1, NISPT-2, SE, SEW, SEO, SEOO, SEOW, SEOOW, SJE, SJEW, SJEO, SJEOO, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJT, SJTW, SJTO, SJTOW, SJTOO, SJTOOW, SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-1W, SPT-2, SPT-2W, SPT-3, ST, STW, SRDE, SRDT, STO, STOW, STOO, STOOW, SVE, SVEO, SVEOO, SVT, SVTO, SVTOO
    Column A1 Column B2  
273 0.5
20 54 5
18 7 10 10
17 9 12 13
16 10 13 15
15 12 16 17
14 15 18 20
13 17 21
12 20 25 30
11 23 27
10 25 30 35
9 29 34
8 35 40
7 40 47
6 45 55
5 52 62
4 60 70
3 70 82
2 80 95
1The currents under Column A apply to three-conductor cords and other multiconductor cords connected to utilization equipment so that only three-conductors are current-carrying.
2The currents under Column B apply to two-conductor cords and other multiconductor cords connected to utilization equipment so that only two conductors are current-carrying.
3Tinsel cord.
4Elevator cables only.
57 amperes for elevator cables only; 2 amperes for other types.
Table 400.5(A)(2) Ampacity of Cable Types SC, SCE, SCT, PPE, G, G-GC, and W
[Based on Ambient Temperature of 30°C (86°F). See Table 400.4.]
Copper Conductor Size (AWG or kcmil) Temperature Rating of Cable
60°C (140°F)   75°C (167°F)   90°C (194°F)
D1 E2 F3   D1 E2 F3   D1 E2 F3
12 31 26   37 31   42 35
10 44 37   52 43   59 49
8 60 55 48   70 65 57   80 74 65
6 80 72 63   95 88 77   105 99 87
4 105 96 84   125 115 101   140 130 114
3 120 113 99   145 135 118   165 152 133
2 140 128 112   170 152 133   190 174 152
1 165 150 131   195 178 156   220 202 177
1/0 195 173 151   230 207 181   260 234 205
2/0 225 199 174   265 238 208   300 271 237
3/0 260 230 201   310 275 241   350 313 274
4/0 300 265 232   360 317 277   405 361 316
250 340 296 259   405 354 310   455 402 352
300 375 330 289   445 395 346   505 449 393
350 420 363 318   505 435 381   570 495 433
400 455 392 343   545 469 410   615 535 468
500 515 448 392   620 537 470   700 613 536
600 575   690   780
700 630   755   855
750 655   785   885
800 680   815   920
900 730   870   985
1000 780   935   1055
1The ampacities under subheading D shall be permitted for single-conductor Types SC, SCE, SCT, PPE, and W cable only where the individual conductors are not installed in raceways and are not in physical contact with each other except in lengths not to exceed 600 mm (24 in.) where passing through the wall of an enclosure.
2The ampacities under subheading E apply to two-conductor cables and other multiconductor cables connected to utilization equipment so that only two conductors are current-carrying.
3The ampacities under subheading F apply to three-conductor cables and other multiconductor cables connected to utilization equipment so that only three conductors are current-carrying.
Table 400.5(A)(3) Adjustment Factors for More Than Three Current-Carrying Conductors in a Flexible Cord or Flexible Cable
Number of Conductors Percent of Value in Table 400.5(A)(1) and Table 400.5(A)(2)
4—6 80
7—9 70
10—20 50
21—30 45
31—40 40
41 and above 35
In no case shall conductors be associated together in such a way with respect to the kind of circuit, the wiring method used, or the number of conductors such that the limiting temperature of the conductors is exceeded.
Under engineering supervision, conductor ampacities shall be permitted to be calculated in accordance with 310.14(B).
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be marked by means of a printed tag attached to the coil reel or carton. The tag shall contain the information required in 310.8(A). Types S, SC, SCE, SCT, SE, SEO, SEOO, SJ, SJE, SJEO, SJEOO, SJO, SJT, SJTO, SJTOO, SO, SOO, ST, STO, STOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SJEW, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJOW, SJTW, SJTOW, SJTOOW, SOW, SOOW, STW, STOW, and STOOW flexible cords and G, G-GC, PPE, and W flexible cables shall be durably marked on the surface at intervals not exceeding 610 mm (24 in.) with the type designation, size, and number of conductors. Required markings on tags, cords, and cables shall also include the maximum operating temperature of the flexible cord or flexible cable.
Flexible cords and cable types listed in Table 400.4 shall be permitted to be surface marked to indicate special characteristics of the cable materials. These markings include, but are not limited to, markings for limited smoke, sunlight resistance, and so forth.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be used only for the following:
  1. Pendants.
  2. Wiring of luminaires.
  3. Connection of portable luminaires, portable and mobile signs, or appliances.
  4. Elevator cables.
  5. Wiring of cranes and hoists.
  6. Connection of utilization equipment to facilitate frequent interchange.
  7. Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration.
  8. Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connections are specifically designed to permit ready removal for maintenance and repair, and the appliance is intended or identified for flexible cord connection.
  9. Connection of moving parts.
  10. Where specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code.
  11. Between an existing receptacle outlet and an inlet, where the inlet provides power to an additional single receptacle outlet. The wiring interconnecting the inlet to the single receptacle outlet shall be a Chapter 3 wiring method. The inlet, receptacle outlet, and Chapter 3 wiring method, including the flexible cord and fittings, shall be a listed assembly specific for this application.
Where used as permitted in 400.10(A)(3), (A)(6), and (A)(8), each flexible cord shall be equipped with an attachment plug and shall be energized from a receptacle outlet or cord connector body.
Exception: As permitted in 368.56.
Unless specifically permitted in 400.10, flexible cords, flexible cables, cord sets, and power supply cords shall not be used for the following:
  1. As a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure
  2. Where run through holes in walls, structural ceilings, suspended ceilings, dropped ceilings, or floors
  3. Where run through doorways, windows, or similar openings
  4. Where attached to building surfaces
    Exception to (4): Flexible cord and flexible cable shall be, permitted to be attached to building surfaces in accordance with 368.56(B) and 590.4.
  5. Where concealed by walls, floors, or ceilings or located above suspended or dropped ceilings
    Exception to (5): Flexible cords, flexible cables, and power supply cords shall be permitted if contained within an enclosure for use in other spaces used for environmental air as permitted by 300.22(C)(3).
  6. Where installed in raceways, except as otherwise permitted in this Code
  7. Where subject to physical damage
Informational Note: For proper application see UL 817, Cord Sets and Power-Supply Cords, and UL 62, Flexible Cords and Cables.
Flexible cord shall be used only in continuous lengths without splice or tap where initially installed in applications permitted by 400.10(A). The repair of hard-service cord and junior hard-service cord (see Trade Name column in Table 400.4) 14 AWG and larger shall be permitted if conductors are spliced in accordance with 110.14(B) and the completed splice retains the insulation, outer sheath properties, and usage characteristics of the cord being spliced
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be connected to devices and to fittings so that tension is not transmitted to joints or terminals.
Exception: Listed portable single-pole devices that are intended to accommodate such tension at their terminals shall be permitted to be used with single-conductor flexible cable.
Informational Note: Some methods of preventing pull on a cord from being transmitted to joints or terminals include knotting the cord, winding with tape, and using support or strain-relief fittings.
Flexible cords used in show windows and showcases shall be Types S, SE, SEO, SEOO, SJ, SJE, SJEO, SJEOO, SJO, SJOO, SJT, SJTO, SJTOO, SO, SOO, ST, STO, STOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SJEW, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJOW, SJOOW, SJTW, SJTOW, SJTOOW, SOW, SOOW, STW, STOW, or STOOW.
Exception No. 1: For the wiring of chain-supported luminaires.
Exception No. 2: As supply cords for portable luminaires and other merchandise being displayed or exhibited.
Flexible cords not smaller than 18 AWG, and tinsel cords or cords having equivalent characteristics of smaller size approved for use with specific appliances, shall be considered as protected against overcurrent in accordance with 240.5.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be protected by bushings or fittings where passing through holes in covers, outlet boxes, or similar enclosures.
In industrial establishments where the conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons service the installation, flexible cords and flexible cables shall be permitted to be installed in aboveground raceways that are no longer than 15 m (50 ft) to protect the flexible cord or flexible cable from physical damage. Where more than three current-carrying conductors are installed within the raceway, the ampacity shall be adjusted in accordance with Table 400.5(A)(3).
Flexible cords shall be examined and tested at the factory and labeled before shipment.
The individual conductors of a flexible cord or flexible cable shall have copper flexible stranding and shall not be smaller than the sizes specified in Table 400.4.
The nominal thickness of insulation for conductors of flexible cords and flexible cables shall not be less than specified in Table 400.4.
One conductor of flexible cords that is intended to be used as a grounded circuit conductor shall have a continuous marker that readily distinguishes it from the other conductor or conductors. The identification shall consist of one of the methods indicated in 400.22(A) through (F).
A braid finished to show a white or gray color and the braid on the other conductor or conductors finished to show a readily distinguishable solid color or colors.
A tracer in a braid of any color contrasting with that of the braid and no tracer in the braid of the other conductor or conductors. No tracer shall be used in the braid of any conductor of a flexible cord that contains a conductor having a braid finished to show white or gray.
Exception: In the case of Types C and PD and cords having the braids on the individual conductors finished to show white or gray. In such cords, the identifying marker shall be permitted to consist of the solid white or gray finish on one conductor, provided there is a colored tracer in the braid of each other conductor.
A white or gray insulation on one conductor and insulation of a readily distinguishable color or colors on the other conductor or conductors for cords having no braids on the individual conductors.
For jacketed cords furnished with appliances, one conductor having its insulation colored light blue, with the other conductors having their insulation of a readily distinguishable color other than white or gray.
Exception: Cords that have insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
The insulation shall be permitted to be covered with an outer finish to provide the desired color.
A white or gray separator on one conductor and a separator of a readily distinguishable solid color on the other conductor or conductors of cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
One conductor having the individual strands tinned and the other conductor or conductors having the individual strands untinned for cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
One or more ridges, grooves, or white stripes located on the exterior of the cord so as to identify one conductor for cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
A conductor intended to be used as an equipment grounding conductor shall have a continuous identifying marker readily distinguishing it from the other conductor or conductors. Conductors having a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes shall not be used for other than equipment grounding conductors. Cords or cables consisting of integral insulation and a jacket without a nonintegral equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted to be green. The identifying marker shall consist of one of the methods in 400.23(A) or (B).
A braid finished to show a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes.
For cords having no braids on the individual conductors, an insulation of a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes.
Where a flexible cord is provided with an equipment grounding conductor and equipped with an attachment plug, the attachment plug shall comply with 250.138(A) and (B).
Part III applies to single and multiconductor portable cables used to connect mobile equipment and machinery.
The conductors shall be 12 AWG copper or larger and shall employ flexible stranding.
An equipment grounding conductor(s) shall be provided in cables with three or more conductors. The total area shall not be less than that of the size of the equipment grounding conductor required in 250.122.
All shields shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor.
Equipment grounding conductors shall be connected in accordance with Parts VI and VII of Article 250.
The minimum bending radii for portable cables during installation and handling in service shall be adequate to prevent damage to the cable.
Connectors used to connect lengths of cable in a run shall be of a type that locks firmly together. Provisions shall be made to prevent opening or closing these connectors while energized. Suitable means shall be used to eliminate tension at connectors and terminations.
Portable cables shall not contain splices unless the splices are of the permanent molded, vulcanized types in accordance with 110.14(B). Terminations on portable cables rated over 600 volts, nominal, shall be accessible only to authorized and qualified personnel.
This article covers general requirements and construction specifications for fixture wires.
Fixture wires shall comply with this article and also with the applicable provisions of other articles of this Code.
Informational Note: For application in luminaires, see Article 410.
Fixture wires shall be of a type listed in Table 402.3, and they shall comply with all requirements of that table. The fixture wires listed in Table 402.3 are all suitable for service at 600 volts, nominal, unless otherwise specified.
Informational Note: Thermoplastic insulation may stiffen at temperatures lower than —10°C (+14°F). Thermoplastic insulation may also be deformed at normal temperatures where subjected to pressure, such as at points of support.
