Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE — MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 2 — DEFINITIONS
CHAPTER 2 — DEFINITIONS
The state agency does not adopt sections identified by the following symbol: †
The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.
About this chapter: Codes, by their very nature, are technical documents. Every word, term and punctuation mark can add to or change the meaning of a technical requirement. It is necessary to maintain a consensus on the specific meaning of each term contained in the code. Chapter 2 performs this function by stating clearly what specific terms mean for the purposes of the code.
Code development reminder: Code change proposals to sections preceded by the designation [A]or [BS] will be considered by one of the code development committees meeting during the 2022 (Group B) Code Development Cycle.
Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings shown in this chapter.
Words used in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural, the singular.
Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the California Energy Code, California Existing Building Code, California Fire Code, California Green Building Standards Code, California Electrical Code, California Mechanical Code or California Plumbing Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes.
Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.
For applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged, shall be considered as providing ordinarily accepted meanings.
[BG] 24-HOUR BASIS. The actual time that a person is an occupant within a facility for the purpose of receiving care. It shall not include a facility that is open for 24 hours and is capable of providing care to someone visiting the facility during any segment of the 24 hours.
[BS] AAC MASONRY. Masonry made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) units, manufactured without internal reinforcement and bonded together using thin- or thick-bed mortar.
ACCESS AISLE. [DSA-AC] An accessible space adjacent to or between vehicle spaces that provides clearances in compliance with this code.
ACCESSIBILITY. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] The combination of various elements in a building, facility, site or area, or portion thereof which allows access, circulation and the full use of the building and facilities by persons with disabilities in compliance with this code.
ACCESSIBILITY FUNCTION BUTTON. [DSA-AC] A button on an elevator hall call console in a destination-oriented elevator system that when pressed will activate a series of visual and verbal prompts and announcements providing instruction regarding hall call console operation and direction to an assigned elevator.
ACCESSIBLE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] A site, building, facility, or portion thereof that is approachable and usable by persons with disabilities in compliance with this code.
ACCESSIBLE ELEMENT. [DSA-AC] An element specified by the regulations adopted by the Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance.
[BE] ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in a building or facility to a public way.
ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] A continuous unobstructed path connecting accessible elements and spaces of an accessible site, building or facility that can be negotiated by a person with a disability using a wheelchair, and that is also safe for and usable by persons with other disabilities. Interior accessible routes may include corridors, hallways, floors, ramps, elevators and lifts. Exterior accessible routes may include parking access aisles, curb ramps, crosswalks at vehicular ways, walks, ramps and lifts.
ACCESSIBLE SPACE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] A space that complies with the accessibility provisions of this code.
[BE] ACCESSIBLE UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit that complies with this code and the provisions for Accessible units in ICC A117.1.
ACCESSORY DWELLING UNIT. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] An attached or detached residential dwelling unit that provides complete independent living facilities for one or more persons and is located on a lot with a proposed or existing primary residence. Accessory dwelling units shall include permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation on the same parcel as the single-family or multifamily dwelling is or will be situated. (See Government Code Section 65852.2)
[BS] ACCREDITATION BODY. An approved, third-party organization that is independent of the grading and inspection agencies, and the lumber mills, and that initially accredits and subsequently monitors, on a continuing basis, the competency and performance of a grading or inspection agency related to carrying out specific tasks.
ACTIVE EARTHQUAKE FAULT. [DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD 1 & 4] A fault that has been the source of earthquakes or is recognized as a potential source of earthquakes, including those that have exhibited surface displacement within Holocene time (about 11,000 years) as determined by California Geological Survey (CGS) under the Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act, those included as type A or type B faults for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Maps, and faults considered to have been active in Holocene time by any authoritative source, federal, state or local governmental agency.
ACTIVE EQUIPMENT/COMPONENT. [DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC & OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 4 & 5] Equipment/Component containing moving or rotating parts, electrical parts such as switches or relays, or other internal components that are sensitive to earthquake forces and critical to the function of the equipment.
ADAPTABLE. [DSA-AC] Capable of being readily modified and made accessible.
ADAPTABLE DWELLING UNIT. [HCD 1-AC] An accessible dwelling unit within a covered multifamily building as designed with elements and spaces allowing the dwelling unit to be adapted or adjusted to accommodate the user. See Chapter 11A, Division IV.
[A] ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area, number of stories or height of a building or structure. [DSA-AC] An expansion, extension or increase in the gross floor area or height of a building or facility.
[BS] ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. Veneer secured and supported through the adhesion of an approved bonding material applied to an approved backing.
ADJUSTED CONSTRUCTION COST. [DSA-AC] All costs directly related to the construction of a project, including labor, material, equipment, services, utilities, contractor financing, contractor overhead and profit, and construction management costs. The costs shall not be reduced by the value of components, assemblies, building equipment or construction not directly associated with accessibility or usability. The adjusted construction cost shall not include: project management fees and expenses, architectural and engineering fees, testing and inspection fees, and utility connection or service district fees.
ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY. [DSA-AC] A governmental agency that adopts or enforces regulations and guidelines for the design, construction or alteration of buildings and facilities.
[BS] ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. Construction in which the exterior load-bearing and nonload-bearing walls and partitions are of unfired clay masonry units, and floors, roofs and interior framing are wholly or partly of wood or other approved materials.
Adobe, stabilized. Unfired clay masonry units to which admixtures, such as emulsified asphalt, are added during the manufacturing process to limit the units' water absorption so as to increase their durability.
ADULT CHANGING FACILITY. A facility that is for use by persons with disabilities who need assistance with personal hygiene.
[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can or plastic container up to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml), or a glass bottle up to a maximum size of 4 fluid ounces (118 ml), designed and intended to dispense an aerosol.
[F] AEROSOL PRODUCT. A combination of a container, a propellant and a material that is dispensed. Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calculation of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be designated Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3.
Level 1 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g).
Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).
Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).
AGED HOME OR INSTITUTION. A facility used for the housing of persons 65 years of age or older in need of care and supervision. (See definition of "care and supervision")
[BS] AGGREGATE. In roofing, crushed stone, crushed slag or water-worn gravel used for surfacing for roof coverings.
[BG] AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public.
[BF] AIR-IMPERMEABLE INSULATION. An insulation having an air permeance equal to or less than 0.02 l/s × m2 at 75 pa pressure differential tested in accordance with ASTM E283 or ASTM E2178.
[BG] AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. A structure that uses air-pressurized membrane beams, arches or other elements to enclose space. Occupants of such a structure do not occupy the pressurized area used to support the structure.
