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CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE — MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 10 — MEANS OF EGRESS
(Matrix Adoption Tables are nonregulatory, intended only as an aid to the code user.
See Chapter 1 for state agency authority and building applications.)
Adopting agency BSC BSC-
CG
SFM HCD DSA OSHPD BSCC DPH AGR DWR CEC CA SL SLC
1 2 1/AC AC SS SS/CC 1 1R 2 3 4 5
Adopt entire chapter X             X X       X                    
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)     X X X X       X X X   X X                
Adopt only those sections that are listed below             X                                
Chapter / Section                                              
1001.1     X                                        
1003.1, not SFM exception             X                                
1003.1     X     X                                  
1003.1.1                   X                          
1003.1.2                     X X     X                
1003.2     X                                        
1003.3 Exc.     X                                        
1003.3.1     X                                        
1003.3.3.1     X                                        
1003.3.4       X X X                                  
1003.5     X X X X                                  
Table 1004.5     X                                        
1004.9     X                                        
1005.3.1     X                                        
1005.3.2     X                                        
1005.7.1     X                                        
1005.7.2     X                                        
1006.2.1     X                                        
Table 1006.2.1     X                                        
1006.2.2     X                                        
1006.2.2.2     X                                        
1006.2.2.3     X                                        
1006.2.2.4     X                                        
1006.2.2.6     X                                        
1006.2.2.7     X                                        
1006.2.2.8     X                                        
1006.3.3     X                                        
Table 1006.3.3(1)     X                                        
Table 1006.3.3(2)     X                                        
1008.2     X                                        
1008.3.2     X                                        
1009.1     X X X X X                                
1009.2           X X                                
1009.2.1             X                                
1009.3           X X                                
1009.4     X       X                                
1009.4.1     X                                        
1009.4.2             X                                
1009.5     X X X X X                                
1009.6             X                                
1009.6.1             X                                
1009.6.2             X                                
1009.6.3     X X X X X                                
1009.6.4             X                                
1009.6.5             X                                
1009.7             X                                
1009.7.1             X                                
1009.7.2             X                                
1009.7.3             X                                
1009.7.4             X                                
1009.8             X                                
1009.8.1             X                                
1009.8.1.1           X X                                
1009.8.2     X     X X                                
1009.9           X X                                
1009.10             X                                
1009.11           X X                                
1009.12     X     X X                                
1010 (1st paragraph below title only)             X                                
1010.1.1     X     X                                  
1010.1.1.1     X                                        
1010.1.2     X                                        
1010.1.2.1     X                                        
1010.1.4           X X                                
1010.1.6           X X                                
1010.1.7           X X                                
1010.1.14     X                                        
1010.2.1     X                                        
1010.2.2     X     X X                                
1010.2.9     X                                        
1010.2.8.2     X                                        
1010.2.12.1     X                                        
1010.2.13     X                                        
1010.2.13.1(Item 4, 6.3 & 6.4 only)             X                                
1010.2.14     X                                        
1010.2.5     X                                        
1010.2.8.1     X                                        
1010.2.13     X                                        
1010.3.1           X                                  
1011(1st paragraph below title only)             X                                
1011.2     X                                        
1011.5.2     X                                        
1011.5.2 [DSA-AC: exc. 4 only]             X                                
1011.6     X                                        
1011.11     X                                        
1011.11 (2nd paragraph only)             X                                
1011.15     X                                        
1012 (1st paragraph below title only)             X                                
1012.1           X                                  
1012.6.3           X                                  
1012.6.4           X                                  
1012.6.5           X                                  
1012.10           X                                  
1013.1     X                                        
1013.2     X                                        
1013.4     X     X X                                
1013.6.3     X                                        
1013.7     X                                        
1013.8     X                                        
1014 (1st paragraph below title only)             X                                
1014.8     X     X                                  
1015.2     X       X                                
1015.3     X X X X X                                
1015.4     X                                        
1015.8       X X X                                  
1016.2     X                                        
Table 1017.2     X                                        
1018.2 (1st paragraph below title only)             X                                
1018.3 Exception only             X                                
1018.5 Exception only             X                                
1019.3     X                                        
1019.4     X                                        
1020.1     X                                        
Table 1020.1     X                                        
Table 1020.2     X                                        
1020.3     X                                        
1020.4     X                                        
1020.5     X             X   X   X                  
1020.6     X                                        
1022.3     X                                        
1023.2     X                                        
1023.9     X     X                                  
1023.9 (2nd paragraph only)             X                                
1023.9.1     X                                        
1023.11           X                                  
1023.11.2     X                                        
1024.2     X                                        
1026.4.1     X                                        
1026.4.2     X                                        
1028.5     X                                        
1029.1     X                                        
1029.2     X                                        
1029.3     X                                        
1029.3.1     X                                        
1029.9.1     X                                        
1030.1     X                                        
1030.1.1     X                                        
1030.6.3.2     X                                        
1032.2.1.2     X                                        
1032.2.1.3     X                                        
The state agency does not adopt sections identified with the following symbol: †
The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.
User notes:
About this chapter: Chapter 10 provides the general criteria for designing the means of egress established as the primary method for protection of people in buildings by allowing timely relocation or evacuation of building occupants. Both prescriptive and performance language is utilized in this chapter to provide for a basic approach in the determination of a safe exiting system for all occupancies. It addresses all portions of the egress system (exit access, exits and exit discharge) and includes design requirements as well as provisions regulating individual components. The requirements detail the size, arrangement, number and protection of means of egress components. Functional and operational characteristics that will permit the safe use of components without special knowledge or effort are specified.
The means of egress protection requirements work in coordination with other sections of the code, such as protection of vertical openings (see Chapter 7), interior finish (see Chapter 8), fire suppression and detection systems (see Chapter 9) and numerous others, all having an impact on life safety. Chapter 10 is subdivided into four main sections: general (Sections 10031015), exit access (Sections 10161021), exit (Sections 10221027) and exit discharge (Sections 10281029). Special allowances for the unique requirements for assembly spaces (Section 1030) and emergency escape and rescue openings (Section 1031) complete the chapter. Chapter 10 of this code is duplicated in Chapter 10 of the California Fire Code; however, the California Fire Code contains one additional section on maintenance of the means of egress system in existing buildings.
Section 1010 was extensively reorganized for the 2021 edition. For complete information, see the moved sections table in the preface information for the California Building Code.
Buildings or portions thereof shall be provided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, construction and arrangement of means of egress components required to provide an approved means of egress from structures and portions thereof.
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It shall be unlawful to alter a building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of exits or the minimum width or required capacity of the means of egress to less than required by this code.
Means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the California Fire Code.
Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be provided for all occupancies and buildings where required by the California Fire Code. Such fire safety and evacuation plans shall comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 401.2 and 404 of the California Fire Code.
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The general requirements specified in Sections 1003 through 1015 shall apply to all three elements of the means of egress system, in addition to those specific requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge detailed elsewhere in this chapter.
[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] In addition to the requirement of this chapter, means of egress, which provide access to, or egress from, buildings or facilities where accessibility is required for applications listed in Section 1.8.2.1.2 regulated by the Department of Housing and Community Development, or Section 1.9.1 regulated by the Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance, shall also comply with Chapter 11A or Chapter 11B, as applicable.
Exception: Exiting requirements for Fixed Guideway Transit Systems shall be as per Section 443.
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[OSHPD 1] In addition to the requirements of this chapter, means of egress for hospitals shall comply with Part 10 California Existing Building Code Section 308A.
The means of egress shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm) above the finished floor.
Exceptions:
  1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2.
  2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within residential occupancies in accordance with Section 1208.2.
  3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 1003.3.
  4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1011.3.
  5. Door height in accordance with Section 1010.1.1.
  6. Ramp headroom in accordance with Section 1012.5.2.
  7. The clear height of floor levels in vehicular and pedestrian traffic areas of public and private parking garages in accordance with Section 406.2.2.
  8. Areas above and below mezzanine floors in accordance with Section 505.2.
  9. In Group I-2, I-2.1 and I-3 occupancies, the means of egress shall have a ceiling height of not less than 8 feet (2439 mm).
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Protruding objects on circulation paths shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4.
Exception: In Group I-2 and Group I-2.1 occupancies, protruding objects shall not extend more than 12 inches (305 mm) below the minimum ceiling height required by Section 1003.2.
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Protruding objects are permitted to extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Section 1003.2 where a minimum headroom of 80 inches (2032 mm) is provided over any circulation paths, including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. In other than Group I-2 and Group I-2.1 occupancies, Not more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress shall be permitted to be reduced in height by protruding objects.
Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm).
A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance above a circulation path is less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high above the finished floor. The leading edge of such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maximum above the finished floor.
A free-standing object mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or pylon more than 4 inches (102 mm) where the lowest point of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the finished floor. Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (686 mm) maximum or 80 inches (2032 mm) minimum above the finished floor or ground.
Exception: These requirements shall not apply to sloping portions of handrails between the top and bottom riser of stairs and above the ramp run.