Table 402.3 Fixture Wires
Name Type Letter Insulation AWG Thickness of Insulation Outer Covering Maximum Operating Temperature Application Provisions
mm mils
Heat-resistant rubber-covered fixture wire — flexible stranding FFH-2 Heat-resistant rubber
or cross-linked
synthetic polymer
18—16 0.76 30 Nonmetallic covering 75°C
(167°F)
Fixture wiring
FFHH-2 90°C
(194°F)
ECTFE — solid or 7-strand HF Ethylene
chlorotrifluoroethylene
18—14 0.38 15 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
ECTFE — flexible stranding HFF Ethylene
chlorotrifluoroethylene
18—14 0.38 15 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
Tape insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand KF-1 Aromatic polyimide
tape
18—10 0.14 5.5 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
KF-2 Aromatic polyimide
tape
18—10 0.21 8.4 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring
Tape insulated fixture wire — flexible stranding KFF-1 Aromatic polyimide
tape
18—10 0.14 5.5 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
KFF-2 Aromatic polyimide
tape
18—10 0.21 8.4 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring
Perfluoro-alkoxy — solid or 7-strand (nickel or nickel-coated copper) PAF Perfluoroalkoxy 18—14 0.51 20 None 250°C
(482°F)
Fixture wiring (nickel or nickel-coated copper)
Perfluoro-alkoxy — flexible stranding PAFF Perfluoroalkoxy 18—14 0.51 20 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — solid or 7-strand PF Fluorinated ethylene
propylene
18—14 0.51 20 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — flexible stranding PFF Fluorinated ethylene
propylene
18—14 0.51 20 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — solid or 7-strand PGF Fluorinated ethylene
propylene
18—14 0.36 14 Glass braid 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — flexible stranding PGFF Fluorinated ethylene
propylene
18—14 0.36 14 Glass braid 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
Extruded polytetrafluoroethylene — solid or 7-strand (nickel or nickel-coated copper) PTF Extruded
polytetrafluoroethylene
18—14 0.51 20 None 250°C
(482°F)
Fixture wiring (nickel or nickel-coated copper)
Extruded polytetrafluoroethylene — flexible stranding 26-36 (AWG silver or nickel-coated copper) PTFF Extruded
polytetrafluoroethylene
18—14 0.51 20 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring (silver or nickel-coated copper)
Heat-resistant rubber-covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand RFH-1 Heat-resistant rubber 18 0.38 15 Nonmetallic
covering
75°C
(167°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
RFH-2 Heat-resistant rubber
Cross-linked synthetic polymer
18—16 0.76 30 None or
nonmetallic
covering
75°C
(167°F)
Fixture wiring
Heat-resistant cross-linked synthetic polymer-insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand RFHH-2* Cross-linked
synthetic polymer
18—16 0.76 30 None or
nonmetallic
covering
90°C
(194°F)
Fixture wiring
RFHH-3* 18—16 1.14 45
Silicone insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand SF-1 Silicone rubber 18 0.38 15 Nonmetallic
covering
200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
SF-2 Silicone rubber 18—12 0.76 30 Nonmetallic
covering
200°C Fixture wiring
10 1.14 45 (392°F)
Silicone insulated fixture wire — flexible stranding SFF-1 Silicone rubber 18 0.38 15 Nonmetallic covering 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
SFF-2 Silicone rubber 18—12 0.76 30 Nonmetallic
covering
150°C Fixture wiring
10 1.14 45 (302°F)
Thermoplastic covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand TF* Thermoplastic 18—16 0.76 30 None 60°C
(140°F)
Fixture wiring
Thermoplastic covered fixture wire — flexible stranding TFF* Thermoplastic 18—16 0.76 30 None 60°C
(140°F)
Fixture wiring
Heat-resistant thermoplastic covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand TFN* Thermoplastic 18—16 0.38 15 Nylon-jacketed
or equivalent
90°C
(194°F)
Fixture wiring
Heat-resistant thermoplastic covered fixture wire — flexible stranded TFFN* Thermoplastic 18—16 0.38 15 Nylon-jacketed
or equivalent
90°C
(194°F)
Fixture wiring
Cross-linked polyolefin insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand XF* Cross-linked
polyolefin
18—14 0.76 30 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
12—10 1.14 45
Cross-linked polyolefin insulated fixture wire — flexible stranded XFF* Cross-linked
polyolefin
18—14 0.76 30 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
12—10 1.14 45
Modified ETFE — solid or 7-strand ZF Modified ethylene
tetrafluoroethylene
18—14 0.38 15 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
Modified ETFE — flexible stranding ZFF Modified ethylene
tetrafluoroethylene
18—14 0.38 15 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
High temp. modified ETFE — solid or 7-strand ZHF Modified ethylene
tetrafluoroethylene
18—14 0.38 15 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring
*Insulations and outer coverings that meet the requirements of flame retardant, limited smoke, and are so listed, shall be permitted to be marked for limited smoke after the Code type designation.
The ampacity of fixture wire shall be as specified in Table 402.5.
No conductor shall be used under such conditions that its operating temperature exceeds the temperature specified in Table 402.3 for the type of insulation involved.
Informational Note: See 310.14(A)(3) for temperature limitation of conductors.
Table 402.5 Ampacity for Fixture Wires
Size (AWG) Ampacity
18 6
16 8
14 17
12 23
10 28
Fixture wires shall not be smaller than 18 AWG.
The number of fixture wires permitted in a single conduit or tubing shall not exceed the percentage fill specified in Table 1, Chapter 9.
Fixture wires that are intended to be used as grounded conductors shall be identified by one or more continuous white stripes on other than green insulation or by the means described in 400.22(A) through (E).
Thermoplastic insulated fixture wire shall be durably marked on the surface at intervals not exceeding 610 mm (24 in.). All other fixture wire shall be marked by means of a printed tag attached to the coil, reel, or carton.
Fixture wire types listed in Table 402.3 shall be permitted to be surface marked to indicate special characteristics of the cable materials. These markings include, but are not limited to, markings for limited smoke, sunlight resistance, and so forth.
Fixture wires shall be permitted (1) for installation in luminaires and in similar equipment where enclosed or protected and not subject to bending or twisting in use, or (2) for connecting luminaires to the branch-circuit conductors supplying the luminaires.
Fixture wires shall not be used as branch-circuit conductors except as permitted elsewhere in this Code.
Overcurrent protection for fixture wires shall be as specified in 240.5.
Note: For applications listed in Section 1.9.1 of the California Building Code, regulated by the Division of the State ArchitectAccess Compliance see California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 2 (California Building Code), California Chapter 1 (Division 1 California Administration) under authority cited by Government Code Section 4450 and in reference cited by Government Code Sections 4450, through 4461, 12955.1 and Health and Safety Code Sections 18949.1, 19952 through 19959.
This article covers all switches, switching devices, and circuit breakers used as switches operating at 1000 volts and below, unless specifically referenced elsewhere in this Code for higher voltages.
Three-way and four-way switches shall be wired so that all switching is done only in the ungrounded circuit conductor. Where in metal raceways or metal-armored cables, wiring between switches and outlets shall be in accordance with 300.20(A).
Exception: Switch loops shall not require a grounded conductor.
Switches or circuit breakers shall not disconnect the grounded conductor of a circuit.
Exception: A switch or circuit breaker shall be permitted to disconnect a grounded circuit conductor where all circuit conductors are disconnected simultaneously, or where the device is arranged so that the grounded conductor cannot be disconnected until all the ungrounded conductors of the circuit have been disconnected.
The grounded circuit conductor for the controlled lighting circuit shall be installed at the location where switches control lighting loads that are supplied by a grounded general-purpose branch circuit serving bathrooms, hallways, stairways, and habitable rooms or occupiable spaces as defined in the applicable building code. Where multiple switch locations control the same lighting load such that the entire floor area of the room or space is visible from the single or combined switch locations, the grounded circuit conductor shall only be required at one location. A grounded conductor shall not be required to be installed at lighting switch locations under any of the following conditions:
  1. Where conductors enter the box enclosing the switch through a raceway, provided that the raceway is large enough for all contained conductors, including a grounded conductor
  2. Where the box enclosing the switch is accessible for the installation of an additional or replacement cable without removing finish materials
  3. Where snap switches with integral enclosures comply with 300.15(E)
  4. Where lighting in the area is controlled by automatic means
  5. Where a switch controls a receptacle load
The grounded conductor shall be extended to any switch location as necessary and shall be connected to switching devices that require line-to-neutral voltage to operate the electronics of the switch in the standby mode and shall meet the requirements of 404.22.
Exception: The connection requirement shall become effective on January 1, 2020. It shall not apply to replacement or retrofit switches installed in locations prior to local adoption of 404.2(C) and where the grounded conductor cannot be extended without removing finish materials. The number of electronic control switches on a branch circuit shall not exceed five, and the number connected to any feeder on the load side of a system or main bonding jumper shall not exceed 25. For the purpose of this exception, a neutral busbar, in compliance with 200.2(B) and to which a main or system bonding jumper is connected shall not be limited as to the number of electronic lighting control switches connected.
Informational Note: The provision for a (future) grounded conductor is to complete a circuit path for electronic lighting control devices.
Switches and circuit breakers shall be of the externally operable type mounted in an enclosure listed for the intended use. The minimum wire-bending space at terminals and minimum gutter space provided in switch enclosures shall be as required in 312.6.
Exception No. 1: Pendant- and surface-type snap switches and knife switches mounted on an open-face switchboard or panelboard shall be permitted without enclosures.
Exception No. 2: Switches and circuit breakers installed in accordance with 110.27(A)(1), (A)(2), (A)(3), or (A)(4) shall be permitted without enclosures.
Enclosures shall not be used as junction boxes, auxiliary gutters, or raceways for conductors feeding through or tapping off to other switches or overcurrent devices, unless the enclosure complies with 312.8.
A surface-mounted switch or circuit breaker shall be enclosed in a weatherproof enclosure or cabinet that complies with 312.2.
A flush-mounted switch or circuit breaker shall be equipped with a weatherproof cover.
Switches shall not be installed within tub or shower spaces unless installed as part of a listed tub or shower assembly.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 4 & 5] Switches that are not part of a listed tub or shower assembly shall not be installed within shower rooms or stalls, or be accessible from within those areas. Switches shall not be installed within 900mm (3 ft) of the perimeter of bathtubs or shower stalls.
Exception 1: Bath station devices for Call Systems meeting the requirements of 517.123(C)(4) shall be permitted to be installed outside the perimeter of bathtubs or shower stalls.

Exception 2: Bath station devices for Call Systems meeting the requirements of 517.123(C)(3) shall be permitted to be installed within the tub or shower spaces.
Time switches, flashers, and similar devices shall be of the enclosed type or shall be mounted in cabinets or boxes or equipment enclosures. Energized parts shall be barriered to prevent operator exposure when making manual adjustments or switching.
Exception: Devices mounted so they are accessible only to qualified persons shall be permitted without barriers, provided they are located within an enclosure such that any energized parts within 152 mm (6.0 in.) of the manual adjustment or switch are covered by suitable barriers.
Single-throw knife switches shall be placed so that gravity will not tend to close them. Single-throw knife switches, approved for use in the inverted position, shall be provided with an integral mechanical means that ensures that the blades remain in the open position when so set.
Double-throw knife switches shall be permitted to be mounted so that the throw is either vertical or horizontal. Where the throw is vertical, integral mechanical means shall be provided to hold the blades in the open position when so set.
Single-throw knife switches and switches with butt contacts shall be connected such that their blades are de-energized when the switch is in the open position. Bolted pressure contact switches shall have barriers that prevent inadvertent contact with energized blades. Single-throw knife switches, bolted pressure contact switches, molded case switches, switches with butt contacts, and circuit breakers used as switches shall be connected so that the terminals supplying the load are de-energized when the switch is in the open position.
Exception: The blades and terminals supplying the load of a switch shall be permitted to be energized when the switch is in the open position where the switch is connected to circuits or equipment inherently capable of providing a backfeed source of power. For such installations, a permanent sign shall be installed on the switch enclosure or immediately adjacent to open switches with the following words or equivalent: WARNING — LOAD SIDE TERMINALS MAY BE ENERGIZED BY BACKFEED. The warning sign or label shall comply with 110.21(B).
General-use and motor-circuit switches, circuit breakers, and molded case switches, where mounted in an enclosure as described in 404.3, shall indicate, in a location that is visible when accessing the external operating means, whether they are in the open (off) or closed (on) position.
Where these switch or circuit breaker handles are operated vertically rather than rotationally or horizontally, the up position of the handle shall be the closed (on) position.
Exception No. 1: Vertically operated double-throw switches shall be permitted to be in the closed (on) position with the handle in either the up or down position.
Exception No. 2: On busway installations, tap switches employing a center-pivoting handle shall be permitted to be open or closed with either end of the handle in the up or down position. The switch position shall be clearly indicating and shall be visible from the floor or from the usual point of operation.
All switches and circuit breakers used as switches shall be located so that they may be operated from a readily accessible place. They shall be installed such that the center of the grip of the operating handle of the switch or circuit breaker, when in its highest position, is not more than 2.0 m (6 ft 7 in.) above the floor or working platform.
Exception No. 1: On busway installations, fused switches and circuit breakers shall be permitted to be located at the same level as the busway. Suitable means shall be provided to operate the handle of the device from the floor.
Exception No. 2: Switches and circuit breakers installed adjacent to motors, appliances, or other equipment that they supply shall be permitted to be located higher than 2.0 m (6 ft 7 in.) and to be accessible by portable means.
Exception No. 3: Hookstick operable isolating switches shall be permitted at greater heights.
A snap switch shall not be grouped or ganged in enclosures with other snap switches, receptacles, or similar devices, unless they are arranged so that the voltage between adjacent devices does not exceed 300 volts, or unless they are installed in enclosures equipped with identified, securely installed barriers between adjacent devices.
A multipole, general-use snap switch shall not be permitted to be fed from more than a single circuit unless it is listed and marked as a two-circuit or three-circuit switch.
Informational Note: See 210.7 for disconnect requirements where more than one circuit supplies a switch.
Faceplates provided for snap switches, dimmers, and control switches mounted in boxes and other enclosures shall be installed so as to completely cover the opening and, where the switch is flush mounted, seat against the finished surface.
Snap switches, dimmers, and control switches shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor and shall provide a means to connect metal faceplates to the equipment grounding conductor, whether or not a metal faceplate is installed. Metal faceplates shall be bonded to the equipment grounding conductor. Snap switches, dimmers, control switches, and metal faceplates shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor using either of the following methods:
  1. The switch is mounted with metal screws to a metal box or metal cover that is connected to an equipment grounding conductor or to a nonmetallic box with integral means for connecting to an equipment grounding conductor.
  2. An equipment grounding conductor or equipment bonding jumper is connected to an equipment grounding termination of the snap switch.
Exception No. 1 to (B): Where no means exists within the enclosure for bonding to the equipment grounding conductor, or where the wiring method does not include or provide an equipment grounding conductor, a snap switch without a connection to an equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted for replacement purposes only. A snap switch wired under the provisions of this exception and located within 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically, or 1.5 m (5 ft) horizontally, of ground or exposed grounded metal objects shall be provided with a faceplate of nonconducting noncombustible material with nonmetallic attachment screws, unless the switch mounting strap or yoke is nonmetallic or the circuit is protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter.
Exception No. 2 to (B): Listed kits or listed assemblies shall not be required to be bonded to an equipment grounding conductor if all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The device is provided with a nonmetallic faceplate, and the device is designed such that no metallic faceplate replaces the one provided.
  2. The device does not have mounting means to accept other configurations of faceplates.
  3. The device is equipped with a nonmetallic yoke.
  4. All parts of the device that are accessible after installation of the faceplate are manufactured of nonmetallic materials.
Exception No. 3 to (B): A snap switch with integral nonmetallic enclosure complying with 300.15(E) shall be permitted without a bonding connection to an equipment grounding conductor.
Metal faceplates shall be of ferrous metal not less than 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) in thickness or of nonferrous metal not less than 1.02 mm (0.040 in.) in thickness. Faceplates of insulating material shall be noncombustible and not less than 2.54 mm (0.100 in.) in thickness, but they shall be permitted to be less than 2.54 mm (0.100 in.) in thickness if formed or reinforced to provide adequate mechanical strength.