[BG] AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure wherein the shape of the structure is attained by air pressure and occupants of the structure are within the elevated pressure area. Air-supported structures are of two basic types:
Double skin. Similar to a single skin, but with an attached liner that is separated from the outer skin and provides an airspace which serves for insulation, acoustic, aesthetic or similar purposes.
[BE] AISLE. An unenclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel. [DSA-AC] A circulation path between objects such as seats, tables, merchandise, equipment, displays, shelves, desks, etc., that provides clearances in compliance with this code.
[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any combination thereof.
[F] ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire.
[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal.
[BS] ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. A method of proportioning structural members, such that elastically computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable stresses (also called "working stress design").
[A] ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition. [DSA-AC] A change, addition or modification in construction, change in occupancy or use, or structural repair to an existing building or facility. Alterations include, but are not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, resurfacing of circulation paths or vehicular ways, changes or rearrangement of the structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan configuration of walls and full-height partitions. Normal maintenance, reroofing, painting or wallpapering, or changes to mechanical and electrical systems are not alterations unless they affect the usability of the building or facility.
[BE] ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on the same level at the same time.
ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM. [OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 4 & 5] Alternative materials, design and methods of construction in accordance with Section 104.11, Section 11.1.4 of ASCE 7 or structural design criteria as approved by the enforcement agency.
[BG] AMBULATORY CARE FACILITY. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or similar care on a less than 24-hour basis to persons who are rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.
AMUSEMENT ATTRACTION. [DSA-AC] Any facility, or portion of a facility, located within an amusement park or theme park which provides amusement without the use of an amusement device. Amusement attractions include, but are not limited to, fun houses, barrels and other attractions without seats.
AMUSEMENT RIDE. [DSA-AC] A system that moves persons through a fixed course within a defined area for the purpose of amusement.
AMUSEMENT RIDE SEAT. [DSA-AC] A seat that is builtin or mechanically fastened to an amusement ride intended to be occupied by one or more passengers.
[BG] ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a group other than H having direct access to a covered or open mall building but having required means of egress independent of the mall.
[BS] ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. Veneer secured with approved mechanical fasteners to an approved backing.
[BF] ANNULAR SPACE. The opening around the penetrating item.
[F] ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in which each indication provides status information about a circuit, condition or location.
ANSI. [DSA-AC] The American National Standards Institute.
[HCD 1, HCD 2 & DSA-AC] "Approved" means meeting the approval of the enforcing agency, except as otherwise provided by law, when used in connection with any system, material, type of construction, fixture or appliance as the result of investigations and tests conducted by the agency, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by national authorities or technical, health or scientific organizations or agencies.
Notes: [HCD 1 & HCD 2]
- See Health and Safety Code Section 17920 for "Approved" as applied to residential construction and buildings or structures accessory thereto, as referenced in Section 184.108.40.206.1.
- See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.1 for "Approved" as applied to the use of hotplates in residential construction referenced in Section 220.127.116.11.1.
- See Health and Safety Code Section 19966 for "Approved" as applied to factory-built housing as referenced in Section 18.104.22.168.5.
- See Health and Safety Code Section 18201 for "Approved" as applied to mobilehome parks as referenced in Section 22.214.171.124.3.
- See Health and Safety Code Section 18862.1 for "Approved" as applied to special occupancy parks as referenced in Section 126.96.36.199.3.
[A] APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency that is regularly engaged in conducting tests, furnishing inspection services or furnishing product certification where such agency has been approved by the building official.
[BS] APPROVED FABRICATOR. An established and qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the building official pursuant to Chapter 17 of this code.
APPROVED LISTING AGENCY. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Any agency approved by the enforcing agency, unless otherwise provided by law, which is in the business of listing and labeling and which makes available at least an annual published report of such listings in which specific information is included that the product has been tested to recognized standards and found to comply.
[A] APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or corporation, approved by the building official, who is competent and experienced in the application of engineering principles to materials, methods or systems analyses.
APPROVED TESTING AGENCY. [HCD 1, HCD 2, DSA-AC & OSHPD 1, 1R, 2, 4 & 5] Any agency, which is determined by the enforcing agency, except as otherwise provided by law, to have adequate personnel and expertise to carry out the testing of systems, materials, types of construction, fixtures or appliances.
[BS] AREA (for masonry).
Gross cross-sectional. The area delineated by the out-to-out specified dimensions of masonry in the plane under consideration.
[BG] AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding exterior walls, or exterior walls and fire walls, exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.
[BE] AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assistance during emergency evacuation.
[BE] AREA OF SPORT ACTIVITY. That portion of an indoor or outdoor space where the play or practice of a sport occurs.
[BG] AREAWAY. A subsurface space adjacent to a building open at the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard.
ASSEMBLY AREA. [DSA-AC] A building or facility, or portion thereof, used for the purpose of entertainment, educational or civic gatherings, or similar purposes. For the purposes of these requirements, assembly areas include, but are not limited to, classrooms, lecture halls, courtrooms, public meeting rooms, public hearing rooms, legislative chambers, motion picture houses, auditoria, theaters, playhouses, dinner theaters, concert halls, centers for the performing arts, amphitheaters, arenas, stadiums, grandstands or convention centers.
ASSEMBLY SEATING, MULTILEVEL. See "Multilevel assembly seating."
ASSISTIVE DEVICE. [HCD 1-AC] An aid, tool or instrument used by persons with disabilities to assist in activities of daily living.
ASSISTIVE LISTENING SYSTEM (ALS). [DSA-AC] An amplification system utilizing transmitters, receivers and coupling devices to bypass the acoustical space between a sound source and a listener by means of induction loop, radio frequency, infrared or direct-wired equipment.
[BG] ATRIUM. A vertical space that is closed at the top, connecting two or more stories in Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies or three or more stories in all other occupancies.
[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing.
[F] AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a device or system providing an emergency function without the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or combustion products.
AUTOMATIC DOOR. A door equipped with a power-operated mechanism and controls that open and close the door automatically upon receipt of a momentary actuating signal. The switch that begins the automatic cycle may be a photoelectric device, floor mat or manual switch.
[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An approved system of devices and equipment which automatically detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire.
[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space with detectors to provide early warning of fire.
[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.
AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINE (ATM). [DSA-AC] Any electronic information processing device that accepts or dispenses cash in connection with a credit, deposit or convenience account. The term does not include devices used solely to facilitate check guarantees or check authorizations, or which are used in connection with the acceptance or dispensing of cash on a person-to-person basis, such as by a store cashier.
