CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2015 (IBC 2015)

Copyright

Preface

Acknowledgements

California Code of Regulations, Title 24

How to Distinguish Between Model Code Language and California Amendments

Effective Use of the International Building Code

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 16A Structural Design

Chapter 17 Special Inspections and Tests

Chapter 17A Special Inspections and Tests

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 18A Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 19A Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 21A Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 22A Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board, Gypsum Panel Products and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 31A Systems for Window Cleaning or Exterior Building Maintenance

Chapter 31B [DPH] Public Pools

Chapter 31C [DPH] Radiation

Chapter 31D [DPH] Food Establishments

Chapter 31E Reserved

Chapter 31F [SLC] Marine Oil Terminals

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 34A Existing Structures

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Employee Qualifications

Appendix B Board of Appeals

Appendix C Group U—agricultural Buildings

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Reserved

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Signs

History Note Appendix

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Grading

Appendix K Group R-3 and Group R-3.1 Occupancies Protected by the Facilities of the Central Valley Flood Protection Plan

Appendix L Earthquake Recording Instrumentation

Appendix M Tsunami-Generated Flood Hazard

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and quality of wood members and their fasteners.

[HCD 1] For limited-density owner-built rural dwellings, owner-produced or used materials and appliances may be utilized unless found not to be of sufficient strength or durability to perform the intended function; owner-produced or used lumber, or shakes and shingles may be utilized unless found to contain dry rot, excessive splitting or other defects obviously rendering the material unfit in strength or durability for the intended purpose.

[DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC & OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] The scope of application of Chapter 23 is as follows:

  1. Applications listed in Sections 1.9.2.1 and 1.9.2.2, regulated by the Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety (DSA-SS, and DSA-SS/CC). These applications include public elementary and secondary schools, community colleges and state-owned or state-leased essential services buildings.
  2. Applications listed in Section 1.10, regulated by the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). These applications include hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, intermediate care facilities and correctional treatment centers.

    Exception: For applications listed in Section 1.10.3 (Licensed Clinics), the provisions of this chapter without OSHPD amendments identified in accordance with Section 2301.1.2 shall apply.

[DSA-SS, DSASS/CC & OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Amendments appear in this chapter preceded with the appropriate acronym, as follows:

  1. Division of the State Architect - Structural Safety:

    [DSA-SS] - For applications listed in Section 1.9.2.1.

    [DSA-SS/CC] - For applications listed in Section 1.9.2.2

  2. Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development:

    [OSHPD 1] - For applications listed in Section 1.10.1.

    [OSHPD 2] - For applications listed in Section 1.10.2.

    [OSHPD 4] - For applications listed in Section 1.10.4.

[DSA-SS and OSHPD 1 & 4] Where reference within this chapter is made to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, and 22, the provisions in Chapters 16A, 17A, 18A, 19A, 21A, and 22A, respectively shall apply instead.

[DSA-SS/CC] Where reference within this chapter is made to sections in Chapters 17 and 18, the provisions in Chapters 17A and 18A respectively shall apply instead.

[DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC & OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] The following design methods, systems, and materials are not permitted by DSA and OSHPD:

  1. Straight-sheathed horizontal lumber diaphragms.
  2. Gypsum-based sheathing shear walls and portland cement plaster shear walls.
  3. Shear wall foundation anchor bolt washers in accordance with exception to AWC SDPWS Section 4.3.6.4.3.
  4. Wood structural panel shear walls and diaphragms using staples as fasteners.
  5. Unblocked shear walls.
  6. Any wood structural panel sheathing used for diaphragms and shear walls that are part of the seismic force-resisting system, not applied directly to framing members.
  7. Single and double diagonally sheathed lumber walls used to resist seismic forces.
  8. Log structures in accordance with ICC 400.
  9. Cross-laminated timber used as part of the seismic force-resisting system, unless approved as an alternative system in accordance with Section 104.11.

The design of structural elements or systems, constructed partially or wholly of wood or wood-based products, shall be in accordance with one of the following methods:

  1. Allowable stress design in accordance with Sections 2304, 2305 and 2306.
  2. Load and resistance factor design in accordance with Sections 2304, 2305 and 2307.
  3. Conventional light-frame construction in accordance with Sections 2304 and 2308.
  4. AWC WFCM in accordance with Section 2309.
  5. The design and construction of log structures in accordance with the provisions of ICC 400.
For the purposes of this chapter, where dimensions of lumber are specified, they shall be deemed to be nominal dimensions unless specifically designated as actual dimensions (see Section 2304.2).

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

ACCREDITATION BODY.

BRACED WALL LINE.

BRACED WALL PANEL.

COLLECTOR.

CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION.

CRIPPLE WALL.

CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER.

DIAPHRAGM, UNBLOCKED.

DRAG STRUT.

ENGINEERED WOOD RIM BOARD.

FIBERBOARD.

GABLE.

GRADE (LUMBER).

HARDBOARD.

NAILING, BOUNDARY.

NAILING, EDGE.

NAILING, FIELD.

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD.

Decay resistant.

Termite resistant.

NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER).

PARTICLEBOARD.

PERFORMANCE CATEGORY.

PREFABRICATED WOOD I-JOIST.

SHEAR WALL.

Shear wall, perforated.

Shear wall segment, perforated.

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER.

Laminated strand lumber (LSL).

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL).

Oriented strand lumber (OSL).

Parallel strand lumber (PSL).

STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER.

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN).

TREATED WOOD.

Fire-retardant-treated wood.

Preservative-treated wood.

WOOD SHEAR PANEL.

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL.

Composite panels.

Oriented strand board (OSB).

Plywood.

Structural sawn lumber; end-jointed lumber; prefabricated wood I-joists; structural glued-laminated timber; wood structural panels; fiberboard sheathing (when used structurally); hardboard siding (when used structurally); particleboard; preservative-treated wood; structural log members; structural composite lumber; round timber poles and piles; fire-retardant-treated wood; hardwood plywood; wood trusses; joist hangers; nails; and staples shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.
Sawn lumber used for load-supporting purposes, including end-jointed or edge-glued lumber, machine stress-rated or machine-evaluated lumber, shall be identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20 or equivalent. Grading practices and identification shall comply with rules published by an agency approved in accordance with the procedures of DOC PS 20 or equivalent procedures.
In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section is permitted to be accepted for precut, remanufactured or rough-sawn lumber and for sizes larger than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal thickness.
Approved end-jointed lumber is permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lumber used in an assembly required to have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation “Heat Resistant Adhesive” or “HRA” included in its grade mark.
Structural capacities and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D5055.
Glued-laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D3737.

[DSA-SS, DSASS/CC and OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] The construction documents shall indicate the following:

  1. Dry or wet service conditions.
  2. Laminating combinations and stress requirements.
  3. Species group.
  4. Preservative material and retention, when preservative treatment is required.
  5. Provisions for protection during shipping and field handling, such as sealing and wrapping in accordance with AITC 111.

When mechanical reinforcement such as radial tension reinforcement is required, such reinforcement shall comply with AITC 404 and shall be detailed accordingly in the construction documents. Construction documents shall specify that the moisture content of laminations at the time of manufacture shall not exceed 12 percent for dry conditions of use.

The design of fasteners and connections shall comply with AITC 117, Section I, Item 6 (Connection Design), and NDS Appendix E.

Cross-laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified in accordance with ANSI/APA PRG 320.

[DSA-SS & DSASS/CC & OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Requirements in Section 2303.1.3.1 shall apply to glued cross-laminated timber.

Wood structural panels, when used structurally (including those used for siding, roof and wall sheathing, subflooring, diaphragms and built-up members), shall conform to the requirements for their type in DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or ANSI/APA PRP 210. Each panel or member shall be identified for grade, bond classification, and Performance Category by the trademarks of an approved testing and grading agency. The Performance Category value shall be used as the “nominal panel thickness” or “panel thickness” whenever referenced in this code. Wood structural panel components shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the applicable standards listed in Section 2306.1 and identified by the trademarks of an approved testing and inspection agency indicating conformance to the applicable standard. In addition, wood structural panels when permanently exposed in outdoor applications shall be of Exterior type, except that wood structural panel roof sheathing exposed to the outdoors on the underside is permitted to be Exposure 1 type.
Fiberboard for its various uses shall conform to ASTM C208. Fiberboard sheathing, when used structurally, shall be identified by an approved agency as conforming to ASTM C208.
To ensure tight-fitting assemblies, edges shall be manufactured with square, shiplapped, beveled, tongue-and-groove or U-shaped joints.
Where used as roof insulation in all types of construction, fiberboard shall be protected with an approved roof covering.
Where installed and fireblocked to comply with Chapter 7, fiberboards are permitted as wall insulation in all types of construction. In fire walls and fire barriers, unless treated to comply with Section 803.1 for Class A materials, the boards shall be cemented directly to the concrete, masonry or other noncombustible base and shall be protected with an approved noncombustible veneer anchored to the base without intervening airspaces.
Fiberboard wall insulation applied on the exterior of foundation walls shall be protected below ground level with a bituminous coating.
Hardboard siding used structurally shall be identified by an approved agency conforming to CPA/ANSI A135.6. Hardboard underlayment shall meet the strength requirements of 7/32-inch (5.6 mm) or 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) service class hardboard planed or sanded on one side to a uniform thickness of not less than 0.200 inch (5.1 mm). Prefinished hardboard paneling shall meet the requirements of CPA/ANSI A135.5. Other basic hardboard products shall meet the requirements of CPA/ANSI A135.4. Hardboard products shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1. Particleboard shall be identified by the grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. Particleboard shall not be utilized for applications other than indicated in this section unless the particleboard complies with the provisions of Section 2306.3.
Particleboard floor underlayment shall conform to Type PBU of ANSI A208.1. Type PBU underlayment shall not be less than 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) thick and shall be installed in accordance with the instructions of the Composite Panel Association.
Lumber, timber, plywood, piles and poles supporting permanent structures required by Section 2304.12 to be preservative treated shall conform to the requirements of the applicable AWPA Standard U1 and M4 for the species, product, preservative and end use. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA U1. Lumber and plywood used in wood foundation systems shall conform to Chapter 18.

Wood required by Section 2304.12 to be preservative treated shall bear the quality mark of an inspection agency that maintains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the quality of the preservative-treated wood. Inspection agencies for preservative-treated wood shall be listed by an accreditation body that complies with the requirements of the American Lumber Standards Treated Wood Program, or equivalent. The quality mark shall be on a stamp or label affixed to the preservative-treated wood, and shall include the following information:

  1. Identification of treating manufacturer.
  2. Type of preservative used.
  3. Minimum preservative retention (pcf).
  4. End use for which the product is treated.
  5. AWPA standard to which the product was treated.
  6. Identity of the accredited inspection agency.
Where preservative-treated wood is used in enclosed locations where drying in service cannot readily occur, such wood shall be at a moisture content of 19 percent or less before being covered with insulation, interior wall finish, floor covering or other materials.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D5456.
Stress grading of structural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be permitted.
Round timber poles and piles shall comply with ASTM D3200 and ASTM D25, respectively.
Engineered wood rim boards shall conform to ANSI/APA PRR 410 or shall be evaluated in accordance with ASTM D7672. Structural capacities shall be in accordance with ANSI/APA PRR 410 or established in accordance with ASTM D7672. Rim boards conforming to ANSI/APA PRR 410 shall be marked in accordance with that standard.
Fire-retardant-treated wood is any wood product which, when impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process or other means during manufacture, shall have, when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723, a listed flame spread index of 25 or less and show no evidence of significant progressive combustion when the test is continued for an additional 20-minute period. Additionally, the flame front shall not progress more than 101/2 feet (3200 mm) beyond the centerline of the burners at any time during the test.
For wood products impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process, the process shall be performed in closed vessels under pressures not less than 50 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (345 kPa).
For wood products produced by other means during manufacture, the treatment shall be an integral part of the manufacturing process of the wood product. The treatment shall provide permanent protection to all surfaces of the wood product.
For wood products produced by other means during manufacture, other than a pressure process, all sides of the wood product shall be tested in accordance with and produce the results required in Section 2303.2. Wood structural panels shall be permitted to test only the front and back faces.

Fire-retardant-treated lumber and wood structural panels shall be labeled. The label shall contain the following items:

  1. The identification mark of an approved agency in accordance with Section 1703.5.
  2. Identification of the treating manufacturer.
  3. The name of the fire-retardant treatment.
  4. The species of wood treated.
  5. Flame spread and smoke-developed index.
  6. Method of drying after treatment.
  7. Conformance with appropriate standards in accordance with Sections 2303.2.5 through 2303.2.8.
  8. For fire-retardant-treated wood exposed to weather, damp or wet locations, include the words “No increase in the listed classification when subjected to the Standard Rain Test” (ASTM D2898).
Design values for untreated lumber and wood structural panels, as specified in Section 2303.1, shall be adjusted for fire-retardant-treated wood. Adjustments to design values shall be based on an approved method of investigation that takes into consideration the effects of the anticipated temperature and humidity to which the fire-retardant-treated wood will be subjected, the type of treatment and redrying procedures.
The effect of treatment and the method of redrying after treatment, and exposure to high temperatures and high humidities on the flexure properties of fire-retardant-treated softwood plywood shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D5516. The test data developed by ASTM D5516 shall be used to develop adjustment factors, maximum loads and spans, or both, for untreated plywood design values in accordance with ASTM D6305. Each manufacturer shall publish the allowable maximum loads and spans for service as floor and roof sheathing for its treatment.
For each species of wood that is treated, the effects of the treatment, the method of redrying after treatment and exposure to high temperatures and high humidities on the allowable design properties of fire-retardant-treated lumber shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D5664. The test data developed by ASTM D5664 shall be used to develop modification factors for use at or near room temperature and at elevated temperatures and humidity in accordance with ASTM D6841. Each manufacturer shall publish the modification factors for service at temperatures of not less than 80°F (27°C) and for roof framing. The roof framing modification factors shall take into consideration the climatological location.
Where fire-retardant-treated wood is exposed to weather, or damp or wet locations, it shall be identified as “Exterior” to indicate there is no increase in the listed flame spread index as defined in Section 2303.2 when subjected to ASTM D2898.
Interior fire-retardant-treated wood shall have moisture content of not over 28 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D3201 procedures at 92-percent relative humidity. Interior fire-retardant-treated wood shall be tested in accordance with Section 2303.2.5.1 or 2303.2.5.2. Interior fire-retardant-treated wood designated as Type A shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be dried to a moisture content of 19 percent or less for lumber and 15 percent or less for wood structural panels before use. For wood kiln-dried after treatment (KDAT), the kiln temperatures shall not exceed those used in kiln drying the lumber and plywood submitted for the tests described in Section 2303.2.5.1 for plywood and 2303.2.5.2 for lumber.
See Section 603.1 for limitations on the use of fire-retardant-treated wood in buildings of Type I or II construction.
Hardwood and decorative plywood shall be manufactured and identified as required in HPVA HP-1.
Wood trusses shall comply with Sections 2303.4.1 through 2303.4.7.
Wood trusses shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of this code and accepted engineering practice. Members are permitted to be joined by nails, glue, bolts, timber connectors, metal connector plates or other approved framing devices.

The written, graphic and pictorial depiction of each individual truss shall be provided to the building official for approval prior to installation. Truss design drawings shall also be provided with the shipment of trusses delivered to the job site. Truss design drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified below:

  1. Slope or depth, span and spacing;
  2. Location of all joints and support locations;
  3. Number of plies if greater than one;
  4. Required bearing widths;
  5. Design loads as applicable, including;

    1. 5.1. Top chord live load;
    2. 5.2. Top chord dead load;
    3. 5.3. Bottom chord live load;
    4. 5.4. Bottom chord dead load;
    5. 5.5. Additional loads and locations; and
    6. 5.6. Environmental design criteria and loads (wind, rain, snow, seismic, etc.).
  6. Other lateral loads, including drag strut loads;
  7. Adjustments to wood member and metal connector plate design value for conditions of use;
  8. Maximum reaction force and direction, including maximum uplift reaction forces where applicable;
  9. Metal-connector-plate type, size and thickness or gage, and the dimensioned location of each metal connector plate except where symmetrically located relative to the joint interface;
  10. Size, species and grade for each wood member;
  11. Truss-to-truss connections and truss field assembly requirements;
  12. Calculated span-to-deflection ratio and maximum vertical and horizontal deflection for live and total load as applicable;
  13. Maximum axial tension and compression forces in the truss members;
  14. Required permanent individual truss member restraint location and the method and details of restraint/bracing to be used in accordance with Section 2303.4.1.2.

Where permanent restraint of truss members is required on the truss design drawings, it shall be accomplished by one of the following methods:

  1. Permanent individual truss member restraint/bracing shall be installed using standard industry lateral restraint/bracing details in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice. Locations for lateral restraint shall be identified on the truss design drawing.
  2. The trusses shall be designed so that the buckling of any individual truss member is resisted internally by the individual truss through suitable means (i.e., buckling reinforcement by T-reinforcement or L-reinforcement, proprietary reinforcement, etc.). The buckling reinforcement of individual members of the trusses shall be installed as shown on the truss design drawing or on supplemental truss member buckling reinforcement details provided by the truss designer.
  3. A project-specific permanent individual truss member restraint/bracing design shall be permitted to be specified by any registered design professional.
The owner or the owner’s authorized agent shall contract with any qualified registered design professional for the design of the temporary installation restraint/bracing and the permanent individual truss member restraint/bracing for all trusses with clear spans 60 feet (18 288 mm) or greater.
The individual or organization responsible for the design of trusses.