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Objects with leading edges more than 27 inches (685 mm) and not more than 80 inches (2030 mm) above the finished floor shall not project horizontally more than 4 inches (102 mm) into the circulation path.
Exception: Handrails are permitted to protrude 41/2 inches (114 mm) from the wall or guard.
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Structural elements, fixtures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from either side more than 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) into the required width of an exit access corridor serving any area caring for one or more nonambulatory or bedridden persons.
Exceptions:
  1. Handrails are permitted to protrude 31/2 inches (89 mm) from the wall.
  2. Alcohol-based hand-rub dispensers are permitted to protrude 4 inches.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes with a protective cover installed are permitted to protrude 4 inches.
Protruding objects shall not reduce the minimum clear width of accessible routes as required in Chapter 11A or Chapter 11B.
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Circulation paths of the means of egress shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached.
Where changes in elevation of less than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps complying with Section 1012 shall be used. Where the difference in elevation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less, the ramp shall be equipped with either handrails or floor finish materials that contrast with adjacent floor finish materials.
Exceptions:
  1. Steps at exterior doors complying with Section 1010.1.4.
  2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a tread is permitted at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 11A or 11B where the risers and treads comply with Section 1011.5, the minimum depth of the tread is 13 inches (330 mm) and not less than one handrail complying with Section 1014 is provided within 30 inches (762 mm) of the centerline of the normal path of egress travel on the stair.
  3. A step is permitted in aisles serving seating that has a difference in elevation less than 12 inches (305 mm) at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 11A or 11B, provided that the risers and treads comply with Section 1030.14 and the aisle is provided with a handrail complying with Section 1030.16.
Throughout a story in a Group I-2 and I-2.1 occupancies, any change in elevation in portions of the means of egress that serve nonambulatory persons shall be by means of a ramp or sloped walkway.
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The path of egress travel along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by a building element other than a means of egress component as specified in this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the minimum width or required capacity of a means of egress component except projections permitted by this chapter. The minimum width or required capacity of a means of egress system shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel.
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Elevators, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a required means of egress from any other part of the building.
Exception: Elevators used as an accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 1009.4.
In determining means of egress requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of egress facilities are provided shall be determined in accordance with this section.
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Where the path of egress travel includes intervening rooms, areas or spaces, cumulative occupant loads shall be determined in accordance with this section.
Where occupants egress from one or more rooms, areas or spaces through others, the design occupant load shall be the combined occupant load of interconnected accessory or intervening spaces. Design of egress path capacity shall be based on the cumulative portion of occupant loads of all rooms, areas or spaces to that point along the path of egress travel.
That portion of the occupant load of a mezzanine with required egress through a room, area or space on an adjacent level shall be added to the occupant load of that room, area or space.
Other than for the egress components designed for convergence in accordance with Section 1005.6, the occupant load from separate stories shall not be added.
Where an area under consideration contains multiple functions having different occupant load factors, the design occupant load for such area shall be based on the floor area of each function calculated independently.
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Where a building contains two or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of the same means of egress system, those egress components shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies that are served.
The number of occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant per unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004.5. For areas without fixed seating, the occupant load shall be not less than that number determined by dividing the floor area under consideration by the occupant load factor assigned to the function of the space as set forth in Table 1004.5. Where an intended function is not listed in Table 1004.5, the building official shall establish a function based on a listed function that most nearly resembles the intended function.
Exception: Where approved by the building official, the actual number of occupants for whom each occupied space, floor or building is designed, although less than those determined by calculation, shall be permitted to be used in the determination of the design occupant load.
TABLE 1004.5
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT
FUNCTION OF SPACE OCCUPANT LOAD FACTORa
Accessory storage areas, mechanical equipment room 300 gross
Agricultural building 300 gross
Aircraft hangars 500 gross
Airport terminal
Baggage claim
Baggage handling
Concourse
Waiting areas
20 gross
300 gross
100 gross
15 gross
Assembly
Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.)
Exhibit gallery and museum
11 gross
30 net
Assembly with fixed seats See Section 1004.6
Assembly without fixed seats
Concentrated
(chairs only—not fixed)
Standing space
Unconcentrated (tables and chairs)
7 net
5 net
15 net
Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each lane including 15 feet of runway, and for additional areas 7 net
Business areas
Concentrated business use areas
150 gross
Courtrooms—other than fixed seating areas 40 net
Day care 35 net
Dormitories 50 gross
Educational
Classroom area
Shops and other vocational room areas
20 net
50 net
Exercise rooms 50 gross
Group H-5 fabrication and
manufacturing areas
200 gross
Industrial areas 100 gross
Institutional areas
Inpatient treatment areas
Outpatient areas
Sleeping areas
240 gross
100 gross
120 gross
Kitchens, commercial 200 gross
Laboratory
Educational (K—12th grade)
Laboratories, non-educational
50 net
100 net
200 gross
Library
Reading rooms
Stack area
50 net
100 gross
Locker rooms 50 gross
Mall buildings—covered and open See Section 402.8.2
Mercantile
Storage, stock, shipping areas
60 gross
300 gross
Parking garages 200 gross
Residential 200 gross
Skating rinks, swimming pools
Rink and pool
50 gross
15 gross
Stages and platforms 15 net
Warehouses 500 gross
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
  1. Floor area in square feet per occupant.
  2. See Section 453.2.
  3. See Table 408.3.13 for I-3 facilities.
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The occupant load permitted in any building, or portion thereof, is permitted to be increased from that number established for the occupancies in Table 1004.5, provided that all other requirements of the code are met based on such modified number and the occupant load does not exceed one occupant per 7 square feet (0.65 m2) of occupiable floor space. Where required by the building official, an approved aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram substantiating any increase in occupant load shall be submitted. Where required by the building official, such diagram shall be posted.
For areas having fixed seats and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004.5 and added to the number of fixed seats.
The occupant load of wheelchair spaces and the associated companion seat shall be based on one occupant for each wheelchair space and one occupant for the associated companion seat provided in accordance with Section 1109.2.3.
For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall be not less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) of seating length.
The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length measured at the backrest of the seating booth.
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Yards, patios, occupied roofs, courts and similar outdoor areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chapter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned by the building official in accordance with the anticipated use. Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas.
Exceptions:
  1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the building need only have one means of egress.
  2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and individual dwelling units of Group R-2.
The occupant load factor for concentrated business use shall be applied to telephone call centers, trading floors, electronic data processing centers and similar business use areas with a higher density of occupants than would normally be expected in a typical business occupancy environment. Where approved by the building official, the occupant load for concentrated business use areas shall be the actual occupant load, but not less than one occupant per 50 square feet (4.65 m2) of gross occupiable floor space.
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Every room or space which is used for assembly, classroom, dining, drinking or similar purposes having an occupant load of 50 or more shall have the occupant load of the room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space, for the intended configurations. Posted signs shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be maintained by the owner or the owner's authorized agent.
All portions of the means of egress system shall be sized in accordance with this section.
Exception: Aisles and aisle accessways in rooms or spaces used for assembly purposes complying with Section 1030.
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The minimum width, in inches (mm), of any means of egress components shall be not less than that specified for such component, elsewhere in this code.
The required capacity, in inches (mm), of the means of egress for any room, area, space or story shall be not less than that determined in accordance with Sections 1005.3.1 and 1005.3.2.
The capacity, in inches, of means of egress stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant load served by such stairways by a means of egress capacity factor of 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) per occupant. Where stairways serve more than one story, only the occupant load of each story considered individually shall be used in calculating the required capacity of the stairways serving that story.
Exceptions:
  1. For other than Group H and I-2 occupancies, the capacity, in inches, of means of egress stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant load served by such stairways by a means of egress capacity factor of 0.2 inch (5.1 mm) per occupant in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
  2. Facilities with smoke-protected assembly seating shall be permitted to use the capacity factors in Table 1030.6.2 indicated for stepped aisles for exit access or exit stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is provided with a smoke control system complying with Section 909.
  3. Facilities with open-air assembly seating shall be permitted to the capacity factors in Section 1030.6.3 indicated for stepped aisles for exit access or exit stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is open to the outdoors.
  4. For Group H-1, H-2, H-3 and H-4 occupancies the total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less than the total occupant load served by the means of egress multiplied by 0.7 inches (7.62 mm) per occupant.
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The capacity, in inches, of means of egress components other than stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant load served by such component by a means of egress capacity factor of 0.2 inch (5.1 mm) per occupant.
Exceptions:
  1. For other than Group H and I-2 occupancies, the capacity, in inches, of means of egress components other than stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant load served by such component by a means of egress capacity factor of 0.15 inch (3.8 mm) per occupant in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
  2. Facilities with smoke-protected assembly seating shall be permitted to use the capacity factors in Table 1030.6.2 indicated for level or ramped aisles for means of egress components other than stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is provided with a smoke control system complying with Section 909.
  3. Facilities with open-air assembly seating shall be permitted to the capacity factors in Section 1030.6.3 indicated for level or ramped aisles for means of egress components other than stairways where the entire path for means of egress from the seating to the exit discharge is open to the outdoors.