General-use snap switches, dimmers, and control switches used with open wiring on insulators shall be mounted on insulating material that separates the conductors at least 13 mm (1/2 in.) from the surface wired over.
Flush-type general-use snap switches, dimmers, and control switches mounted in boxes that are set back of the finished surface as permitted in 314.20 shall be installed so that the extension plaster ears are seated against the surface. Flush-type devices mounted in boxes that are flush with the finished surface or project from it shall be installed so that the mounting yoke or strap of the device is seated against the box. Screws used for the purpose of attaching a device to a box shall be of the type provided with a listed device, or shall be machine screws having 32 threads per inch or part of listed assemblies or systems, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
A hand-operable circuit breaker equipped with a lever or handle, or a power-operated circuit breaker capable of being opened by hand in the event of a power failure, shall be permitted to serve as a switch if it has the required number of poles.
Informational Note: See the provisions contained in 240.81 and 240.83.
Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor as specified in Part IV of Article 250. Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers used as service equipment shall comply with the provisions of Part V of Article 250. Where nonmetallic enclosures are used with metal raceways or metal-armored cables, they shall comply with 314.3, Exception No. 1 or No. 2.
Except as covered in 404.9(B), Exception No. 1, nonmetallic boxes for switches shall be installed with a wiring method that provides or includes an equipment grounding conductor.
Knife switches rated at over 1200 amperes at 250 volts or less, and at over 1000 amperes at 251 to 1000 volts, shall be used only as isolating switches and shall not be opened under load.
To interrupt currents over 1200 amperes at 250 volts, nominal, or less, or over 600 amperes at 251 to 1000 volts, nominal, a circuit breaker or a switch listed for such purpose shall be used.
Knife switches of ratings less than specified in 404.13(A) and (B) shall be considered general-use switches.
Informational Note: See the definition of General-Use Switch in Article 100.
Motor-circuit switches shall be permitted to be of the knife-switch type.
Informational Note: See the definition of a Motor-Circuit Switch in Article 100.
Switches shall be listed and used within their ratings. Switches of the types covered in 404.14(A) through (E) shall be limited to the control of loads as specified accordingly. Switches used to control cord-and-plug-connected loads shall be limited as covered in 404.14(F).
Informational Note No. 1: For switches for signs and outline lighting, see 600.6.
Informational Note No. 2: For switches controlling motors, see 430.83, 430.109, and 430.110.
This form of switch shall only be used on ac circuits and used for controlling the following:
  1. Resistive and inductive loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage applied
  2. Tungsten-filament lamp loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at 120 volts
  3. Electric discharge lamp loads not exceeding the marked ampere and voltage rating of the switch
  4. Motor loads not exceeding 80 percent of the ampere rating of the switch at its rated voltage
  5. Electronic ballasts, self-ballasted lamps, compact fluorescent lamps, and LED lamp loads with their associated drivers, not exceeding 20 amperes and not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage applied
This form of switch shall be permitted on either ac or dc circuits and used only for controlling the following:
  1. Resistive loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage applied.
  2. Inductive loads not exceeding 50 percent of the ampere rating of the switch at the applied voltage. Switches rated in horsepower are suitable for controlling motor loads within their rating at the voltage applied.
  3. Tungsten-filament lamp loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the applied voltage if T-rated.
  4. Electronic ballasts, self-ballasted lamps, compact fluorescent lamps, and LED lamp loads with their associated drivers, not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage applied.
Snap switches directly connected to aluminum conductors and rated 20 amperes or less shall be marked CO/ALR.
This form of switch shall not be rated less than 15 amperes at a voltage of 347 volts ac, and they shall not be readily interchangeable in box mounting with switches covered in 404.14(A) and (B). These switches shall be used only for controlling any of the following:
  1. Noninductive loads other than tungsten-filament lamps not exceeding the ampere and voltage ratings of the switch.
  2. Inductive loads not exceeding the ampere and voltage ratings of the switch. Where particular load characteristics or limitations are specified as a condition of the listing, those restrictions shall be observed regardless of the ampere rating of the load.
  3. Electronic ballasts, self-ballasted lamps, compact fluorescent lamps, and LED lamp loads with their associated drivers, not exceeding 20 amperes and not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage applied.
General-use dimmer switches shall be used only to control permanently installed incandescent luminaires unless listed for the control of other loads and installed accordingly. Other electronic control switches, such as timing switches and occupancy sensors, shall be used to control permanently connected loads. They shall be marked by their manufacturer with their current and voltage ratings and used for loads that do not exceed their ampere rating at the voltage applied.
Where a snap switch or control device is used to control cord-and-plug-connected equipment on a general-purpose branch circuit, each snap switch or control device controlling receptacle outlets or cord connectors that are supplied by permanently connected cord pendants shall be rated at not less than the rating of the maximum permitted ampere rating or setting of the overcurrent device protecting the receptacles or cord connectors, as provided in 210.21(B).
Informational Note: See 210.50(A) and 400.10(A)(1) for equivalency to a receptacle outlet of a cord connector that is supplied by a permanently connected cord pendant.
Exception: Where a snap switch or control device is used to control not more than one receptacle on a branch circuit, the switch or control device shall be permitted to be rated at not less than the rating of the receptacle.
Switches shall be marked with the current, voltage, and, if horsepower rated, the maximum rating for which they are designed.
Where in the off position, a switching device with a marked OFF position shall completely disconnect all ungrounded conductors to the load it controls.
Electronic control switches shall be listed. Electronic control switches shall not introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor during normal operation. The requirement to not introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor shall take effect on January 1, 2020.
Exception: Electronic control switches that introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted for applications covered by 404.2(C), Exception. Electronic control switches that introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor shall be listed and marked for use in replacement or retrofit applications only.
Auxiliary contacts of a renewable or quick-break type or the equivalent shall be provided on all knife switches rated 600 to 1000 volts and designed for use in breaking current over 200 amperes.
A fused switch shall not have fuses in parallel except as permitted in 240.8.
The wire-bending space required by 404.3 shall meet Table 312.6(B) spacings to the enclosure wall opposite the line and load terminals.
Note: For applications listed in Section 1.9.1 of the California Building Code, regulated by the Division of the State ArchitectAccess Compliance see California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 2 (California Building Code), Chapter 1 (Division 1 California Administration) under authority cited by Government Code Section 4450 and in reference cited by Government Code Sections 4450, through 4461, 12955.1 and Health and Safety Code Sections 18949.1, 19952 through 19959.
This article covers the rating, type, and installation of receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs (cord caps).
The definitions in this section shall apply only within this article.
Child Care Facility. A building or structure, or portion thereof, for educational, supervisory, or personal care services for more than four children 7 years old or less.
Outlet Box Hood. A housing shield intended to fit over a faceplate for flush-mounted wiring devices, or an integral component of an outlet box or of a faceplate for flush-mounted wiring devices. The hood does not serve to complete the electrical enclosure; it reduces the risk of water coming in contact with electrical components within the hood, such as attachment plugs, current taps, surge protective devices, direct plug-in transformer units, or wiring devices.
Receptacles shall be listed and marked with the manufacturer's name or identification and voltage and ampere ratings. Receptacles shall not be permitted to be reconditioned.
Receptacles and cord connectors shall be rated not less than 15 amperes, 125 volts, or 15 amperes, 250 volts, and shall be of a type not suitable for use as lampholders.
Informational Note: See 210.21(B) for receptacle ratings where installed on branch circuits.
Receptacles rated 20 amperes or less and designed for the direct connection of aluminum conductors shall be marked CO/ALR.
Receptacles incorporating an isolated equipment grounding conductor connection intended for the reduction of electromagnetic interference as permitted in 250.146(D) shall be identified by an orange triangle located on the face of the receptacle.
Isolated ground receptacles installed in nonmetallic boxes shall be covered with a nonmetallic faceplate.
Exception: Where an isolated ground receptacle is installed in a nonmetallic box, a metal faceplate shall be permitted if the box contains a feature or accessory that permits the connection of the faceplate to the equipment grounding conductor.
All nonlocking-type, 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles that are controlled by an automatic control device, or that incorporate control features that remove power from the receptacle for the purpose of energy management or building automation, shall be permanently marked with the symbol shown in Figure 406.3(E) and the word "controlled."
For receptacles controlled by an automatic control device, the marking shall be located on the receptacle face and visible after installation.
In both cases where a multiple receptacle device is used, the required marking of the word "controlled" and symbol shall denote which contact device(s) are controlled.
Exception: The marking shall not be required for receptacles controlled by a wall switch that provide the required room lighting outlets as permitted by 210.70.
FIGURE 406.3(E) Controlled Receptacle Marking Symbol.
A 125-volt 15- or 20-ampere receptacle that additionally provides Class 2 power shall be listed and constructed such that the Class 2 circuitry is integral with the receptacle.
Receptacle outlets shall be located in branch circuits in accordance with Part III of Article 210. General installation requirements shall be in accordance with 406.4(A) through (F).
Except as provided in 406.4(D), receptacles installed on 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits shall be of the grounding type. Grounding-type receptacles shall be installed only on circuits of the voltage class and current for which they are rated, except as provided in 210.21(B)(1) for single receptacles or Table 210.21(B)(2) and Table 210.21(B)(3) for two or more receptacles.
Receptacles and cord connectors that have equipment grounding conductor contacts shall have those contacts connected to an equipment grounding conductor.
Exception No. 1: Receptacles mounted on portable and vehicle-mounted generator sets and generators in accordance with 250.34.
Exception No. 2: Replacement receptacles as permitted by 406.4(D).
The equipment grounding conductor contacts of receptacles and cord connectors shall be connected to the equipment grounding conductor of the circuit supplying the receptacle or cord connector.
Informational Note: For installation requirements for the reduction of electromagnetic interference, see 250.146(D).
The branch-circuit wiring method shall include or provide an equipment grounding conductor to which the equipment grounding conductor contacts of the receptacle or cord connector are connected.
Informational Note No. 1: See 250.118 for acceptable grounding means.
Informational Note No. 2: For extensions of existing branch circuits, see 250.130.
Replacement of receptacles shall comply with 406.4(D)(1) through (D)(7), as applicable. Arc-fault circuit-interrupter type and ground-fault circuit-interrupter type receptacles shall be installed in a readily accessible location.
Where a grounding means exists in the receptacle enclosure or an equipment grounding conductor is installed in accordance with 250.130(C), grounding-type receptacles shall be used and shall be connected to the equipment grounding conductor in accordance with 406.4(C) or 250.130(C).
Where attachment to an equipment grounding conductor does not exist in the receptacle enclosure, the installation shall comply with 406.4(D)(2)(a), (D)(2)(b), or (D)(2)(c).
(a) A non—grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with another non—grounding-type receptacle(s).
(b) A non—grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with a ground-fault circuit interrupter-type of receptacle(s). These receptacles or their cover plates shall be marked "No Equipment Ground." An equipment grounding conductor shall not be connected from the ground-fault circuit-interrupter-type receptacle to any outlet supplied from the ground-fault circuit-interrupter receptacle.
(c) A non-grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with a grounding-type receptacle(s) where supplied through a ground-fault circuit interrupter. Where grounding-type receptacles are supplied through the ground-fault circuit interrupter, grounding-type receptacles or their cover plates shall be marked "GFCI Protected" and "No Equipment Ground," visible after installation. An equipment grounding conductor shall not be connected between the grounding-type receptacles.
Informational Note No. 1: Some equipment or appliance manufacturers require that the branch circuit to the equipment or appliance includes an equipment grounding conductor.
Informational Note No. 2: See 250.114 for a list of a cord- and-plug-connected equipment or appliances that require an equipment grounding conductor.
Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protected receptacles shall be provided where replacements are made at receptacle outlets that are required to be so protected elsewhere in this Code.
Exception: Where the outlet box size will not permit the installation of the GFCI receptacle, the receptacle shall be permitted to be replaced with a new receptacle of the existing type, where GFCI protection is provided and the receptacle is marked "GFCI Protected" and "No Equipment Ground," in accordance with 406.4(D)(2)(a), (D)(2)(b), or (D)(2)(c), as applicable.
If a receptacle outlet located in any areas specified in 210.12(A), (B), or (C) is replaced, a replacement receptacle at this outlet shall be one of the following:
  1. A listed outlet branch-circuit type arc-fault circuit-interrupter receptacle
  2. A receptacle protected by a listed outlet branch-circuit type arc-fault circuit-interrupter type receptacle
  3. A receptacle protected by a listed combination type arc-fault circuit-interrupter type circuit breaker
Exception: Section 210.12(D), Exception, shall not apply to replacement of receptacles.
Listed tamper-resistant receptacles shall be provided where replacements are made at receptacle outlets that are required to be tamper-resistant elsewhere in this Code, except where a non-grounding receptacle is replaced with another non-grounding receptacle.
Weather-resistant receptacles shall be provided where replacements are made at receptacle outlets that are required to be so protected elsewhere in this Code.
Automatically controlled receptacles shall be replaced with equivalently controlled receptacles. If automatic control is no longer required, the receptacle and any associated receptacles marked in accordance with 406.3(E) shall be replaced with a receptacle and faceplate not marked in accordance with 406.3(E).
The installation of grounding-type receptacles shall not be used as a requirement that all cord-and plug-connected equipment be of the grounded type.
Informational Note: See 250.114 for types of cord-and plug-connected equipment to be grounded.
Receptacles connected to circuits that have different voltages, frequencies, or types of current (ac or dc) on the same premises shall be of such design that the attachment plugs used on these circuits are not interchangeable.
Receptacles shall be mounted in identified boxes or assemblies. The boxes or assemblies shall be securely fastened in place unless otherwise permitted elsewhere in this Code. Screws used for the purpose of attaching receptacles to a box shall be of the type provided with a listed receptacle, or shall be machine screws having 32 threads per inch or part of listed assemblies or systems, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Receptacles mounted in boxes that are set back from the finished surface as permitted in 314.20 shall be installed such that the mounting yoke or strap of the receptacle is held rigidly at the finished surface.