[F]AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM. A system consisting of a water supply, a pressure source and a distribution piping system with attached nozzles, which, at or above a minimum operating pressure, defined by its listing, discharges water in fine droplets meeting the requirements of NFPA 750 for the purpose of the control, suppression or extinguishment of a fire. Such systems include wet-pipe, drypipe and pre-action types. The systems are designed as engineered, pre-engineered, local-application or total flooding systems.
[F]AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM. A system consisting of a water supply, a pressure source and a distribution piping system with attached nozzles, which, at or above a minimum operating pressure defined by its listing, discharges water in fine droplets meeting the requirements of NFPA 750 for the purpose of the control, suppression or extinguishment of a fire. Such systems include wet-pipe, dry-pipe and pre-action types. The systems are designed as engineered, pre-engineered, local-application or total-flooding systems.
AUXILIARY AREA. A public dressing, locker, shower or toilet area or building space intended to be used by bathers.
[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever time period is less.
[BG] AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is partially or wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is composed of a lightweight frame structure over which a covering is attached.
BACKWASH. Is the process of thoroughly cleansing the filter media and/or elements and the contents of the filter vessel.
[BE] BALANCED DOOR. A door equipped with double-pivoted hardware so designed as to cause a semicounterbalanced swing action when opening.
[F] BALED COTTON. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and secured with industry accepted materials, usually consisting of burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands or wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) and motes (residual materials from the ginning process).
[F] BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. Cotton made into banded bales with a packing density of not less than 22 pounds per cubic foot (360 kg/m3), and dimensions complying with the following: a length of 55 inches (1397 mm), a width of 21 inches (533.4 mm) and a height of 27.6 to 35.4 inches (701 to 899 mm).
[BS] BALLAST. In roofing, ballast comes in the form of large stones or paver systems or light-weight interlocking paver systems and is used to provide uplift resistance for roofing systems that are not adhered or mechanically attached to the roof deck.
[F] BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial barrier.
Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment a minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm).
BASE. [DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD 1 & 4] See ASCE 7.
[BS] BASE FLOOD. The flood having a 1-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
[BS] BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the base flood, including wave height, relative to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD), North American Vertical Datum (NAVD) or other datum specified on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM).
[BG] BASEMENT. A story that is not a story above grade plane (see "Story above grade plane"). This definition of "Basement" does not apply to the provisions of Section 1612 for flood loads.
[BS] BASEMENT (for flood loads). The portion of a building having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides. This definition of "Basement" is limited in application to the provisions of Section 1612.
BATHER. A person using a pool and adjoining deck areas for the purpose of water sports such as diving, swimming, wading or related activities.
BATHROOM. For the purposes of Chapters 11A and 11B, a room which includes a water closet (toilet), a lavatory and a bathtub and/or a shower. It does not include single-fixture facilities or those with only a water closet and lavatory. It does include a compartmented bathroom. A compartmented bathroom is one in which the fixtures are distributed among interconnected rooms. A compartmented bathroom is considered a single unit and is subject to the requirements of Chapters 11A and 11B.
[BS] BEARING WALL STRUCTURE. A building or other structure in which vertical loads from floors and roofs are primarily supported by walls.
BEDRIDDEN PERSON. A person, requiring assistance in turning and repositioning in bed, or being unable to independently transfer to and from bed, except in facilities with appropriate and sufficient care staff, mechanical devices if necessary, and safety precautions as determined in Title 22 regulations, by the Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative. Persons who are unable to independently transfer to and from bed, but who do not need assistance to turn or reposition in bed, shall be considered nonambulatory.
The Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative shall make the determination of the bedridden status of persons with developmental disabilities, in consultation with the Director of Developmental Services or his or her designated representative.
The Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative shall make the determination of the bedridden status of all other persons with disabilities who are not developmentally disabled.
[BE] BLEACHERS. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see "Grandstand").
BLENDED TRANSITION. [DSA-AC] A raised pedestrian crossing, depressed corner or similar connection that has a grade of 5 percent or less between a circulation path at the level of the sidewalk or walk and the level of a vehicular way.
[BG] BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied as a single-family unit.
BOARDING PIER. [DSA-AC] A portion of a pier where a boat is temporarily secured for the purpose of embarking or disembarking.
BOAT LAUNCH RAMP. [DSA-AC] A sloped surface designed for launching and retrieving trailered boats and other water craft to and from a body of water.
BOAT SLIP. [DSA-AC] That portion of a pier, main pier, finger pier or float where a boat is moored for the purpose of berthing, embarking or disembarking.
[F] BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (psia) (101 kPa) or 760 mm of mercury. Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid.
BOTTLE-FILLING STATION. A fixture that is designed and intended for filling personal use drinking water bottles or containers. Such fixtures can be separate from or integral to a drinking fountain.
[BS] BRACED WALL LINE. A straight line through the building plan that represents the location of the lateral resistance provided by the wall bracing.
[BS] BRACED WALL PANEL. A full-height section of wall constructed to resist in-plane shear loads through interaction of framing members, sheathing material and anchors. The panel's length meets the requirements of its particular bracing method and contributes toward the total amount of bracing required along its braced wall line.
[BE] BREAKOUT. For revolving doors, a process whereby wings or door panels can be pushed open manually for means of egress travel.
Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). A pressed and subsequently autoclaved unit that consists of sand and lime, with or without the inclusion of other materials.
Clay or shale. A solid or hollow masonry unit of clay or shale, usually formed into a rectangular prism, then burned or fired in a kiln; brick is a ceramic product.
[A] BUILDING. Any structure utilized or intended for supporting or sheltering any occupancy.
Exception: [HCD 1, HCD 2 & HCD 1-AC] For applications listed in Section 1.8.2 regulated by the Department of Housing and Community Development, "Building" shall not include the following:
- Any mobilehome as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18008.
- Any manufactured home as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18007.
- Any commercial modular as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18001.8 or any special purpose commercial modular as defined in Section 18012.5.
- Any recreational vehicle as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18010.
- Any multifamily manufactured home as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18008.7.
For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 18908.
Note: Building shall have the same meaning as defined in Health and Safety Code Sections 17920 and 18908 for the applications specified in Section 1.11.
[BG] BUILDING ELEMENT. A fundamental component of building construction, specified in TABLE 601, which may or may not be of fire-resistance-rated construction and is constructed of materials based on the building type of construction.
BUILDING ENTRANCE ON AN ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. [HCD 1-AC] An accessible entrance to a building that is connected by an accessible route to public transportation stops, to parking or passenger loading zones, or to public streets or sidewalks, if available.
BUILDING, EXISTING. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] A building erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for which a legal building permit has been issued.