  4. For Group H-1, H-2, H-3 and H-4 occupancies the total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less than the total occupant load served by the means of egress multiplied by 0.4 inches (5.08 mm) per occupant.
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The minimum width or required capacity of the means of egress required from any story of a building shall not be reduced along the path of egress travel until arrival at the public way.
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Where more than one exit, or access to more than one exit, is required, the means of egress shall be configured such that the loss of any one exit, or access to one exit, shall not reduce the available capacity or width to less than 50 percent of the required capacity or width.
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Where the means of egress from stories above and below converge at an intermediate level, the capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence shall be not less than the largest minimum width or the sum of the required capacities for the stairways or ramps serving the two adjacent stories, whichever is larger.
Encroachments into the required means of egress width shall be in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Doors, when fully opened, shall not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half.
Exceptions:
  1. In other than Group I-2 occupancies, surface-mounted latch release hardware shall be exempt from inclusion in the 7-inch maximum (178 mm) encroachment where both of the following conditions exist:
    1. The hardware is mounted to the side of the door facing away from the adjacent wall where the door is in the open position.
    2. The hardware is mounted not less than 34 inches (865 mm) nor more than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the finished floor.
  2. The restrictions on door swing shall not apply to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R-2 occupancies and dwelling units of Group R-3 occupancies.
Handrail projections shall be in accordance with the provisions of Section 1014.8. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features shall be permitted to project into the required width not more than 11/2 inches (38 mm) on each side.
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Protruding objects shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1003.3.
The number of exits or exit access doorways required within the means of egress system shall comply with the provisions of Section 1006.2 for spaces, including mezzanines, and Section 1006.3 for stories or occupied roofs.
Rooms, areas or spaces, including mezzanines, within a story or basement shall be provided with the number of exits or access to exits in accordance with this section.
Two exits or exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where the design occupant load or the common path of egress travel distance exceeds the values listed in Table 1006.2.1. The cumulative occupant load from adjacent rooms, areas or spaces shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004.2.
Exceptions:
  1. The number of exits from foyers, lobbies, vestibules or similar spaces need not be based on cumulative occupant loads for areas discharging through such spaces, but the capacity of the exits from such spaces shall be based on applicable cumulative occupant loads.
  2. Rooms and care suites in Group I-2 and I-2.1 occupancies complying with Section 407.4.
  3. Unoccupied mechanical rooms and penthouses are not required to comply with the common path of egress travel distance measurement.
  4. In detention and correctional facilities and holding cells, such as are found in courthouse buildings, when the occupant load is more than 20 see Section 408.3.11.
TABLE 1006.2.1
OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM OCCUPANT
LOAD OF SPACE
MAXIMUM COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL DISTANCE
(feet)
Without Sprinkler System
(feet)
With Sprinkler System
(feet)
Occupant Load
OL ≤ 30 OL > 30
Ac, E, M 49 75 75 75a
B 49 100 75 100a
F 49 75 75 100a
H-1, H-2, H-3 3 NP NP 25b
H-4, H-5 10 NP NP 75b
I-2d, I-2.1, I-4 10 NPi NPi 75a
I-3 10 NP NP 100a
R-1 10 NP NP 75a
R-2 20 NP NP 125a
R-2.1 10 NP NP 75a
R-2.2 20 NP NP 125a
R-3e, R-3.1e 20 NP NP 125a, g
R-4e 20 NP NP 125a, g
Sf 29 100 75 100a
U 49 100 75 75a
L See Section 453.6.1 NP NP
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NP = Not Permitted.
  1. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. See Section 903 for occupancies where automatic sprinkler systems are permitted in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.
  2. Group H occupancies equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.5.
  3. For a room or space used for assembly purposes having fixed seating, see Section 1030.8.
  4. For the travel distance limitations and number of exit and exit access requirements for rooms and spaces in Group I-2 or I-2.1, see Section 407.4.
  5. The common path of egress travel distance shall only apply in a Group R-3 occupancy located in a mixed occupancy building.
  6. The length of common path of egress travel distance in a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be not more than 100 feet.
  7. For the travel distance limitations in Groups R-3 and R-4 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3, see Section 1006.2.2.6.
  8. For holding cells, see Section 408.3.11.
  9. In accordance with Health and Safety Code Section 13113(d), there is no requirement for automatic sprinkler protection in an existing Group I-2 located in Type IA construction.
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Three exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load of 501 to 1,000. Four exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load greater than 1,000.
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The numbers, configuration and types of components of exits or access to exits shall be provided in the uses described in Sections 1006.2.2.1 through 1006.2.2.7.
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Two exit access doorways are required in boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms where the area is over 500 square feet (46 m2) and any fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) (422 000 KJ) input capacity. Where two exit access doorways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the room.
Machinery rooms larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have not less than two exits or exit access doorways. Where two exit access doorways are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of the room.
All portions of machinery rooms shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway.
Exit and exit access doorways shall swing in the direction of egress travel and shall be equipped with panic hardware, regardless of the occupant load served. Exit and exit access doorways shall be tight fitting and self-closing.
Rooms or spaces having a floor area larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2), containing a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature below 68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two exits or exit access doorways.
Exit access travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 1017.1. All portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway leading to a nonrefrigerated area where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.
Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the California Mechanical Code. Egress is allowed through adjoining refrigerated rooms or spaces.
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The location and number of exit or exit access doorways shall be provided for electrical rooms in accordance with Section 110.26 of NFPA 70 for electrical equipment rated 1,000 volts or less, and Section 110.33 of NFPA 70 for electrical equipment rated over 1,000 volts. Panic hardware shall be provided where required in accordance with Section 1010.2.9.2.
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Vehicular ramps shall not be considered as an exit access ramp unless pedestrian facilities are provided.
Where Group R-3 occupancies are permitted by Section 903.2.8 to be protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3, the exit access travel distance for Group R-3 shall be not more than 125 feet (38 100 mm). Where Group R-4 occupancies are permitted by Section 903.2.8 to be protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3, the exit access travel distance for Group R-4 shall be not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm).
Every story or basement of a large family day-care home shall be provided with two exits which are remotely located from each other. Every required exit shall be of a size to permit the installation of a door not less than 32 inches (813 mm) in clear width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2,032 mm) in height. A manually operated horizontal sliding door may be used as one of the two required exits.
Where basements are used for day-care purposes, one of the two required exits shall provide access directly to the exterior without entering the first story. The second exit from the basement may either pass through the story above or exit directly to the exterior.
Rooms used for day-care purposes shall not be located above the first story.
Exception: Buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout and which have at least one of the required exits providing access directly to the exterior. NFPA 13R may be used in large family day-care homes. The sprinkler omissions of NFPA 13R shall not apply unless approved by the enforcing agency.
Exit doors, including manually operated horizontal sliding doors, shall be openable from the inside without use of a key or any special knowledge or effort.
Tables 1006.3.3(1) and 1006.3.3(2) are not applicable to this occupancy classification.
Group I-4 facilities, rooms or spaces where care is provided for more than 10 children that are 36 months of age or less shall have access to not less than two exits or exit access doorways.
The means of egress system serving any story or occupied roof shall be provided with the number of separate and distinct exits or access to exits based on the aggregate occupant load served in accordance with this section.
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Where stairways serve more than one story, or more than one story and an occupied roof, only the occupant load of each story or occupied roof, considered individually, shall be used when calculating the required number of exits or access to exits serving that story.
The path of egress travel to an exit shall not pass through more than one adjacent story.
Exception: The path of egress travel to an exit shall be permitted to pass through more than one adjacent story in any of the following:
  1. In Group R-1, R-2 or R-3 occupancies, exit access stairways and ramps connecting four stories or less serving and contained within an individual dwelling unit, sleeping unit or live/work unit.
  2. Exit access stairways serving and contained within a Group R-3 congregate residence or a Group R-4 facility.
  3. Exit access stairways and ramps within an atrium complying with Section 404
  4. Exit access stairways and ramps in open parking garages that serve only the parking garage.
  5. Exit access stairways and ramps serving open-air assembly seating complying with the exit access travel distance requirements of Section 1030.7.
  6. Exit access stairways and ramps between the balcony, gallery or press box and the main assembly floor in occupancies such as theaters, places of religious worship, auditoriums and sports facilities.
  7. Exterior exit access stairways and ramps between occupied roofs.
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Each story and occupied roof shall have the minimum number of separate and distinct exits, or access to exits, as specified in Table 1006.3.3. A single exit or access to a single exit shall be permitted in accordance with Section 1006.3.4. The required number of exits, or exit access stairways or ramps providing access to exits, from any story or occupied roof shall be maintained until arrival at the exit discharge or a public way.