Receptacles mounted in boxes that are flush with the finished surface or project therefrom shall be installed such that the mounting yoke or strap of the receptacle is held rigidly against the box or box cover.
Receptacles mounted to and supported by a cover shall be held rigidly against the cover by more than one screw or shall be a device assembly or box cover listed and identified for securing by a single screw.
After installation, receptacle faces shall be flush with or project from faceplates of insulating material and shall project a minimum of 0.4 mm (0.015 in.) from metal faceplates.
Exception: Listed kits or assemblies encompassing receptacles and nonmetallic faceplates that cover the receptacle face, where the plate cannot be installed on any other receptacle, shall be permitted.
Receptacle assemblies for installation in countertop surfaces shall be listed for countertop applications. Where receptacle assemblies for countertop applications are required to provide ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel in accordance with 210.8, such assemblies shall be permitted to be listed as GFCI receptacle assemblies for countertop applications.
Receptacle assemblies and GFCI receptacle assemblies listed for work surface or countertop applications shall be permitted to be installed in work surfaces.
Receptacles shall not be installed in a face-up position in or on countertop surfaces or work surfaces unless listed for countertop or work surface applications.
Receptacles shall not be installed in a face-up position in the area below a sink.
In seating areas or similar surfaces, receptacles shall not be installed in a face-up position unless the receptacle is any of the following:
  1. Part of an assembly listed as a furniture power distribution unit
  2. Part of an assembly listed either as household furnishings or as commercial furnishings
  3. Listed either as a receptacle assembly for countertop applications or as a GFCI receptacle assembly for countertop applications
  4. Installed in a listed floor box
Receptacles shall be enclosed so that live wiring terminals are not exposed to contact.
A receptacle shall not be grouped or ganged in enclosures with other receptacles, snap switches, or similar devices, unless they are arranged so that the voltage between adjacent devices does not exceed 300 volts, or unless they are installed in enclosures equipped with identified, securely installed barriers between adjacent devices.
Receptacle faceplates shall be installed so as to completely cover the opening and seat against the mounting surface.
Receptacle faceplates mounted inside a box having a recess-mounted receptacle shall effectively close the opening and seat against the mounting surface.
Metal faceplates shall be of ferrous metal not less than 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) in thickness or of nonferrous metal not less than 1.02 mm (0.040 in.) in thickness.
Metal faceplates shall be grounded.
Faceplates of insulating material shall be noncombustible and not less than 2.54 mm (0.10 in.) in thickness but shall be permitted to be less than 2.54 mm (0.10 in.) in thickness if formed or reinforced to provide adequate mechanical strength.
A flush device cover plate that additionally provides a night light and/or Class 2 output connector(s) shall be listed and constructed such that the night light and/or Class 2 circuitry is integral with the flush device cover plate.
All attachment plugs, cord connectors, and flanged surface devices (inlets and outlets) shall be listed and marked with the manufacturer's name or identification and voltage and ampere ratings. Attachment plugs, cord connectors, and flanged surface devices shall not be permitted to be reconditioned.
Attachment plugs and cord connectors shall be constructed so that there are no exposed current-carrying parts except the prongs, blades, or pins. The cover for wire terminations shall be a part that is essential for the operation of an attachment plug or connector (dead-front construction).
Attachment plugs shall be installed so that their prongs, blades, or pins are not energized unless inserted into an energized receptacle or cord connectors. No receptacle shall be installed so as to require the insertion of an energized attachment plug as its source of supply.
Attachment plug ejector mechanisms shall not adversely affect engagement of the blades of the attachment plug with the contacts of the receptacle.
A flanged surface inlet shall be installed such that the prongs, blades, or pins are not energized unless an energized cord connector is inserted into it.
Receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs shall be constructed such that receptacle or cord connectors do not accept an attachment plug with a different voltage or current rating from that for which the device is intended. However, a 20-ampere T-slot receptacle or cord connector shall be permitted to accept a 15-ampere attachment plug of the same voltage rating. Non—grounding-type receptacles and connectors shall not accept grounding-type attachment plugs.
A receptacle installed outdoors in a location protected from the weather or in other damp locations shall have an enclosure for the receptacle that is weatherproof when the receptacle is covered (attachment plug cap not inserted and receptacle covers closed).
An installation suitable for wet locations shall also be considered suitable for damp locations.
A receptacle shall be considered to be in a location protected from the weather where located under roofed open porches, canopies, marquees, and the like, and will not be subjected to a beating rain or water runoff. All 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking receptacles shall be a listed weather-resistant type.
Informational Note: The types of receptacles covered by this requirement are identified as 5-15, 5-20, 6-15, and 6-20 in ANSI/NEMA WD 6—2016, Wiring Devices — Dimensional Specifications.
Receptacles of 15 and 20 amperes, 125 and 250 volts installed in a wet location shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof whether or not the attachment plug cap is inserted. An outlet box hood installed for this purpose shall be listed and shall be identified as "extra-duty." Other listed products, enclosures, or assemblies providing weatherproof protection that do not utilize an outlet box hood need not be marked "extra duty."
Informational Note No. 1: Requirements for extra-duty outlet box hoods are found in ANSI/UL 514D-2016, Cover Plates for Flush-Mounted Wiring Devices. "Extra duty" identification and requirements are not applicable to listed receptacles, faceplates, outlet boxes, enclosures, or assemblies that are identified as either being suitable for wet locations or rated as one of the outdoor enclosure-type numbers of Table 110.28 that does not utilize an outlet box hood.
Exception: 15- and 20-ampere, 125- through 250-volt receptacles installed in a wet location and subject to routine high-pressure spray washing shall be permitted to have an enclosure that is weatherproof when the attachment plug is removed.
All 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking-type receptacles shall be listed and so identified as the weather-resistant type.
Informational Note No. 2: The configuration of weather-resistant receptacles covered by this requirement are identified as 5-15, 5-20, 6-15, and 6-20 in ANSI/NEMA WD 6—2016, Wiring Devices — Dimensional Specifications.
All other receptacles installed in a wet location shall comply with 406.9(B)(2)(a) or (B)(2)(b).
(a) A receptacle installed in a wet location, where the product intended to be plugged into it is not attended while in use, shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof with the attachment plug cap inserted or removed.
(b) A receptacle installed in a wet location where the product intended to be plugged into it will be attended while in use (e.g., portable tools) shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof when the attachment plug is removed.
Receptacles shall not be installed within a zone measured 900 mm (3 ft) horizontally and 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower stall threshold. The identified zone is all-encompassing and shall include the space directly over the tub or shower stall.

Exception No. 1: In bathrooms with less than the required zone the receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be installed opposite the bathtub rim or shower stall threshold on the farthest wall within the room.

Exception No. 2: In a dwelling unit, a single receptacle shall be permitted for an electronic toilet or personal hygiene device such as an electronic bidet seat. The receptacle shall be readily accessible and located on one of the following:
  1. The wall behind the toilet but not behind the tank
  2. The opposite side of the toilet from the bathtub or shower
[OSHPD 1, 2, 4 & 5] Exception not adopted.
Standpipes of floor receptacles shall allow floor-cleaning equipment to be operated without damage to receptacles.
The enclosure for a receptacle installed in an outlet box flush-mounted in a finished surface shall be made weatherproof by means of a weatherproof faceplate assembly that provides a watertight connection between the plate and the finished surface.
Grounding-type receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs shall be provided with one fixed grounding pole in addition to the circuit poles. The grounding contacting pole of grounding-type plug-in ground-fault circuit interrupters shall be permitted to be of the movable, self-restoring type on circuits operating at not over 150 volts between any two conductors or any conductor and ground.
Grounding-type receptacles, adapters, cord connections, and attachment plugs shall have a means for connection of an equipment grounding conductor to the grounding pole.
A terminal for connection to the grounding pole shall be designated by one of the following:
  1. A green-colored hexagonal-headed or -shaped terminal screw or nut, not readily removable.
  2. A green-colored pressure wire connector body (a wire barrel).
  3. A similar green-colored connection device, in the case of adapters. The grounding terminal of a grounding adapter shall be a green-colored rigid ear, lug, or similar device. The equipment grounding connection shall be so designed that it cannot make contact with current-carrying parts of the receptacle, adapter, or attachment plug. The adapter shall be polarized.
  4. If the terminal for the equipment grounding conductor is not visible, the conductor entrance hole shall be marked with the word green or ground, the letters G or GR, a grounding symbol, or otherwise identified by a distinctive green color. If the terminal for the equipment grounding conductor is readily removable, the area adjacent to the terminal shall be similarly marked.
Informational Note: See Informational Note Figure 406.10(B)(4).
Informational Note Figure 406.10(B)(4) One Example of a Symbol Used to Identify the Termination Point for an Equipment Grounding Conductor.
A grounding terminal shall not be used for purposes other than connection to the equipment grounding conductor.
Grounding-type attachment plugs and mating cord connectors and receptacles shall be designed such that the equipment grounding connection is made before the current-carrying connections. Grounding-type devices shall be so designed that grounding poles of attachment plugs cannot be brought into contact with current-carrying parts of receptacles or cord connectors.
Grounding-type attachment plugs shall be used only with a cord having an equipment grounding conductor.
Informational Note: See 250.126 for identification of equipment grounding conductor terminals.
All 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking-type receptacles in the areas specified in 406.12(1) through (8) shall be listed tamper-resistant receptacles.
  1. Dwelling units, including attached and detached garages and accessory buildings to dwelling units, and common areas of multifamily dwellings specified in 210.52 and 550.13
  2. Guest rooms and guest suites of hotels, motels, and their common areas
  3. Child care facilities
  4. Preschools and education facilities
  5. Business offices, corridors, waiting rooms and the like in clinics, medical and dental offices, and outpatient facilities
  6. Subset of assembly occupancies described in 518.2 to include places of awaiting transportation, gymnasiums, skating rinks, and auditoriums
  7. Dormitory units
  8. Assisted living facilities
Informational Note No. 1: This requirement would include receptacles identified as 5-15, 5-20, 6-15, and 6-20 in ANSI/NEMA WD 6-2016, Wiring Devices — Dimensional Specifications.
Informational Note No. 2: Assisted living facilities are Institutional Use Group I-1 per IBC 2015.
Exception to (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7) and (8): Receptacles in the following locations shall not be required to be tamper resistant:
  1. Receptacles located more than 1.7 m (51/2 ft) above the floor
  2. Receptacles that are part of a luminaire or appliance
  3. A single receptacle, or a duplex receptacle for two appliances, located within the dedicated space for each appliance that, in normal use, is not easily moved from one place to another and that is cord-and-plug-connected in accordance with 400.10(A)(6), (A)(7), or (A)(8)
  4. Nongrounding receptacles used for replacements as permitted in 406.4(D)(2)(a)
Single-pole separable connectors shall be of either the locking or latching type and marked with the manufacturer's name or identification and voltage and ampere ratings.
Connectors designated for connection to the grounded circuit conductor shall be identified by a white-colored housing; connectors designated for connection to the grounding circuit conductor shall be identified by a green-colored housing.
Single-pole separable connectors shall be permitted to be interchangeable for ac or dc use or for different current ratings or voltages on the same premises, provided they are listed for ac/dc use and marked in a suitable manner to identify the system to which they are intended to be connected.
The use of single-pole separable connectors shall be performed by a qualified person and shall comply with at least one of the following conditions:
  1. Connection and disconnection of connectors are only possible where the supply connectors are interlocked to the source, and it is not possible to connect or disconnect connectors when the supply is energized.
  2. Line connectors are of the listed sequential-interlocking type so that load connectors are connected in the following sequence and that disconnection is in the reverse sequence:
    1. Equipment grounding conductor connection
    2. Grounded circuit conductor connection, if provided
    3. Ungrounded conductor connection
  3. A caution notice that complies with 110.21(B) is provided on the equipment employing single-pole separable connectors, adjacent to the line connectors, indicating that connections are to be performed in the following sequence and that disconnection is in the reverse sequence:
    1. Equipment grounding conductor connectors
    2. Grounded circuit-conductor connectors, if provided
    3. Ungrounded conductor connectors
Informational Note: A single-pole locking-type separable connector is investigated in accordance with ANSI/UL 1691—2014, Single Pole Locking-Type Separable Connectors.
This article covers switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards. It does not apply to equipment operating at over 1000 volts, except as specifically referenced elsewhere in the Code.
Switches, circuit breakers, and overcurrent devices used on switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards and their enclosures shall comply with this article and also with the requirements of Articles 240, 250, 312, 404, and other articles that apply. Switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards in hazardous (classified) locations shall comply with the applicable provisions of Articles 500 through 517.
In single-family residential buildings that include one or two dwellings, panelboards serving the individual dwelling unit shall be provided with circuit breaker spaces for heat pump water heaters, heat pump space heaters, electric cooktops and electric clothes dryers as specified in California Energy Code Section 150.0 (n), (t), (u) and (v).
In multifamily buildings, panelboards serving the individual dwelling unit shall be provided with circuit breaker spaces for heat pump space heaters, electric cooktops and electric clothes dryers as specified in California Energy Code Section 160.9 (a), (b) and (c).
Conductors and busbars on a switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard shall comply with 408.3(A)(1) and (A)(2) as applicable.
Conductors and busbars shall be located so as to be free from physical damage and shall be held firmly in place.
Other than the required interconnections and control wiring, only those conductors that are intended for termination in a vertical section of a switchboard or switchgear shall be located in that section.
Exception: Conductors shall be permitted to travel horizontally through vertical sections of switchboards and switchgear where such conductors are isolated from busbars by a barrier.
The arrangement of busbars and conductors shall be such as to avoid overheating due to inductive effects.
Each switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard, if used as service equipment, shall be provided with a main bonding jumper sized in accordance with 250.28(D) or the equivalent placed within the panelboard or one of the sections of the switchboard or switchgear for connecting the grounded service conductor on its supply side to the switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard frame. All sections of a switchboard or switchgear shall be bonded together using an equipment-bonding jumper or a supply-side bonding jumper sized in accordance with 250.122 or 250.102(C)(1) as applicable.
Exception: Switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards used as service equipment on high-impedance grounded neutral systems in accordance with 250.36 shall not be required to be provided with a main bonding jumper.