[BG] BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by law.
[A] BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.
[BS] BUILDING-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC (BIPV) PRODUCT. A building product that incorporates photovoltaic modules and functions as a component of the building envelope.
[BS] BUILDING-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC ROOF PANEL (BIPV ROOF PANEL). A photovoltaic panel that functions as a component of the building envelope.
[BS] BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral aggregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material.
[BG] CANOPY. A permanent structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identity or decoration. A canopy is permitted to be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one or more sides.
[F] CAPACITOR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM. A stationary, rechargeable energy storage system consisting of capacitors, chargers, controls and associated electrical equipment designed to provide electrical power to a building or facility. The system is typically used to provide standby or emergency power, an uninterruptable power supply, load shedding, load sharing or similar capabilities.
[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. A system supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pressurized vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism.
[F] CARBON MONOXIDE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm intended to detect carbon monoxide gas and alert occupants by a distinct audible signal. It incorporates a sensor, control components and an alarm notification appliance in a single unit.
[F] CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR. A device with an integral sensor to detect carbon monoxide gas and transmit an alarm signal to a connected alarm control unit.
CARE AND SUPERVISION. Any one or more of the following activities provided by a person or facility to meet the needs of the clients:
- Assistance in dressing, grooming, bathing and other personal hygiene.
- Assistance with taking medication.
- Central storing and/or distribution of medications.
- Arrangement of and assistance with medical and dental care.
- Maintenance of house rules for the protection of clients.
- Supervision of client schedules and activities.
- Maintenance and/or supervision of client cash resources or property.
- Monitoring food intake or special diets.
- Providing basic services required by applicable law and regulation to be provided by the licensee in order to obtain and maintain a community-care facility license.
[BG] CARE SUITE. In Group I-2 or I-2.1 occupancies, a group of treatment rooms, care recipient sleeping rooms and the support rooms or spaces and circulation space within the suite where staff are in attendance for supervision of all care recipients within the suite, and the suite is in compliance with the requirements of Section 407.4.4.
CARRIAGE UNIT. [HCD 1-AC] A dwelling unit with living space on one or more floors immediately above a Group U, private garage or garages. The footprint of the garage or garages is used as the footprint for the remaining floor or floors of the units above and the garage level contains no habitable space.
[BS] CAST STONE. A building stone manufactured from Portland cement concrete precast and used as a trim, veneer or facing on or in buildings or structures.
CATASTROPHICALLY INJURED. As termed, means a person whose origin of disability was acquired through trauma or nondegenerative neurologic illness, for whom it has been determined by the Department of Health Services Certification and Licensing that active rehabilitation would be beneficial.
CATCH POOL. [DSA-AC] A pool or designated section of a pool used as a terminus for water slide flumes.
CCR. [DSA-AC] The California Code of Regulations.
[F] CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an airborne contaminant to which one may be exposed. The ceiling limits utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. The ceiling Recommended Exposure Limit (REL-C) concentrations published by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold Limit Value—Ceiling (TLV-C) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Ceiling Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL-Ceiling) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000.
[BF] CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. A listed device installed in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly to limit automatically the radiative heat transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening. Ceiling radiation dampers include air terminal units, ceiling dampers and ceiling air diffusers. Ceiling radiation dampers are classified for use in either static systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a fire. A dynamic ceiling radiation damper is tested and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow.
CELL (Detention or correctional facility). [SFM] A sleeping or housing unit in a detention or correctional facility for the confinement of not more than two inmates or prisoners.
[BG] CELL (Group I-3 occupancy). A room within a housing unit in a detention or correctional facility used to confine inmates or prisoners.
[BS] CELL (masonry). A void space having a gross cross-sectional area greater than 11/2 square inches (967 mm2).
CELL COMPLEX. A cluster or group of cells or dormitories in a jail, prison or other detention facility, together with rooms used for accessory purposes, all of which open into the cell complex, and are used for functions such as dining, counseling, exercise, classrooms, sick call, visiting, storage, staff offices, control rooms or similar functions, and interconnecting corridors all within the cell complex.
CELL TIERS. Cells, dormitories and accessory spaces. Cell tiers are located one level above the other and do not exceed two levels per floor. A cell tier shall not be considered a story or mezzanine. The aggregate area of a tier within a housing pod shall not be greater than one-third of the floor area of that pod when supported by non-rated construction, and shall be no greater than two-thirds of the floor area of the pod when the tier floor and supporting elements meet the fire rating requirements of a floor.
CELLULAR CONCRETE. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] A lightweight product consisting of Portland cement and selected gas-forming chemicals or foaming agents which create homogeneous voids in the hardened concrete.
[BS] CEMENT PLASTER. A mixture of Portland or blended cement, Portland cement or blended cement and hydrated lime, masonry cement or plastic cement and aggregate and other approved materials as specified in this code.
CENTRAL CONTROL BUILDING. A secure building within a prison where the fire and life safety systems, communication systems, security systems and exterior lighting systems are monitored and where security operations necessitate the remote locking of required means of egress or at the door with a key to maintain a high security area
[BF] CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. A high-temperature mineral wool insulation material made of alumina-silica ceramic or calcium magnesium silicate soluble fibers and weighing 4 to 10 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (64 to 160 kg/m3).
[BS] CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. A certificate stating that materials and products meet specified standards or that work was done in compliance with approved construction documents.
[A] CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. Either of the following shall be considered as a change of occupancy where this code requires a greater degree of safety, accessibility, structural strength, fire protection, means of egress, ventilation or sanitation than is existing in the current building or structure:
- Any change in the occupancy classification of a building or structure.
- Any change in the purpose of, or a change in the level of activity within, a building or structure.
CHARACTERS. Letters, numbers, punctuation marks and typographic symbols.
CHARTER SCHOOL. A public school providing instruction from kindergarten through 12th grade, established pursuant to Education Code, Title 2, Division 4, Part 26.8, Section 47600, et seq.
CHILD-CARE. For the purposes of these regulations, means the care of children during any period of a 24-hour day where permanent sleeping accommodations are not provided. The time-period shall not be more than 24 hours.
CHILD-CARE CENTER. Any facility of any capacity other than a large or small family day-care home as defined in these regulations in which less than 24-hour-per-day nonmedical supervision is provided for children in a group setting.
CHILD OR CHILDREN. A person or persons under the age of 18 years.
CHILDREN'S USE. [DSA-AC] Describes spaces and elements specifically designed for use primarily by people 12 years old and younger.
[M] CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical structure containing one or more flues, for the purpose of carrying gaseous products of combustion and air from a fuel-burning appliance to the outdoor atmosphere.