TABLE 1006.3.3
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS OR ACCESS TO EXITS PER STORY
OCCUPANT LOAD
PER STORY
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS OR
ACCESS TO EXITS FROM STORY
1-500 2
501-1,000 3
More than 1,000 4
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A single exit or access to a single exit shall be permitted from any story or occupied roof where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. The occupant load, number of dwelling units and exit access travel distance do not exceed the values in Table 1006.3.4(1) or 1006.3.4(2).
  2. Rooms, areas and spaces complying with Section 1006.2.1 with exits that discharge directly to the exterior at the level of exit discharge, are permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit.
  3. Parking garages where vehicles are mechanically parked shall be permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit.
  4. Group R-3 and R-4 occupancies shall be permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit.
  5. Individual single-story or multistory dwelling units shall be permitted to have a single exit or access to a single exit from the dwelling unit provided that both of the following criteria are met:
    1. The dwelling unit complies with Section 1006.2.1 as a space with one means of egress.
    2. Either the exit from the dwelling unit discharges directly to the exterior at the level of exit discharge, or the exit access outside the dwelling unit's entrance door provides access to not less than two approved independent exits.
TABLE 1006.3.4(1)
STORIES WITH ONE EXIT OR ACCESS TO ONE EXIT FOR R-2 AND R-3 OCCUPANCIES
STORY OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DWELLING UNITS MAXIMUM EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE
Basement, first, second or third story above grade plane R-2a, b 4 dwelling units
NA
125 feet
NA
Fourth story above grade plane and higher R-3a NA 125 feet
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NP = Not Permitted.
NA = Not Applicable.
  1. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and provided with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Section 1031.
  2. This table is used for R-2 occupancies consisting of dwelling units. For R-2 occupancies consisting of sleeping units, use Table 1006.3.4(2).
TABLE 1006.3.4(2)
STORIES WITH ONE EXIT OR ACCESS TO ONE EXIT FOR OTHER OCCUPANCIES
STORY OCCUPANCYe MAXIMUM OCCUPANT
LOAD PER STORY
MAXIMUM EXIT ACCESS
TRAVEL DISTANCE (feet)
First story above or below grade plane A, Bb, E, Fb, M, U 49 75
H-2, H-3 3 25
H-4, H-5, I, R-1, R-2a, c, R-2.2 10 75
I-2, I-2.1 7 50
Sb, d 29 75
Second story above grade plane B, F, M, Sd 29 75
Third story above grade plane and higher NP NA NA
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NP = Not Permitted.
NA = Not Applicable.
  1. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and provided with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Section 1031.
  2. Group B, F and S occupancies in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall have a maximum exit access travel distance of 100 feet.
  3. This table is used for R-2 occupancies consisting of sleeping units. For R-2 occupancies consisting of dwelling units, use Table 1006.3.4(1).
  4. The length of exit access travel distance in a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be not more than 100 feet.
  5. For Group L Occupancies see Section 453.6.1.
Where one exit, or exit access stairway or ramp providing access to exits at other stories, is permitted to serve individual stories, mixed occupancies shall be permitted to be served by single exits provided that each individual occupancy complies with the applicable requirements of Table 1006.3.4(1) or 1006.3.4(2) for that occupancy. Where applicable, cumulative occupant loads from adjacent occupancies shall be considered to be in accordance with the provisions of Section 1004.1. In each story of a mixed occupancy building, the maximum number of occupants served by a single exit shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the calculated number of occupants of the space divided by the allowable number of occupants indicated in Table 1006.3.4(2) for each occupancy does not exceed one. Where dwelling units are located on a story with other occupancies, the actual number of dwelling units divided by four plus the ratio from the other occupancy does not exceed one.
Exits, exit access doorways, and exit access stairways and ramps serving spaces, including individual building stories, shall be separated in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Where two exits, exit access doorways, exit access stairways or ramps, or any combination thereof, are required from any portion of the exit access, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between them. Interlocking or scissor stairways shall be counted as one exit stairway.
Exceptions:
  1. Where interior exit stairways or ramps are interconnected by a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated corridor conforming to the requirements of Section 1020, the required exit separation shall be measured along the shortest direct line of travel within the corridor.
  2. Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the separation distance shall be not less than one-third of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area served.
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The separation distance required in Section 1007.1.1 shall be measured in accordance with the following:
  1. The separation distance to exit or exit access doorways shall be measured to any point along the width of the doorway.
  2. The separation distance to exit access stairways shall be measured to the closest riser.
  3. The separation distance to exit access ramps shall be measured to the start of the ramp run.
Where access to three or more exits is required, not less than two exit or exit access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with the provisions of Section 1007.1.1. Additional required exit or exit access doorways shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked, the others will be available.
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Where two exit access stairways or ramps provide the required means of egress to exits at another story, the required separation distance shall be maintained for all portions of such exit access stairways or ramps.
Where more than two exit access stairways or ramps provide the required means of egress, not less than two shall be arranged in accordance with Section 1007.1.3.
Illumination shall be provided in the means of egress in accordance with Section 1008.2. Under emergency power, means of egress illumination shall comply with Section 1008.3.
The means of egress serving a room or space shall be illuminated at all times that the room or space is occupied.
Exceptions:
  1. Occupancies in Group U.
  2. Aisle accessways in Group A.
  3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-1, R-2 and R-3.
  4. Sleeping units of Group I, R-2.1 and R-4 occupancies.
The means of egress illumination level shall be not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface. Along exit access stairways, exit stairways and at their required landings, the illumination level shall not be less than 10 footcandles (108 lux) at the walking surface when the stairway is in use.
Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the walking surface is permitted to be reduced during performances by one of the following methods provided that the required illumination is automatically restored upon activation of a premises' fire alarm system:
  1. Externally illuminated walking surfaces shall be permitted to be illuminated to not less than 0.2 footcandle (2.15 lux).
  2. Steps, landings and the sides of ramps shall be permitted to be marked with self-luminous materials in accordance with Sections 1025.2.1, 1025.2.2 and 1025.2.4 by systems listed in accordance with UL 1994.
In Group I-2 occupancies where two or more exits are required, on the exterior landings required by Section 1010.1.5, means of egress illumination levels for the exit discharge shall be provided such that failure of a single lamp in a luminaire shall not reduce the illumination level on that landing to less than 1 footcandle (11 lux).
Illumination shall be provided along the path of travel for the exit discharge from each exit to the public way.
Exception: Illumination shall not be required where the path of the exit discharge meets both of the following requirements:
  1. The path of exit discharge is illuminated from the exit to a safe dispersal area complying with Section 1028.5.
  2. A dispersal area shall be illuminated to a level not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface.
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The power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises' electrical supply.
In the event of power supply failure in rooms and spaces that require two or more exits or access to exits, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:
  1. Aisles.
  2. Corridors.
  3. Exit access stairways and ramps.
In the event of power supply failure in buildings that require two or more exits or access to exits, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:
  1. Interior exit access stairways and ramps.
  2. Interior and exterior exit stairways and ramps.
  3. Exit passageways.
  4. Vestibules and areas on the level of discharge used for exit discharge in accordance with Section 1028.2.
  5. Exterior landings as required by Section 1010.1.5 for exit doorways that lead directly to the exit discharge.
  6. Group I-2 and I-2.1 exit discharge stairways, ramps, aisles, walkways and escalators leading to a public way or to a safe dispersal area in accordance with Section 1028.5.
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In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:
  1. Electrical equipment rooms.
  2. Fire command centers.
  3. Fire pump rooms.
  4. Generator rooms.
  5. Public restrooms with an area greater than 300 square feet (27.87 m2).
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The emergency power system shall provide power for a duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Section 2702.
Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is not less than an average of 1 footcandle (11 lux) and a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle (1 lux) measured along the path of egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to 0.6 footcandle (6 lux) average and a minimum at any point of 0.06 footcandle (0.6 lux) at the end of the emergency lighting time duration. A maximum-to-minimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. In Group I-2 occupancies, failure of a single lamp in a luminaire shall not reduce the illumination level to less than 0.2 footcandle (2.2 lux).
Accessible means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible means of egress. Where more than one means of egress is required by Section 1006.2 or 1006.3 from any accessible space, each accessible portion of the space shall be served by accessible means of egress in at least the same number as required by Sections 1006.2 or 1006.3. In addition to the requirements of this chapter, means of egress, which provide access to, or egress from, buildings for persons with disabilities, shall also comply with the requirements of Chapter 11A or 11B as applicable.
Exceptions:
  1. One accessible means of egress is required from an accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Section 1009.3, 1009.4 or 1009.5, and Chapter 11A or 11B, as applicable.
  2. In assembly areas with ramped aisles or stepped aisles, one accessible means of egress is permitted where the common path of egress travel is accessible and meets the requirements in Section 1030.8 and Chapter 11A or 11B, as applicable.
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Each required accessible means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and shall consist of one or more of the following components:
  1. Accessible routes complying with Chapter 11A, Sections 1110A.1 and 1120A, or Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-206 and 11B-402, as applicable.
  2. Interior exit stairways complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1023, and Chapter 11A, Section 1123A, or Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-210 and 11B-504, as applicable.