In switchboards and switchgear, load terminals for field wiring shall comply with 408.18(C).
Alternating-current phase arrangement on 3-phase buses shall be A, B, C from front to back, top to bottom, or left to right, as viewed from the front of the switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard. The B phase shall be that phase having the higher voltage to ground on 3-phase, 4-wire, delta-connected systems. Other busbar arrangements shall be permitted for additions to existing installations and shall be marked.
Exception: Equipment within the same single section or multisection switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard as the meter on 3-phase, 4-wire, delta-connected systems shall be permitted to have the same phase configuration as the metering equipment.
Informational Note: See 110.15 for requirements on marking the busbar or phase conductor having the higher voltage to ground where supplied from a 4-wire, delta-connected system.
Direct-current ungrounded buses shall be permitted to be in any order. Arrangement of dc buses shall be field marked as to polarity, grounding system, and nominal voltage.
A caution sign(s) or a label(s) provided in accordance with 408.3(F)(1) through (F)(5) shall comply with 110.21(B).
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing a 4-wire, delta-connected system where the midpoint of one phase winding is grounded shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
"Caution _____ Phase Has _____ Volts to Ground"
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing an ungrounded ac electrical system as permitted in 250.21 shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
"Caution Ungrounded System Operating — _____ Volts Between Conductors"
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing a high-impedance grounded neutral ac system in accordance with 250.36 shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
CAUTION: HIGH-IMPEDANCE GROUNDED NEUTRAL AC SYSTEM OPERATING — _____ VOLTS BETWEEN CONDUCTORS AND MAY OPERATE — _____ VOLTS TO GROUND FOR INDEFINITE PERIODS UNDER FAULT CONDITIONS
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing an ungrounded dc electrical system in accordance with 250.169 shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
CAUTION: UNGROUNDED DC SYSTEM OPERATING — _____ VOLTS BETWEEN CONDUCTORS
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing a resistive connection between current-carrying conductors and the grounding system to stabilize voltage to ground shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
CAUTION: DC SYSTEM OPERATING — _____ VOLTS BETWEEN CONDUCTORS AND MAY OPERATE — _____ VOLTS TO GROUND FOR INDEFINITE PERIODS UNDER FAULT CONDITIONS
The minimum wire-bending space at terminals and minimum gutter space provided in switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards shall be as required in 312.6.
Every circuit and circuit modification shall be legibly identified as to its clear, evident, and specific purpose or use. The identification shall include an approved degree of detail that allows each circuit to be distinguished from all others. Spare positions that contain unused overcurrent devices or switches shall be described accordingly. The identification shall be included in a circuit directory that is located on the face, inside of, or in an approved location adjacent to the panel door in the case of a panelboard and at each switch or circuit breaker in a switchboard or switchgear. No circuit shall be described in a manner that depends on transient conditions of occupancy.
All switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards supplied by a feeder(s) in other than one- or two-family dwellings shall be permanently marked to indicate each device or equipment where the power originates. The label shall be permanently affixed, of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved, and not handwritten.
Where conduits or other raceways enter a switchboard, switchgear, floor-standing panelboard, or similar enclosure at the bottom, approved space shall be provided to permit installation of conductors in the enclosure. The wiring space shall not be less than shown in Table 408.5 where the conduit or raceways enter or leave the enclosure below the busbars, their supports, or other obstructions. The conduit or raceways, including their end fittings, shall not rise more than 75 mm (3 in.) above the bottom of the enclosure.
Table 408.5 Clearance for Conductors Entering Bus Enclosures
Conductor Minimum Spacing Between Bottom of Enclosure and Busbars, Their Supports, or Other Obstructions
mm in.
Insulated busbars, their supports, or other obstructions 200 8
Noninsulated busbars 250 10
Switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards shall have a short-circuit current rating not less than the available fault current. In other than one- and two-family dwelling units, the available fault current and the date the calculation was performed shall be field marked on the enclosure at the point of supply. The marking shall comply with 110.21(B)(3).
Unused openings for circuit breakers and switches shall be closed using identified closures, or other approved means that provide protection substantially equivalent to the wall of the enclosure.
Reconditioning of equipment within the scope of this article shall be limited as described in 408.8(A) and (B). The reconditioning process shall use design qualified parts verified under applicable standards and be performed in accordance with any instructions provided by the manufacturer. If equipment has been damaged by fire, products of combustion, or water, it shall be specifically evaluated by its manufacturer or a qualified testing laboratory prior to being returned to service.
Panelboards shall not be permitted to be reconditioned. This shall not prevent the replacement of a panelboard within an enclosure. In the event the replacement has not been listed for the specific enclosure and the available fault current is greater than 10,000 amperes, the completed work shall be field labeled, and any previously applied listing marks on the cabinet that pertain to the panelboard shall be removed.
Switchboards and switchgear, or sections of switchboards or switchgear, shall be permitted to be reconditioned. Reconditioned switchgear shall be listed or field labeled as reconditioned, and previously applied listing marks, if any, within the portions reconditioned shall be removed.
Switchboards and switchgear shall be placed so as to reduce to a minimum the probability of communicating fire to adjacent combustible materials. Where installed over a combustible floor, suitable protection thereto shall be provided.
For other than a totally enclosed switchboard or switchgear, a space not less than 900 mm (3 ft) shall be provided between the top of the switchboard or switchgear and any combustible ceiling, unless a noncombustible shield is provided between the switchboard or switchgear and the ceiling.
Clearances around switchboards and switchgear shall comply with the provisions of 110.26.
Each section of equipment that requires rear or side access to make field connections shall be so marked by the manufacturer on the front. Section openings requiring rear or side access shall comply with 110.26. Load terminals for field wiring shall comply with 408.18(C)(1), (C)(2), or (C)(3) as applicable.
Load terminals for field wiring shall be so located that it is not necessary to reach across uninsulated ungrounded bus in order to make connections.
Where multiple branch or feeder grounded circuit conductor load terminals for field wiring are grouped together in one location, they shall be so located that it is not necessary to reach across uninsulated ungrounded bus, whether or not energized, in order to make connections.
Where only one branch or feeder set of load terminals for field wiring are grouped with its associated ungrounded load terminals, they shall be so located that it is not necessary to reach across energized uninsulated bus including other branch or feeder bus in order to make connections. Bus on the line side of service, branch, or feeder disconnects is considered energized with respect to its associated load side circuits.
Load terminals for ungrounded conductors shall be so located that it is not necessary to reach across energized uninsulated bus in order to make connections. Bus on the line side of service, branch, or feeder disconnects is considered energized with respect to its associated load side circuits.
An insulated conductor used within a switchboard or switchgear shall be listed, shall be flame retardant, and shall be rated not less than the voltage applied to it and not less than the voltage applied to other conductors or busbars with which it may come into contact.
Switchboards and switchgear that have any exposed live parts shall be located in permanently dry locations and then only where under competent supervision and accessible only to qualified persons. Switchboards and switchgear shall be located such that the probability of damage from equipment or processes is reduced to a minimum.
Instruments, relays, meters, and instrument transformers located on switchboards and switchgear shall be grounded as specified in 250.170 through 250.178.
All panelboards shall have a rating not less than the minimum feeder capacity required for the load calculated in accordance with Part III, IV, or V of Article 220, as applicable.
In addition to the requirement of 408.30, a panelboard shall be protected by an overcurrent protective device having a rating not greater than that of the panelboard. This overcurrent protective device shall be located within or at any point on the supply side of the panelboard.
Exception No. 1: Individual protection shall not be required for a panelboard protected by two main circuit breakers or two sets of fuses in other than service equipment, having a combined rating not greater than that of the panelboard. A panelboard constructed or wired under this exception shall not contain more than 42 overcurrent devices. For the purposes of determining the maximum of 42 overcurrent devices, a 2-pole or a 3-pole circuit breaker shall be considered as two or three overcurrent devices, respectively.
Exception No. 2: For existing panelboards, individual protection shall not be required for a panelboard used as service equipment for an individual residential occupancy.
Panelboards equipped with snap switches rated at 30 amperes or less shall have overcurrent protection of 200 amperes or less.
Where a panelboard is supplied through a transformer, the overcurrent protection required by 408.36 shall be located on the secondary side of the transformer.
Exception: A panelboard supplied by the secondary side of a transformer shall be considered as protected by the overcurrent protection provided on the primary side of the transformer where that protection is in accordance with 240.21(C)(1).
A 3-phase disconnect or overcurrent device shall not be connected to the bus of any panelboard that has less than 3-phase buses. Delta breakers shall not be installed in panelboards.
Plug-in-type overcurrent protection devices or plug-in type main lug assemblies that are backfed and used to terminate field-installed ungrounded supply conductors shall be secured in place by an additional fastener that requires other than a pull to release the device from the mounting means on the panel.
Panelboards in damp or wet locations shall be installed to comply with 312.2.
Panelboards shall be mounted in cabinets, cutout boxes, or identified enclosures and shall be dead-front.
Exception: Panelboards other than of the dead-front, externally operable type shall be permitted where accessible only to qualified persons.
In panelboards, fuses of any type shall be installed on the load side of any switches.
Exception: Fuses installed as part of service equipment in accordance with the provisions of 230.94 shall be permitted on the line side of the service switch.
Panelboard cabinets and panelboard frames, if of metal, shall be in physical contact with each other and shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor. Where the panelboard is used with nonmetallic raceway or cable or where separate equipment grounding conductors are provided, a terminal bar for the equipment grounding conductors shall be secured inside the cabinet. The terminal bar shall be bonded to the cabinet and panelboard frame, if of metal; otherwise it shall be connected to the equipment grounding conductor that is run with the conductors feeding the panelboard.
Exception: Where an isolated equipment grounding conductor for a branch circuit or a feeder is provided as permitted by 250.146(D), the insulated equipment grounding conductor that is run with the circuit conductors shall be permitted to pass through the panelboard without being connected to the panelboard's equipment grounding terminal bar.
Equipment grounding conductors shall not be connected to a terminal bar provided for grounded conductors or neutral conductors unless the bar is identified for the purpose and is located where interconnection between equipment grounding conductors and grounded circuit conductors is permitted or required by Article 250.
Each grounded conductor shall terminate within the panelboard in an individual terminal that is not also used for another conductor.
Exception: Grounded conductors of circuits with parallel conductors shall be permitted to terminate in a single terminal if the terminal is identified for connection of more than one conductor.
Panelboards shall not be installed in the face-up position.
The panels of switchboards and switchgear shall be made of moisture-resistant, noncombustible material.
Insulated or bare busbars shall be rigidly mounted.
Instruments, pilot lights, voltage (potential) transformers, and other switchboard or switchgear devices with potential coils shall be supplied by a circuit that is protected by standard overcurrent devices rated 15 amperes or less.
Exception No. 1: Overcurrent devices rated more than 15 amperes shall be permitted where the interruption of the circuit could create a hazard. Short-circuit protection shall be provided.
Exception No. 2: For ratings of 2 amperes or less, special types of enclosed fuses shall be permitted.
Switches, fuses, and fuseholders used on panelboards shall comply with the applicable requirements of Articles 240 and 404.
A panelboard shall be provided with physical means to prevent the installation of more overcurrent devices than that number for which the panelboard was designed, rated, and listed.
For the purposes of this section, a 2-pole circuit breaker or fusible switch shall be considered two overcurrent devices; a 3-pole circuit breaker or fusible switch shall be considered three overcurrent devices.
The enclosure for a panelboard shall have the top and bottom wire-bending space sized in accordance with Table 312.6(B) for the largest conductor entering or leaving the enclosure.
Exception No. 1: Either the top or bottom wire-bending space shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) for a panelboard rated 225 amperes or less and designed to contain not over 42 overcurrent devices. For the purposes of this exception, a 2-pole or a 3-pole circuit breaker shall be considered as two or three overcurrent devices, respectively.
Exception No. 2: Either the top or bottom wire-bending space for any panelboard shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) where at least one side wire-bending space is sized in accordance with Table 312.6(B) for the largest conductor to be terminated in any side wire-bending space.
Exception No. 3: The top and bottom wire-bending space shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) spacings if the panelboard is designed and constructed for wiring using only a single 90-degree bend for each conductor, including the grounded circuit conductor, and the wiring diagram shows and specifies the method of wiring that shall be used.
Exception No. 4: Either the top or the bottom wire-bending space, but not both, shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) where there are no conductors terminated in that space.
Side wire-bending space shall be in accordance with Table 312.6(A) for the largest conductor to be terminated in that space.
Where a raceway or cable entry is in the wall of the enclosure opposite a removable cover, the distance from that wall to the cover shall be permitted to comply with the distance required for one wire per terminal in Table 312.6(A). The distance between the center of the rear entry and the nearest termination for the entering conductors shall not be less than the distance given in Table 312.6(B).
The distance between uninsulated metal parts, busbars, and other uninsulated live parts shall not be less than specified in Table 408.56.
Where close proximity does not cause excessive heating, parts of the same polarity at switches, enclosed fuses, and so forth shall be permitted to be placed as close together as convenience in handling will allow.
Exception: The distance shall be permitted to be less than that specified in Table 408.56 at circuit breakers and switches and in listed components installed in switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards.
Table 408.56 Minimum Spacings Between Bare Metal Parts
AC or DC Voltage Opposite Polarity Where Mounted on the Same Surface Opposite Polarity Where Held Free in Air Live Parts to Ground*
mm in. mm in. mm in.
Not over 125 volts, nominal 19.1 3/4 12.7 1/2 12.7 1/2
Not over 250 volts, nominal 31.8 11/4 19.1 3/4 12.7 1/2
Not over 1000 volts, nominal 50.8 2 25.4 1 25.4 1
*For spacing between live parts and doors of cabinets, the dimensions in 312.11(A) shall apply.
Panelboards shall be durably marked by the manufacturer with the voltage and the current rating and the number of ac phases or dc buses for which they are designed and with the manufacturer's name or trademark in such a manner so as to be visible after installation, without disturbing the interior parts or wiring.
This article covers industrial control panels intended for general use and operating at 1000 volts or less.