Where required by the registered design professional, the building official or the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed, each individual truss design drawing shall bear the seal and signature of the truss designer.

Exceptions:

  1. Where a cover sheet and truss index sheet are combined into a single sheet and attached to the set of truss design drawings, the single cover/truss index sheet is the only document required to be signed and sealed by the truss designer.
  2. When a cover sheet and a truss index sheet are separately provided and attached to the set of truss design drawings, the cover sheet and the truss index sheet are the only documents required to be signed and sealed by the truss designer.
  3. [DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC and OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Exceptions 1 and 2 are not permitted by DSA and OSHPD.
The truss manufacturer shall provide a truss placement diagram that identifies the proposed location for each individually designated truss and references the corresponding truss design drawing. The truss placement diagram shall be provided as part of the truss submittal package, and with the shipment of trusses delivered to the job site. Truss placement diagrams that serve only as a guide for installation and do not deviate from the permit submittal drawings shall not be required to bear the seal or signature of the truss designer.
The truss submittal package provided by the truss manufacturer shall consist of each individual truss design drawing, the truss placement diagram, the permanent individual truss member restraint/bracing method and details and any other structural details germane to the trusses; and, as applicable, the cover/truss index sheet.

[DSA-SS, DSASS/CC and OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] In addition to Sections 2303.4.1 and 2303.4.2, the following requirements apply:

  1. Construction documents. The construction documents prepared by the registered engineer or licensed architect for the project shall indicate all requirements for the truss design, including:

    1. 1.1 Deflection criteria.
    2. 1.2 Connection details to structural and non-structural elements (e.g. non-bearing partitions).
  2. Requirements for approval. The truss design drawings and engineering analysis shall be provided to the enforcement agency and approved prior to truss fabrication, in accordance with the California Administrative Code (Title 24, Part 1). Alterations to the approved truss design drawings or manufactured trusses are subject to the approval of the enforcement agency.
The design for the transfer of loads and anchorage of each truss to the supporting structure is the responsibility of the registered design professional.
Truss members and components shall not be cut, notched, drilled, spliced or otherwise altered in any way without written concurrence and approval of a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition of loads to any member (e.g., HVAC equipment, piping, additional roofing or insulation, etc.) shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capable of supporting such additional loading.
In addition to Sections 2303.4.1 through 2303.4.5, the design, manufacture and quality assurance of metal-plate-connected wood trusses shall be in accordance with TPI 1. Job-site inspections shall be in compliance with Section 110.4, as applicable.
Trusses not part of a manufacturing process in accordance with either Section 2303.4.6 or a referenced standard, which provides requirements for quality control done under the supervision of a third-party quality control agency, shall be manufactured in compliance with Sections 1704.2.5 and 1705.5, as applicable.
Joist hangers shall be in accordance with ASTM D7147.
Nails and staples shall conform to requirements of ASTM F1667. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as follows: 80 kips per square inch (ksi) (551 MPa) for shank diameters larger than 0.177 inch (4.50 mm) but not larger than 0.254 inch (6.45 mm), 90 ksi (620 MPa) for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch (3.61 mm) but not larger than 0.177 inch (4.50 mm) and 100 ksi (689 MPa) for shank diameters of at least 0.099 inch (2.51 mm) but not larger than 0.142 inch (3.61 mm).
Consideration shall be given in design to the possible effect of cross-grain dimensional changes considered vertically which may occur in lumber fabricated in a green condition.
The provisions of this section apply to design methods specified in Section 2301.2.
Computations to determine the required sizes of members shall be based on the net dimensions (actual sizes) and not nominal sizes.
The framing of exterior and interior walls shall be in accordance with the provisions specified in Section 2308 unless a specific design is furnished.
Studs shall have full bearing on a 2-inch-thick (actual 11/2-inch, 38 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width at least equal to the width of the studs.

Annular spaces around pipes, electric cables, conduits or other openings in bottom/sole plates at exterior walls shall be protected against the passage of rodents by closing such openings in accordance with the California Green Building Standards Code (CALGreen), Chapter 4, Division 4.4.

Headers, double joists, trusses or other approved assemblies that are of adequate size to transfer loads to the vertical members shall be provided over window and door openings in load-bearing walls and partitions.
Wood walls and bearing partitions shall not support more than two floors and a roof unless an analysis satisfactory to the building official shows that shrinkage of the wood framing will not have adverse effects on the structure or any plumbing, electrical or mechanical systems or other equipment installed therein due to excessive shrinkage or differential movements caused by shrinkage. The analysis shall also show that the roof drainage system and the foregoing systems or equipment will not be adversely affected or, as an alternate, such systems shall be designed to accommodate the differential shrinkage or movements.

[DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC and OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] The following additional requirements apply:

  1. Engineering analysis shall be furnished that demonstrates compliance of wall framing elements and connections with Section 2301.2, Item 1 or 2.
  2. Construction documents shall include detailing of sill plate anchorage to supporting masonry or concrete for all exterior and interior bearing, nonbearing and shear walls. Unless specifically designed in accordance with Item 1 above, sills under exterior walls, bearing walls and shear walls shall be bolted to masonry or concrete with 5/8 inch diameter by 12-inch (16 mm by 305 mm) bolts spaced not more than four (4) feet (1219 mm) on center, with a minimum of two (2) bolts for each piece of sill plate. Anchor bolts shall have a 4 inch minimum and a 12-inch maximum clearance to the end of the sill plate, and 7-inch minimum embedment into concrete or masonry.

    Unless specifically designed in accordance with Item 1 above, sill plates under nonbearing interior partitions on concrete floor slabs shall be anchored at not more than four (4) feet (1219 mm) on center to resist a minimum allowable stress shear of 100 pounds per linear foot (1.4 kN/m) acting either parallel or perpendicular to the wall.

  3. Construction documents shall include detailing and limitations for notches and bored holes in wall studs, plates and sills.
The framing of wood-joisted floors and wood-framed roofs shall be in accordance with the provisions specified in Section 2308 unless a specific design is furnished.

[DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC and OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] The following additional requirements apply:

  1. Engineering analysis shall be furnished that demonstrates compliance of floor, roof and ceiling framing elements and connections with Section 2301.2, Items 1 or 2.
  2. Construction documents shall include detailing and limitations for notches and bored holes in floor and roof framing members.
Combustible framing shall be a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm), but shall not be less than the distance specified in Sections 2111 and 2113 and the California Mechanical Code, from flues, chimneys and fireplaces, and 6 inches (152 mm) away from flue openings.
Wall sheathing on the outside of exterior walls, including gables, and the connection of the sheathing to framing shall be designed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and shall be capable of resisting wind pressures in accordance with Section 1609.

Where wood structural panel sheathing is used as the exposed finish on the outside of exterior walls, it shall have an exterior exposure durability classification. Where wood structural panel sheathing is used elsewhere, but not as the exposed finish, it shall be of a type manufactured with exterior glue (Exposure 1 or Exterior). Wood structural panel sheathing, connections and framing spacing shall be in accordance with Table 2304.6.1 for the applicable wind speed and exposure category where used in enclosed buildings with a mean roof height not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm) and a topographic factor (Kz t) of 1.0.

TABLE 2304.6.1

MAXIMUM NOMINAL DESIGN WIND SPEED, Vasd PERMITTED FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa, b, c

MINIMUM NAILMINIMUM WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SPAN RATINGMINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inches)MAXIMUM WALL STUD SPACING (inches)PANEL NAIL SPACINGMAXIMUM NOMINAL DESIGN WIND SPEED, Vasdd (MPH)
SizePenetration (inches)Edges (inches o.c.)Field (inches o.c.)Wind exposure category
BCD
6d common (2.0" × 0.113")1.524/03/8166121109085
24/167/161661211010090
6150125110
8d common (2.5" × 0.131")1.7524/167/1616612130110105
6150125110
246121109085
61109085

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

  1. Panel strength axis shall be parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.
  2. The table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces in accordance with Section 30.7 of ASCE 7. Lateral requirements shall be in accordance with Section 2305 or 2308.
  3. Wood structural panels with span ratings of wall-16 or wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternative to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 on center or 24 on center shall be permitted as an alternative to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and plywood siding 16 on center shall be used with studs spaced a maximum of 16 inches on center.
  4. Vasd shall be determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1.
Softwood wood structural panels used for interior paneling shall conform to the provisions of Chapter 8 and shall be installed in accordance with Table 2304.10.1. Panels shall comply with DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or ANSI/APA PRP 210. Prefinished hardboard paneling shall meet the requirements of CPA/ANSI A135.5. Hardwood plywood shall conform to HPVA HP-1.

Structural floor sheathing and structural roof sheathing shall comply with Sections 2304.8.1 and 2304.8.2, respectively.

TABLE 2304.8(1)

ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR LUMBER FLOOR AND ROOF SHEATHINGa, b

SPAN (inches)MINIMUM NET THICKNESS (inches) OF LUMBER PLACED
Perpendicular to supportsDiagonally to supports
Surfaced drycSurfaced unseasonedSurfaced drycSurfaced unseasoned
Floors
243/425/323/425/32
165/811/165/811/16
Roofs
245/811/163/425/32

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Installation details shall conform to Sections 2304.8.1 and 2304.8.2 for floor and roof sheathing, respectively.
  2. Floor or roof sheathing complying with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.7.
  3. Maximum 19-percent moisture content.

TABLE 2304.8(2)

SHEATHING LUMBER, MINIMUM GRADE REQUIREMENTS: BOARD GRADE

SOLID FLOOR OR ROOF SHEATHINGSPACED ROOF SHEATHINGGRADING RULES
UtilityStandardNLGA, WCLIB, WWPA
4 common or utility3 common or standardNLGA, WCLIB, WWPA, NSLB or NELMA
No. 3No. 2SPIB
MerchantableConstruction commonRIS

TABLE 2304.8(3)

ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEATHING AND SINGLE-FLOOR GRADES CONTINUOUS OVER TWO OR MORE SPANS WITH STRENGTH AXIS PERPENDICULAR TO SUPPORTSa, b

SHEATHING GRADESROOFcFLOORd
Panel span rating roof/floor spanPanel thickness (inches)Maximum span (inches)Loade(psf)Maximum span (inches)
With edge supportfWithout edge supportTotal loadLive load
16/03/8161640300
20/03/8202040300
24/03/8,7/16,1/22420g40300
24/167/16,1/22424504016
32/1615/32,1/2,5/83228403016h
40/2019/32,5/8,3/4,7/84032403020h,i
48/2423/32,3/4,7/84836453524
54/327/8,15440453532
60/327/8,11/86048453532
SINGLE FLOOR GRADESROOFcFLOORd
Panel span ratingPanel thickness (inches)Maximum span (inches)Loade(psf)Maximum span (inches)
With edge supportfWithout edge supportTotal loadLive load
16 o.c.1/2,19/32,5/82424504016h
20 o.c.19/32,5/8,3/43232403020h,i
24 o.c.23/32,3/44836352524
32 o.c.7/8,14840504032
48 o.c.13/32,11/86048504048

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.

  1. Applies to panels 24 inches or wider.
  2. Floor and roof sheathing complying with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.8.
  3. Uniform load deflection limitations 1/180 of span under live load plus dead load, 1/240 under live load only.
  4. Panel edges shall have approved tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking unless 1/4-inch minimum thickness underlayment or 11/2 inches of approved cellular or lightweight concrete is placed over the subfloor, or finish floor is 3/4-inch wood strip. Allowable uniform load based on deflection of 1/360 of span is 100 pounds per square foot except the span rating of 48 inches on center is based on a total load of 65 pounds per square foot.
  5. Allowable load at maximum span.
  6. Tongue-and-groove edges, panel edge clips (one midway between each support, except two equally spaced between supports 48 inches on center), lumber blocking or other. Only lumber blocking shall satisfy blocked diaphragm requirements.
  7. For 1/2-inch panel, maximum span shall be 24 inches.
  8. Span is permitted to be 24 inches on center where 3/4-inch wood strip flooring is installed at right angles to joist.
  9. Span is permitted to be 24 inches on center for floors where 11/2 inches of cellular or lightweight concrete is applied over the panels.

TABLE 2304.8(4)

ALLOWABLE SPAN FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL COMBINATION SUBFLOOR-UNDERLAYMENT (SINGLE FLOOR)a, b (Panels Continuous Over Two or More Spans and Strength Axis Perpendicular to Supports)

IDENTIFICATIONMAXIMUM SPACING OF JOISTS (inches)
1620243248
Species groupcThickness (inches)
11/25/83/4
2, 35/83/47/8
43/47/81
Single floor span ratingd16 o.c.20 o.c.24 o.c.32 o.c.48 o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.

  1. Spans limited to value shown because of possible effects of concentrated loads. Allowable uniform loads based on deflection of 1/360 of span is 100 pounds per square foot except allowable total uniform load for 11/8-inch wood structural panels over joists spaced 48 inches on center is 65 pounds per square foot. Panel edges shall have approved tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking, unless 1/4-inch minimum thickness underlayment or 11/2 inches of approved cellular or lightweight concrete is placed over the subfloor, or finish floor is 3/4-inch wood strip.
  2. Floor panels complying with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.8.
  3. Applicable to all grades of sanded exterior-type plywood. See DOC PS 1 for plywood species groups.
  4. Applicable to Underlayment grade, C-C (Plugged) plywood, and Single Floor grade wood structural panels.

TABLE 2304.8(5)

ALLOWABLE LOAD (PSF) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL ROOF SHEATHING CONTINUOUS OVER TWO OR MORE SPANS AND STRENGTH AXIS PARALLEL TO SUPPORTS (Plywood Structural Panels Are Five-Ply, Five-Layer Unless Otherwise Noted)a, b

PANEL GRADETHICKNESS (inch)MAXIMUM SPAN (inches)LOAD AT MAXIMUM SPAN (psf)
LiveTotal
Structural I sheathing7/16242030
15/322435c45c
1/22440c50c
19/32,5/8247080
23/32,3/42490100
Sheathing, other grades covered

in DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2
7/16164050
15/32242025
1/2242530
19/322440c50c
5/82445c55c
23/32,3/42460c65c

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.

  1. Roof sheathing complying with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.8.
  2. Uniform load deflection limitations 1/180 of span under live load plus dead load, 1/240 under live load only. Edges shall be blocked with lumber or other approved type of edge supports.
  3. For composite and four-ply plywood structural panel, load shall be reduced by 15 pounds per square foot.

Structural floor sheathing shall be designed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and the special provisions in this section.

Floor sheathing conforming to the provisions of Table 2304.8(1), 2304.8(2), 2304.8(3) or 2304.8(4) shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section.

Structural roof sheathing shall be designed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and the special provisions in this section.

Roof sheathing conforming to the provisions of Table 2304.8(1), 2304.8(2), 2304.8(3) or 2304.8(5) shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section. Wood structural panel roof sheathing shall be bonded by exterior glue.

Lumber decking shall be designed and installed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and Sections 2304.9.1 through 2304.9.5.3.
Each piece of lumber decking shall be square-end trimmed. When random lengths are furnished, each piece shall be square end trimmed across the face so that at least 90 percent of the pieces are within 0.5 degrees (0.00873 rad) of square. The ends of the pieces shall be permitted to be beveled up to 2 degrees (0.0349 rad) from the vertical with the exposed face of the piece slightly longer than the opposite face of the piece. Tongue-and-groove decking shall be installed with the tongues up on sloped or pitched roofs with pattern faces down.
Lumber decking is permitted to be laid up following one of five standard patterns as defined in Sections 2304.9.2.1 through 2304.9.2.5. Other patterns are permitted to be used provided they are substantiated through engineering analysis.
All pieces shall be supported on their ends (i.e., by two supports).
All pieces shall be supported by three supports, and all end joints shall occur in line on alternating supports. Supporting members shall be designed to accommodate the load redistribution caused by this pattern.
Courses in end spans shall be alternating simple-span pattern and two-span continuous pattern. End joints shall be staggered in adjacent courses and shall bear on supports.
The decking shall extend across a minimum of three spans. Pieces in each starter course and every third course shall be simple span pattern. Pieces in other courses shall be cantilevered over the supports with end joints at alternating quarter or third points of the spans. Each piece shall bear on at least one support.

The decking shall extend across a minimum of three spans. End joints of pieces within 6 inches (152 mm) of the end joints of the adjacent pieces in either direction shall be separated by at least two intervening courses. In the end bays, each piece shall bear on at least one support. Where an end joint occurs in an end bay, the next piece in the same course shall continue over the first inner support for at least 24 inches (610 mm). The details of the controlled random pattern shall be as specified for each decking material in Section 2304.9.3.3, 2304.9.4.3 or 2304.9.5.3.