  3. Exit access stairways complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1019.3 or 1019.4, Chapter 11A, Section 1123A, or Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-210 and 11B-504, as applicable.
  4. Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1027, and Chapter 11A, Section 1115A, or Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-210 and 11B-504, as applicable, and serving levels other than the level of exit discharge.
  5. Elevators complying with Section 1009.4, and Chapter 11A, Section 1124A, or Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-206.6 and 11B-407, as applicable.
  6. Platform lifts complying with Section 1009.5, and Chapter 11A, Section 1124A, or Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-206.7, 11B-207.2 and 11B-410 as applicable.
  7. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1026.
  8. Ramps complying with Section 1012, and Chapter 11A, Sections 1114A and 1122A, or Chapter 11B, 11B-405, as applicable.
  9. Areas of refuge complying with Section 1009.6.
  10. Exterior areas for assisted rescue complying with Section 1009.7 serving exits at the level of exit discharge.
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In buildings where a required accessible floor or occupied roof is four or more stories above or below a level of exit discharge, not less than one required accessible means of egress shall be an elevator complying with Section 1009.4.
Exceptions:
  1. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a horizontal exit and located at or above the levels of exit discharge.
  2. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 1012.
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In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress, a stairway between stories shall comply with Sections 1009.3.1 through 1009.3.3. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] In addition, exit stairways shall comply with Chapter 11A, Sections 1115A and 1123A, or Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-210 and 11B-504, as applicable.
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Exit access stairways that connect levels in the same story are not permitted as part of an accessible means of egress.
Exception: Exit access stairways providing means of egress from mezzanines are permitted as part of an accessible means of egress.
Stairways shall have a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum between handrails.
Exceptions:
  1. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  2. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails is not required for stairways accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit.
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Stairways shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an enlarged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from an area of refuge complying with Section 1009.6.
Exceptions:
  1. Areas of refuge are not required at exit access stairways where two-way communication is provided at the elevator landing in accordance with Section 1009.8.
  2. Areas of refuge are not required at stairways in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  3. Areas of refuge are not required at stairways serving open parking garages.
  4. Areas of refuge are not required for smoke-protected or open-air assembly seating areas complying with Sections 1030.6.2 and 1030.6.3.
  5. Areas of refuge are not required at stairways in Group R-2 occupancies.
  6. Areas of refuge are not required for stairways accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit.
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In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress, an elevator shall comply with Sections 1009.4.1 and 1009.4.2.
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The elevator shall meet the emergency operation and signaling device requirements of California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Division 1, Chapter 4, Subchapter 6, Elevator Safety Orders. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 27 and Section 3003.
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The elevator shall be accessed from an area of refuge complying with Section 1009.6.
Exceptions:
  1. Areas of refuge are not required at the elevator in open parking garages.
  2. Areas of refuge are not required in buildings and facilities equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  3. Areas of refuge are not required at elevators not required to be located in a shaft in accordance with Section 712.
  4. Areas of refuge are not required at elevators serving smoke-protected or open-air assembly seating areas complying with Sections 1030.6.2 and 1030.6.3.
  5. Areas of refuge are not required for elevators accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit.
Platform lifts shall be permitted to serve as part of an accessible means of egress where allowed as part of a required accessible route in Chapter 11A, Sections 1121A and 1124A.11, or Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-206.7.1 through 11B-206.7.10, as applicable. Standby power for the platform lift shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 27.
[DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 11B-207.2 for additional accessible means of egress requirements at platform lifts.
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Every required area of refuge shall be accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of egress.
[DSA-AC] Areas of refuge shall comply with the requirements of this code and shall adjoin an accessible route complying with Sections 11B-206 and 11B-402,
The maximum travel distance from any accessible space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the exit access travel distance permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section 1017.1.
Every required area of refuge shall have direct access to a stairway complying with Sections 1009.3 and 1023 or an elevator complying with Section 1009.4.
Exception: An interior area of refuge at the level of exit discharge that provides direct access to an exterior exit door.
Each area of refuge shall be sized to accommodate two wheelchair spaces that are not less than 30 inches by 52 inches (762 mm by 1320 mm). The total number of such 30-inch by 52-inch (762 mm by 1320 mm) spaces per story shall be not less than one for every 200 persons of calculated occupant load served by the area of refuge. Such wheelchair spaces shall not reduce the means of egress minimum width or required capacity. Access to any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area of refuge shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheelchair space.
Exception: The enforcing agency may reduce the size of each required area of refuge to accommodate one wheelchair space that is not less than 30 inches by 52 inches (762 mm by 1320 mm) on floors where the occupant load is less than 200.
Each area of refuge shall be separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier complying with Section 709 or a horizontal exit complying with Section 1026. Each area of refuge shall be designed to minimize the intrusion of smoke.
Exceptions:
  1. Areas of refuge located within an enclosure for interior exit stairways complying with Section 1023.
  2. Areas of refuge in outdoor facilities where exit access is essentially open to the outside.
Areas of refuge shall be provided with a two-way communication system complying with Sections 1009.8.1 and 1009.8.2.
Exterior areas for assisted rescue shall be accessed by an accessible route from the area served.
Where the exit discharge does not include an accessible route from an exit located on the level of exit discharge to a public way, an exterior area of assisted rescue shall be provided on the exterior landing in accordance with Sections 1009.7.1 through 1009.7.4.
Each exterior area for assisted rescue shall be sized to accommodate wheelchair spaces in accordance with Section 1009.6.3.
Exterior walls separating the exterior area of assisted rescue from the interior of the building shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour, rated for exposure to fire from the inside. The fire-resistance-rated exterior wall construction shall extend horizontally not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) beyond the landing on either side of the landing or equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction is permitted to extend out perpendicular to the exterior wall not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) on the side of the landing. The fire-resistance-rated construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor level of the area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower. Openings within such fireresistance-rated exterior walls shall be protected in accordance with Section 716.
Exception: The fire-resistance rating and opening protectives are not required in the exterior wall where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
The exterior area for assisted rescue shall be open to the outside air. The sides other than the separation walls shall be not less than 50 percent open, and the open area shall be distributed so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.
Stairways that are part of the means of egress for the exterior area for assisted rescue shall provide a minimum clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails.
Exception: The minimum clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails is not required at stairways serving buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
A two-way communication system complying with Sections 1009.8.1 and 1009.8.2 shall be provided at the landing serving each elevator or bank of elevators on each accessible floor that is one or more stories above or below the level of exit discharge.
Exceptions:
  1. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landing serving each elevator or bank of elevators where the two-way communication system is provided within areas of refuge in accordance with Section 1009.6.5.
  2. Two-way communication systems are not required on floors provided with ramps conforming to the provisions of Section 1012.
  3. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landings serving only service elevators that are not designated as part of the accessible means of egress or serve as part of the required accessible route into a facility.
  4. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landings serving only freight elevators.
  5. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landing serving a private residence elevator.
  6. Two-way communication systems are not required in Group I-2 or I-3 facilities.
Two-way communication systems shall provide communication between each required location and the fire command center or a central control point location approved by the fire department. Where the central control point is not a constantly attended location, the two-way communication system shall have timed, automatic telephone dial-out capability that provides two-way communication with an approved supervising station or 9-1-1. The two-way communication system shall include both audible and visible signals.
[DSA-AC and HCD 1-AC] A button complying with Section 1138A.4 or Sections 11B-205 and 11B-309 in the area of refuge shall activate both a light in the area of refuge indicating that rescue has been requested and a light at the central control point indicating that rescue is being requested. A button at the central control point shall activate both a light at the central control point and a light in the area of refuge indicating that the request has been received.
Directions for the use of the two-way communication system, instructions for summoning assistance via the two-way communication system and written identification of the location shall be posted adjacent to the two-way communication system. Signage shall comply with Chapter 11A, Section 1143A or Section 11B-703.5 requirements for visual characters.
Signage indicating special accessibility provisions shall be provided as shown:
  1. Each door providing access to an area of refuge from an adjacent floor area shall be identified by a sign stating, "AREA OF REFUGE."
  2. Each door providing access to an exterior area for assisted rescue shall be identified by a sign stating, "EXTERIOR AREA FOR ASSISTED RESCUE."
Signage shall comply with Chapter 11A, Section 1143A and Chapter 11B, Section 11B-703.5 as applicable, requirements for visual characters and include the International Symbol of Accessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by Section 1013.3, the signs shall be illuminated. Additionally, visual characters, raised character and braille signage complying with Chapter 11A, Section 1143A or Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-703.1, 11B-703.2, 11B-703.3 and 11B-703.5 shall be located at each door to an area of refuge and exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Section 1013.4. The International Symbol of Accessibility shall comply with Chapter 11A, Section 1143A or Chapter 11B, Section 11B-703.7.2.1.