Informational Note: ANSI/UL 508A, Standard for Industrial Control Panels, is a safety standard for industrial control panels.
In addition to the requirements of Article 409, industrial control panels that contain branch circuits for specific loads or components, or are for control of specific types of equipment addressed in other articles of this Code, shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the applicable requirements from the specific articles in Table 409.3.
Table 409.3 Other Articles
Equipment/Occupancy Article Section
Branch circuits 210
Luminaires 410
Motors, motor circuits, and controllers 430
Air-conditioning and refrigerating equipment 440
Capacitors 460.8, 460.9
Hazardous (classified) locations 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505
Commercial garages; aircraft hangars; motor fuel dispensing facilities; bulk storage plants; spray application, dipping, and coating processes; and inhalation anesthetizing locations 511, 513, 514, 515, 516, and 517 Part IV
Cranes and hoists 610
Electrically driven or controlled irrigation machines 675
Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks, wheelchair lifts, and stairway chair lifts 620
Industrial machinery 670
Resistors and reactors 470
Transformers 450
Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 remote-control, signaling, and power-limited circuits 725
The size of the industrial control panel supply conductor shall have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the full-load current rating of all heating loads plus 125 percent of the full-load current rating of the highest rated motor plus the sum of the full-load current ratings of all other connected motors and apparatus based on their duty cycle that may be in operation at the same time.
Industrial control panels shall be provided with overcurrent protection in accordance with Parts I, II, and IX of Article 240.
This protection shall be provided for each incoming supply circuit by either of the following:
  1. An overcurrent protective device located ahead of the industrial control panel.
  2. A single main overcurrent protective device located within the industrial control panel. Where overcurrent protection is provided as part of the industrial control panel, the supply conductors shall be considered as either feeders or taps as covered by 240.21.
The rating or setting of the overcurrent protective device for the circuit supplying the industrial control panel shall not be greater than the sum of the largest rating or setting of the branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protective device provided with the industrial control panel, plus 125 percent of the full-load current rating of all resistance heating loads, plus the sum of the full-load currents of all other motors and apparatus that could be in operation at the same time.
Exception: Where one or more instantaneous trip circuit breakers or motor short-circuit protectors are used for motor branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protection as permitted by 430.52(C), the procedure specified above for determining the maximum rating of the protective device for the circuit supplying the industrial control panel shall apply with the following provision: For the purpose of the calculation, each instantaneous trip circuit breaker or motor short-circuit protector shall be assumed to have a rating not exceeding the maximum percentage of motor full-load current permitted by Table 430.52 for the type of control panel supply circuit protective device employed.
Where no branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protective device is provided with the industrial control panel for motor or combination of motor and non-motor loads, the rating or setting of the overcurrent protective device shall be based on 430.52 and 430.53, as applicable.
An industrial control panel shall not be installed where the available fault current exceeds its short-circuit current rating as marked in accordance with 409.110(4).
If an industrial control panel is required to be marked with a short-circuit current rating in accordance with 409.110(4), the available fault current at the industrial control panel and the date the available fault current calculation was performed shall be documented and made available to those authorized to inspect, install, or maintain the installation.
Disconnecting means that supply motor loads shall comply with Part IX of Article 430.
Multisection industrial control panels shall be bonded together with an equipment grounding conductor or an equivalent equipment grounding bus sized in accordance with Table 250.122. Equipment grounding conductors shall be connected to this equipment grounding bus or to an equipment grounding termination point provided in a single-section industrial control panel.
Table 110.28 shall be used as the basis for selecting industrial control panel enclosures for use in specific locations other than hazardous (classified) locations. The enclosures are not intended to protect against conditions such as condensation, icing, corrosion, or contamination that may occur within the enclosure or enter via the conduit or unsealed openings.
Industrial control panels utilizing busbars shall comply with 409.102(A) and (B).
Busbars shall be protected from physical damage and be held firmly in place.
The phase arrangement on 3-phase horizontal common power and vertical buses shall be A, B, C from front to back, top to bottom, or left to right, as viewed from the front of the industrial control panel. The B phase shall be that phase having the higher voltage to ground on 3-phase, 4-wire, delta-connected systems. Other busbar arrangements shall be permitted for additions to existing installations, and the phases shall be permanently marked.
Industrial control panel enclosures shall not be used as junction boxes, auxiliary gutters, or raceways for conductors feeding through or tapping off to other switches or overcurrent devices or other equipment, unless the conductors fill less than 40 percent of the cross-sectional area of the wiring space. In addition, the conductors, splices, and taps shall not fill the wiring space at any cross section to more than 75 percent of the cross-sectional area of that space.
Wire bending space within industrial control panels for field wiring terminals shall be in accordance with the requirements in 430.10(B).
Spacings in feeder circuits between uninsulated live parts of adjacent components, between uninsulated live parts of components and grounded or accessible non—current-carrying metal parts, between uninsulated live parts of components and the enclosure, and at field wiring terminals shall be as shown in Table 430.97(D).
Exception: Spacings shall be permitted to be less than those specified in Table 430.97(D) at circuit breakers and switches and in listed components installed in industrial control panels.
Where used as service equipment, each industrial control panel shall be of the type that is suitable for use as service equipment.
Where a grounded conductor is provided, the industrial control panel shall be provided with a main bonding jumper, sized in accordance with 250.28(D), for connecting the grounded conductor, on its supply side, to the industrial control panel equipment ground bus or equipment ground terminal.
An industrial control panel shall be marked with the following information that is plainly visible after installation:
  1. Manufacturer's name, trademark, or other descriptive marking by which the organization responsible for the product can be identified.
  2. Supply voltage, number of phases, frequency, and full-load current for each incoming supply circuit.
  3. Industrial control panels supplied by more than one electrical source where more than one disconnecting means is required to disconnect all circuits 50-volts or more within the control panel shall be marked to indicate that more than one disconnecting means is required to de-energize the equipment. The location of the means necessary to disconnect all circuits 50-volts or more shall be documented and available.
  4. Short-circuit current rating of the industrial control panel based on one of the following:
    1. Short-circuit current rating of a listed and labeled assembly
    2. Short-circuit current rating established utilizing an approved method
    Informational Note: ANSI/UL 508A, Standard for Industrial Control Panels, Supplement SB, is an example of an approved method.
    Exception to (4): Short-circuit current rating markings are not required for industrial control panels containing only control circuit components.
  5. If the industrial control panel is intended as service equipment, it shall be marked to identify it as being suitable for use as service equipment.
  6. Electrical wiring diagram or the identification number of a separate electrical wiring diagram or a designation referenced in a separate wiring diagram.
  7. An enclosure type number shall be marked on the industrial control panel enclosure.
This article covers luminaires, portable luminaires, lampholders, pendants, incandescent filament lamps, arc lamps, electric-discharge lamps, decorative lighting products, lighting accessories for temporary seasonal and holiday use, portable flexible lighting products, and the wiring and equipment forming part of such products and lighting installations.
The definition in this section shall apply only within this article.
Clothes Closet Storage Space. The volume bounded by the sides and back closet walls and planes extending from the closet floor vertically to a height of 1.8 m (6 ft) or to the highest clothes-hanging rod and parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 600 mm (24 in.) from the sides and back of the closet walls, respectively, and continuing vertically to the closet ceiling parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 300 mm (12 in.) or the width of the shelf, whichever is greater; for a closet that permits access to both sides of a hanging rod, this space includes the volume below the highest rod extending 300 mm (12 in.) on either side of the rod on a plane horizontal to the floor extending the entire length of the rod. See Figure 410.2.
FIGURE 410.2 Clothes Closet Storage Space.
Luminaires, portable luminaires, lampholders, and lamps shall have no live parts normally exposed to contact. Exposed accessible terminals in lampholders and switches shall not be installed in metal luminaire canopies or in open bases of portable table or floor luminaires.
Exception: Cleat-type lampholders located at least 2.5 m (8 ft) above the floor shall be permitted to have exposed terminals.
All luminaires, lampholders, and retrofit kits shall be listed.
Luminaires, lampholders, and retrofit kits shall not be permitted to be reconditioned. If a retrofit kit is installed in a luminaire in accordance with the installation instructions, the retrofitted luminaire shall not be considered reconditioned.
Luminaires shall be installed such that the connections between the luminaire conductors and the circuit conductors can be inspected without requiring the disconnection of any part of the wiring unless the luminaires are connected by attachment plugs and receptacles.
Luminaires installed in wet or damp locations shall be installed such that water cannot enter or accumulate in wiring compartments, lampholders, or other electrical parts. All luminaires installed in wet locations shall be marked, "Suitable for Wet Locations." All luminaires installed in damp locations shall be marked "Suitable for Wet Locations" or "Suitable for Damp Locations."
Luminaires installed in corrosive locations shall be of a type suitable for such locations.
Luminaires shall be permitted to be installed in commercial cooking hoods where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The luminaire shall be identified for use within commercial cooking hoods and installed such that the temperature limits of the materials used are not exceeded.
  2. The luminaire shall be constructed so that all exhaust vapors, grease, oil, or cooking vapors are excluded from the lamp and wiring compartment. Diffusers shall be resistant to thermal shock.
  3. Parts of the luminaire exposed within the hood shall be corrosion resistant or protected against corrosion, and the surface shall be smooth so as not to collect deposits and to facilitate cleaning.
  4. Wiring methods and materials supplying the luminaire(s) shall not be exposed within the cooking hood.
Informational Note: See 110.11 for conductors and equipment exposed to deteriorating agents.
A luminaire installed in a bathtub or shower area shall meet all of the following requirements:
  1. No parts of cord-connected luminaires, chain-, cable-, or cord-suspended luminaires, lighting track, pendants, or ceiling-suspended (paddle) fans shall be located within a zone measured 900 mm (3 ft) horizontally and 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower stall threshold. This zone is all-encompassing and includes the space directly over the tub or shower stall.
  2. Luminaires located within the actual outside dimension of the bathtub or shower to a height of 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower threshold shall be marked suitable for damp locations or marked suitable for wet locations. Luminaires located where subject to shower spray shall be marked suitable for wet locations.
Luminaires subject to physical damage, using a mercury vapor or metal halide lamp, installed in playing and spectator seating areas of indoor sports, mixed-use, or all-purpose facilities shall be of the type that protects the lamp with a glass or plastic lens. Such luminaires shall be permitted to have an additional guard.
Luminaires installed in exposed or concealed locations under metal-corrugated sheet roof decking shall be installed and supported so there is not less than 38 mm (11/2 in.) measured from the lowest surface of the roof decking to the top of the luminaire.
Luminaires shall be constructed, installed, or equipped with shades or guards so that combustible material is not subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Lampholders installed over highly combustible material shall be of the unswitched type. Unless an individual switch is provided for each luminaire, lampholders shall be located at least 2.5 m (8 ft) above the floor or shall be located or guarded so that the lamps cannot be readily removed or damaged.
Chain-supported luminaires used in a show window shall be permitted to be externally wired. No other externally wired luminaires shall be used.
Only luminaires of the following types shall be permitted in a clothes closet:
  1. Surface-mounted or recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with completely enclosed light sources
  2. Surface-mounted or recessed fluorescent luminaires
  3. Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires identified as suitable for installation within the clothes closet storage space
Incandescent luminaires with open or partially enclosed lamps and pendant luminaires or lampholders shall not be permitted.
The minimum clearance between luminaires installed in clothes closets and the nearest point of a clothes closet storage space shall be as follows:
  1. 300 mm (12 in.) for surface-mounted incandescent or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling.
  2. 150 mm (6 in.) for surface-mounted fluorescent luminaires installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling.
  3. 150 mm (6 in.) for recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source installed in the wall or the ceiling.
  4. 150 mm (6 in.) for recessed fluorescent luminaires installed in the wall or the ceiling.
  5. Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires shall be permitted to be installed within the clothes closet storage space where identified for this use.
Coves shall have adequate space and shall be located so that lamps and equipment can be properly installed and maintained.
Canopies and outlet boxes taken together shall provide sufficient space so that luminaire conductors and their connecting devices are capable of being installed in accordance with 314.16.
Luminaires shall be of such construction or installed so that the conductors in outlet boxes shall not be subjected to temperatures greater than that for which the conductors are rated.
Branch-circuit wiring, other than 2-wire or multiwire branch circuits supplying power to luminaires connected together, shall not be passed through an outlet box that is an integral part of a luminaire unless the luminaire is identified for through-wiring.
Informational Note: See 410.64(C) for wiring supplying power to luminaires connected together.
In a completed installation, each outlet box shall be provided with a cover unless covered by means of a luminaire canopy, lampholder, receptacle that covers the box or is provided with a faceplate, or similar device.
Any combustible wall or ceiling finish exposed between the edge of a luminaire canopy or pan and an outlet box having a surface area of 1160 mm2 (180 in.2) or more shall be covered with noncombustible material.
Electric-discharge and LED luminaires supported independently of the outlet box shall be connected to the branch circuit through metal raceway, nonmetallic raceway, Type MC cable, Type AC cable, Type MI cable, nonmetallic sheathed cable, or by flexible cord as permitted in 410.62(B) or 410.62(C).
Electric-discharge and LED luminaires surface mounted over concealed outlet, pull, or junction boxes and designed not to be supported solely by the outlet box shall be provided with suitable openings in the back of the luminaire to provide access to the wiring in the box.
Luminaires and lampholders shall be securely supported. A luminaire that weighs more than 3 kg (6 lb) or exceeds 400 mm (16 in.) in any dimension shall not be supported by the screw shell of a lampholder.
Metal or nonmetallic poles shall be permitted to be used to support luminaires and as a raceway to enclose supply conductors, provided the following conditions are met:
  1. A pole shall have a handhole not less than 50 mm × 100 mm (2 in. × 4 in.) with a cover suitable for use in wet locations to provide access to the supply terminations within the pole or pole base.
    Exception No. 1: No handhole shall be required in a pole 2.5 m (8 ft) or less in height abovegrade where the supply wiring method continues without splice or pull point, and where the interior of the pole and any splices are accessible by removing the luminaire.
    Exception No. 2: No handhole shall be required in a pole 6.0 m (20 ft) or less in height abovegrade that is provided with a hinged base.