Factory-built chimney. A listed and labeled chimney composed of factory-made components, assembled in the field in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and the conditions of the listing.
Masonry chimney. A field-constructed chimney composed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones, or concrete.
[M] CHIMNEY TYPES.
High-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, high-heat appliances producing combustion gases in excess of 2,000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance flue outlet (see Section 2113.11.3).
Low-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, low-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for periods up to 1 hour. Temperatures shall be measured at the appliance flue outlet.
CHRONICALLY ILL. See "Terminally ill."
[BE] CIRCULATION PATH. An exterior or interior way of passage from one place to another for pedestrians. [DSA-AC] An exterior or interior way of passage provided for pedestrian travel, including but not limited to, walks, sidewalks, hallways, courtyards, elevators, platform lifts, ramps, stairways and landings.
[F] CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon vaporation.
CLEAN POOL WATER. Is a pool water that is free of dirt, oils, scum, algae, floating materials or other visible organic and inorganic materials that would sully the water.
CLEAR. [DSA-AC] Unobstructed.
CLEAR FLOOR SPACE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] The minimum unobstructed floor or ground space required to accommodate a single, stationary wheelchair and occupant.
[BF] CLIMATE ZONE. A geographical region that has been assigned climatic criteria as specified in Chapters 3 [CE] and 3 [RE] of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) or, for California Energy Code provisions, Figure 100. 1-A of the California Energy Code.
[BG] CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical care on less than a 24-hour basis to persons who are not classified as nonambulatory or bedridden or rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided.
CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEPHONE. [DSA-AC] A telephone with a dedicated line such as a house phone, courtesy phone or phone that must be used to gain entry to a facility.
[F] CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a closed vessel or system that remains closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of equipment.
[BS] COASTAL A ZONE. Area within a special flood hazard area, landward of a V zone or landward of an open coast without mapped coastal high-hazard areas. In a coastal A zone, the principal source of flooding must be astronomical tides, storm surges, seiches or tsunamis, not riverine flooding. During the base flood conditions, the potential for breaking wave height shall be greater than or equal to 11/2 feet (457 mm). The inland limit of the coastal A zone is (a) the Limit of Moderate Wave Action if delineated on a FIRM, or (b) designated by the authority having jurisdiction.
[BS] COASTAL HIGH-HAZARD AREA. Area within the special flood hazard area extending from offshore to the inland limit of a primary dune along an open coast and any other area that is subject to high-velocity wave action from storms or seismic sources, and shown on a Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) or other flood hazard map as velocity Zone V, VO, VE or V1-30.
[BS] COLLAR JOINT. Vertical longitudinal space between wythes of masonry or between masonry wythe and backup construction that is permitted to be filled with mortar or grout.
[BS] COLLECTOR. A horizontal diaphragm element parallel and in line with the applied force that collects and transfers diaphragm shear forces to the vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system or distributes forces within the diaphragm, or both.
[BF] COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon the detection of heat and resist the passage of flame and smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.
[BS] COMBINED PILE RAFT. A geotechnical composite construction that combines the bearing effect of both foundation elements, raft and piles, by taking into account interactions between the foundation elements and the subsoil.
[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material that is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through a US No. 40 standard sieve.
[F] COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burning materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does not include densely packed baled cotton.
[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liquids shall be subdivided as follows:
The category of combustible liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids or liquids that do not have a fire point when tested in accordance with ASTM D92.
Class IIIA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).
COMMERCIAL FACILITIES [DSA-AC]. Facilities whose operations will affect commerce and are intended for non-residential use by a private entity. Commercial facilities shall not include (1) facilities that are covered or expressly exempted from coverage under the Fair Housing Act of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 3601 - 3631); (2) aircraft; or (3) railroad locomotives, railroad freight cars, railroad cabooses, commuter or intercity passenger rail cars (including coaches, dining cars, sleeping cars, lounge cars and food service cars), any other railroad cars described in Section 242 of the Americans With Disabilities Act or covered under Title II of the Americans With Disabilities Act, or railroad rights-of-way. For purposes of this definition, "rail" and "railroad" have the meaning given the term "railroad" in Section 202(e) of the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 (45 U.S.C. 431(e)).
[F] COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE. A motor vehicle used to transport passengers or property where the motor vehicle meets one of the following:
- Has a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds (4540 kg) or more.
- Is designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver.
COMMERCIAL PLACE OF PUBLIC AMUSEMENT. [DSA-AC] An auditorium, convention center, cultural complex, exhibition hall, permanent amusement park, sports arena, theater or movie house for which the maximum occupancy is 2,500 or more for the facility. Cultural complexes include but are not limited to art galleries, symphony, concert halls and museums. A commercial place of public amusement does not include any public or private higher education facility or district agricultural associations.
[BE] COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of exit access travel distance measured from the most remote point of each room, area or space to that point where the occupants have separate and distinct access to two exits or exit access doorways.
COMMON USE. Interior or exterior circulation paths, rooms, spaces or elements that are not for public use and are made available for the shared use of two or more people.
COMMON USE AREAS. [HCD 1-AC] Private use areas within multifamily residential facilities where the use of these areas is limited exclusively to owners, residents and their guests. The areas may be defined as rooms or spaces or elements inside or outside of a building.
COMMUNITY CARE FACILITY. Any facility, place or building that is maintained and operated to provide nonmedical residential care, day treatment, adult day care or agency services for children, adults, or children and adults, including, but not limited to, the physically handicapped, mentally impaired, incompetent persons, and abused or neglected children, and includes but is not limited to the following as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 1502:
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONAL REENTRY CENTERS—CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS AND REHABILITATION [CDCR]. Community-located facilities that provide housing and transitional rehabilitative or community-based programing services for ambulatory inmates. CDCR Program services assist with substance use disorder treatment, employment, education, family reunification and social support. Program participants remain under the jurisdiction of CDCR, are monitored by CDCR staff and supervised by CDCR approved/contracted program providers 24/7. The facilities include residential living, food services, administrative and program functional spaces in a non-licensed 24 hr. facility.
COMPLY WITH. [DSA-AC] Comply with means to meet one or more provisions of this code.
[F] COMPRESSED GAS. A material or mixture of materials that meets both of the following:
- Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure.
- Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in solution, except those gases which have no other health- or physical-hazard properties are not considered to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).
- The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows:
- Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than those in solution, which are in a packaging under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
- Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packaging under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
- Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that are dissolved in a solvent.
- Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the hazard properties of which are represented by the properties of the mixture as a whole.