Decking that cantilevers beyond a support for a horizontal distance greater than 18 inches (457 mm), 24 inches (610 mm) or 36 inches (914 mm) for 2-inch (51 mm), 3-inch (76 mm) and 4-inch (102 mm) nominal thickness decking, respectively, shall comply with the following:

  1. The maximum cantilevered length shall be 30 percent of the length of the first adjacent interior span.
  2. A structural fascia shall be fastened to each decking piece to maintain a continuous, straight line.
  3. There shall be no end joints in the decking between the cantilevered end of the decking and the centerline of the first adjacent interior span.
Mechanically laminated decking shall comply with Sections 2304.9.3.1 through 2304.9.3.3.
Mechanically laminated decking consists of square-edged dimension lumber laminations set on edge and nailed to the adjacent pieces and to the supports.

The length of nails connecting laminations shall be not less than two and one-half times the net thickness of each lamination. Where decking supports are 48 inches (1219 mm) on center or less, side nails shall be installed not more than 30 inches (762 mm) on center alternating between top and bottom edges, and staggered one-third of the spacing in adjacent laminations. Where supports are spaced more than 48 inches (1219 mm) on center, side nails shall be installed not more than 18 inches (457 mm) on center alternating between top and bottom edges and staggered one-third of the spacing in adjacent laminations. Two side nails shall be installed at each end of butt-jointed pieces.

Laminations shall be toenailed to supports with 20d or larger common nails. Where the supports are 48 inches (1219 mm) on center or less, alternate laminations shall be toenailed to alternate supports; where supports are spaced more than 48 inches (1219 mm) on center, alternate laminations shall be toenailed to every support.

There shall be a minimum distance of 24 inches (610 mm) between end joints in adjacent courses. The pieces in the first and second courses shall bear on at least two supports with end joints in these two courses occurring on alternate supports. A maximum of seven intervening courses shall be permitted before this pattern is repeated.
Two-inch (51 mm) sawn tongue-and-groove decking shall comply with Sections 2304.9.4.1 through 2304.9.4.3.
Two-inch (51 mm) decking shall have a maximum moisture content of 15 percent. Decking shall be machined with a single tongue-and-groove pattern. Each decking piece shall be nailed to each support.
Each piece of decking shall be toenailed at each support with one 16d common nail through the tongue and face-nailed with one 16d common nail.
There shall be a minimum distance of 24 inches (610 mm) between end joints in adjacent courses. The pieces in the first and second courses shall bear on at least two supports with end joints in these two courses occurring on alternate supports. A maximum of seven intervening courses shall be permitted before this pattern is repeated.
Three- and four-inch (76 mm and 102 mm) sawn tongue-and-groove decking shall comply with Sections 2304.9.5.1 through 2304.9.5.3.
Three-inch (76 mm) and four-inch (102 mm) decking shall have a maximum moisture content of 19 percent. Decking shall be machined with a double tongue-and-groove pattern. Decking pieces shall be interconnected and nailed to the supports.
Each piece shall be toenailed at each support with one 40d common nail and face-nailed with one 60d common nail. Courses shall be spiked to each other with 8-inch (203 mm) spikes at maximum intervals of 30 inches (762 mm) through predrilled edge holes penetrating to a depth of approximately 4 inches (102 mm). One spike shall be installed at a distance not exceeding 10 inches (254 mm) from the end of each piece.
There shall be a minimum distance of 48 inches (1219 mm) between end joints in adjacent courses. Pieces not bearing on a support are permitted to be located in interior bays provided the adjacent pieces in the same course continue over the support for at least 24 inches (610 mm). This condition shall not occur more than once in every six courses in each interior bay.
Connectors and fasteners shall comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 2304.10.1 through 2304.10.7.

Connections for wood members shall be designed in accordance with the appropriate methodology in Section 2301.2. The number and size of fasteners connecting wood members shall not be less than that set forth in Table 2304.10.1.

TABLE 2304.10.1

FASTENING SCHEDULE

DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTSNUMBER AND TYPE OF FASTENERSPACING AND LOCATION
Roof
1. Blocking between ceiling joists, rafters or trusses to top plate or other framing below3-8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″); or

3-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or

3-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or

3-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crown
Each end, toenail
  Blocking between rafters or truss not at the wall top plate, to rafter or truss2-8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″)

2-3″ × 0.131″ nails

2-3″ 14 gage staples
Each end, toenail
2-16 d common (31/2″ × 0.162″)

3-3″ × 0.131″ nails

3-3″ 14 gage staples
End nail
  Flat blocking to truss and web filler16d common (31/2″ × 0.162″) @ 6″ o.c. 3″ × 0.131″ nails @ 6″ o.c. 3″ × 14 gage staples @ 6″ o.cFace nail
2. Ceiling joists to top plate3-8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″); or 3-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 3-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 3-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownEach joist, toenail
3. Ceiling joist not attached to parallel rafter, laps over partitions (no thrust) (see Section 2308.7.3.1, Table 2308.7.3.1)3-16d common (31/2″ × 0.162″); or 4-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 4-3″ × 0.131" nails; or 4-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownFace nail
4. Ceiling joist attached to parallel rafter (heel joint) (see Section 2308.7.3.1, Table 2308.7.3.1)Per Table 2308.7.3.1Face nail
5. Collar tie to rafter3-10d common (3″ × 0.148″); or 4-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 4-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 4-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownFace nail
6. Rafter or roof truss to top plate (See Section 2308.7.5, Table 2308.7.5)3-10 common (3″ × 0.148″); or 3-16d box (31/2″ × 0.135″); or 4-10d box (3" × 0.128″); or 4-3″ × 0.131 nails; or 4-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownToenailc
7. Roof rafters to ridge valley or hip rafters; or roof rafter to 2-inch ridge beam2-16d common (31/2″ × 0.162″); or 3-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 3-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 3-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crown; orEnd nail
3-10d common (31/2″ × 0.148″); or 3-16d box (31/2″ × 0.135″); or 4-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 4-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 4-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownToenail
Wall
8. Stud to stud (not at braced wall panels)16d common (31/2″ × 0.162");24" o.c. face nail
10d box (3″ × 0.128"); or 3″ × 0.131" nails; or 3-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crown16" o.c. face nail
9. Stud to stud and abutting studs at intersecting wall corners (at braced wall panels)16d common (31/2″ × 0.162"); or16" o.c. face nail
16d box (31/2″ × 0.135"); or12" o.c. face nail
3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 3-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crown12" o.c. face nail
10. Built-up header (2″ to 2″ header)16d common (31/2″ × 0.162"); or16″ o.c. each edge, face nail
16d box (31/2″ × 0.135″)12″ o.c. each edge, face nail
11. Continuous header to stud4-8d common (21/2″ × 0.131"); or 4-10d box (3″ × 0.128")Toenail
12. Top plate to top plate16d common (31/2″ × 0.162"); or16" o.c. face nail
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 3″ × 0.131" nails; or 3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crown12" o.c. face nail
13. Top plate to top plate, at end joints8-16d common (31/2″ × 0.162"); or 12-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 12-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 12-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownEach side of end joint, face nail (minimum 24″ lap splice length each side of end joint)
14. Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or blocking (not at braced wall panels)16d common (31/2″ × 0.162"); or16" o.c. face nail
16d box (31/2″ × 0.135"); or 3″ × 0.131" nails; or 3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crown12" o.c. face nail
15. Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or blocking at braced wall panels2-16d common (31/2″ × 0.162″); or 3-16d box (31/2″ × 0.135″); or 4-3" × 0.131″ nails; or 4-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crown16" o.c. face nail
16. Stud to top or bottom plate4-8d common(21/2″ × 0.131″); or 4-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 4-3″ × 0.131" nails; or 4-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crown; orToenail
2-16d common (31/2″ × 0.162"); or 3-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 3-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 3-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownEnd nail
17. Top or bottom plate to stud2-16d common (31/2″ × 0.162"); or 3-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 3-3" × 0.131″ nails; or 3-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownEnd nail
18. Top plates, laps at corners and intersections2-16d common (31/2″ × 0.162″); or 3-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 3-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 3-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownFace nail
19. 1″ brace to each stud and plate2-8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″); or 2-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 2-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 2-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownFace nail
20. 1″ × 6″ sheathing to each bearing2-8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″); or 2-10d box (3″ × 0.128″)Face nail
21. 1″ × 8″ and wider sheathing to each bearing3-8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″); or 3-10d box (3″ × 0.128″)Face nail
Floor
22. Joist to sill, top plate, or girder3-8d common (21/2″ × 0.131"); or floor 3-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 3-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 3-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownToenail
23. Rim joist, band joist, or blocking to top plate, sill or other framing below8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″); or 10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crown6″ o.c., toenail
24. 1″ × 6″ subfloor or less to each joist2-8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″); or 2-10d box (3″ × 0.128″)Face nail
25. 2″ subfloor to joist or girder2-16d common (31/2″ × 0.162″)Face nail
26. 2″ planks (plank & beam – floor & roof)2-16d common (31/2″ × 0.162″)Each bearing, face nail
27. Built-up girders and beams, 2″ lumber layers20d common (4″ × 0.192″)32″ o.c., face nail at top and bottom staggered on opposite sides
10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crown24″ o.c. face nail at top and bottom staggered on opposite sides
And: 2-20d common (4″ × 0.192″); or 3-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 3-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 3-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownEnds and at each splice, face nail
28. Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters3-16d common (31/2″ × 0.162″); or 4-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 4-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 4-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownEach joist or rafter, face nail
29. Joist to band joist or rim joist3-16d common (31/2″ × 0.162″); or 4-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 4-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 4-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownEnd nail
30. Bridging or blocking to joist, rafter or truss2-8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″); or 2-10d box (3″ × 0.128″); or 2-3″ × 0.131″ nails; or 2-3″ 14 gage staples, 7/16″ crownEach end, toenail
Wood structural panels (WSP), subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framinga
Edges (inches)Intermediate supports (inches)
31. 3/8″ – 1/26d common or deformed (2″ × 0.113″) (subfloor and wall)612
8d box or deformed (21/2″ × 0.113″) (roof)612
23/8″ × 0.113″ nail (subfloor and wall)612
13/4″ 16 gage staple, 7/16″ crown (subfloor and wall)48
23/8″ × 0.113″ nail (roof)48
13/4″ 16 gage staple, 7/16″ crown (roof)36
32. 19/32″ – 3/48d common (21/2″ × 0.131″); or 6d deformed (2″ × 0.113″)612
23/8″ x 0.113″ nail; or 2″ 16 gage staple, 7/16″ crown48
33. 7/8″ – 11/410d common (3″ × 0.148″); or 8d deformed 21/2″ 0.131″)612
Other exterior wall sheathing
34. 1/2″ fiberboard sheathingb11/2″ galvanized roofing nail (7/16″ head diameter); or 11/4″ 16 gage staple with 7/16″ or 1″ crown36
35. 25/32″ fiberboard sheathingb13/4″ galvanized roofing nail (7/16″ diameter head); or 11/2″ 16 gage staple with 7/16″ or 1″ crown36
Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing
36. 3/4″ and less8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″); or 6d deformed (2″ × 0.113″)612
37. 7/8″ – 1″8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″); or 8d deformed (21/2″ × 0.131″)612
38. 11/8″ – 11/410d common (3″ × 0.148″); or 8d deformed (21/2″ × 0.131″)612
Panel siding to framing
39. 1/2″ or less6d corrosion-resistant siding (17/8″ × 0.106″); or 6d corrosion-resistant casing (2″ × 0.099″)612
40. 5/88d corrosion-resistant siding (23/8″ × 0.128"); or 8d corrosion-resistant casing (21/2″ × 0.113")612
Interior paneling
41. 1/44d casing (11/2″ × 0.080″); or 4d finish (11/2″ × 0.072″)612
42. 3/86d casing (2″ × 0.099″); or 6d finish (Panel supports at 24 inches)612

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Nails spaced at 6 inches at intermediate supports where spans are 48 inches or more. For nailing of wood structural panel and particleboard diaphragms and shear walls, refer to Section 2305. Nails for wall sheathing are permitted to be common, box or casing.
  2. Spacing shall be 6 inches on center on the edges and 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for nonstructural applications. Panel supports at 16 inches (20 inches if strength axis in the long direction of the panel, unless otherwise marked).
  3. Where a rafter is fastened to an adjacent parallel ceiling joist in accordance with this schedule and the ceiling joist is fastened to the top plate in accordance with this schedule, the number of toenails in the rafter shall be permitted to be reduced by one nail.

[DSA-SS and OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Fasteners used for the attachment of exterior wall coverings shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, mechanically deposited zinc-coated steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. The coating weights for hot-dipped zinc-coated fasteners shall be in accordance with ASTM A153. The coating weights for mechanically deposited zinc coated fasteners shall be in accordance with ASTM B695, Class 55 minimum.

Sheathing nails or other approved sheathing connectors shall be driven so that their head or crown is flush with the surface of the sheathing.
Connections depending on joist hangers or framing anchors, ties and other mechanical fastenings not otherwise covered are permitted where approved. The vertical load-bearing capacity, torsional moment capacity and deflection characteristics of joist hangers shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D7147.
Clips, staples, glues and other approved methods of fastening are permitted where approved.
Fasteners, including nuts and washers, and connectors in contact with preservative-treated and fire-retardant-treated wood shall be in accordance with Sections 2304.10.5.1 through 2304.10.5.4. The coating weights for zinc-coated fasteners shall be in accordance with ASTM A153.

Fasteners, including nuts and washers, in contact with preservative-treated wood shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Fasteners other than nails, timber rivets, wood screws and lag screws shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc-coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B695, Class 55 minimum. Connectors that are used in exterior applications and in contact with preservative-treated wood shall have coating types and weights in accordance with the treated wood or connector manufacturer’s recommendations. In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations, a minimum of ASTM A653, Type G185 zinc-coated galvanized steel, or equivalent, shall be used.

Exception: Plain carbon steel fasteners, including nuts and washers, in SBX/DOT and zinc borate preservative-treated wood in an interior, dry environment shall be permitted.

Fastenings, including nuts and washers, for wood foundations shall be as required in AWC PWF.
Fasteners, including nuts and washers, for fire-retardant-treated wood used in exterior applications or wet or damp locations shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Fasteners other than nails, timber rivets, wood screws and lag screws shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc-coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B695, Class 55 minimum.
Fasteners, including nuts and washers, for fire-retardant-treated wood used in interior locations shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. In the absence of manufacturer’s recommendations, Section 2304.10.5.3 shall apply.
Where wall framing members are not continuous from the foundation sill to the roof, the members shall be secured to ensure a continuous load path. Where required, sheet metal clamps, ties or clips shall be formed of galvanized steel or other approved corrosion-resistant material not less than 0.0329-inch (0.836 mm) base metal thickness.
Wood columns and posts shall be framed to provide full end bearing. Alternatively, column-and-post end connections shall be designed to resist the full compressive loads, neglecting end-bearing capacity. Column-and-post end connections shall be fastened to resist lateral and net induced uplift forces.
Where a structure or portion thereof is required to be of Type IV construction by other provisions of this code, the building elements therein shall comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 2304.11.1 through 2304.11.5.
Columns shall be continuous or superimposed throughout all stories by means of reinforced concrete or metal caps with brackets, or shall be connected by properly designed steel or iron caps, with pintles and base plates, or by timber splice plates affixed to the columns by metal connectors housed within the contact faces, or by other approved methods.
Girders and beams shall be closely fitted around columns and adjoining ends shall be cross tied to each other, or intertied by caps or ties, to transfer horizontal loads across joints. Wood bolsters shall not be placed on tops of columns unless the columns support roof loads only.
Approved wall plate boxes or hangers shall be provided where wood beams, girders or trusses rest on masonry or concrete walls. Where intermediate beams are used to support a floor, they shall rest on top of girders, or shall be supported by ledgers or blocks securely fastened to the sides of the girders, or they shall be supported by an approved metal hanger into which the ends of the beams shall be closely fitted.
Every roof girder and at least every alternate roof beam shall be anchored to its supporting member; and every monitor and every sawtooth construction shall be anchored to the main roof construction. Such anchors shall consist of steel or iron bolts of sufficient strength to resist vertical uplift of the roof.
Floor decks and covering shall not extend closer than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) to walls. Such 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) spaces shall be covered by a molding fastened to the wall either above or below the floor and arranged such that the molding will not obstruct the expansion or contraction movements of the floor. Corbeling of masonry walls under floors is permitted in place of such molding.
Where supported by a wall, roof decks shall be anchored to walls to resist uplift forces determined in accordance with Chapter 16. Such anchors shall consist of steel or iron bolts of sufficient strength to resist vertical uplift of the roof.
Wood shall be protected from decay and termites in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 2304.12.1 through 2304.12.7.
Wood used above ground in the locations specified in Sections 2304.12.1.1 through 2304.12.1.5, 2304.12.3 and 2304.12.5 shall be naturally durable wood or preservative-treated wood using water-borne preservatives, in accordance with AWPA U1 for above-ground use.
Wood joists or wood structural floors that are closer than 18 inches (457 mm) or wood girders that are closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the perimeter of the building foundation shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.