  2. Where raceway risers or cable is not installed within the pole, a threaded fitting or nipple shall be brazed, welded, or attached to the pole opposite the handhole for the supply connection.
  3. A metal pole shall be provided with an equipment grounding terminal as follows:
    1. A pole with a handhole shall have the equipment grounding terminal accessible from the handhole.
    2. A pole with a hinged base shall have the equipment grounding terminal accessible within the base.
    Exception to (3): No grounding terminal shall be required in a pole 2.5 m (8 ft) or less in height abovegrade where the supply wiring method continues without splice or pull, and where the interior of the pole and any splices are accessible by removing the luminaire.
  4. A metal pole with a hinged base shall have the hinged base and pole bonded together.
  5. Metal raceways or other equipment grounding conductors shall be bonded to the metal pole with an equipment grounding conductor recognized by 250.118 and sized in accordance with 250.122.
  6. Conductors in vertical poles used as raceway shall be supported as provided in 300.19.
Luminaires shall be permitted to be supported by outlet boxes or fittings installed as required by 314.23. The installation shall comply with the following requirements:
  1. The outlet boxes or fittings shall comply with 314.27(A)(1) and 314.27(A)(2).
  2. Luminaires shall be permitted to be supported in accordance with 314.27(E).
  3. Outlet boxes complying with 314.27(E) shall be considered lighting outlets as required by 210.70(A), (B), and (C).
Framing members of suspended ceiling systems used to support luminaires shall be securely fastened to each other and shall be securely attached to the building structure at appropriate intervals. Luminaires shall be securely fastened to the ceiling framing member by mechanical means such as bolts, screws, or rivets. Listed clips identified for use with the type of ceiling framing member(s) and luminaire(s) shall also be permitted.
Luminaire studs that are not a part of outlet boxes, hickeys, tripods, and crowfeet shall be made of steel, malleable iron, or other material suitable for the application.
Insulating joints that are not designed to be mounted with screws or bolts shall have an exterior metal casing, insulated from both screw connections.
Raceway fittings used to support a luminaire(s) shall be capable of supporting the weight of the complete fixture assembly and lamp(s).
Luminaires shall be permitted to be connected to busways in accordance with 368.17(C).
Outdoor luminaires and associated equipment shall be permitted to be supported by trees.
Informational Note No. 1: See 225.26 for restrictions for support of overhead conductors.
Informational Note No. 2: See 300.5(D) for protection of conductors.
Luminaires and lighting equipment shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor as required in Article 250 and Part V of this article.
Exposed conductive parts that are accessible to unqualified persons shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor or be separated from all live parts and other conducting surfaces by a listed system of double insulation.
Small isolated parts, such as mounting screws, clips, and decorative bands on glass spaced at least 38 mm (11/2 in.) from lamp terminals, shall not require connection to an equipment grounding conductor.
Portable luminaires with a polarized attachment plug shall not require connection to an equipment grounding conductor.
Luminaires and equipment shall be mechanically connected to an equipment grounding conductor as specified in 250.118 and sized in accordance with 250.122.
Exception No. 1: Replacement luminaires shall be permitted to connect an equipment grounding conductor in the same manner as replacement receptacles in compliance with 250.130(C). The luminaire shall then comply with 410.42.
Exception No. 2: Where no equipment grounding conductor exists at the outlet, replacement luminaires that are GFCI protected or do not have exposed conductive parts shall not be required to be connected to an equipment grounding conductor.
Luminaires with exposed metal parts shall be provided with a means for connecting an equipment grounding conductor.
Wiring on or within luminaires shall be neatly arranged and shall not be exposed to physical damage. Excess wiring shall be avoided. Conductors shall be arranged so that they are not subjected to temperatures above those for which they are rated.
Luminaires shall be wired so that the screw shells of lampholders are connected to the same luminaire or circuit conductor or terminal. The grounded conductor, where connected to a screw shell lampholder, shall be connected to the screw shell.
Luminaires shall be wired with conductors having insulation suitable for the environmental conditions, current, voltage, and temperature to which the conductors will be subjected.
Informational Note: For ampacity of fixture wire, maximum operating temperature, voltage limitations, minimum wire size, and other information, see Article 402.
Pendant lampholders with permanently attached leads, where used for other than festoon wiring, shall be hung from separate stranded rubber-covered conductors that are soldered directly to the circuit conductors but supported independently thereof.
Unless part of listed decorative lighting assemblies, pendant conductors shall not be smaller than 14 AWG for mogul-base or medium-base screw shell lampholders or smaller than 18 AWG for intermediate or candelabra-base lampholders.
Pendant conductors longer than 900 mm (3 ft) shall be twisted together where not cabled in a listed assembly.
Conductors shall be secured in a manner that does not tend to cut or abrade the insulation.
Conductor insulation shall be protected from abrasion where it passes through metal.
Splices and taps shall not be located within luminaire arms or stems.
No unnecessary splices or taps shall be made within or on a luminaire.
Informational Note: For approved means of making connections, see 110.14.
Stranded conductors shall be used for wiring on luminaire chains and on other movable or flexible parts.
Conductors shall be arranged so that the weight of the luminaire or movable parts does not put tension on the conductors.
Individual showcases, other than fixed, shall be permitted to be connected by flexible cord to permanently installed receptacles, and groups of not more than six such showcases shall be permitted to be coupled together by flexible cord and separable locking-type connectors with one of the group connected by flexible cord to a permanently installed receptacle.
The installation shall comply with 410.59(A) through (E).
Flexible cord shall be of the hard-service type, having conductors not smaller than the branch-circuit conductors, having ampacity at least equal to the branch-circuit overcurrent device, and having an equipment grounding conductor.
Informational Note: See Table 250.122 for size of equipment grounding conductor.
Receptacles, connectors, and attachment plugs shall be of a listed grounding type rated 15 or 20 amperes.
Flexible cords shall be secured to the undersides of showcases such that all of the following conditions are ensured:
  1. The wiring is not exposed to physical damage.
  2. The separation between cases is not in excess of 50 mm (2 in.), or more than 300 mm (12 in.) between the first case and the supply receptacle.
  3. The free lead at the end of a group of showcases has a female fitting not extending beyond the case.
Equipment other than showcases shall not be electrically connected to showcases.
Where showcases are cord-connected, the secondary circuit(s) of each electric-discharge lighting ballast shall be limited to one showcase.
Where a metal lampholder is attached to a flexible cord, the inlet shall be equipped with an insulating bushing that, if threaded, is not smaller than metric designator 12 (trade size 3/8) pipe size. The cord hole shall be of a size appropriate for the cord, and all burrs and fins shall be removed in order to provide a smooth bearing surface for the cord.
Bushing having holes 7 mm (9/32 in.) in diameter shall be permitted for use with plain pendant cord and holes 11 mm (13/32 in.) in diameter with reinforced cord.
Luminaires that require adjusting or aiming after installation shall not be required to be equipped with an attachment plug or cord connector, provided the exposed cord is suitable for hard-usage or extra-hard-usage and is not longer than that required for maximum adjustment. The cord shall not be subject to strain or physical damage.
Informational Note: For application provisions, see Table 400.4, "Use" column.
Electric-discharge and LED luminaires shall comply with 410.62(C)(1), (C)(2), and (C)(3), as applicable.
A luminaire or a listed assembly in compliance with any of the conditions in 410.62(C)(1)(a) through (C)(1)(c) shall be permitted to be cord connected provided the luminaire is located directly below the outlet or busway, the cord is not subject to strain or physical damage, and the cord is visible over its entire length except at terminations.
(a) A luminaire shall be permitted to be connected with a cord terminating in a grounding-type attachment plug or busway plug. If grounding is not required in accordance with 410.42, a polarized-type plug shall be permitted.
(b) A luminaire assembly equipped with a strain relief and canopy shall be permitted to use a cord connection between the luminaire assembly and the canopy. The canopy shall be permitted to include a section of raceway not over 150 mm (6 in.) in length and intended to facilitate the connection to an outlet box mounted above a suspended ceiling.
(c) Listed luminaires connected using listed assemblies that incorporate manufactured wiring system connectors in accordance with 604.100(C) shall be permitted to be cord connected.
Electric-discharge luminaires provided with mogul-base, screw shell lampholders shall be permitted to be connected to branch circuits of 50 amperes or less by cords complying with 240.5. Receptacles and attachment plugs shall be permitted to be of a lower ampere rating than the branch circuit but not less than 125 percent of the luminaire full-load current.
Electric-discharge luminaires equipped with a flanged surface inlet shall be permitted to be supplied by cord pendants equipped with cord connectors. Inlets and connectors shall be permitted to be of a lower ampere rating than the branch circuit but not less than 125 percent of the luminaire load current.
Luminaires shall not be used as a raceway for circuit conductors unless they comply with 410.64(A), (B), or (C).
Luminaires listed and marked for use as a raceway shall be permitted to be used as a raceway.
Luminaires identified for through-wiring, as permitted by 410.21, shall be permitted to be used as a raceway.
Luminaires designed for end-to-end connection to form a continuous assembly, or luminaires connected together by recognized wiring methods, shall be permitted to contain the conductors of a 2-wire branch circuit, or one multiwire branch circuit, supplying the connected luminaires and shall not be required to be listed as a raceway. One additional 2-wire branch circuit separately supplying one or more of the connected luminaires shall also be permitted.
Informational Note: See Article 100 for the definition of Multiwire Branch Circuit.
Feeder and branch-circuit conductors within 75 mm (3 in.) of a ballast, LED driver, power supply, or transformer shall have an insulation temperature rating not lower than 90°C (194°F), unless supplying a luminaire marked as suitable for a different insulation temperature.
Where control conductors are spliced, terminated, or connected in the same luminaire or enclosure as the branch-circuit conductors, the field-connected control conductor shall not be of a color reserved for the grounded branch-circuit conductor or the equipment grounding conductor. This requirement shall become effective January 1, 2022.
Informational Note: See 200.6 for identification of grounded conductor and 250.119 for identification of equipment grounding conductor.
Exception: A field-connected gray-colored control conductor shall be permitted if the insulation is permanently re-identified by marking tape, painting, or other effective means at its termination and at each location where the conductor is visible and accessible. Identification shall encircle the insulation and shall be a color other than white, gray, or green.
Air space shall be provided between lamps and shades or other enclosures of combustible material.
All luminaires shall be marked with the maximum lamp wattage or electrical rating, manufacturer's name, trademark, or other suitable means of identification. A luminaire requiring supply wire rated higher than 60°C (140°F) shall be marked with the minimum supply wire temperature rating on the luminaire and shipping carton or equivalent.
The electrical rating shall include the voltage and frequency and shall indicate the current rating of the unit, including the ballast, transformer, LED driver, power supply, or autotransformer.
Portable luminaires shall be wired with flexible cord recognized by 400.4 and an attachment plug of the polarized or grounding type. If used with Edison-base lampholders, the grounded conductor shall be identified and attached to the screw shell and the identified blade of the attachment plug.
A bushing or the equivalent shall be provided where flexible cord enters the base or stem of a portable luminaire. The bushing shall be of insulating material unless a jacketed type of cord is used.
Lampholders of the screw shell type shall be installed for use as lampholders only. Where supplied by a circuit having a grounded conductor, the grounded conductor shall be connected to the screw shell.
Where supplied by the ungrounded conductors of a circuit, the switching device of lampholders of the switched type shall simultaneously disconnect both conductors of the circuit.
Lampholders installed in wet locations shall be listed for use in wet locations. Lampholders installed in damp locations shall be listed for damp locations or shall be listed for wet locations.
Lampholders shall be constructed, installed, or equipped with shades or guards so that combustible material is not subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
An incandescent lamp for general use on lighting branch circuits shall not be equipped with a medium base if rated over 300 watts, or with a mogul base if rated over 1500 watts. Special bases or other devices shall be used for over 1500 watts.
Auxiliary equipment for electric-discharge lamps shall be enclosed in noncombustible cases and treated as sources of heat.
Where supplied by the ungrounded conductors of a circuit, the switching device of auxiliary equipment shall simultaneously disconnect all conductors.
Luminaires installed in recessed cavities in walls or ceilings, including suspended ceilings, shall comply with 410.115 through 410.122.
Luminaires shall be installed so that adjacent combustible material will not be subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Incandescent luminaires shall have thermal protection and shall be identified as thermally protected.
Exception No. 1: Thermal protection shall not be required in a recessed luminaire identified for use and installed in poured concrete.
Exception No. 2: Thermal protection shall not be required in a recessed luminaire whose design, construction, and thermal performance characteristics are equivalent to a thermally protected luminaire and are identified as inherently protected.
A recessed luminaire that is not identified for contact with insulation shall have all recessed parts spaced not less than 13 mm (1/2 in.) from combustible materials. The points of support and the trim finishing off the openings in the ceiling, wall, or other finished surface shall be permitted to be in contact with combustible materials.
A recessed luminaire that is identified for contact with insulation, Type IC, shall be permitted to be in contact with combustible materials at recessed parts, points of support, and portions passing through or finishing off the opening in the building structure.
Thermal insulation shall not be installed above a recessed luminaire or within 75 mm (3 in.) of the recessed luminaire's enclosure, wiring compartment, ballast, transformer, LED driver, or power supply unless the luminaire is identified as Type IC for insulation contact.
Luminaires marked "FOR USE IN NON-FIRE-RATED INSTALLATIONS" shall not be used in fire-rated installations. Where a luminaire is recessed in fire-resistant material in a building of fire-resistant construction, the recessed luminaire shall satisfy one of the following:
  1. The recessed luminaire shall be listed for use in a fire resistance-rated construction.
  2. The recessed luminaire shall be installed in or used with a luminaire enclosure that is listed for use in a fire resistance-rated construction.
  3. The recessed luminaire shall be listed and shall be installed in accordance with a tested fire resistance-rated assembly. When a tested fire resistance-rated assembly allows the installation of a recessed fluorescent luminaire, a recessed LED luminaire of comparable construction shall be permitted.
Conductors that have insulation suitable for the temperature encountered shall be used.
Branch-circuit conductors that have an insulation suitable for the temperature encountered shall be permitted to terminate in the luminaire.