Carbonate aggregate. Concrete made with aggregates consisting mainly of calcium or magnesium carbonate, such as limestone or dolomite, and containing 40 percent or less quartz, chert or flint.
Cellular. A lightweight insulating concrete made by mixing a preformed foam with Portland cement slurry and having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3).
Lightweight aggregate. Concrete made with aggregates of expanded clay, shale, slag or slate or sintered fly ash or any natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and weighing 85 to 115 pcf (1360 to 1840 kg/m3).
Perlite. A lightweight insulating concrete having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3) made with perlite concrete aggregate. Perlite aggregate is produced from a volcanic rock which, when heated, expands to form a glass-like material of cellular structure.
Sand-lightweight. Concrete made with a combination of expanded clay, shale, slag, slate, sintered fly ash, or any natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and natural sand. Its unit weight is generally between 105 and 120 pcf (1680 and 1920 kg/m3).
Siliceous aggregate. Concrete made with normal-weight aggregates consisting mainly of silica or compounds other than calcium or magnesium carbonate, which contains more than 40-percent quartz, chert or flint.
- A residential home with a capacity, except as provided in paragraph (4), of no more than 18 beds, that provides inpatient care, including the following basic services: medical supervision, 24-hour skilled nursing and supportive care, pharmacy, dietary, social, recreational, and at least one type of service specified in paragraph (2). The primary need of congregate living health facility residents shall be for availability of skilled nursing care on a recurring, intermittent, extended, or continuous basis. This care is generally less intense than that provided in general acute care hospitals but more intense than that provided in skilled nursing facilities.
Congregate living health facilities shall provide one of the following services:
- Services for persons who are mentally alert, persons with physical disabilities, who may be ventilator dependent.
- Services for persons who have a diagnosis of terminal illness, a diagnosis of a life-threatening illness, or both. Terminal illness means the individual has a life expectancy of six months or less as stated in writing by his or her attending physician and surgeon. A "life-threatening illness" means the individual has an illness that can lead to a possibility of a termination of life within five years or less as stated in writing by his or her attending physician and surgeon.
- Services for persons who are catastrophically and severely disabled. A person who is catastrophically and severely disabled means a person whose origin of disability was acquired through trauma or nondegenerative neurologic illness, for whom it has been determined that active rehabilitation would be beneficial and to whom these services are being provided. Services offered by a congregate living health facility to a person who is catastrophically disabled shall include, but not be limited to, speech, physical, and occupational therapy.
- A congregate living health facility license shall specify which of the types of persons described in paragraph (2) to whom a facility is licensed to provide services.
- A facility operated by a city and county for the purposes of delivering services under this section may have a capacity of 59 beds.
- A congregate living health facility not operated by a city and county servicing persons who are terminally ill, persons who have been diagnosed with a life-threatening illness, or both, that is located in a county with a population of 500,000 or more persons, or located in a county of the 16th class pursuant to Section 28020 of the Government Code, may have not more than 25 beds for the purpose of serving persons who are terminally ill.
- A congregate living health facility not operated by a city and county serving persons who are catastrophically and severely disabled, as defined in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) that is located in a county of 500,000 or more persons may have not more than 12 beds for the purpose of serving persons who are catastrophically and severely disabled.
- A congregate living health facility shall have a noninstitutional, homelike environment.
CONGREGATE RESIDENCE. Any building or portion thereof that contains facilities for living, sleeping and sanitation, as required by this code, and may include facilities for eating and cooking, for occupancy by other than a family. A congregate residence may be a shelter, convent, monastery, dormitory, fraternity or sorority house, but does not include jails, hospitals, nursing homes, hotels or lodging houses.
[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or other emergency services.
[A] CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit.
[BG] CONSTRUCTION TYPES. See Section 602.
[BF] CONTINUOUS INSULATION (ci). Insulating material that is continuous across all structural members without thermal bridges other than fasteners and service openings. It is installed on the interior or exterior, or is integral to any opaque surface of the building envelope.
[F] CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled. See the definition of "Outdoor control area" in the California Fire Code.
CONTROL ROOM. A room that has staff that provides direct supervision of one or more cell tiers, pods, dormitories, housing units, sally ports, central holding areas, individual holding cells within central holding areas, as well as any number of courtroom holding cells and arraignment docks, and may have fire and personal alarm annunciation, ability to open and close doors, communicate with Central Control and monitor activities inside the area of control and the space immediately outside the Control Room's zone of influence.
[BS] CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL. A self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill in place of compacted fill.
[BS] CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. Construction whose primary structural elements are formed by a system of repetitive wood-framing members. See Section 2308 for conventional light-frame construction provisions.
[BG] CORNICE. A projecting horizontal molded element located at or near the top of an architectural feature.
CORRECTIONAL HOSPITALS. Facilities that provide care and treatment for medical, psychiatric, obstetrical or surgical treatment of care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation within a detention facility such as a prison or jail.
CORRECTIONAL MEDICAL OR MENTAL HEALTH HOUSING SUITE. Within a state prison, correctional treatment facility, local detention facility or juvenile facility, a correctional medical or mental health housing suite shall be a group of patient rooms or cells and support spaces, including nurse stations, located around shared circulation.
CORRECTIONAL MENTAL HEALTH FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care and treatment for psychiatric treatment of care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation within a detention facility such as a prison or jail.
CORRECTIONAL NURSING FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care, including both intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing facilities, where any of the persons are incapable of self-preservation or classified as non-ambulatory or bedridden within a detention facility such as a prison or jail.
CORRECTIONAL TREATMENT CENTERS. Facilities that provide emergency and acute care and treatment for medical, psychiatric, obstetrical or surgical treatment of care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation within a detention facility such as a prison or jail.
[BF] CORRIDOR DAMPER. A listed device intended for use where air ducts penetrate or terminate at horizontal openings in the ceilings of fire-resistance-rated corridors, where the corridor ceiling is permitted to be constructed as required for the corridor walls.
[BS] CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when exposed to its environment.
CORROSION RESISTANT. Capable of maintaining original surface characteristics under the prolonged influence of the use environment.
[F] CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described in DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173.137, such chemical destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces.
[BG] COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or other enclosing devices.
COURTHOUSE HOLDING FACILITY. [SFM] A room, cell, cell complex or building for the confinement of persons for the purpose of a court appearance for a period not to exceed 12 hours.
COURTROOM DOCK. An area within a courtroom where persons may be restrained and are awaiting court proceedings.
[BG] COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. Anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term "covered mall building" shall include open mall buildings as defined below.
Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term "mall" shall include open malls as defined below.
Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade.
Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, and other similar uses, wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls. Anchor buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building.
COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS. [HCD 1-AC] "Covered multifamily dwellings" means either of the following:
- Buildings that consist of at least four condominium dwelling units or at least three apartment dwelling units if the buildings have at least one elevator.
- The ground floor dwelling units in buildings that consist of at least four condominium dwelling units or at least three apartment dwelling units if the building does not have an elevator.
[BS] CRIPPLE WALL. A framed stud wall extending from the top of the foundation to the underside of floor framing for the lowest occupied floor level.
[F] CRITICAL CIRCUIT. A circuit that requires continuous operation to ensure safety of the structure and occupants.
[BS] CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER. A prefabricated engineered wood product consisting of not less than three layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber where the adjacent layers are cross oriented and bonded with structural adhesive to form a solid wood element.
[F] CRYOGENIC FLUID. A liquid having a boiling point lower than -150°F (-101°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101 kPa).
CURB CUT. An interruption of a curb at a pedestrian way, which separates surfaces that are substantially at the same elevation.
CURB RAMP. A sloping prepared surface, intended for pedestrian traffic, which provides access between a walk or sidewalk and a surface located above or below an adjacent curb face.
[BG] CUSTODIAL CARE. Assistance with day-to-day living tasks; such as assistance with cooking, taking medication, bathing, using toilet facilities and other tasks of daily living. Custodial care includes persons receiving care who have the ability to respond to emergency situations and evacuate at a slower rate and/or who have mental and psychiatric complications.
CUSTODY STATION. A desk or platform staffed by one or more custody officers whose purpose is to supervise those in custody.
[BS] DALLE GLASS. A decorative composite glazing material made of individual pieces of glass that are embedded in a cast matrix of concrete or epoxy.
DAMPER. See "Ceiling radiation damper," "Combination fire/smoke damper," "Corridor damper," "Fire damper" and "Smoke damper."
[BS] DANGEROUS. Any building, structure or portion thereof that meets any of the conditions described below shall be deemed dangerous:
- The building or structure has collapsed, has partially collapsed, has moved off its foundation or lacks the necessary support of the ground.
- There exists a significant risk of collapse, detachment or dislodgment of any portion, member, appurtenance or ornamentation of the building or structure under permanent, routine, or frequent loads; under actual loads already in effect; or under snow, wind, rain, flood, earthquake, or other environmental loads when such loads are imminent.
[F] DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive materials constructed in accordance with the requirements for a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter 56 of the California Fire Code.
DAY-CARE. For the purposes of these regulations, means the care of persons during any period of a 24-hour day where permanent sleeping accommodations are not provided. The time period shall not be more than 24 hours.
DAY-CARE HOME, FAMILY. A home that regularly provides care, protection and supervision for 14 or fewer children, in the provider's own home, for periods of less than 24 hours per day, while the parents or guardians are away, and is either a large family day-care home or a small family day-care home.
DAY-CARE HOME, LARGE FAMILY. A provider's own home which is licensed to provide day care for periods less than 24 hours per day for nine to 14 persons, including children under the age of 10 years who reside at the home.
DAY-CARE HOME, SMALL FAMILY. A home which provides family day-care to eight or fewer children, including children under the age of 10 years who reside at the home, in the provider's own home, for periods of less than 24 hours per day. Small family day-care homes are exempted from state fire and life safety regulations other than those state and local standards applicable to Group R-3 occupancies. (See Health and Safety Code, Section 13143 (b).)
DAY ROOM. A room which is adjacent to a cell, or cell tier, or dormitory and which is used as a dining, exercise or other activity room for inmates.
[BS] DEAD LOAD. The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and the weight of fixed service equipment, including cranes and material handling systems.
DECK. Is an area surrounding a pool which is specifically constructed or installed for use by bathers.
[BS] DECORATIVE GLASS. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or glazing material whose purpose is decorative or artistic, not functional; whose coloring, texture or other design qualities or components cannot be removed without destroying the glazing material and whose surface, or assembly into which it is incorporated, is divided into segments.
[F] DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other effect including, but not limited to, curtains, draperies, fabrics and streamers; and all other materials utilized for decorative effect including, but not limited to, bulletin boards, artwork, posters, photographs, batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items, foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials do not include wall coverings, ceiling coverings, floor coverings, ordinary window shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate.
[BS] DEEP FOUNDATION. A deep foundation is a foundation element that does not satisfy the definition of a shallow foundation.
[BE] DEFEND-IN-PLACE. A method of emergency response that engages building components and trained staff to provide occupant safety during an emergency. Emergency response involves remaining in place, relocating within the building, or both, without evacuating the building.
[A] DEFERRED SUBMITTAL. Those portions of the design that are not submitted at the time of the application and that are to be submitted to the building official within a specified period.
[F] DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an explosive effect.
[BF] DELAYED-ACTION CLOSER. A self-closing device that incorporates a delay prior to the initiation of closing. Delayed-action closers are mechanical devices with an adjustable delay.
[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto.
[BS] DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. The earthquake ground motion that buildings and structures are specifically proportioned to resist in Section 1613.
[BS] DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the "design flood," including wave height, relative to the datum specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO, the design flood elevation shall be the elevation of the highest existing grade of the building's perimeter plus the depth number (in feet) specified on the flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO where a depth number is not specified on the map, the depth number shall be taken as being equal to 2 feet (610 mm).
DESIGN PROFESSIONAL, REGISTERED. See "Registered design professional."
DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN RESPONSIBLE CHARGE, REGISTERED. See "Registered design professional in responsible charge."
[BS] DESIGN STRENGTH. The product of the nominal strength and a resistance factor (or strength reduction factor).
DESIGNATED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION. [DSA-AC] Transportation provided by a public entity (other than public school transportation) by bus, rail or other conveyance (other than transportation by aircraft or intercity or commuter rail transportation) that provides the general public with general or special service, including charter service, on a regular and continuing basis.
[BS] DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. Those nonstructural components that require design in accordance with Chapter 13 of ASCE 7 and for which the component importance factor, Ip, is greater than 1 in accordance with Section 13.1.3 of ASCE 7.
DESTINATION-ORIENTED ELEVATOR. [DSA-AC] Destination-oriented elevators are operated by the user selecting a destination floor at a hall call console located at or near an elevator landing. The destination-oriented elevator system then assigns an elevator car which transports the user to the selected destination floor. Destination-oriented elevators do not provide floor selection within elevator cars.
[F] DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from all structures.