There shall be a clearance of at least 18 inches (457 mm) between the underside of wood floor joists and the finished surface of the ground, and at least 12 inches (305 mm) between the underside of any other wood horizontal framing member and the finished surface of the ground. The ground underneath floor joists shall be leveled or smoothed off so as to maintain a reasonably even surface.

Exception: For purposes of structural pest control inspection, a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) of clearance under-floor joists shall be considered adequate except that such clearance shall not be necessary where the subarea soil is of such a nature as to prevent excavation or where excavation would create a hazard from shifting soil or other causes.

Wood framing members, including wood sheathing, that are in contact with exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 inches (203 mm) from exposed earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.

Exception: [DSA-SS and OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] At exterior walls where the earth is paved with an asphalt or concrete slab at least 18 inches (457 mm) wide and draining away from the building, the bottom of sills are permitted to be 6 inches (152 mm) above the top of such slab. Other equivalent means of termite and decay protection may be accepted by the enforcement agency.

Wood framing members and furring strips in direct contact with the interior of exterior masonry or concrete walls below grade shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Sleepers and sills on a concrete or masonry slab that is in direct contact with earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.

[DSA-SS and OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Stud walls or partitions at shower or toilet rooms with more than two plumbing fixtures, excluding floor drains, and stud walls adjacent to unroofed paved areas shall rest on a concrete curb extending at least 6 inches (152 mm) above finished floor or pavement level.

Clearance between wood siding and earth on the exterior of a building shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) or less than 2 inches (51 mm) vertical from concrete steps, porch slabs, patio slabs and similar horizontal surfaces exposed to the weather except where siding, sheathing and wall framing are of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood used in the locations specified in Sections 2304.12.2.1 through 2304.12.2.5 shall be naturally durable wood or preservative-treated wood in accordance with AWPA U1. Preservative-treated wood used in interior locations shall be protected with two coats of urethane, shellac, latex epoxy or varnish unless water-borne preservatives are used. Prior to application of the protective finish, the wood shall be dried in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls shall be provided with a 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) airspace on top, sides and end, unless naturally durable or preservative-treated wood is used.

Posts or columns supporting permanent structures and supported by a concrete or masonry slab or footing that is in direct contact with the earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.

Exception: Posts or columns that are not exposed to the weather, are supported by concrete piers or metal pedestals projected at least 1 inch (25 mm) above the slab or deck and 8 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth and are separated by an impervious moisture barrier.

Naturally durable or preservative-treated wood shall be utilized for those portions of wood members that form the structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches or similar permanent building appurtenances where such members are exposed to the weather without adequate protection from a roof, eave, overhang or other covering to prevent moisture or water accumulation on the surface or at joints between members.

Exception: When a building is located in a geographical region where experience has demonstrated that climatic conditions preclude the need to use durable materials where the structure is exposed to the weather.

The portions of glued-laminated timbers that form the structural supports of a building or other structure and are exposed to weather and not fully protected from moisture by a roof, eave or similar covering shall be pressure treated with preservative or be manufactured from naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood structural members that support moisture-permeable floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier.

Wood used in contact with exposed earth shall be naturally durable for both decay and termite resistance or preservative treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for soil or fresh water use.

Exception: Untreated wood is permitted where such wood is continuously and entirely below the ground-water level or submerged in fresh water.

Posts and columns that are supporting permanent structures and embedded in concrete that is exposed to the weather or in direct contact with the earth shall be of preservative-treated wood.
In geographical areas where hazard of termite damage is known to be very heavy, wood floor framing in the locations specified in Section 2304.12.2.1 and exposed framing of exterior decks or balconies shall be of naturally durable species (termite resistant) or preservative treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for the species, product preservative and end use or provided with approved methods of termite protection.
Wood installed in retaining or crib walls shall be preservative treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for soil and fresh water use.
For attic ventilation, see Section 1203.2.
For under-floor ventilation (crawl space), see Section 1203.4.

[SPCB] Correct the conditions in frame and stucco walls and similar appurtenant construction so that the wood framing is separate from the main structure by a complete concrete or masonry plug with no voids that will allow infestations to enter the structure from the wall. If there is no plug, the foundation shall be 2 inches (51 mm) or more above the grade levels and at least as high as the adjoining slabs or 4-inch (102 mm) concrete barrier seat off installed.

[SPCB] Separate the earth fills such as under porches or paving from all woodwork by concrete, masonry, good quality cement plaster or other material approved by local building codes. Chemical treatment of earth fills is considered adequate if the foundation adjoining the fill meets standards of the current building codes.

Wood members supporting concrete, masonry or similar materials shall be checked for the effects of long-term loading using the provisions of the AWC NDS. The total deflection, including the effects of long-term loading, shall be limited in accordance with Section 1604.3.1 for these supported materials.

Exception: Horizontal wood members supporting masonry or concrete nonstructural floor or roof surfacing not more than 4 inches (102 mm) thick need not be checked for long-term loading.

Structures using wood-frame shear walls or wood-frame diaphragms to resist wind, seismic or other lateral loads shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AF&PA SDPWS and the applicable provisions of Sections 2305, 2306 and 2307.
Openings in shear panels that materially affect their strength shall be detailed on the plans and shall have their edges adequately reinforced to transfer all shearing stresses.

[DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC and OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] See Section 2301.1.4 for modifications to AWC SDPWS.

The deflection of wood-frame diaphragms shall be determined in accordance with AF&PA SDPWS. The deflection (Δ) of a blocked wood structural panel diaphragm uniformly fastened throughout with staples is permitted to be calculated in accordance with Equation 23-1. If not uniformly fastened, the constant 0.188 (For SI: 1/1627) in the third term shall be modified by an approved method.

(Equation 23-1)

For SI:

where:

A = Area of chord cross section, in square inches (mm2).
b = Diaphragm width, in feet (mm).
E = Elastic modulus of chords, in pounds per square inch (N/mm2).
en = Staple deformation, in inches (mm) [see Table 2305.2(1)].
Gt = Panel rigidity through the thickness, in pounds per inch (N/mm) of panel width or depth [see Table 2305.2(2)].
L = Diaphragm length, in feet (mm).
v = Maximum shear due to design loads in the direction under consideration, in pounds per linear foot (plf) (N/mm).
Δ = The calculated deflection, in inches (mm).
Σ(ΔcX) = Sum of individual chord-splice slip values on both sides of the diaphragm, each multiplied by its distance to the nearest support.

TABLE 2305.2(1)

en VALUES (inches) FOR USE IN CALCULATING DIAPHRAGM AND SHEAR WALL DEFLECTION DUE TO FASTENER SLIP (Structural I)a, c

LOAD PER FASTENERb (pounds)FASTENER DESIGNATIONS
14-Ga staple × 2 inches long
600.011
800.018
1000.028
1200.04
1400.053
1600.068

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N.

  1. Increase en values 20 percent for plywood grades other than Structural I.
  2. Load per fastener = maximum shear per foot divided by the number of fasteners per foot at interior panel edges.
  3. Decrease en values 50 percent for seasoned lumber (moisture content < 19 percent).

TABLE 2305.2(2)

VALUES OF Gt FOR USE IN CALCULATING DEFLECTION OF WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEAR WALLS AND DIAPHRAGMS

PANEL TYPESPAN RATINGVALUES OF Gt (lb/in. panel depth or width)
OtherStructural I
3-ply plywood4-ply plywood5-ply plywoodaOSB3-ply plywood4-ply plywood5-ply plywoodaOSB
Sheathing24/025,00032,50037,50077,50032,50042,50041,50077,500
24/1627,00035,00040,50083,50035,00045,50044,50083,500
32/1627,00035,00040,50083,50035,00045,50044,50083,500
40/2028,50037,00043,00088,50037,00048,00047,50088,500
48/2431,00040,50046,50096,00040,50052,50051,00096,000
Single Floor16 o.c.27,00035,00040,50083,50035,00045,50044,50083,500
20 o.c.28,00036,50042,00087,00036,50047,50046,00087,000
24 o.c.30,00039,00045,00093,00039,00050,50049,50093,000
32 o.c.36,00047,00054,000110,00047,00061,00059,500110,000
48 o.c.50,50065,50076,000155,00065,50085,00083,500155,000
OtherStructural I
Thickness (in.)A-A, A-CMarineAll Other GradesA-A, A-CMarineAll Other Grades
Sanded Plywood1/424,00031,00024,00031,00031,00031,000
11/3225,50033,00025,50033,00033,00033,000
3/826,00034,00026,00034,00034,00034,000
15/3238,00049,50038,00049,50049,50049,500
1/238,50050,00038,50050,00050,00050,000
19/3249,00063,50049,00063,50063,50063,500
5/849,50064,50049,50064,50064,50064,500
23/3250,50065,50050,50065,50065,50065,500
3/451,00066,50051,00066,50066,50066,500
7/852,50068,50052,50068,50068,50068,500
173,50095,50073,50095,50095,50095,500
11/875,00097,50075,00097,50097,50097,500

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound/inch = 0.1751 N/mm.

  1. Applies to plywood with five or more layers; for five-ply/three-layer plywood, use values for four ply.

The deflection of wood-frame shear walls shall be determined in accordance with AWC SDPWS. The deflection (Δ) of a blocked wood structural panel shear wall uniformly fastened throughout with staples is permitted to be calculated in accordance with Equation 23-2.

(Equation 23-2)

For SI:

where:

A = Area of boundary element cross section in square inches (mm2) (vertical member at shear wall boundary).
b = Wall width, in feet (mm).
da = Vertical elongation of overturning anchorage (including fastener slip, device elongation, anchor rod elongation, etc.) at the design shear load (v).
E = Elastic modulus of boundary element (vertical member at shear wall boundary), in pounds per square inch (N/mm2).
en = Staple deformation, in inches (mm) [see Table 2305.2(1)].
Gt = Panel rigidity through the thickness, in pounds per inch (N/mm) of panel width or depth [see Table 2305.2(2)].
h = Wall height, in feet (mm).
v = Maximum shear due to design loads at the top of the wall, in pounds per linear foot (N/mm).
Δ = The calculated deflection, in inches (mm).

The design and construction of wood elements in structures using allowable stress design shall be in accordance with the following applicable standards:

American Wood Council.
NDSNational Design Specification for Wood Construction
SDPWSSpecial Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic
American Institute of Timber Construction.
AITC 104Typical Construction Details
AITC 110Standard Appearance Grades for Structural Glued Laminated Timber
AITC 113Standard for Dimensions of Structural Glued Laminated Timber
AITC 117Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Laminated Timber of Softwood Species
AITC 119Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Laminated Timber of Hardwood Species
ANSI/AITC A190.1Structural Glued Laminated Timber
AITC 200Inspection Manual
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.
ASABE EP 484.2Diaphragm Design of Metal-clad, Post-Frame Rectangular Buildings
ASABE EP 486.1Shallow Post Foundation Design
ASABE 559Design Requirements and Bending Properties for Mechanically Laminated Columns
APA—The Engineered Wood Association.
Panel Design Specification
Plywood Design Specification Supplement 1—Design & Fabrication of Plywood Curved Panel
Plywood Design Specification Supplement 2—Design & Fabrication of Glued Plywood-lumber Beams
Plywood Design Specification Supplement 3—Design & Fabrication of Plywood Stressed-skin Panels
Plywood Design Specification Supplement 4—Design & Fabrication of Plywood Sandwich Panels
Plywood Design Specification Supplement 5—Design & Fabrication of All-plywood Beams
EWS T300Glulam Connection Details
EWS S560Field Notching and Drilling of Glued Laminated Timber Beams
EWS S475Glued Laminated Beam Design Tables
EWS X450Glulam in Residential Construction
EWS X440Product and Application Guide: Glulam
EWS R540Builders Tips: Proper Storage and Handling of Glulam Beams
Truss Plate Institute, Inc.
TPI 1National Design Standard for Metal Plate Connected Wood Truss Construction
The design of rafter spans is permitted to be in accordance with the AWC STJR.
The design of plank and beam flooring is permitted to be in accordance with the AWC Wood Construction Data No. 4.

The allowable unit stresses for preservative-treated wood need no adjustment for treatment, but are subject to other adjustments.

The allowable unit stresses for fire-retardant-treated wood, including fastener values, shall be developed from an approved method of investigation that considers the effects of anticipated temperature and humidity to which the fire-retardant-treated wood will be subjected, the type of treatment and the redrying process. Other adjustments are applicable except that the impact load duration shall not apply.

The capacity of lumber decking arranged according to the patterns described in Section 2304.9.2 shall be the lesser of the capacities determined for flexure and deflection according to the formulas in Table 2306.1.4.

TABLE 2306.1.4

ALLOWABLE LOADS FOR LUMBER DECKING

PATTERNALLOWABLE AREA LOADa, b
FlexureDeflection
Simple span
Two-span continuous
Combination simple- and two-span continuous
Cantilevered pieces intermixed
Controlled random layup
Mechanically laminated decking
2-inch decking
3-inch and 4-inch decking

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. σb = Allowable total uniform load limited by bending.

σΔ = Allowable total uniform load limited by deflection.

b. d = Actual decking thickness.

l = Span of decking.

F b' = Allowable bending stress adjusted by applicable factors.

E' = Modulus of elasticity adjusted by applicable factors.

Wood-frame diaphragms shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AWC SDPWS. Where panels are fastened to framing members with staples, requirements and limitations of AWC SDPWS shall be met and the allowable shear values set forth in Table 2306.2(1) or 2306.2(2) shall be permitted. The allowable shear values in Tables 2306.2(1) and 2306.2(2) are permitted to be increased 40 percent for wind design.

TABLE 2306.2(1)

ALLOWABLE SHEAR VALUES (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL DIAPHRAGMS UTILIZING STAPLES WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH, OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADINGf

PANEL GRADESTAPLE LENGTH AND GAGEdMINIMUM FASTENER PENETRATION IN FRAMING (inches)MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inch)MINIMUM NOMINAL WIDTH OF FRAMING MEMBERS AT ADJOINING PANEL EDGES AND BOUNDARIESe (inches)BLOCKED DIAPHRAGMSUNBLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS
Fastener spacing (inches) at diaphragm boundaries (all cases) at continuous panel edges parallel to load (Cases 3, 4), and at all panel edges (Cases 5, 6)bFasteners spaced 6 max. at supported edgesb
6421/2c2cCase 1(No unblocked edges or continuous joints parallel to load)All other configurations (Cases 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6)
Fastener spacing (inches) at other panel edges (Cases 1, 2, 3 and 4)b
6643
Structural I grades11/2 16 gage13/82175235350400155115
3200265395450175130
15/322175235350400155120
3200265395450175130
Sheathing, single floor and other grades covered in DOC PS 1 and PS 211/2 16 gage13/82160210315360140105
3180235355400160120
7/162165225335380150110
3190250375425165125
15/322160210315360140105
3180235355405160120
19/322175235350400155115
3200265395450175130

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.

  1. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of lumber in AF&PA NDS. (2) For staples find shear value from table above for Structural I panels (regardless of actual grade) and multiply value by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species.
  2. Space fasteners maximum 12 inches on center along intermediate framing members (6 inches on center where supports are spaced 48 inches on center).
  3. Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3 inches nominal or wider.
  4. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.
  5. The minimum nominal width of framing members not located at boundaries or adjoining panel edges shall be 2 inches.
  6. For shear loads of normal or permanent load duration as defined by the AF&PA NDS, the values in the table above shall be multiplied by 0.63 or 0.56, respectively.

TABLE 2306.2(2)

ALLOWABLE SHEAR VALUES (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS UTILIZING MULTIPLE ROWS OF STAPLES (HIGH-LOAD DIAPHRAGMS) WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADINGb, g, h

PANEL GRADEcSTAPLE GAGEfMINIMUM FASTENER PENETRATION IN FRAMING (inches)MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inch)MINIMUM NOMINAL WIDTH OF FRAMING MEMBER AT ADJOINING PANEL EDGES AND BOUNDARIESeLINES OF FASTENERSBLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS
Cases 1 and 2d
Fastener Spacing Per Line at Boundaries (inches)
421/22
Fastener Spacing Per Line at Other Panel Edges (inches)
644332
Structural I grades14 gage staples215/32326006008609601,0601,200
438609001,1601,2951,2951,400
19/32326006008759601,0751,200
438759001,1751,4401,4751,795
Sheathing single floor and other grades covered in DOC PS 1 and PS 214 gage staples215/32325405407358659151,080
437358101,0051,1051,1051,195
19/32326006008659601,0651,200
438659001,1301,4301,3701,485
23/32438659001,1301,4901,4301,545

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.

  1. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of framing lumber in AF&PA NDS. (2) For staples, find shear value from table above for Structural I panels (regardless of actual grade) and multiply value by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species.
  2. Fastening along intermediate framing members: Space fasteners a maximum of 12 inches on center, except 6 inches on center for spans greater than 32 inches.
  3. Panels conforming to PS 1 or PS 2.
  4. This table gives shear values for Cases 1 and 2 as shown in Table 2306.2(1). The values shown are applicable to Cases 3, 4, 5 and 6 as shown in Table 2306.2(1), providing fasteners at all continuous panel edges are spaced in accordance with the boundary fastener spacing.
  5. The minimum nominal depth of framing members shall be 3 inches nominal. The minimum nominal width of framing members not located at boundaries or adjoining panel edges shall be 2 inches.
  6. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch, and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.
  7. High-load diaphragms shall be subject to special inspection in accordance with Section 1705.5.1.
  8. For shear loads of normal or permanent load duration as defined by the AF&PA NDS, the values in the table above shall be multiplied by 0.63 or 0.56, respectively.
Gypsum board diaphragm ceilings shall be in accordance with Section 2508.5.