Directional signage complying with Chapter 11B, Section 11B-703.5 indicating the location of all other means of egress and which of those are accessible means of egress shall be provided at the following:
  1. At exits serving a required accessible space but not providing an approved accessible means of egress.
  2. At elevator landings.
  3. Within areas of refuge.
In areas of refuge and exterior areas for assisted rescue, instructions on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted. Signage shall comply with Chapter 11A, Section 1143A or Chapter 11B, Section 11B-703.5 requirements for visual characters. The instructions shall include all of the following:
  1. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as possible, unless they are assisting others.
  2. Information on planned availability of assistance in the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators and how to summon such assistance.
  3. Directions for use of the two-way communication system where provided.
Required emergency warning systems shall activate a means of warning the hearing impaired. Emergency warning systems provided as part of the firealarm system and two-way communication systems required by Chapter 10 shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 as amended in Chapter 35.
[DSA-AC] In addition to the requirements of this section, means of egress, which provide access to, or egress from, buildings or facilities where accessibility is required for applications listed in Section 1.9.1 regulated by the Division of the State Architect—Access Compliance, shall also comply with Chapter 11A or Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-206.5 and 11B-404, as applicable.
Doors in the means of egress shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1010.1.1 through 1010.3.4. Exterior exit doors shall also comply with the requirements of Section 1022.2. Gates in the means of egress shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1010.4 and 1010.4.1. Turnstiles in the means of egress shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1010.5 through 1010.5.4.
Doors, gates and turnstiles provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than required by this code shall comply with the requirements of this section.
Doors in the means of egress shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials.
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The required capacity of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm). The clear opening width of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). Where this section requires a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm). In Group I-2 or I-2.1, doors serving as means of egress doors where used for the movement of beds and stretcher patients shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 44 inches (1118 mm). Where this section requires a minimum clear opening width of 44 inches (1118 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 44 inches (1118 mm). The minimum clear opening height of doors shall be not less than 80 inches (2032 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. In Group R-2 and R-3 dwelling and sleeping units that are not required to be adaptable or accessible as specified in Chapter 11A the minimum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress.
  2. In Group I-3, door openings to resident sleeping units that are not required to be adaptable or accessible as specified in Chapter 11A shall have a minimum clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm).
  3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum clear opening width.
  4. The maximum width of door leaves in revolving doors that comply with Section 1010.3.1 shall not be limited.
  5. The maximum width of door leaves in poweroperated doors that comply with Section 1010.3.2 shall not be limited.
  6. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall have a minimum clear opening height of 78 inches (1981 mm).
  7. In dwelling and sleeping units that are not required to be adaptable or accessible as specified in Chapter 11A, exterior door openings other than the required exit door shall have a minimum clear opening height of 76 inches (1930 mm).
  8. In Groups R-2, R-3 and R-4, in dwelling and sleeping units that are not required to be adaptable or accessible as specified in Chapter 11A, the minimum clear opening widths shall not apply to interior egress doors.
  9. Doors to walk-in freezers and coolers less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area shall have a maximum width of 60 inches (1524 mm) nominal.
  10. The minimum clear opening width shall not apply to doors for nonadaptable or nonaccessible shower or sauna compartments, as specified in Chapter 11A.
  11. Doors serving nonadaptable or nonaccessible single-user shower or sauna compartments, toilet stalls or dressing, fitting or changing rooms shall have a minimum clear opening width of 20 inches (508 mm).
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There shall not be projections into the required clear opening width lower than 34 inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. Door closers, overhead door stops, power door operators, and electromagnetic door locks shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the floor.
  2. In a Group I-2 or I-2.1 occupancy, there shall be no projections into the clear width of doors used for the movement of beds and stretcher patients in the means of egress.
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Egress doors shall be of the side-hinged swinging door, pivoted door, or balanced door types.
Exceptions:
  1. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage areas with an occupant load of 10 or less.
  2. Group I-3 occupancies used as a place of detention.
  3. Critical or intensive care patient rooms within suites of health care facilities.
  4. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in Groups R-2 and R-3.
  5. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving doors complying with Section 1010.3.1.
  6. In other than Group H occupancies, special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies complying with Section 1010.3.3.
  7. Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 1010.3.2.
  8. Doors serving a bathroom within an individual sleeping unit in Group R-1.
  9. In other than Group H occupancies, manually operated horizontal sliding doors are permitted in a means of egress from spaces with an occupant load of 10 or less.
  10. In I-2 and I-2.1 occupancies, exit doors serving an occupant load of 50 or more, shall not be of the pivoted or balanced type.
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Side-hinged swinging doors, pivoted doors and balanced doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where serving a room or area containing an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group H occupancy. For Group L occupancies, see Section 453.6.2.
In a Group I-2 occupancy, all required exterior egress doors shall open in the direction of egress regardless of the occupant load served.
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The forces to unlatch doors shall comply with the following:
  1. Where door hardware operates by push or pull, the operational force to unlatch the door shall not exceed 15 pounds (67 N).
  2. Where door hardware operates by rotation, the operational force to unlatch the door shall not exceed 28 inch-pounds (315 N-cm).
The force to open doors shall comply with the following:
  1. For interior swinging egress doors that are manually operated, other than doors required to be fire rated, the force for pushing or pulling open the door shall not exceed 5 pounds (22 N).
  2. For other swinging doors, sliding doors or folding doors, and doors required to be fire rated, the door shall require not more than a 30-pound (133 N) force to be set in motion and shall move to a fullopen position when subjected to not more than a 15- pound (67 N) force.
Forces shall be applied to the latch side of the door.
Where a manual horizontal sliding door is required to latch, the latch or other mechanism shall prevent the door from rebounding into a partially open position when the door is closed.
There shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope).
Exceptions:
  1. At doors serving individual dwelling units or sleeping units in Groups R-2 and R-3: a door is permitted to open at the top step of an interior flight of stairs, provided that the door does not swing over the top step.
  2. At exterior doors serving Groups F, H, R-2 and S and where such doors are not part of an adaptable or accessible route or, not required to be accessible by Chapter 11A or 11B of the California Building Code, the landing at an exterior door shall not be more than 7 inches (178 mm) below the landing on the egress side of the door, provided that the door, other than an exterior storm or screen door, does not swing over the landing.
  3. At exterior doors serving Group U and individual dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-2 and R-3, and where such units are not required to be adaptable or accessible, the landing at an exterior doorway shall be not more than 73/4 inches (197 mm) below the landing on the egress side of the door. Such doors, including storm or screen doors, shall be permitted to swing over either landing.
  4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish materials, but not more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
  5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of adaptable or accessible dwelling units, have impervious surfaces and that are not more than 4 inches (102 mm) below the finished floor level of the adjacent interior space of the dwelling unit. See also Chapter 11A, Section 1132A.4.
  6. Doors serving equipment spaces not required to be adaptable or accessible and serving an occupant load of five or less shall be permitted to have a landing on one side to be not more than 7 inches (178 mm) above or below the landing on the egress side of the door.
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Landings shall have a width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Where a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in any position shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm).
Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in Groups R-3 and U and within individual units of Group R-2 need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).
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Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) in height above the finished floor or landing for sliding doors serving dwelling units or 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) above the finished floor or landing for other doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes greater than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent slope).
Exceptions:
  1. In occupancy Group R-2 or R-3, threshold heights for sliding and side-hinged exterior doors shall be permitted to be up to 73/4 inches (197 mm) in height if all of the following apply:
    1. The door is not part of the required means of egress.
    2. The door is not part of an accessible route as required by Chapter 11A or 11B.
    3. The door is not part of an adaptable or accessible dwelling unit.
  2. In adaptable or accessible dwelling units, where Exception 5 to Section 1010.1.4 permits a 4-inch (102 mm) elevation change at the door, the threshold height on the exterior side of the door shall not exceed 43/4 inches (120 mm) in height above the exterior deck, patio or balcony for sliding doors or 41/2 inches (114 mm) above the exterior deck, patio or balcony for other doors.
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Space between two doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in a series shall swing either in the same direction or away from the space between the doors.
Exceptions:
  1. The minimum distance between horizontal sliding power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm).
  2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be spaced 48 inches (1219 mm) from the other door.
  3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 other than adaptable or accessible dwelling units.
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Except as specifically permitted by this section, egress doors shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.
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The unlatching of any door or leaf for egress shall require not more than one motion in a single linear or rotational direction to release all latching and all locking devices.
Exceptions:
  1. Places of detention or restraint.
  2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permitted by Section 1010.2.5.
  3. Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted by Section 1010.2.4, Item 4.
  4. Doors from individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R occupancies as permitted by Section 1010.2.4, Item 5.
Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices on doors required to be accessible by Chapter 11A or 11B shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or twisting of the wrist to operate.
These design requirements for door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices, intended for use on required means of egress doors in other than Group R and M occupancies with an occupant load of 10 or less, shall comply with SFM Standard 12-10-2, Section 12-10-202 contained in the CCR, Title 24, Part 12, California Referenced Standards Code.
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Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices shall be installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks used only for security purposes and not used for normal operation are permitted at any height.
Exception: Access doors or gates in barrier walls and fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall be permitted to have operable parts of the latch release on self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finished floor or ground, provided that the self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices operated by means of a key, electronic opener or integral combination lock.