Tap conductors of a type suitable for the temperature encountered shall be permitted to run from the luminaire terminal connection to an outlet box placed at least 300 mm (1 ft) from the luminaire. Such tap conductors shall be in suitable raceway or Type AC or MC cable of at least 450 mm (18 in.) but not more than 1.8 m (6 ft) in length.
Luminaires recessed in ceilings, floors, or walls shall not be used to access outlet, pull, or junction boxes or conduit bodies, unless the box or conduit body is an integral part of the listed luminaire.
Luminaires shall be constructed such that adjacent combustible material is not subject to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Incandescent lamp luminaires shall be marked to indicate the maximum allowable wattage of lamps. The markings shall be permanently installed, in letters at least 6 mm (1/4 in.) high, and shall be located where visible during relamping.
No solder shall be used in the construction of a luminaire recessed housing.
Lampholders of the screw shell type shall be of porcelain or other suitable insulating materials.
Equipment for use with electric-discharge lighting systems and designed for an open-circuit voltage of 1000 volts or less shall be of a type identified for such service.
The terminals of an electric-discharge lamp shall be considered as energized where any lamp terminal is connected to a circuit of over 300 volts.
Transformers of the oil-filled type shall not be used.
In addition to complying with the general requirements for luminaires, such equipment shall comply with Part XII of this article.
The ballast of a fluorescent luminaire installed indoors shall have integral thermal protection. Replacement ballasts shall also have thermal protection integral with the ballast.
A simple reactance ballast in a fluorescent luminaire with straight tubular lamps shall not be required to be thermally protected.
A ballast in a fluorescent exit luminaire shall not have thermal protection.
A ballast in a fluorescent luminaire that is used for egress lighting and energized only during a failure of the normal supply shall not have thermal protection.
Recessed high-intensity luminaires designed to be installed in wall or ceiling cavities shall have thermal protection and be identified as thermally protected.
Thermal protection shall not be required in a recessed high-intensity luminaire whose design, construction, and thermal performance characteristics are equivalent to a thermally protected luminaire and are identified as inherently protected.
Thermal protection shall not be required in a recessed high-intensity discharge luminaire identified for use and installed in poured concrete.
A recessed remote ballast for a high-intensity discharge luminaire shall have thermal protection that is integral with the ballast and shall be identified as thermally protected.
Luminaires that use a metal halide lamp other than a thick-glass parabolic reflector lamp (PAR) shall be provided with a containment barrier that encloses the lamp, or shall be provided with a physical means that only allows the use of a lamp that is Type O.
Informational Note: See ANSI Standard C78.389, American National Standard for Electric LampsHigh Intensity Discharge, Methods of Measuring Characteristics.
In indoor locations other than dwellings and associated accessory structures, fluorescent luminaires that utilize double-ended lamps and contain ballast(s) that can be serviced in place shall have a disconnecting means either internal or external to each luminaire. For existing installed luminaires without disconnecting means, at the time a ballast is replaced, a disconnecting means shall be installed. The line side terminals of the disconnecting means shall be guarded.
Exception No. 1: A disconnecting means shall not be required for luminaires installed in hazardous (classified) location(s).
Exception No. 2: A disconnecting means shall not be required for luminaires that provide emergency illumination required in 700.16.
Exception No. 3: For cord-and-plug-connected luminaires, an accessible separable connector or an accessible plug and receptacle shall be permitted to serve as the disconnecting means.
Exception No. 4: Where more than one luminaire is installed and supplied by other than a multiwire branch circuit, a disconnecting means shall not be required for every luminaire when the design of the installation includes disconnecting means, such that the illuminated space cannot be left in total darkness.
When connected to multiwire branch circuits, the disconnecting means shall simultaneously break all the supply conductors to the ballast, including the grounded conductor.
The disconnecting means shall be located so as to be accessible to qualified persons before servicing or maintaining the ballast. Where the disconnecting means is external to the luminaire, it shall be a single device, and shall be attached to the luminaire or the luminaire shall be located within sight of the disconnecting means.
Luminaires installed on dc circuits shall be equipped with auxiliary equipment and resistors designed for dc operation. The luminaires shall be marked for dc operation.
Equipment having an open-circuit voltage exceeding 300 volts shall not be installed in dwelling occupancies unless such equipment is designed so that there will be no exposed live parts when lamps are being inserted, are in place, or are being removed.
Luminaires that have exposed ballasts, transformers, LED drivers, or power supplies shall be installed such that ballasts, transformers, LED drivers, or power supplies shall not be in contact with combustible material unless listed for such condition.
Where a surface-mounted luminaire containing a ballast, transformer, LED driver, or power supply is to be installed on combustible low-density cellulose fiberboard, it shall be marked for this condition or shall be spaced not less than 38 mm (11/2 in.) from the surface of the fiberboard. Where such luminaires are partially or wholly recessed, the provisions of 410.110 through 410.122 shall apply.
Informational Note: Combustible low-density cellulose fiberboard includes sheets, panels, and tiles that have a density of 320 kg/m3 (20 lb/ft3) or less and that are formed of bonded plant fiber material but does not include solid or laminated wood or fiberboard that has a density in excess of 320 kg/m3 (20 lb/ft3) or is a material that has been integrally treated with fire-retarding chemicals to the degree that the flame spread index in any plane of the material will not exceed 25, determined in accordance with tests for surface burning characteristics of building materials. See ASTM E84-18a, Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or ANSI/UL 723-2018, Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials.
Auxiliary equipment, including reactors, capacitors, resistors, and similar equipment, where not installed as part of a luminaire assembly, shall be enclosed in accessible, permanently installed metal cabinets.
Separately mounted ballasts, transformers, LED drivers, or power supplies that are listed for direct connection to a wiring system shall not be required to be additionally enclosed.
Wired luminaire sections are paired, with a ballast(s) or LED driver(s) supplying a light source or light sources in both. For interconnection between paired units, it shall be permissible to use metric designator 12 (trade size 3/8) flexible metal conduit in lengths not exceeding 7.5 m (25 ft), in conformance with Article 348. Luminaire wire operating at line voltage, supplying only the ballast(s) or LED driver(s) of one of the paired luminaires, shall be permitted in the same raceway as the light source supply wires of the paired luminaires where the voltage rating of the light source supply wires is greater than the line voltage.
An autotransformer that is used to raise the voltage to more than 300 volts, as part of a ballast for supplying lighting units, shall be supplied only by a grounded system.
Snap switches shall comply with 404.14.
Electric-discharge lighting systems with an open-circuit voltage exceeding 1000 volts shall be listed and installed in conformance with that listing.
Equipment that has an open-circuit voltage exceeding 1000 volts shall not be installed in or on dwelling occupancies.
The terminal of an electric-discharge lamp shall be considered as a live part.
In addition to complying with the general requirements for luminaires, such equipment shall comply with Part XIII of this article.
Informational Note: For signs and outline lighting, see Article 600.
Luminaires or lamp installation shall be controlled either singly or in groups by an externally operable switch or circuit breaker that opens all ungrounded primary conductors.
The switch or circuit breaker shall be located within sight from the luminaires or lamps, or it shall be permitted to be located elsewhere if it is lockable open in accordance with 110.25.
Parts that must be removed for lamp replacement shall be hinged or held captive. Lamps or lampholders shall be designed so that there are no exposed live parts when lamps are being inserted or removed.
Transformers shall be enclosed, identified for the use, and listed.
The secondary circuit voltage shall not exceed 15,000 volts, nominal, under any load condition. The voltage to ground of any output terminals of the secondary circuit shall not exceed 7500 volts under any load conditions.
Transformers shall have a secondary short-circuit current rating of not more than 150 mA if the open-circuit voltage is over 7500 volts, and not more than 300 mA if the open-circuit voltage rating is 7500 volts or less.
Secondary circuit outputs shall not be connected in parallel or in series.
Transformers shall be accessible after installation.
Transformers shall be installed as near to the lamps as practicable to keep the secondary conductors as short as possible.
Transformers shall be located so that adjacent combustible materials are not subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Lamps shall not be located where normally exposed to physical damage.
Each luminaire or each secondary circuit of tubing having an open-circuit voltage of over 1000 volts shall have a clearly legible marking in letters not less than 6 mm (1/4 in.) high reading "Caution ____ volts." The voltage indicated shall be the rated open-circuit voltage. The caution sign(s) or label(s) shall comply with 110.21(B).
Lighting track shall be permanently installed and permanently connected to a branch circuit. Only lighting track fittings shall be installed on lighting track. Lighting track fittings shall not be equipped with general-purpose receptacles.
The connected load on lighting track shall not exceed the rating of the track. Lighting track shall be supplied by a branch circuit having a rating not more than that of the track. The load calculation in 220.43(B) shall not be required to limit the length of track on a single branch circuit, and it shall not be required to limit the number of luminaires on a single track.
Lighting track shall not be installed in the following locations:
  1. Where likely to be subjected to physical damage
  2. In wet or damp locations
  3. Where subject to corrosive vapors
  4. In storage battery rooms
  5. In hazardous (classified) locations
  6. Where concealed
  7. Where extended through walls or partitions
  8. Less than 1.5 m (5 ft) above the finished floor except where protected from physical damage or track operating at less than 30 volts rms open-circuit voltage
  9. Where prohibited by 410.10(D)
Fittings identified for use on lighting track shall be designed specifically for the track on which they are to be installed. They shall be securely fastened to the track, shall maintain polarization and connections to the equipment grounding conductor, and shall be designed to be suspended directly from the track.
Heavy-duty lighting track is lighting track identified for use exceeding 20 amperes. Each fitting attached to a heavy-duty lighting track shall have individual overcurrent protection.
Lighting track shall be securely mounted so that each fastening is suitable for supporting the maximum weight of luminaires that can be installed. Unless identified for supports at greater intervals, a single section 1.2 m (4 ft) or shorter in length shall have two supports, and, where installed in a continuous row, each individual section of not more than 1.2 m (4 ft) in length shall have one additional support.
The housing for the lighting track system shall be of substantial construction to maintain rigidity. The conductors shall be installed within the track housing, permitting insertion of a luminaire, and designed to prevent tampering and accidental contact with live parts. Components of lighting track systems of different voltages shall not be interchangeable. The track conductors shall be a minimum 12 AWG or equal and shall be copper. The track system ends shall be insulated and capped.
Lighting track shall be grounded in accordance with Article 250, and the track sections shall be securely coupled to maintain continuity of the circuitry, polarization, and grounding throughout.
Decorative lighting and similar accessories used for holiday lighting and similar purposes, in accordance with 590.3(B), shall be listed.
Luminaires complying with Parts, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII of this article shall be permitted to be used for horticultural lighting. Part XVI shall additionally apply to lighting equipment specifically identified for horticultural use.
Informational Note: Lighting equipment identified for horticultural use is designed to provide a spectral characteristic needed for the growth of plants and can also provide supplemental general illumination within the growing environment.
Lighting equipment identified for horticultural use shall be listed.
Lighting equipment identified for horticultural use shall be installed and used in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and installation markings on the equipment as required by that listing.
Lighting equipment identified for horticultural use shall not be installed as lighting for general illumination unless such use is indicated in the manufacturer's instructions.
Lighting equipment identified for horticultural use shall not be installed where it is likely to be subject to physical damage or where concealed.
Flexible cord shall only be permitted when provided as part of listed lighting equipment identified for horticultural use for any of the following uses:
  1. Connecting a horticultural lighting luminaire directly to a branch circuit outlet
  2. Interconnecting horticultural lighting luminaires
  3. Connecting a horticultural lighting luminaire to a remote power source
Informational Note: Remote power sources include LED drivers, fluorescent ballasts, or HID ballasts.
Fittings and connectors attached to flexible cords shall be provided as part of a listed horticultural lighting equipment device or system and installed in accordance with the instructions provided as part of that listing.
Lighting equipment identified for horticultural use shall be grounded as required in Article 250 and Part V of this article.
Lighting equipment identified for horticultural use employing flexible cord(s) with one or more conductors shall be supplied by lighting outlets protected by a listed ground-fault circuit interrupter.
Special fittings identified for support of horticultural lighting equipment shall be designed specifically for the horticultural lighting equipment on which they are installed and shall be used in accordance with the installation instructions provided and shall be securely fastened.
Where installed in hazardous (classified) locations, horticultural lighting equipment shall conform to Articles 500 through 517 in addition to this article.
This article covers lighting systems and their associated components operating at no more than 30 volts ac or 60 volts dc. Where wet contact is likely to occur, the limits are 15 volts ac or 30 volts dc.
Informational Note: Refer to Article 680 for applications involving immersion.
Low voltage lighting systems shall consist of an isolating power supply, low-voltage luminaires, and associated equipment that are all identified for the use. The output circuits of the power supply shall be rated for 25 amperes maximum under all load conditions.
Low-voltage lighting systems shall comply with 411.4(A) or (B). Listed low-voltage lighting systems or a lighting system assembled from listed parts shall not be permitted to be reconditioned.
The luminaires, power supply, and luminaire fittings (including the exposed bare conductors) of an exposed bare conductor lighting system shall be listed for the use as part of the same identified lighting system.
A lighting system assembled from the following listed parts shall be permitted:
  1. Low-voltage luminaires identified for the use
  2. Power supply identified for the use
  3. Low-voltage luminaire fittings identified for the use
  4. Suitably rated cord, cable, conductors in conduit, or other fixed Chapter 3 wiring method for the secondary circuit
Conductors concealed or extended through a wall, floor, or ceiling shall be in accordance with (1) or (2):
  1. Installed using any of the wiring methods specified in Chapter 3
  2. Installed using wiring supplied by a listed Class 2 power source and installed in accordance with 725.130
Lighting systems shall be installed not less than 3 m (10 ft) horizontally from the nearest edge of the water, unless permitted by Article 680.
Secondary circuits shall not be grounded.
The secondary circuit shall be insulated from the branch circuit by an isolating transformer.
Exposed bare conductors and current-carrying parts shall be permitted for indoor installations only. Bare conductors shall not be installed less than 2.1 m (7 ft) above the finished floor, unless specifically listed for a lower installation height.
Lighting systems covered by this article shall be supplied from a maximum 20-ampere branch circuit.
Where installed in hazardous (classified) locations, these systems shall conform with Articles 500 through 517 in addition to this article.