Wood-frame shear walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AWC SDPWS. Where panels are fastened to framing members with staples, requirements and limitations of AWC SDPWS shall be met and the allowable shear values set forth in Table 2306.3(1), 2306.3(2) or 2306.3(3) shall be permitted. The allowable shear values in Tables 2306.3(1) and 2306.3(2) are permitted to be increased 40 percent for wind design. Panels complying with ANSI/APA PRP-210 shall be permitted to use design values for Plywood Siding in the AWC SDPWS.

TABLE 2306.3(1)

ALLOWABLE SHEAR VALUES (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEAR WALLS UTILIZING STAPLES WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADINGb, f, g, i

PANEL GRADEMINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inch)MINIMUM FASTENER PENETRATION IN FRAMING (inches)PANELS APPLIED DIRECT TO FRAMINGPANELS APPLIED OVER 1/2″ OR 5/8″ GYPSUM SHEATHING
Staple sizehFastener spacing at panel edges (inches)Staple sizehFastener spacing at panel edges (inches)
6432d6432 d
Structural I sheathing3/8111/2 16 Gage1552353154002 16 Gage155235310400
7/16170260345440155235310400
15/32185280375475155235300400
Sheathing, plywood sidinge except Group 5 Species, ANSI/APA PRP 210 siding5/16c or 1/4c111/2 16 Gage1452202953752 16 Gage110165220285
3/8140210280360140210280360
7/16155230310395140210280360
15/32170255335430140210280360
19/3213/4 16 Gage185280375475

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.

  1. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of lumber in AF&PA NDS. (2) For staples find shear value from table above for Structural I panels (regardless of actual grade) and multiply value by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species.
  2. Panel edges backed with 2-inch nominal or wider framing. Install panels either horizontally or vertically. Space fasteners maximum 6 inches on center along intermediate framing members for 3/8-inch and 7/16-inch panels installed on studs spaced 24 inches on center. For other conditions and panel thickness, space fasteners maximum 12 inches on center on intermediate supports.
  3. 3/8-inch panel thickness or siding with a span rating of 16 inches on center is the minimum recommended where applied directly to framing as exterior siding. For grooved panel siding, the nominal panel thickness is the thickness of the panel measured at the point of fastening.
  4. Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3 inches nominal or wider.
  5. Values apply to all-veneer plywood. Thickness at point of fastening on panel edges governs shear values.
  6. Where panels are applied on both faces of a wall and fastener spacing is less than 6 inches o.c. on either side, panel joints shall be offset to fall on different framing members, or framing shall be 3 inches nominal or thicker at adjoining panel edges.
  7. In Seismic Design Category D, E or F, where shear design values exceed 350 pounds per linear foot, all framing members receiving edge fastening from abutting panels shall not be less than a single 3-inch nominal member, or two 2-inch nominal members fastened together in accordance with Section 2306.1 to transfer the design shear value between framing members. Wood structural panel joint and sill plate nailing shall be staggered at all panel edges. See AF&PA SDPWS for sill plate size and anchorage requirements.
  8. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.
  9. For shear loads of normal or permanent load duration as defined by the AF&PA NDS, the values in the table above shall be multiplied by 0.63 or 0.56, respectively.

TABLE 2306.3(2)

ALLOWABLE SHEAR VALUES (plf) FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADING ON SHEAR WALLS OF FIBERBOARD SHEATHING BOARD CONSTRUCTION UTILIZING STAPLES FOR TYPE V CONSTRUCTION ONLYa, b, c, d, e

THICKNESS AND GRADEFASTENER SIZEALLOWABLE SHEAR VALUE (pounds per linear foot) STAPLE SPACING AT PANEL EDGES (inches)a
432
1/2″ or 25/32″ StructuralNo. 11 gage galvanized staple, 7/16″ crownf150200225
No. 11 gage galvanized staple, 1″ crownf220290325

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.

  1. Fiberboard sheathing shall not be used to brace concrete or masonry walls.
  2. Panel edges shall be backed with 2-inch or wider framing of Douglas Fir-larch or Southern Pine. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of framing lumber in AF&PA NDS. (2) For staples, multiply the shear value from the table above by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species.
  3. Values shown are for fiberboard sheathing on one side only with long panel dimension either parallel or perpendicular to studs.
  4. Fastener shall be spaced 6 inches on center along intermediate framing members.
  5. Values are not permitted in Seismic Design Category D, E or F.
  6. Staple length shall be not less than 11/2 inches for 25/32-inch sheathing or 11/4 inches for 1/2-inch sheathing.

TABLE 2306.3(3)

ALLOWABLE SHEAR VALUES FOR WIND OR SEISMIC FORCES FOR SHEAR WALLS OF LATH AND PLASTER OR GYPSUM BOARD WOOD FRAMED WALL ASSEMBLIES UTILIZING STAPLES

TYPE OF MATERIALTHICKNESS OF MATERIALWALL CONSTRUCTIONSTAPLE SPACINGb MAXIMUM (inches)SHEAR VALUEa, c (plf)MINIMUM STAPLE SIZE f, g
1. Expanded metal or woven wire lath and Portland cement plaster7/8Unblocked6180No. 16 gage galv. staple, 7/8″ legs
2. Gypsum lath, plain or perforated3/8″ lath and 1/2″ plasterUnblocked5100No. 16 gage galv. staple, 11/8″ long
3. Gypsum sheating1/2″ × 2' × 8'Unblocked475No. 16 gage galv. staple, 13/4″ long
1/2″ × 4'Blockedd
Unblocked
4
7
175
100
4. Gypsum board, gypsum veneer base or water-resistant gypsum backing board1/2Unblockedd775No. 16 gage galv. staple, 11/2″ long
Unblockedd4110
Unblocked7100
Unblocked4125
Blockede7125
Blockede4150
5/8Unblockedd7115No. 16 gage galv. staple, 11/2″ legs,5/8″ long
4145
Blockede7145
4175
Blockede Two-plyBase ply: 9 Face ply: 7250No. 16 gage galv. staple 15/8

No. 15 gage galv. staple, 21/4″ long

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.

  1. These shear walls shall not be used to resist loads imposed by masonry or concrete walls (see AF & PA SDPWS). Values shown are for short-term loading due to wind or seismic loading. Walls resisting seismic loads shall be subject to the limitations in Section 12.2.1 of ASCE 7. Values shown shall be reduced 25 percent for normal loading.
  2. Applies to fastening at studs, top and bottom plates and blocking.
  3. Except as noted, shear values are based on a maximum framing spacing of 16 inches on center.
  4. Maximum framing spacing of 24 inches on center.
  5. All edges are blocked, and edge fastening is provided at all supports and all panel edges.
  6. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch, measured outside the legs, and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.
  7. Staples for the attachment of gypsum lath and woven-wire lath shall have a minimum crown width of 3/4 inch, measured outside the legs.
The design and construction of wood elements and structures using load and resistance factor design shall be in accordance with AWC NDS and AWC SDPWS.
The requirements of this section are intended for conventional light-frame construction. Other construction methods are permitted to be used, provided a satisfactory design is submitted showing compliance with other provisions of this code. Interior nonload-bearing partitions, ceilings and curtain walls of conventional light-frame construction are not subject to the limitations of Section 2308.2.
When portions of a building of otherwise conventional light-frame construction exceed the limits of Section 2308.2, those portions and the supporting load path shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice and the provisions of this code. For the purposes of this section, the term “portions” shall mean parts of buildings containing volume and area such as a room or a series of rooms. The extent of such design need only demonstrate compliance of the nonconventional light-framed elements with other applicable provisions of this code and shall be compatible with the performance of the conventional light-framed system.
Connectors and fasteners used in conventional construction shall comply with the requirements of Section 2304.10.
Buildings are permitted to be constructed in accordance with the provisions of conventional light-frame construction, subject to the limitations in Sections 2308.2.1 through 2308.2.6.

Structures of conventional light-frame construction shall be limited in story height in accordance with Table 2308.2.1.

TABLE 2308.2.1

ALLOWABLE STORY HEIGHT

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYALLOWABLE STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE
A and BThree stories
CTwo stories
D and EaOne story

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. For the purposes of this section, for buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D or E, cripple walls shall be considered to be a story unless cripple walls are solid blocked and do not exceed 14 inches in height.
Maximum floor-to-floor height shall not exceed 11 feet, 7 inches (3531 mm). Exterior bearing wall and interior braced wall heights shall not exceed a stud height of 10 feet (3048 mm).

Loads shall be in accordance with Chapter 16 and shall not exceed the following:

  1. Average dead loads shall not exceed 15 psf (718 N/m2) for combined roof and ceiling, exterior walls, floors and partitions.

    Exceptions:

    1. Subject to the limitations of Section 2308.6.10, stone or masonry veneer up to the lesser of 5 inches (127 mm) thick or 50 psf (2395 N/m2) and installed in accordance with Chapter 14 is permitted to a height of 30 feet (9144 mm) above a noncombustible foundation, with an additional 8 feet (2438 mm) permitted for gable ends.
    2. Concrete or masonry fireplaces, heaters and chimneys shall be permitted in accordance with the provisions of this code.
  2. Live loads shall not exceed 40 psf (1916 N/m2) for floors.
  3. Ground snow loads shall not exceed 50 psf (2395 N/m2).

Vult shall not exceed 130 miles per hour (57 m/s) (3-second gust).

Exceptions:

  1. Vult shall not exceed 140 mph (61.6 m/s) (3-second gust) for buildings in Exposure Category B that are not located in a hurricane-prone region.
  2. Where Vult exceeds 130 mph (3-second gust), the provisions of either AWC WFCM or ICC 600 are permitted to be used.
Ceiling joist and rafter framing constructed in accordance with Section 2308.7 and trusses shall not span more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) between points of vertical support. A ridge board in accordance with Section 2308.7 or 2308.7.3.1 shall not be considered a vertical support.
The use of the provisions for conventional light-frame construction in this section shall not be permitted for Risk Category IV buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category B, C, D or E.

[DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC and OSHPD 2] The use of conventional light-frame construction provisions in this section is permitted, subject to the following conditions:

  1. The design and construction shall also comply with Section 2304 and Section 2305.
  2. In conjunction with the use of provisions in Section 2308.6 (Wall bracing), engineering analysis shall be furnished that demonstrates compliance of lateral-force-resisting systems with Section 2305.
  3. In addition to the use of provisions in Section 2308.4 (Floor framing), engineering analysis shall be furnished that demonstrates compliance of floor framing elements and connections with Section 2301.2, Item 1 or 2.
  4. In addition to the use of provisions in Section 2308.5 (Wall construction), engineering analysis shall be furnished that demonstrates compliance of wall framing elements and connections with Section 2301.2, Item 1 or 2.
  5. In addition to the use of provisions in Section 2308.7 (Roof and Ceiling Framing), engineering analysis shall be furnished demonstrating compliance of roof and ceiling framing elements and connections with Section 2301.2, Item 1 or 2.
Foundations and footings shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Chapter 18. Connections to foundations and footings shall comply with this section.

Foundation plates or sills resting on concrete or masonry foundations shall comply with Section 2304.3.1. Foundation plates or sills shall be bolted or anchored to the foundation with not less than 1/2-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) steel bolts or approved anchors spaced to provide equivalent anchorage as the steel bolts. Bolts shall be embedded at least 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete or masonry. Bolts shall be spaced not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on center and there shall be not less than two bolts or anchor straps per piece with one bolt or anchor strap located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) or less than 4 inches (102 mm) from each end of each piece. A properly sized nut and washer shall be tightened on each bolt to the plate.

Exceptions:

  1. Along braced wall lines in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category E, steel bolts with a minimum nominal diameter of 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) or approved anchor straps load-rated in accordance with Section 2304.10.3 and spaced to provide equivalent anchorage shall be used.
  2. Bolts in braced wall lines in structures over two stories above grade shall be spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center.
Sill plates along braced wall lines in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D or E shall be anchored with anchor bolts with steel plate washers between the foundation sill plate and the nut, or approved anchor straps load-rated in accordance with Section 2304.10.3. Such washers shall be a minimum of 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.82 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a width of up to 3/16 inch (4.76 mm) larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed 13/4 inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut.
Floor framing shall comply with this section.

Girders for single-story construction or girders supporting loads from a single floor shall be not less than 4 inches by 6 inches (102 mm by 152 mm) for spans 6 feet (1829 mm) or less, provided that girders are spaced not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) on center. Other girders shall be designed to support the loads specified in this code. Girder end joints shall occur over supports.

Where a girder is spliced over a support, an adequate tie shall be provided. The ends of beams or girders supported on masonry or concrete shall not have less than 3 inches (76 mm) of bearing.

The allowable spans of girders that are fabricated of dimension lumber shall not exceed the values set forth in Table 2308.4.1.1(1) or 2308.4.1.1(2).

TABLE 2308.4.1.1(1)

HEADER AND GIRDER SPANSa, b FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS (Maximum spans for Douglas Fir-Larch, Hem-Fir, Southern Pine and Spruce-Pine-Firb and required number of jack studs)

GIRDERS AND HEADERS SUPPORTINGSIZEGROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e
3050
Building widthc (feet)
202836202836
SpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJd
Roof and ceiling2-2 × 43-613-212-1013-212-912-61
2-2 × 65-514-814-214-814-113-82
2-2 × 86-1015-1125-425-1125-224-72
2-2 × 108-527-326-627-326-325-72
2-2 × 129-928-527-628-527-326-62
3-2 × 88-417-516-817-516-525-92
3-2 × 1010-619-128-229-127-1027-02
3-2 × 1212-2210-729-5210-729-228-22
4-2 × 89-218-417-818-417-516-81
4-2 × 1011-8110-619-5210-619-128-22
4-2 × 1214-1112-2210-11212-2210-729-52
Roof, ceiling and one center-bearing floor2-2 × 43-112-912-512-912-512-21
2-2 × 64-614-013-724-113-723-32
2-2 × 85-925-024-625-224-624-12
2-2 × 107-026-225-626-425-625-02
2-2 × 128-127-126-527-426-525-93
3-2 × 87-216-325-826-525-825-12
3-2 × 108-927-826-1127-1126-1126-32
3-2 × 1210-228-1128-029-228-027-32
4-2 × 88-117-316-717-516-615-112
4-2 × 1010-118-1028-029-128-027-22
4-2 × 1211-9210-329-3210-729-328-42
Roof, ceiling and one clear span floor2-2 × 42-812-412-112-712-312-01
2-2 × 63-1113-523-023-1023-423-02
2-2 × 85-024-423-1024-1024-223-92
2-2 × 106-125-324-825-1125-124-73
2-2 × 127-126-135-536-1025-1135-43
3-2 × 86-325-524-1026-125-324-82
3-2 × 107-726-725-1127-526-525-92
3-2 × 128-1027-826-1028-727-526-82
4-2 × 87-216-325-727-016-125-52
4-2 × 108-927-726-1028-727-526-72
4-2 × 1210-228-1027-1129-1128-727-82
Roof, ceiling and two center-bearing floors2-2 × 42-712-312-012-612-211-111
2-2 × 63-923-322-1123-823-222-102
2-2 × 84-924-223-924-724-023-82
2-2 × 105-925-124-735-824-1124-53
2-2 × 126-825-1035-336-625-935-23
3-2 × 85-1125-224-825-925-124-72
3-2 × 107-326-425-827-126-225-72
3-2 × 128-527-426-728-227-226-53
4-2 × 86-1016-025-526-815-1025-32
4-2 × 108-427-426-728-227-226-52
4-2 × 129-828-627-829-528-327-52
Roof, ceiling, and two clear span floors2-2 × 42-111-811-622-011-811-52
2-2 × 63-122-822-423-022-722-32
2-2 × 83-1023-423-033-1023-422-113
Roof, ceiling, and two clear span floors2-2 × 104-924-133-834-824-033-73
2-2 × 125-634-934-335-534-834-23
3-2 × 84-1024-223-924-924-123-82
3-2 × 105-1125-124-735-1025-024-63
3-2 × 126-1025-1135-436-925-1035-33
4-2 × 85-724-1024-425-624-924-32
4-2 × 106-1025-1125-326-925-1025-22
4-2 × 127-1126-1026-237-926-926-03

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Spans are based on minimum design properties for No. 2 grade lumber of Douglas Fir-Larch, Hem-Fir and Spruce-Pine Fir. No. 1 or better grade lumber shall be used for Southern Pine.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ - Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
  5. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.