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Locks and latches shall be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of the following exist:
  1. Places of detention or restraint.
  2. In Group I-1, Condition 2 and Group I-2 occupancies where the clinical needs of persons receiving care require containment or where persons receiving care pose a security threat, provided that all clinical staff can readily unlock doors at all times, and all such locks are keyed to keys carried by all clinical staff at all times or all clinical staff have the codes or other means necessary to operate the locks at all times.
  3. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an occupant load of 300 or less, Groups B, F, M and S, and in places of religious worship, the main door or doors are permitted to be equipped with key-operated locking devices from the egress side provided:
    1. The locking device is readily distinguishable as locked.
    2. A readily visible durable sign is posted on the egress side on or adjacent to the door stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN THIS SPACE IS OCCUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 1 inch (25 mm) high on a contrasting background.
    3. The use of the key-operated locking device is revocable by the building official for due cause.
  4. Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved automatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, provided that the door leaf having the automatic flush bolts does not have a doorknob or surface-mounted hardware.
  5. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units of Group R occupancies having an occupant load of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided such devices are openable from the inside without the use of a key or tool.
  6. Fire doors after the minimum elevated temperature has disabled the unlatching mechanism in accordance with listed fire door test procedures.
  7. Doors serving roofs not intended to be occupied shall be permitted to be locked preventing entry to the building from the roof.
  8. Other than egress courts, where occupants must egress from an exterior space through the building for means of egress, exit access doors shall be permitted to be equipped with an approved locking device where installed and operated in accordance with all of the following:
    1. The maximum occupant load shall be posted where required by Section 1004.9. Such signage shall be permanently affixed inside the building and shall be posted in a conspicuous space near all the exit access doorways.
    2. A weatherproof telephone or two-way communication system installed in accordance with Sections 1009.8.1 and 1009.8.2 shall be located adjacent to not less than one required exit access door on the exterior side.
    3. The egress door locking device is readily distinguishable as locked and shall be a keyoperated locking device.
    4. A clear window or glazed door opening, not less than 5 square feet (0.46 m2) in area, shall be provided at each exit access door to determine if there are occupants using the outdoor area.
    5. A readily visible, durable sign shall be posted on the interior side on or adjacent to each locked required exit access door serving the exterior area stating, "THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN THE OUTDOOR AREA IS OCCUPIED." The letters on the sign shall be not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) high on a contrasting background.
    6. The occupant load of the occupied exterior area shall not exceed 300 occupants in accordance with Section 1004.
  9. Locking devices are permitted on doors to balconies, decks or other exterior spaces serving individual dwelling or sleeping units.
  10. Locking devices are permitted on doors to balconies, decks or other exterior spaces of 250 square feet (23.23 m2) or less serving a private office space.
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Manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts are not permitted.
Exceptions:
  1. On doors not required for egress in individual dwelling units or sleeping units.
  2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equipment room, manually operated edge- or surface mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf.
  3. Where a pair of doors serves an occupant load of less than 50 persons in a Group B, F or S occupancy, manually operated edge- or surface mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf. The inactive leaf shall not contain doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.
  4. Where a pair of doors serves a Group B, F or S occupancy, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf provided that such inactive leaf is not needed to meet egress capacity requirements and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The inactive leaf shall not contain doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.
  5. Manually operated edge- and surface-mounted bolts shall be permitted on the inactive leaf of pairs of doors that serve patient care rooms in Group I-2 occupancies, provided that the bolts are self-latching and the inactive leaf is not needed to meet the minimum clear opening width required by SSection 1010.1.1 of the California Building Code. The inactive leaf shall not contain doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.
Closet doors that latch in the closed position shall be openable from inside the closet.
Interior stairway means of egress doors shall be openable from both sides without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.
Exceptions:
  1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side.
  2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in accordance with Section 403.5.3.
  3. Stairway exit doors are permitted to be locked from the side opposite the egress side, provided that they are openable from the egress side and capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center, if present, or a signal by emergency personnel from a single location inside the main entrance to the building.
  4. Stairway exit doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side in Group B, F, M and S occupancies where the only interior access to the tenant space is from a single exit stairway where permitted in Section 1006.3.4.
  5. Stairway exit doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side in Group R-2 occupancies where the only interior access to the dwelling unit is from a single exit stairway where permitted in Section 1006.3.4.
In Group E occupancies, Group B educational occupancies and Group I-4 occupancies, egress doors from classrooms, offices and other occupied rooms with locking arrangements designed to keep intruders from entering the room shall comply with all of the following conditions:
  1. The door shall be capable of being unlocked from outside the room with a key or other approved means.
  2. The door shall be openable from within the room in accordance with Section 1010.2.
  3. Modifications shall not be made to listed panic hardware, fire door hardware or door closers.
  4. Modifications to fire door assemblies shall be in accordance with NFPA 80.
    Remote locking or unlocking of doors from an approved location shall be permitted in addition to the unlocking operation in Item 1.
School classrooms constructed after January 1, 1990, not equipped with automatic sprinkler systems, which have metal grilles or bars on all their windows and do not have at least two exit doors within 3 feet (914 mm) of each end of the classroom opening to the exterior of the building or to a common hallway used for evacuation purposes, shall have an inside release for the grilles or bars on at least one window farthest from the exit doors. The window or windows with the inside release shall be clearly marked as emergency exits.
New buildings that are included in public schools (kindergarten through 12th grade) state funded projects and receiving state funding pursuant to Leroy F. Green, School Facilities Act of 1998, California Education Code Sections 17070.10 through 17079, and that are submitted to the Division of the State Architect for plan review after July 1, 2011 in accordance with Education Code 17075.50, shall include locks that allow doors to classrooms and any room with an occupancy of five or more persons to be locked from the inside. The locks shall conform to the specification and requirements found in Section 1010.2.
Exceptions:
  1. Doors that are locked from the outside at all times such as, but not limited to, janitor's closet, electrical room, storage room, boiler room, elevator equipment room and pupil restroom.
  2. Reconstruction projects that utilize original plans in accordance with California Administrative Code, Section 4-314.
  3. Existing relocatable buildings that are relocated within same site in accordance with California Administrative Code, Section 4- 314.
Swinging doors serving a Group H occupancy and swinging doors serving rooms or spaces with an occupant load of 50 or more in a Group A or E occupancy assembly area not classified as an assembly occupancy E, I-2 or I-2.1 occupancies shall not be provided with a latch or lock other than panic hardware or fire exit hardware. For Group L occupancies see Section 453.6.3.
Exceptions:
  1. A main exit of a Group A occupancy shall be permitted to have locking devices in accordance with Section 1010.2.4, Item 3.
  2. Doors provided with panic hardware or fire exit hardware and serving a Group A or E occupancy shall be permitted to be electrically locked in accordance with Section 1010.2.11 or 1010.2.12.
  3. Exit access doors serving occupied exterior areas shall be permitted to be locked in accordance with Section 1010.2.4, Item 8.
  4. Courtrooms shall be permitted to be locked in accordance with Section 1010.2.13, Item 3.
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Refrigeration machinery rooms larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have not less than two exit or exit access doorways that swing in the direction of egress travel and shall be equipped with panic hardware or fire exit hardware.
Exit or exit access doors serving transformer vaults, rooms designated for batteries or energy storage systems, or modular data centers shall be equipped with panic hardware or fire exit hardware. Rooms containing electrical equipment rated 800 amperes or more that contain overcurrent devices, switching devices or control devices and where the exit or exit access door is less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the equipment working space as required by NFPA 70, such doors shall not be provided with a latch or lock other than panic hardware or fire exit hardware. The doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel.
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Where panic or fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the following:
  1. Panic hardware shall be listed in accordance with UL 305.
  2. Fire exit hardware shall be listed in accordance with UL 10C and UL 305.
  3. The actuating portion of the releasing device shall extend not less than one-half of the door leaf width.
  4. The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 15 pounds (67 N).
If balanced doors are used and panic hardware is required, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and the pad shall not extend more than one-half the width of the door measured from the latch side.
Where electrical systems that monitor or record egress activity are incorporated, the locking system shall comply with Section 1010.2.11, 1010.2.12, 1010.2.13, 1010.2.14 or 1010.2.15 or shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.
Door hardware release of electric locking systems shall be permitted on doors in the means of egress in any occupancy except Group H where installed and operated in accordance with all of the following:
  1. The door hardware that is affixed to the door leaf has an obvious method of operation that is readily operated under all lighting conditions.
  2. The door hardware is capable of being operated with one hand and shall comply with Section 1010.2.1.
  3. Operation of the door hardware directly interrupts the power to the electric lock and unlocks the door immediately.
  4. Loss of power to the electric locking system automatically unlocks the door.
  5. Where panic or fire exit hardware is required by Section 1010.2.9, operation of the panic or fire exit hardware also releases the electric lock.