DETACHED SINGLE-FAMILY DWELLING. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Any single-family dwelling which is separated (detached) from adjacent buildings.
DETECTABLE WARNING. A standardized surface feature built in or applied to walking surfaces or other elements to warn persons with visual impairments of hazards on a circulation path.
[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat—either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both.
DETENTION ELEVATOR. [SFM] Detention elevator shall mean an elevator which moves in-custody individuals within a secure and restrained environment.
DETENTION PROGRAM SUITE. Within a state prison, correctional treatment facility, local detention facility or juvenile facility, a detention program suite shall be a group of program related spaces, not classified as group F uses, located around shared circulation.
DETENTION TREATMENT ROOM. [SFM] Detention treatment room shall mean a lockable room or rooms within Group I-3 occupancies used for recreational therapy, group rooms, interdisciplinary treatment team rooms and interview rooms not classified solely as a Group I-2 occupancy.
[F] DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. Detonations have an explosive effect.
[BG] DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that provide treatment for substance abuse, serving care recipients who are incapable of self-preservation or classified as non-ambulatory or who are harmful to themselves or others.
[BS] DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or sloped system acting to transmit lateral forces to vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system. When the term "diaphragm" is used, it shall include horizontal bracing systems.
Diaphragm, blocked. In light-frame construction, a diaphragm in which all sheathing edges not occurring on a framing member are supported on and fastened to blocking.
Diaphragm boundary. In light-frame construction, a location where shear is transferred into or out of the diaphragm sheathing. Transfer is either to a boundary element or to another force-resisting element.
Diaphragm chord. A diaphragm boundary element perpendicular to the applied load that is assumed to take axial stresses due to the diaphragm moment.
Nominal. The specified dimension plus an allowance for the joints with which the units are to be laid. Nominal dimensions are usually stated in whole numbers. Thickness is given first, followed by height and then length.
[BE] DIRECT ACCESS. A path of travel from a space to an immediately adjacent space through an opening in the common wall between the two spaces.
DIRECTIONAL SIGN. [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] A publicly displayed notice which indicates by use of words or symbols a recommended direction or route of travel.
DISABILITY. [DSA-AC] Disability is (1) a physical or mental impairment that limits one or more of the major life activities of an individual, (2) a record of such an impairment, or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment.
[F] DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere.
DISTANCE FROM AN ACTIVE EARTHQUAKE FAULT. [DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD 1 & 4] Distance measured from the nearest point of the building to the closest edge of an Alquist-Priolo Earthquake fault zone for an active fault, if such a map exists, or to the closest mapped splay of the fault.
DISTRICT AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS. Those associations regulated by the California Food and Agricultural Code, Division 3, Part 3.
DOOR, LOW-ENERGY POWER-OPERATED. See "Low-energy power-operated door."
[BG] DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses. [SFM] For Group I-3 occupancies "Dormitory" is an area occupied by no less than three inmates.
[BF] DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics.
DRAG STRUT. See "Collector."
DRAIN. A fitting or fixture, usually at or near the bottom of a pool, through which water leaves the pool normally to the recirculation pump.
[BS] DRILLED SHAFT. A cast-in-place deep foundation element, also referred to as a caisson, drilled pier or bored pile, constructed by drilling a hole (with or without permanent casing or drilling fluid) into soil or rock and filling it with fluid concrete after the drilling equipment is removed.
DRIVE AISLE. A vehicular way provided within a parking facility that connects vehicular entrances, parking stalls, electric vehicle charging stations, passenger loading zones and vehicular exits.
DRIVE-UP ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING STATION. An electric vehicle charging station in which use is limited to 30 minutes maximum and is provided at a location where the electric vehicle approaches in the forward direction, stops in the vehicle space, charges the vehicle and proceeds forward to depart the vehicle space. The arrangement of a drive-up electric vehicle charger and its associated vehicle space is similar to a gasoline filling station island.
DRIVEWAY. A vehicular way providing access between a public way and a building, parking facility, or other off-street area. A driveway may provide access to drive aisles in a parking facility.
[BS] DRY FLOODPROOFING. A combination of design modifications that results in a building or structure, including the attendant utilities and equipment and sanitary facilities, being water tight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capacity to resist loads as identified in ASCE 7.
[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added particulate material supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities.
[A] DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes.
[A] DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation. [HCD 1-AC] For the purposes of Chapter 11A, a single unit of residence for a family of one or more persons. Examples of dwelling units covered by Chapter 11A include condominiums, an apartment unit within an apartment building, and other types of dwellings in which sleeping accommodations are provided but toileting or cooking facilities are shared by occupants of more than one room or portion of the dwelling. Examples of the latter include dormitory rooms and sleeping accommodations in shelters intended for occupancy as residences for homeless persons.
[BG] DWELLING UNIT, EFFICIENCY. A dwelling unit where all permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating and cooking are contained in a single room.
EFFECTIVE PARTICLE SIZE. The theoretical size of a sieve in mm that will pass 10 percent by weight of sand.
EFFICIENCY DWELLING UNIT. [HCD 1] A dwelling unit constructed in accordance with Health and Safety Code Section 17958.1 or the California Building Code Section 1208.4.
ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV). [DSA-AC & SFM] An automotive-type vehicle for on-road use, such as passenger automobiles, buses, trucks, vans, neighborhood electric vehicles, electric motorcycles and the like, primarily powered by an electric motor that draws current from a rechargeable storage battery, fuel cell, photovoltaic array or other source of electric current. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are considered electric vehicles. For the purpose of this code, off-road, self-propelled electric vehicles, such as industrial trucks, hoists, lifts, transports, golf carts, airline ground support equipment, tractors, boats and the like, are not included.
ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING STATION (EVCS). One or more electric vehicle charging spaces served by an electric vehicle charger or other charging equipment. Where a multiport electric vehicle charger can simultaneously charge more than one vehicle, the number of electric vehicle charging stations shall be considered equivalent to the number of electric vehicles that can be simultaneously charged.
ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV) CONNECTOR. A device that, when electrically coupled (conductive or inductive) to an electric vehicle inlet, establishes an electrical connection to the electric vehicle for the purpose of power transfer and information exchange. This device is part of the electric vehicle coupler.
[BG] ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING STATION. One or more vehicle spaces served by an electric vehicle charging system.
[BF] ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE SYSTEM. A specific construction of devices, materials, or coatings installed as a fire-resistive barrier system applied to electrical system components, such as cable trays, conduits and other raceways, open run cables and conductors, cables, and conductors.
ELEMENT. [DSA-AC] An architectural or mechanical component of a building,