TABLE 2308.4.1.1(2)

HEADER AND GIRDER SPANSa, b FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS (Maximum spans for Douglas Fir-Larch, Hem-Fir, Southern Pine and Spruce-Pine-Firb and required number of jack studs)

HEADERS AND GIRDERS SUPPORTINGSIZEBUILDING WIDTHc (feet)
202836
SpanNJdSpanNJdSpanNJd
One floor only2-2 × 43-112-812-51
2-2 × 64-613-1113-61
2-2 × 85-915-024-52
2-2 × 107-026-125-52
2-2 × 128-127-026-32
3-2 × 87-216-315-72
3-2 × 108-917-726-92
3-2 × 1210-228-1027-102
4-2 × 89-017-816-91
4-2 × 1010-118-917-102
4-2 × 1211-9110-229-12
Two floors2-2 × 42-211-1011-71
2-2 × 63-222-922-52
2-2 × 84-123-623-22
2-2 × 104-1124-323-103
2-2 × 125-925-034-53
3-2 × 85-124-523-112
3-2 × 106-225-424-102
3-2 × 127-226-325-73
4-2 × 86-115-324-82
4-2 × 107-226-225-62
4-2 × 128-427-226-52

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Spans are based on minimum design properties for No. 2 grade lumber of Douglas Fir-Larch, Hem-Fir and Spruce-Pine Fir. No. 1 or better grade lumber shall be used for Southern Pine.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ - Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
Floor joists shall comply with this section.

Spans for floor joists shall be in accordance with Table 2308.4.2.1(1) or 2308.4.2.1(2) or the AWC STJR.

TABLE 2308.4.2.1(1)

FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential sleeping areas, live load = 30 psf, L/Δ = 360)

JOIST SPACING (inches)SPECIES AND GRADEDEAD LOAD = 10 psfDEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2 × 62 × 82 × 102 × 122 × 62 × 82 × 102 × 12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)
12Douglas Fir-LarchSS12-616-621-025-712-616-621-025-7
Douglas Fir-Larch#112-015-1020-324-812-015-719-022-0
Douglas Fir-Larch#211-1015-719-1023-011-614-717-920-7
Douglas Fir-Larch#39-812-415-017-58-811-013-515-7
Hem-FirSS11-1015-719-1024-211-1015-719-1024-2
Hem-Fir#111-715-319-523-711-715-218-621-6
Hem-Fir#211-014-618-622-611-014-417-620-4
Hem-Fir#39-812-415-017-58-811-013-515-7
Southern PineSS12-316-220-825-112-316-220-825-1
Southern Pine#111-1015-719-1024-211-1015-718-722-0
Southern Pine#211-314-1118-121-410-913-816-219-1
Southern Pine#39-211-614-016-68-210-312-614-9
Spruce-Pine-FirSS11-715-319-523-711-715-319-523-7
Spruce-Pine-Fir#111-314-1119-023-011-314-717-920-7
Spruce-Pine-Fir#211-314-1119-023-011-314-717-920-7
Spruce-Pine-Fir#39-812-415-017-58-811-013-515-7
16Douglas Fir-LarchSS11-415-019-123-311-415-019-123-0
Douglas Fir-Larch#110-1114-518-521-410-813-616-519-1
Douglas Fir-Larch#210-914-117-219-119-1112-715-517-10
Douglas Fir-Larch#38-510-813-015-17-69-611-813-6
Hem-FirSS10-914-218-021-1110-914-218-021-11
Hem-Fir#110-613-1017-820-910-413-116-018-7
Hem-Fir#210-013-216-1019-89-1012-515-217-7
Hem-Fir#38-510-813-015-17-69-611-813-6
Southern PineSS11-214-818-922-1011-214-818-922-10
Southern Pine#110-914-218-021-410-913-916-119-1
Southern Pine#210-313-315-818-69-411-1014-016-6
Southern Pine#37-1110-1012-114-47-18-1110-1012-10
Spruce-Pine-FirSS10-613-1017-821-610-613-1017-821-4
Spruce-Pine-Fir#110-313-617-219-119-1112-715-517-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir#210-313-617-219-119-1112-715-517-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir#38-510-813-015-17-69-611-813-6
19.2Douglas Fir-LarchSS10-814-118-021-1010-814-118-021-0
Douglas Fir-Larch#110-413-716-919-69-812-415-017-5
Douglas Fir-Larch#210-112-1015-818-39-111-614-116-3
Douglas Fir-Larch#37-89-911-1013-96-108-810-712-4
Hem-FirSS10-113-417-020-810-113-417-020-7
Hem-Fir#19-1013-016-419-09-612-014-817-0
Hem-Fir#29-512-515-617-18-1111-413-1016-1
Hem-Fir#37-89-911-1013-96-108-810-712-4
Southern PineSS10-613-1017-821-610-613-1017-821-6
Southern Pine#110-113-416-519-69-1112-714-817-5
Southern Pine#29-612-114-416-108-610-1012-1015-1
Southern Pine#37-39-111-013-16-58-29-1011-8
Spruce-Pine-FirSS9-1013-016-720-29-1013-016-719-6
Spruce-Pine-Fir#19-812-915-818-39-111-614-116-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir#29-812-915-818-39-111-614-116-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir#37-89-911-1013-96-108-810-712-4
24Douglas Fir-LarchSS9-1113-116-820-39-1113-116-218-9
Douglas Fir-Larch#19-712-415-017-58-811-013-515-7
Douglas Fir-Larch#29-111-614-116-38-110-312-714-7
Douglas Fir-Larch#36-108-810-712-46-27-99-611-0
Hem-FirSS9-412-415-919-29-412-415-918-5
Hem-Fir#19-212-014-817-08-610-913-115-2
Hem-Fir#28-911-413-1016-18-010-212-514-4
Hem-Fir#36-108-810-712-46-27-99-611-0
Southern PineSS9-912-1016-519-119-912-1016-519-8
Southern Pine#19-412-414-817-58-1011-313-115-7
Southern Pine#28-610-1012-1015-17-79-811-513-6
Southern Pine#36-58-29-1011-85-97-38-1010-5
Spruce-Pine-FirSS9-212-115-518-99-212-115-017-5
Spruce-Pine-Fir#18-1111-614-116-38-110-312-714-7
Spruce-Pine-Fir#28-1111-614-116-38-110-312-714-7
Spruce-Pine-Fir#36-108-810-712-46-27-99-611-0

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.

TABLE 2308.4.2.1(2)

FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential living areas, live load = 40 psf, L/Δ = 360)

JOIST SPACING (inches)SPECIES AND GRADEDEAD LOAD = 10 psfDEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2 × 62 × 82 × 102 × 122 × 62 × 82 × 102 × 12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)
12Douglas Fir-LarchSS11-415-019-123-311-415-019-123-3
Douglas Fir-Larch#110-1114-518-522-010-1114-217-420-1
Douglas Fir-Larch#210-914-217-920-710-613-316-318-10
Douglas Fir-Larch#38-811-013-515-77-1110-012-314-3
Hem-FirSS10-914-218-021-1110-914-218-021-11
Hem-Fir#110-613-1017-821-610-613-1016-1119-7
Hem-Fir#210-013-216-1020-410-013-116-018-6
Hem-Fir#38-811-013-515-77-1110-012-314-3
Southern PineSS11-214-818-922-1011-214-818-922-10
Southern Pine#110-914-218-021-1110-914-216-1120-1
Southern Pine#210-313-616-219-19-1012-614-917-5
Southern Pine#38-210-312-614-97-59-511-513-6
Spruce-Pine-FirSS10-613-1017-821-610-613-1017-821-6
Spruce-Pine-Fir#110-313-617-320-710-313-316-318-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir#210-313-617-320-710-313-316-318-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir#38-811-013-515-77-1110-012-314-3
16Douglas Fir-LarchSS10-413-717-421-110-413-717-421-0
Douglas Fir-Larch#19-1113-116-519-19-812-415-017-5
Douglas Fir-Larch#29-912-715-517-109-111-614-116-3
Douglas Fir-Larch#37-69-611-813-66-108-810-712-4
Hem-FirSS9-912-1016-519-119-912-1016-519-11
Hem-Fir#19-612-716-018-79-612-014-817-0
Hem-Fir#29-112-015-217-78-1111-413-1016-1
Hem-Fir#37-69-611-813-66-108-810-712-4
Southern PineSS10-213-417-020-910-213-417-020-9
Southern Pine#19-912-1016-119-19-912-714-817-5
Southern Pine#29-411-1014-016-68-610-1012-1015-1
Southern Pine#37-18-1110-1012-106-58-29-1011-8
Spruce-Pine-FirSS9-612-716-019-69-612-716-019-6
Spruce-Pine-Fir#19-412-315-517-109-111-614-116-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir#29-412-315-517-109-111-614-116-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir#37-69-611-813-66-108-810-712-4
19.2Douglas Fir-LarchSS9-812-1016-419-109-812-1016-419-2
Douglas Fir-Larch#19-412-415-017-58-1011-313-815-11
Douglas Fir-Larch#29-111-614-116-38-310-612-1014-10
Douglas Fir-Larch#36-108-810-712-46-37-119-811-3
Hem-FirSS9-212-115-518-99-212-115-518-9
Hem-Fir#19-011-1014-817-08-810-1113-415-6
Hem-Fir#28-711-313-1016-18-210-412-814-8
Hem-Fir#36-108-810-712-46-37-119-811-3
Southern PineSS9-612-716-019-69-612-716-019-6
Southern Pine#19-212-114-817-59-011-513-515-11
Southern Pine#28-610-1012-1015-17-99-1011-813-9
Southern Pine#36-58-29-1011-85-117-59-010-8
Spruce-Pine-FirSS9-011-1015-118-49-011-1015-117-9
Spruce-Pine-Fir#8-911-614-116-38-310-612-1014-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir#28-911-614-116-38-310-612-1014-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir#36-108-810-712-46-37-119-811-3
24Douglas Fir-LarchSS9-011-1115-218-59-011-1114-917-1
Douglas Fir-Larch#18-811-013-515-77-1110-012-314-3
Douglas Fir-Larch#28-110-312-714-77-59-511-613-4
Douglas Fir-Larch#36-27-99-611-05-77-18-810-1
Hem-FirSS8-611-314-417-58-611-314-416-10a
Hem-Fir#18-410-913-115-27-99-911-1113-10
Hem-Fir#27-1110-212-514-47-49-311-413-1
Hem-Fir#36-27-99-611-05-77-18-810-1
Southern PineSS8-1011-814-1118-18-1011-814-1118-0
Southern Pine#18-611-313-115-78-110-312-014-3
Southern Pine#27-79-811-513-67-08-1010-512-4
Southern Pine#35-97-38-1010-55-36-88-19-6
Spruce-Pine-FirSS8-411-014-017-08-411-013-815-11
Spruce-Pine-Fir#18-110-312-714-77-59-511-613-4
Spruce-Pine-Fir#28-110-312-714-77-59-511-613-4
Spruce-Pine-Fir#36-27-99-611-05-77-18-810-1

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.

  1. End bearing length shall be increased to 2 inches.
The ends of each joist shall have not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal, or not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry, except where supported on a 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjoining stud.
Joists shall be supported laterally at the ends and at each support by solid blocking except where the ends of the joists are nailed to a header, band or rim joist or to an adjoining stud or by other means. Solid blocking shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness and the full depth of the joist. Joist framing from opposite sides of a beam, girder or partition shall be lapped at least 3 inches (76 mm) or the opposing joists shall be tied together in an approved manner. Joists framing into the side of a wood girder shall be supported by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).
Notches on the ends of joists shall not exceed one-fourth the joist depth. Notches in the top or bottom of joists shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and shall not be located in the middle third of the span. Holes bored in joists shall not be within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top or bottom of the joist and the diameter of any such hole shall not exceed one-third the depth of the joist.
Engineered wood products shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations. Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glued-laminated members or I-joists are not permitted except where permitted by the manufacturer’s recommendations or where the effects of such alterations are specifically considered in the design of the member by a registered design professional.
Trimmer and header joists shall be doubled, or of lumber of equivalent cross section, where the span of the header exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm). The ends of header joists more than 6 feet (1829 mm) in length shall be supported by framing anchors or joist hangers unless bearing on a beam, partition or wall. Tail joists over 12 feet (3658 mm) in length shall be supported at the header by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).

Openings in horizontal diaphragms in Seismic Design Categories B, C, D and E with a dimension that is greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) shall be constructed with metal ties and blocking in accordance with this section and Figure 2308.4.4.1(1). Metal ties shall be not less than 0.058 inch [1.47 mm (16 galvanized gage)] in thickness by 11/2 inches (38 mm) in width and shall have a yield stress not less than 33,000 psi (227 Mpa). Blocking shall extend not less than the dimension of the opening in the direction of the tie and blocking. Ties shall be attached to blocking in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions but with not less than eight 16d common nails on each side of the header-joist intersection.

Openings in floor diaphragms in Seismic Design Categories D and E shall not have any dimension exceeding 50 percent of the distance between braced wall lines or an area greater than 25 percent of the area between orthogonal pairs of braced wall lines [see Figure 2308.4.4.1(2)]; or the portion of the structure containing the opening shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice to resist the forces specified in Chapter 16, to the extent such irregular opening affects the performance of the conventional framing system.

FIGURE 2308.4.4.1(1)

OPENINGS IN FLOOR AND ROOF DIAPHRAGMS

FIGURE 2308.4.4.1(2)

OPENING LIMITATIONS FOR FLOOR AND ROOF DIAPHRAGMS

In Seismic Design Categories D and E, portions of a floor level shall not be vertically offset such that the framing members on either side of the offset cannot be lapped or tied together in an approved manner in accordance with Figure 2308.4.4.2 unless the portion of the structure containing the irregular offset is designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Framing supported directly by foundations need not be lapped or tied directly together.

FIGUR 2308.4.4.2

PORTIONS OF FLOOR LEVEL OFFSET VERTICALLY

Bearing partitions parallel to joists shall be supported on beams, girders, doubled joists, walls or other bearing partitions. Bearing partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be offset from supporting girders, walls or partitions more than the joist depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry the additional load.
Floor and ceiling framing with a nominal depth-to-thickness ratio not less than 5 to 1 shall have one edge held in line for the entire span. Where the nominal depth-to-thickness ratio of the framing member exceeds 6 to 1, there shall be one line of bridging for each 8 feet (2438 mm) of span, unless both edges of the member are held in line. The bridging shall consist of not less than 1-inch by 3-inch (25 mm by 76 mm) lumber, double nailed at each end, or equivalent metal bracing of equal rigidity, full-depth solid blocking or other approved means. A line of bridging shall also be required at supports where equivalent lateral support is not otherwise provided.
Structural floor sheathing shall comply with the provisions of Section 2304.8.1.
For under-floor ventilation, see Section 1203.4.
Where braced wall panels are supported by cantilevered floors or are set back from the floor joist support, the floor framing shall comply with Section 2308.6.7.
Exterior egress balconies, exterior stairways and ramps and similar means of egress components in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D or E shall be positively anchored to the primary structure at not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) on center or shall be designed for lateral forces. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal.
Walls of conventional light-frame construction shall be in accordance with this section.

The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table 2308.5.1.

Studs shall be continuous from a support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Table 2308.4.1.1(1) or 2308.4.1.1(2).

TABLE 2308.5.1

SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDSc

STUD SIZE (inches)BEARING WALLSNONBEARING WALLS
Laterally unsupported stud heighta (feet)Supporting roof and ceiling onlySupporting one floor, roof and ceilingSupporting two floors, roof and ceilingLaterally unsupported stud heighta (feet)Spacing (inches)
Spacing (inches)
2 × 3b1016
2 × 41024161424
3 × 4102424161424
2 × 51024241624
2 × 6102424162024

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where justified by an analysis.
  2. Shall not be used in exterior walls.
  3. Utility-grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches on center or support more than a roof and ceiling, or exceed 8 feet in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet for interior nonload-bearing walls.

Studs shall be placed with their wide dimension perpendicular to the wall. Not less than three studs shall be installed at each corner of an exterior wall.

Exceptions:

  1. In interior nonbearing walls and partitions, studs are permitted to be set with the long dimension parallel to the wall.
  2. At corners, two studs are permitted, provided that wood spacers or backup cleats of 3/8-inch-thick (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) Type M “Exterior Glue” particleboard, 1-inch-thick (25 mm) lumber or other approved devices that will serve as an adequate backing for the attachment of facing materials are used. Where fire-resistance ratings or shear values are involved, wood spacers, backup cleats or other devices shall not be used unless specifically approved for such use.
Studs shall have plates and sills in accordance with this section.
Studs shall have full bearing on a plate or sill. Plates or sills shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness and have a width not less than the width of the wall studs.