  6. The locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294.
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Sensor release of electric locking systems shall be permitted on doors located in the means of egress in any occupancy except Group H where installed and operated in accordance with all of the following criteria:
  1. The sensor shall be installed on the egress side, arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors, and shall cause the electric locking system to unlock.
  2. The electric locks shall be arranged to unlock by a signal from or loss of power to the sensor.
  3. Loss of power to the lock or locking system shall automatically unlock the electric locks.
  4. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a manual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 inches (1016 mm to 1219 mm) vertically above the floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured doors. Ready access shall be provided to the manual unlocking device and the device shall be clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO EXIT." When operated, the manual unlocking device shall result in direct interruption of power to the electric lock—independent of other electronics—and the electric lock shall remain unlocked for not less than 30 seconds.
  5. Activation of the building fire alarm system, where provided, shall automatically unlock the electric lock, and the electric lock shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.
  6. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler system or fire detection system, where provided, shall automatically unlock the electric lock. The electric lock shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.
  7. Emergency lighting shall be provided on the egress side of the door.
  8. The door locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294.
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For elevator lobbies in high-rise office buildings where the occupants of the floor are not required to travel through the elevator lobby to reach an exit, when approved by the fire chief, the doors separating the elevator lobby from the adjacent occupied tenant space that also serve as the entrance doors to the tenant space shall be permitted to be equipped with an approved entrance and egress access control system provided all of the following requirements are met:
  1. The building is provided throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. A smoke detector is installed on the ceiling on the tenant side of the elevator lobby doors along the center line of the door opening, not less than 1 foot and not more than 5 feet from the door opening, and is connected to the fire alarm system.
  3. A remote master switch capable of unlocking the elevator lobby doors shall be provided in the fire command center for use by the fire department.
  4. Locks for the elevator lobby shall be U.L. and California State Fire Marshal listed fail-safe type locking mechanisms. The locking device shall automatically release on activation of any fire alarm device on the floor of alarm (waterflow, smoke detector, manual pull stations, etc.). All locking devices shall unlock, but not unlatch, upon activation.
  5. A two-way voice communication system, utilizing dedicated lines, shall be provided from each locked elevator lobby to the 24-hour staffed location on site, annunciated as to location. Operating instructions shall be posted above each two way communication device.
    Exception: When approved by the fire chief, two-way voice communication system to an off-site facility may be permitted where means to remotely unlock the access controlled doors from the off-site facility are provided.
  6. An approved momentary mushroom-shaped palm button connected to the doors and installed adjacent to each locked elevator lobby door shall be provided to release the door locks when operated by an individual in the elevator lobby. The locks shall be reset manually at the door. Mount palm button so that the center line is 48 inches above the finished floor.
    • Provide a sign stating:
    • "IN CASE OF EMERGENCY,
      PUSH PALM BUTTON,
      DOOR WILL UNLOCK
      AND SECURITY ALARM
      WILL SOUND."
    • The sign lettering shall be 3/4-inch high letters by 1/8-inch width stroke on a contrasting background.



  7. Loss of power to that part of the access control system which locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors.
Delayed egress locking systems shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving the following occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.
  1. Group B, F, I, M, R, S and U occupancies.
  2. Group E classrooms with an occupant load of less than 50.
  3. In courtrooms in Group A-3 and B occupancies, delayed egress locking systems shall be permitted to be installed on exit or exit access doors, other than the main exit or exit access door, in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and an approved automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.
The delayed egress locking system shall be installed and operated in accordance with all of the following:
  1. The delay electronics of the delayed egress locking system shall deactivate upon actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system, allowing immediate free egress.
  2. The delay electronics of the delayed egress locking system shall deactivate upon loss of electrical power controlling the lock or lock mechanism, allowing immediate free egress, to any one of the following:
    1. The egress-control device itself.
    2. The smoke detection system.
    3. Means of egress illumination as required by Section 1008.
  3. The delayed egress locking system shall have the capability of being deactivated at the fire command center and other approved locations.
  4. An attempt to egress shall initiate an irreversible process that shall allow such egress in not more than 15 seconds when a physical effort to exit is applied to the egress side door hardware for not more than 3 seconds. Initiation of the irreversible process shall activate an audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the delay electronics have been deactivated, rearming the delay electronics shall be by manual means only. The time delay established for each egress-control device shall not be field adjustable. For applications listed in Section 1.9.1 regulated by the Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance, see Chapter 11B, 11B-404.2.9.
    Exception: In facilities housing Alzheimer's or dementia clients, a delay of not more than 30 seconds is permitted on a delayed egress door.
  5. The egress path from any point shall not pass through more than one delayed egress locking system.
    Exceptions:
    1. In Group R-2.1, Group I-2 or I-3 occupancies, the egress path from any point in the building shall pass through not more than two delayed egress locking systems provided that the combined delay does not exceed 30 seconds.
      5.1.  A tactile sign shall also be provided in Braille and raised characters, which complies with Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-703.1, 11B-703.2, 11B-703.3 and 11B-703.5.
    2. In Group R-2.1 or Group I-4 occupancies, the egress path from any point in the building shall pass through not more than two delayed egress locking systems provided the combined delay does not exceed 30 seconds and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  6. A sign shall be provided on the door and shall be located above and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the door exit hardware:
    Exception: Where approved, in Group I occupancies, the installation of a sign is not required where care recipients who because of clinical needs require restraint or containment as part of the function of the treatment area.
    1. For doors that swing in the direction of egress, the sign shall read, "PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] SECONDS."
    2. For doors that swing in the opposite direction of egress, the sign shall read, "PULL UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] SECONDS."
    3. The sign shall comply with the visual character requirements in Section 11B- 703.5. Sign lettering shall be at least 1 inch (25 mm) in height and shall have a stroke of not less than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm).
    4. A tactile sign shall also be provided in Braille and raised characters, which complies with Chapter 11B, Sections 11B-703.1, 11B-703.2, 11B-703.3 and 11B-703.5.
  7. Emergency lighting shall be provided on the egress side of the door.
  8. The delayed egress locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294.
  9. Actuation of the panic bar or other door-latching hardware shall activate an audible signal at the door.
  10. The unlatching shall not require more than one operation.
  11. Regardless of the means of deactivation, relocking of the egress-control device shall be by manual means only at the door.
Electric locking systems, including electro-mechanical locking systems and electromagnetic locking systems, shall be permitted to be locked in the means of egress in Group I-2 occupancies where the clinical needs of persons receiving psychiatric or mental health treatment require their restraint or containment. Controlled egress doors shall be permitted in such occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and an approved automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, provided that the doors are installed and operate in accordance with all of the following:
  1. The door locks shall unlock on actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic smoke detection system.
  2. The door locks shall unlock on loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism.
  3. The door locking system shall be installed to have the capability of being unlocked by a switch located at the fire command center, a nursing station or other approved location. The switch shall directly break power to the lock.
  4. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a controlled egress locking system before entering an exit.
  5. All staff shall have the keys, codes or other means necessary to operate the locking systems.
  6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door.
  7. The door locking system units shall be listed in accordance with UL 294.
    Exception: Items 1 through 4 shall not apply to doors to areas occupied by persons who, because of clinical needs, require restraint or containment as part of the function of a psychiatric or mental health treatment area.
Special doors and security grilles shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1010.3.1 through 1010.3.4.
Revolving doors shall comply with the following:
  1. Revolving doors shall comply with BHMA A156.27 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
  2. Each revolving door shall be capable of breakout in accordance with BHMA A156.27 and shall provide an aggregate width of not less than 36 inches (914 mm).
  3. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the foot or top of stairways or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairways or escalators and the revolving doors.
  4. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving door shall not exceed the maximum rpm as specified in BHMA A156.27. Manual revolving doors shall comply with Table 1010.3.1(1). Automatic or power-operated revolving doors shall comply with Table 1010.3.1(2).
  5. An emergency stop switch shall be provided near each entry point of power or automatic operated revolving doors within 48 inches (1219 mm) of the door and between 34 inches (864 mm) and 48 inches (1219 mm) above the floor. The activation area of the emergency stop switch button shall be not less than 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter and shall be red.
  6. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged swinging door that complies with Section 1010.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the revolving door.
  7. Revolving doors shall not be part of an accessible route required by Section 1009 and Chapter 11A or 11B.
TABLE 1010.3.1(1)
MAXIMUM DOOR SPEED MANUAL REVOLVING DOORS
REVOLVING DOOR MAXIMUM
NOMINAL DIAMETER
(FT-IN)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
REVOLVING DOOR SPEED
(RPM)
6-0 12
7-0 11
8-0 10
9-0 9
10-0 8
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
TABLE 1010.3.1(2)
MAXIMUM DOOR SPEED AUTOMATIC OR POWER-OPERATED REVOLVING DOORS
REVOLVING DOOR MAXIMUM
NOMINAL DIAMETER
(FT-IN)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
REVOLVING DOOR SPEED
(RPM)
8-0 7.2
9-0 6.4
10-0 5.7
11-0 5.2
12-0 4.8