Bearing and exterior wall studs shall be capped with double top plates installed to provide overlapping at corners and at intersections with other partitions. End joints in double top plates shall be offset not less than 48 inches (1219 mm), and shall be nailed in accordance with Table 2304.10.1. Plates shall be a nominal 2 inches (51 mm) in depth and have a width not less than the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate is permitted, provided that the plate is adequately tied at corners and intersecting walls by not less than the equivalent of 3-inch by 6-inch (76 mm by 152 mm) by 0.036-inch-thick (0.914 mm) galvanized steel plate that is nailed to each wall or segment of wall by six 8d [21/2” × 0.113” (64-mm by 2.87 mm)] box nails or equivalent on each side of the joint. For the butt-joint splice between adjacent single top plates, not less than the equivalent of a 3-inch by 12-inch (76 mm by 304 mm) by 0.036-inch-thick (0.914 mm) galvanized steel plate that is nailed to each wall or segment of wall by 12 8d [21/2-inch × 0.113-inch (64 mm by 2.87 mm)] box nails on each side of the joint shall be required, provided that the rafters, joists or trusses are centered over the studs with a tolerance of not more than 1 inch (25 mm). The top plate shall not be required over headers that are in the same plane and in line with the upper surface of the adjacent top plates and are tied to adjacent wall sections as required for the butt joint splice between adjacent single top plates.

Where bearing studs are spaced at 24-inch (610 mm) intervals, top plates are less than two 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (76 mm by 102 mm) members and the floor joists, floor trusses or roof trusses that they support are spaced at more than 16-inch (406 mm) intervals, such joists or trusses shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath or a third plate shall be installed.

In nonload-bearing walls and partitions, that are not part of a braced wall panel, studs shall be spaced not more than 24 inches (610 mm) on center. In interior nonload-bearing walls and partitions, studs are permitted to be set with the long dimension parallel to the wall. Where studs are set with the long dimensions parallel to the wall, use of utility grade lumber or studs exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm) is not permitted. Interior nonload-bearing partitions shall be capped with not less than a single top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and at intersections with other walls and partitions. The plate shall be continuously tied at joints by solid blocking not less than 16 inches (406 mm) in length and equal in size to the plate or by 1/2-inch by 11/2-inch (12.7 mm by 38 mm) metal ties with spliced sections fastened with two 16d nails on each side of the joint.
Openings in exterior and interior walls and partitions shall comply with Sections 2308.5.5.1 through 2308.5.5.3.

Headers shall be provided over each opening in exterior bearing walls. The size and spans in Table 2308.4.1.1(1) are permitted to be used for one- and two-family dwellings. Headers for other buildings shall be designed in accordance with Section 2301.2, Item 1 or 2. Headers shall be of two pieces of nominal 2-inch (51 mm) framing lumber set on edge as permitted by Table 2308.4.1.1(1) and nailed together in accordance with Table 2304.10.1 or of solid lumber of equivalent size.

Wall studs shall support the ends of the header in accordance with Table 2308.4.1.1(1). Each end of a lintel or header shall have a bearing length of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) for the full width of the lintel.

Headers shall be provided over each opening in interior bearing partitions as required in Section 2308.5.5.1. The spans in Table 2308.4.1.1(2) are permitted to be used. Wall studs shall support the ends of the header in accordance with Table 2308.4.1.1(1) or 2308.4.1.1(2), as applicable.
Openings in nonbearing partitions are permitted to be framed with single studs and headers. Each end of a lintel or header shall have a bearing length of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) for the full width of the lintel.
Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs that are not less than the size of the studding above and not less than 14 inches (356 mm) in length, or shall be framed of solid blocking. Where exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story. See Section 2308.6.6 for cripple wall bracing.
Unless covered by interior or exterior wall coverings or sheathing meeting the minimum requirements of this code, stud partitions or walls with studs having a height-to-least-thickness ratio exceeding 50 shall have bridging that is not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness and of the same width as the studs fitted snugly and nailed thereto to provide adequate lateral support. Bridging shall be placed in every stud cavity and at a frequency such that no stud so braced shall have a height-to-least-thickness ratio exceeding 50 with the height of the stud measured between horizontal framing and bridging or between bridging, whichever is greater.
Stud partitions containing plumbing, heating or other pipes shall be framed and the joists underneath spaced to provide proper clearance for the piping. Where a partition containing piping runs parallel to the floor joists, the joists underneath such partitions shall be doubled and spaced to permit the passage of pipes and shall be bridged. Where plumbing, heating or other pipes are placed in, or partly in, a partition, necessitating the cutting of the soles or plates, a metal tie not less than 0.058 inch (1.47 mm) (16 galvanized gage) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) in width shall be fastened to each plate across and to each side of the opening with not less than six 16d nails.
In exterior walls and bearing partitions, wood studs are permitted to be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of the width of the stud. Cutting or notching of studs to a depth not greater than 40 percent of the width of the stud is permitted in nonbearing partitions supporting no loads other than the weight of the partition.
Bored holes not greater than 40 percent of the stud width are permitted to be bored in any wood stud. Bored holes not greater than 60 percent of the stud width are permitted in nonbearing partitions or in any wall where each bored stud is doubled, provided not more than two such successive doubled studs are so bored. In no case shall the edge of a bored hole be nearer than 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) to the edge of the stud. Bored holes shall not be located at the same section of stud as a cut or notch.

Except where stucco construction that complies with Section 2510 is installed, the outside of exterior walls, including gables, of enclosed buildings shall be sheathed with one of the materials of the nominal thickness specified in Table 2308.5.11 with fasteners in accordance with the requirements of Section 2304.10 or fasteners designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. Alternatively, sheathing materials and fasteners complying with Section 2304.6 shall be permitted.

TABLE 2308.5.11

MINIMUM THICKNESS OF WALL SHEATHING

SHEATHING TYPEMINIMUM THICKNESSMAXIMUM WALL STUD SPACING
Diagonal wood boards5/8 inch24 inches on center
Structural fiberboard1/2 inch16 inches on center
Wood structural panelIn accordance with Tables 2308.6.3(2) and 2308.6.3(3)
M-S “Exterior Glue” and M-2 “Exterior Glue” particleboardIn accordance with Section 2306.3 and Table 2308.6.3(4)
Gypsum sheathing1/2 inch16 inches on center
Reinforced cement mortar1 inch24 inches on center
Hardboard panel sidingIn accordance with Table 2308.6.3(5)

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Buildings shall be provided with exterior and interior braced wall lines as described in Sections 2308.6.1 through 2308.6.10.2.

For the purpose of determining the amount and location of bracing required along each story level of a building, braced wall lines shall be designated as straight lines through the building plan in both the longitudinal and transverse direction and placed in accordance with Table 2308.6.1 and Figure 2308.6.1. Braced wall line spacing shall not exceed the distance specified in Table 2308.6.1. In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D or E, braced wall lines shall intersect perpendicularly to each other.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE 2308.6.1

BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE LATERAL BRACING SYSTEM

TABLE 2308.6.1a

WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYSTORY CONDITION (SEE SECTION 2308.2)MAXIMUM SPACING OF BRACED WALL LINESBRACED PANEL LOCATION, SPACING (O.C.) AND MINIMUM PERCENTAGE (X)MAXIMUM DISTANCE OF BRACED WALL PANELS FROM EACH END OF BRACED WALL LINE
Bracing methodb
LIBDWB, WSPSFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, GBc, d
A and B35'-0″Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c.Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c.Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c.12'- 6″
35'- 0″Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c.Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c.Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c.12'-6″
35'-0″NPEach end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c.Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c.12'-6″
C35'-0″NPEach end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c.Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c.12'-6″
35'-0″NPEach end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c. (minimum 25% of wall length)eEach end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c. (minimum 25% of wall length)e12'-6″
D and E25'-0″NPSDS < 0.50: Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c. (minimum 21% of wall length)eSDS < 0.50: Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c. (minimum 43% of wall length)e8'-0″
0.5 ≤ SDS < 0.75: Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c. (minimum 32% of wall length)e0.5 ≤ SDS < 0.75: Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c. (minimum 59% of wall length)e
0.75 ≤ SDS ≤ 1.00: Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c. (minimum 37% of wall length)e0.75 ≤ SDS ≤ 1.00: Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c. (minimum 75% of wall length)
SDS > 1.00: Each end and ≤ 25'-0″o.c. (minimum 48% of wall length)eSDS > 1.00: Each end and ≤ 25'-0″ o.c. (minimum 100% of wall length)e

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

NP = Not Permitted.

  1. This table specifies minimum requirements for braced wall panels along interior or exterior braced wall lines.
  2. See Section 2308.6.3 for full description of bracing methods.
  3. For Method GB, gypsum wallboard applied to framing supports that are spaced at 16 inches on center.
  4. The required lengths shall be doubled for gypsum board applied to only one face of a braced wall panel.
  5. Percentage shown represents the minimum amount of bracing required along the building length (or wall length if the structure has an irregular shape).
Braced wall panels shall be placed along braced wall lines in accordance with Table 2308.6.1 and Figure 2308.6.1 and as specified in Table 2308.6.3(1). A braced wall panel shall be located at each end of the braced wall line and at the corners of intersecting braced wall lines or shall begin within the maximum distance from the end of the braced wall line in accordance with Table 2308.6.1. Braced wall panels in a braced wall line shall not be offset from each other by more than 4 feet (1219 mm). Braced wall panels shall be clearly indicated on the plans.

Construction of braced wall panels shall be by one or a combination of the methods in Table 2308.6.3(1). Braced wall panel length shall be in accordance with Section 2308.6.4 or 2308.6.5.

TABLE 2308.6.3(1)

BRACING METHODS

METHODS, MATERIALMINIMUM THICKNESSFIGURECONNECTION CRITERIAa
FastenersSpacing
LIBa Let-in-bracing1″ × 4″ wood or approved metal straps attached at 45° to 60° angles to studs at maximum of 16″ o.c.Table 2304.10.1Wood: per stud plus top and bottom plates
Metal strap: installed in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendationsMetal strap: installed in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations
DWB Diagonal wood boards3/4″ thick (1″ nominal) × 6″ minimum width to studs at maximum of 24″ o.c.Table 2304.10.1Per stud
WSP Wood structural panel3/8″ in accordance with Table 2308.6.3(2) or 2308.6.3(3)Table 2304.10.16″ edges 12″ field
SFB Structural fiberboard sheathing1/2″ in accordance with Table 2304.10.1 to studs at maximum 16″ o.c.Table 2304.10.13″ edges 6″ field
GB Gypsum board (Double sided)1/2″ or 5/8″ by a minimum of 4' wide to studs at maximum of 24″ o.c.Section 2506.2 for exterior and interior sheathing: 5d annual ringed cooler nails (15/8″ × 0.086″) or 11/4″ screws (Type W or S) for 1/2″ gypsum board or 15/8″ screws (Type W or S) for 5/8″ gypsum boardFor all braced wall panel locations: 7″ o.c. along panel edges (including top and bottom plates) and 7″ o.c. in the field
PBSParticleboard sheathing3/8″ or 1/2″ in accordance with Table 2308.6.3(4) to studs at maximum of 16″ o.c.6d common (2″ long × 0.113″ dia.) nails for 3/8″ thick sheathing or 8d common (21/2″ long × 0.131″ dia.) nails for 1/2″ thick sheathing3″ edges 6″ field
PCP Portland cement plasterSection 2510 to studs at maximum of 16″ o.c.11/2″ long, 11 gage, 7/16″ dia. head nails or 7/8″ long, 16 gage staples6″ o.c. on all framing members
HPS Hardboard panel siding7/16″ in accordance with Table 2308.6.3(5)Table 2304.10.14″ edges 8″ field
ABW Alternate braced wall3/8Figure 2308.6.5.1 and Section 2308.6.5.1Figure 2308.6.5.1
PFH Portal frame with hold-downs3/8Figure 2308.6.5.2 and Section 2308.6.5.2Figure 2308.6.5.2

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.01745 rad.

  1. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to at least one side with nails or screws.

TABLE 2308.6.3(2)

EXPOSED PLYWOOD PANEL SIDING

MINIMUM THICKNESSa (inch)MINIMUM NUMBER OF PLIESSTUD SPACING (inches) Plywood siding applied directly to studs or over sheathing
3/8316b
1/2424

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Thickness of grooved panels is measured at bottom of grooves.
  2. Spans are permitted to be 24 inches if plywood siding applied with face grain perpendicular to studs or over one of the following: (1) 1-inch board sheathing, (2) 7/16 -inch wood structural panel sheathing or (3) 3/8-inch wood structural panel sheathing with strength axis (which is the long direction of the panel unless otherwise marked) of sheathing perpendicular to studs.

TABLE 2308.6.3(3)

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHINGb (Not Exposed to the Weather, Strength Axis Parallel or Perpendicular to Studs Except as Indicated Below)

MINIMUM THICKNESS (inch)PANEL SPAN RATINGSTUD SPACING (inches)
Siding nailed to studsNailable sheathing
Sheathing parallel to studsSheathing perpendicular to studs
3/8,15/32,1/216/0, 20/0, 24/0, 32/16 Wall—24″ o.c.241624
7/16,15/32,1/224/0, 24/16, 32/16 Wall—24″ o.c.2424a24

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Plywood shall consist of four or more plies.
  2. Blocking of horizontal joints shall not be required except as specified in Section 2308.6.4.

TABLE 2308.6.3(4)

ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHING (Not Exposed to the Weather, Long Dimension of the Panel Parallel or Perpendicular to Studs)

GRADETHICKNESS (inch)STUD SPACING (inches)
Siding nailed to studsSheathing under coverings specified in Section 2308.6.3 parallel or perpendicular to studs
M-S “Exterior Glue”3/816
and M-2 “Exterior Glue”1/21616

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

TABLE 2308.6.3(5)

HARDBOARD SIDING

SIDINGMINIMUM NOMINAL THICKNESS (inch)2 × 4 FRAMING MAXIMUM SPACINGNAIL SIZEa, b, dNAIL SPACING
GeneralBracing panelsc
1. Lap siding
Direct to studs3/816″ o.c.8d16″ o.c.Not applicable
Over sheathing3/816″ o.c.10d16″ o.c.Not applicable
2. Square edge panel siding
Direct to studs3/824″ o.c.6d6″ o.c. edges; 12″ o.c. at intermediate supports4″ o.c. edges; 8″ o.c. at intermediate supports
Over sheathing3/824″ o.c.8d6″ o.c. edges; 12″ o.c. at intermediate supports4″ o.c. edges; 8″ o.c. at intermediate supports
3. Shiplap edge panel siding
Direct to studs3/816″ o.c.6d6″ o.c. edges; 12″ o.c. at intermediate supports4″ o.c. edges; 8″ o.c. at intermediate supports
Over sheathing3/816″ o.c.8d6″ o.c. edges; 12″ o.c. at intermediate supports4″ o.c. edges; 8″ o.c. at intermediate supports

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Nails shall be corrosion resistant.
  2. Minimum acceptable nail dimensions:

    Panel Siding (inch)Lap Siding (inch)
    Shank diameter0.0920.099
    Head diameter0.2250.240
  3. Where used to comply with Section 2308.6.
  4. Nail length must accommodate the sheathing and penetrate framing 11/2 inches.

For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS, each panel must be not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) in length, covering three stud spaces where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center and covering two stud spaces where studs are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center. Braced wall panels less than 48 inches (1219 mm) in length shall not contribute toward the amount of required bracing. Braced wall panels that are longer than the required length shall be credited for their actual length. For Method GB, each panel must be not less than 96 inches (2438 mm) in length where applied to one side of the studs or 48 inches (1219 mm) in length where applied to both sides.

Vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over studs and adjacent panel joints shall be nailed to common framing members. Horizontal joints shall occur over blocking or other framing equal in size to the studding except where waived by the installation requirements for the specific sheathing materials. Sole plates shall be nailed to the floor framing in accordance with Section 2308.6.7 and top plates shall be connected to the framing above in accordance with Section 2308.6.7.2. Where joists are perpendicular to braced wall lines above, blocking shall be provided under and in line with the braced wall panels.

An alternate braced wall (ABW) or a portal frame with hold-downs (PFH) described in this section is permitted to substitute for a 48-inch (1219 mm) braced wall panel of Method DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP or HPS. For Method GB, each 96-inch (2438 mm) section (applied to one face) or 48-inch (1219 mm) section (applied to both faces) or portion thereof required by Table 2308.6.1 is permitted to be replaced by one panel constructed in accordance with Method ABW or PFH

An ABW shall be constructed in accordance with this section and Figure 2308.6.5.1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a length of not less than 2 feet 8 inches (813 mm) and a height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each panel shall be sheathed on one face with 3/8-inch (3.2 mm) minimum-thickness wood structural panel sheathing nailed with 8d common or galvanized box nails in accordance with Table 2304.10.1 and blocked at wood structural panel edges. Two anchor bolts installed in accordance with Section 2308.3.1 shall be provided in each panel. Anchor bolts shall be placed at each panel outside quarter points. Each panel end stud shall have a hold-down device fastened to the foundation, capable of providing an approved uplift capacity of not less than 1,800 pounds (8006 N). The hold-down device shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. The ABW shall be supported directly on a foundation or on floor framing supported directly on a foundation that is continuous across the entire length of the braced wall line. This foundation shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 bar top and bottom. Where the continuous foundation is required to have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a minimum 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305 mm) continuous footing or turned-down slab edge is permitted at door openings in the braced wall line. This continuous footing or turned-down slab edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be lapped 15 inches (381 mm) with the reinforcement required in the continuous foundation located directly under the braced wall line.

Where the ABW is installed at the first story of two-story buildings, the wood structural panel sheathing shall be provided on both faces, three anchor bolts shall be placed at one-quarter points and tie-down device uplift capacity shall be not less than 3,000 pounds (13 344 N).

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE 2308.6.5.1

ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL (ABW)

A PFH shall be constructed in accordance with this section and Figure 2308.6.5.2. The adjacent door or window opening shall have a full-length header.

In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a length of not less than 16 inches (406 mm) and a height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each panel shall be sheathed on one face with a single layer of 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) minimum-thickness wood structural panel sheathing nailed with 8d common or galvanized box nails in accordance with Figure 2308.6.5.2. The wood structural panel sheathing shall extend up over the solid sawn or glued-laminated header and shall be nailed in accordance with Figure 2308.6.5.2. A built-up header consisting of at least two 2-inch by 12-inch (51 mm by 305 mm) boards, fastened in accordance with Item 24 of Table 2304.10.1 shall be permitted to be used. A spacer, if used, shall be placed on the side of the built-up beam opposite the wood structural panel sheathing. The header shall extend between the inside faces of the first full-length outer studs of each panel. The clear span of the header between the inner studs of each panel shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) and not more than 18 feet (5486 mm) in length. A strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds (4,400 N) shall fasten the header to the inner studs opposite the sheathing. One anchor bolt not less than 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) diameter and installed in accordance with Section 2308.3.1 shall be provided in the center of each sill plate. The studs at each end of the panel shall have a hold-down device fastened to the foundation with an uplift capacity of not less than 3,500 pounds (15 570 N).

Where a panel is located on one side of the opening, the header shall extend between the inside face of the first full-length stud of the panel and the bearing studs at the other end of the opening. A strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds (4400 N) shall fasten the header to the bearing studs. The bearing studs shall also have a hold-down device fastened to the foundation with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds (4400 N). The hold-down devices shall be an embedded strap type, installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. The PFH panels shall be supported directly on a foundation that is continuous across the entire length of the braced wall line. This foundation shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 bar top and bottom. Where the continuous foundation is required to have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a minimum 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305 mm) continuous footing or turned-down slab edge is permitted at door openings in the braced wall line. This continuous footing or turned-down slab edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be lapped not less than 15 inches (381 mm) with the reinforcement required in the continuous foundation located directly under the braced wall line.

Where a PFH is installed at the first story of two-story buildings, each panel shall have a length of not less than 24 inches (610 mm).

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N.

FIGURE 2308.6.5.2

PORTAL FRAME WITH HOLD-DOWNS (PFH)

Cripple walls shall be braced in accordance with Section 2308.6.6.1 or 2308.6.6.2.
For the purposes of this section, cripple walls in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C having a stud height exceeding 14 inches (356 mm) shall be considered a story and shall be braced in accordance with Table 2308.6.1. Spacing of edge nailing for required cripple wall bracing shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm) on center along the foundation plate and the top plate of the cripple wall. Nail size, nail spacing for field nailing and more restrictive boundary nailing requirements shall be as required elsewhere in the code for the specific bracing material used.
For the purposes of this section, cripple walls in Seismic Design Categories D and E having a stud height exceeding 14 inches (356 mm) shall be considered a story and shall be braced in accordance with Table 2308.6.1. Where interior braced wall lines occur without a continuous foundation below, the length of parallel exterior cripple wall bracing shall be one and one-half times the lengths required by Table 2308.6.1. Where the cripple wall sheathing type used is Method WSP or DWB and this additional length of bracing cannot be provided, the capacity of WSP or DWB sheathing shall be increased by reducing the spacing of fasteners along the perimeter of each piece of sheathing to 4 inches (102 mm) on center.
Braced wall panel joints shall occur over studs or blocking. Braced wall panels shall be fastened to studs, top and bottom plates and at panel edges. Braced wall panels shall be applied to nominal 2-inch-wide [actual 11/2-inch (38 mm)] or larger stud framing.
Braced wall line bottom plates shall be connected to joists or full-depth blocking below in accordance with Table 2304.10.1, or to foundations in accordance with Section 2308.6.7.3.

Where joists or rafters are used, braced wall line top plates shall be fastened over the full length of the braced wall line to joists, rafters, rim boards or full-depth blocking above in accordance with Table 2304.10.1, as applicable, based on the orientation of the joists or rafters to the braced wall line. Blocking shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in nominal thickness and shall be fastened to the braced wall line top plate as specified in Table 2304.10.1. Notching or drilling of holes in blocking in accordance with the requirements of Section 2308.4.2.4 or 2308.7.4 shall be permitted.

At exterior gable end walls, braced wall panel sheathing in the top story shall be extended and fastened to the roof framing where the spacing between parallel exterior braced wall lines is greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm).

Where roof trusses are used and are installed perpendicular to an exterior braced wall line, lateral forces shall be transferred from the roof diaphragm to the braced wall over the full length of the braced wall line by blocking of the ends of the trusses or by other approved methods providing equivalent lateral force transfer. Blocking shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in nominal thickness and equal to the depth of the truss at the wall line and shall be fastened to the braced wall line top plate as specified in Table 2304.10.1. Notching or drilling of holes in blocking in accordance with the requirements of Section 2308.4.2.4 or 2308.7.4 shall be permitted.

Exception: Where the roof sheathing is greater than 91/4 inches (235 mm) above the top plate, solid blocking is not required where the framing members are connected using one of the following methods:

  1. In accordance with Figure 2308.6.7.2(1).
  2. In accordance with Figure 2308.6.7.2(2).
  3. Full-height engineered blocking panels designed for values listed in AWC WFCM.
  4. A design in accordance with accepted engineering methods.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE 2308.6.7.2(1)

BRACED WALL LINE TOP PLATE CONNECTION

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE 2308.6.7.2(2)

BRACED WALL PANEL TOP PLATE CONNECTION

Where foundations are required by Section 2308.6.8, braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations. Such anchorage shall conform to the requirements of Section 2308.3. The anchors shall be distributed along the length of the braced wall line. Other anchorage devices having equivalent capacity are permitted.
Where all-wood foundations are used, the force transfer from the braced wall lines shall be determined based on calculation and shall have a capacity that is not less than the connections required by Section 2308.3.
Braced wall lines and floor and roof diaphragms shall be supported in accordance with this section.

Braced wall lines shall be supported by continuous foundations.

Exception: For structures with a maximum plan dimension not more than 50 feet (15 240 mm), continuous foundations are required at exterior walls only.

For structures in Seismic Design Categories D and E, exterior braced wall panels shall be in the same plane vertically with the foundation or the portion of the structure containing the offset shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice and Section 2308.1.1.

Exceptions:

  1. Exterior braced wall panels shall be permitted to be located not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the foundation below where supported by a floor constructed in accordance with all of the following:

    1. 1.1. Cantilevers or setbacks shall not exceed four times the nominal depth of the floor joists.
    2. 1.2. Floor joists shall be 2 inches by 10 inches (51 mm by 254 mm) or larger and spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center.
    3. 1.3. The ratio of the back span to the cantilever shall be not less than 2 to 1.
    4. 1.4. Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels shall be doubled.
    5. 1.5. A continuous rim joist shall be connected to the ends of cantilevered joists. The rim joist is permitted to be spliced using a metal tie not less than 0.058 inch (1.47 mm) (16 galvanized gage) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) in width fastened with six 16d common nails on each side. The metal tie shall have a yield stress not less than 33,000 psi (227 MPa).
    6. 1.6. Joists at setbacks or the end of cantilevered joists shall not carry gravity loads from more than a single story having uniform wall and roof loads nor carry the reactions from headers having a span of 8 feet (2438 mm) or more.
  2. The end of a required braced wall panel shall be allowed to extend not more than 1 foot (305 mm) over an opening in the wall below. This requirement is applicable to braced wall panels offset in plane and braced wall panels offset out of plane as permitted by Exception 1. Braced wall panels are permitted to extend over an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) in width where the header is a 4-inch by 12-inch (102 mm by 305 mm) or larger member.

In structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories D or E, floor and roof diaphragms shall be laterally supported by braced wall lines on all edges and connected in accordance with Section 2308.6.7 [see Figure 2308.6.8.2(1)].

Exception: Portions of roofs or floors that do not support braced wall panels above are permitted to extend up to 6 feet (1829 mm) beyond a braced wall line [see Figure 2308.6.8.2(2)] provided that the framing members are connected to the braced wall line below in accordance with Section 2308.6.7.

FIGURE 2308.6.8.2(1)

ROOF IN SDC D OR E NOT SUPPORTED ON ALL EDGES

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE 2308.6.8.2(2)

ROOF EXTENSION IN SDC D OR E BEYOND BRACED WALL LINE

In Seismic Design Categories B, C, D and E, where the height of a required braced wall panel extending from foundation to floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the following construction shall be used:

  1. Where the bottom of the footing is stepped and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to the footings, the sill shall be anchored as required in Section 2308.3.
  2. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to a footing not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be considered to be braced. The double plate of the cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing extending to the lowest framed floor shall be spliced to the sill plate with metal ties, one on each side of the sill and plate. The metal ties shall be not less than 0.058 inch [1.47 mm (16 galvanized gage)] by 11/2 inches (38 mm) in width by 48 inches (1219 mm) with eight 16d common nails on each side of the splice location (see Figure 2308.6.8.3). The metal tie shall have a yield stress not less than 33,000 pounds per square inch (psi) (227 MPa).
  3. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the footing and the lowest floor framing, the bracing requirements for a story shall apply.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE 2308.6.8.3

STEPPED FOOTING CONNECTION DETAILS

Fastening of braced wall panel sheathing shall be not less than that prescribed in Tables 2308.6.1 and 2304.10.1. Wall sheathing shall not be attached to framing members by adhesives.
Concrete or masonry veneer shall comply with Chapter 14 and this section.

In Seismic Design Categories B and C, concrete or masonry walls and stone or masonry veneer shall not extend above a basement.

Exceptions:

  1. In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B, stone and masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first two stories above grade plane or the first three stories above grade plane where the lowest story has concrete or masonry walls, provided that wood structural panel wall bracing is used and the length of bracing provided is one and one-half times the required length specified in Table 2308.6.1.
  2. Stone and masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first story above grade plane or the first two stories above grade plane where the lowest story has concrete or masonry walls.
  3. Stone and masonry veneer is permitted to be used in both stories of buildings with two stories above grade plane, provided the following criteria are met:

    1. 3.1. Type of brace in accordance with Section 2308.6.1 shall be WSP and the allowable shear capacity in accordance with Section 2306.3 shall be not less than 350 plf (5108 N/m).
    2. 3.2. Braced wall panels in the second story shall be located in accordance with Section 2308.6.1 and not more than 25 feet (7620 mm) on center, and the total length of braced wall panels shall be not less than 25 percent of the braced wall line length. Braced wall panels in the first story shall be located in accordance with Section 2308.6.1 and not more than 25 feet (7620 mm) on center, and the total length of braced wall panels shall be not less than 45 percent of the braced wall line length.
    3. 3.3. Hold-down connectors with an allowable capacity of 2,000 pounds (8896 N) shall be provided at the ends of each braced wall panel for the second story to the first story connection. Hold-down connectors with an allowable capacity of 3,900 pounds (17 347 N) shall be provided at the ends of each braced wall panel for the first story to the foundation connection. In all cases, the hold-down connector force shall be transferred to the foundation.
    4. 3.4. Cripple walls shall not be permitted.

In Seismic Design Categories D and E, concrete or masonry walls and stone or masonry veneer shall not extend above a basement.

Exception: In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, stone and masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first story above grade plane, provided the following criteria are met:

  1. Type of brace in accordance with Section 2308.6.1 shall be WSP and the allowable shear capacity in accordance with Section 2306.3 shall be not less than 350 plf (5108 N/m).
  2. The braced wall panels in the first story shall be located at each end of the braced wall line and not more than 25 feet (7620 mm) on center, and the total length of braced wall panels shall be not less than 45 percent of the braced wall line length.
  3. Hold-down connectors shall be provided at the ends of braced walls for the first floor to foundation with an allowable capacity of 2,100 pounds (9341 N).
  4. Cripple walls shall not be permitted.
The framing details required in this section apply to roofs having a slope of not less than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope). Where the roof slope is less than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope), members supporting rafters and ceiling joists such as ridge board, hips and valleys shall be designed as beams.

Spans for ceiling joists shall be in accordance with Table 2308.7.1(1) or 2308.7.1(2). For other grades and species, and other loading conditions, refer to the AWC STJR.

TABLE 2308.7.1(1)

CEILING JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Uninhabitable Attics Without Storage, Live Load = 10 psf, L/Δ = 240)

CEILING JOIST SPACING (inches)SPECIES AND GRADEDEAD LOAD = 5 psf
2 × 42 × 62 × 82 × 10
Maximum ceiling joist spans
(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)
12Douglas Fir-LarchSS13-220-8Note aNote a
Douglas Fir-Larch#112-819-11Note aNote a
Douglas Fir-Larch#212-519-625-8Note a
Douglas Fir-Larch#310-1015-1020-124-6
Hem-FirSS12-519-625-8Note a
Hem-Fir#112-219-125-2Note a
Hem-Fir#211-718-224-0Note a
Hem-Fir#310-1015-1020-124-6
Southern PineSS12-1120-3Note aNote a
Southern Pine#112-519-625-8Note a
Southern Pine#211-1018-824-7Note a
Southern Pine#310-114-1118-922-9
Spruce-Pine-FirSS12-219-125-2Note a
Spruce-Pine-Fir#111-1018-824-7Note a
Spruce-Pine-Fir#211-1018-824-7Note a
Spruce-Pine-Fir#310-1015-1020-124-6
16Douglas Fir-LarchSS11-1118-924-8Note a
Douglas Fir-Larch#111-618-123-10Note a
Douglas Fir-Larch#211-317-823-0Note a
Douglas Fir-Larch#39-513-917-521-3
Hem-FirSS11-317-823-4Note a
Hem-Fir#111-017-422-10Note a
Hem-Fir#210-616-621-9Note a
Hem-Fir#39-513-917-521-3
Southern PineSS11-918-524-3Note a
Southern Pine#111-317-823-4Note a
Southern Pine#210-916-1121-725-7
Southern Pine#38-912-1116-319-9
Spruce-Pine-FirSS11-017-422-10Note a
Spruce-Pine-Fir#110-916-1122-4Note a
Spruce-Pine-Fir#210-916-1122-4Note a
Spruce-Pine-Fir#39-513-917-521-3
19.2Douglas Fir-LarchSS11-317-823-3Note a
Douglas Fir-Larch#110-1017-022-5Note a
Douglas Fir-Larch#210-716-721-025-8
Douglas Fir-Larch#38-712-615-1019-5
Hem-FirSS10-716-821-11Note a
Hem-Fir#110-416-421-6Note a
Hem-Fir#29-1115-720-625-3
Hem-Fir#38-712-615-1019-5
Southern PineSS11-017-422-10Note a
Southern Pine#110-716-822-0Note a
Southern Pine#210-215-719-823-5
Southern Pine#38-011-914-1018-0
Spruce-Pine-FirSS10-416-421-6Note a
Spruce-Pine-Fir#110-215-1121-025-8
Spruce-Pine-Fir#210-215-1121-025-8
Spruce-Pine-Fir#38-712-615-1019-5
24Douglas Fir-LarchSS10-516-421-7Note a
Douglas Fir-Larch#110-015-920-124-6
Douglas Fir-Larch#29-1014-1018-922-11
Douglas Fir-Larch#37-811-214-217-4
Hem-FirSS9-1015-620-5Note a
Hem-Fir#19-815-219-723-11
Hem-Fir#29-214-518-622-7
Hem-Fir#37-811-214-217-4
Southern PineSS10-316-121-2Note a
Southern Pine#19-1015-620-524-0
Southern Pine#29-313-1117-720-11
Southern Pine#37-210-613-316-1
Spruce-Pine-FirSS9-815-219-1125-5
Spruce-Pine-Fir#19-514-918-922-11
Spruce-Pine-Fir#29-514-918-922-11
Spruce-Pine-Fir#37-811-214-217-4

Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Span exceeds 26 feet in length.

TABLE 2308.7.1(2)

CEILING JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Uninhabitable Attics With Limited Storage, Live Load = 20 psf, L/Δ = 240)

CEILING JOIST SPACING (inches)SPECIES AND GRADEDEAD LOAD = 10 psf
2 × 42 × 62 × 82 × 10
Maximum ceiling joist spans
(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)
12Douglas Fir-LarchSS10-516-421-7Note a
Douglas Fir-Larch#110-015-920-124-6
Douglas Fir-Larch#29-1014-1018-922-11
Douglas Fir-Larch#37-811-214-217-4
Hem-FirSS9-1015-620-5Note a
Hem-Fir#19-815-219-723-11
Hem-Fir#29-214-518-622-7
Hem-Fir#37-811-214-217-4
Southern PineSS10-316-121-2Note a
Southern Pine#19-1015-620-524-0
Southern Pine#29-313-1117-720-11
Southern Pine#37-210-613-316-1
Spruce-Pine-FirSS9-815-219-1125-5
Spruce-Pine-Fir#19-514-918-922-11
Spruce-Pine-Fir#29-514-918-922-11
Spruce-Pine-Fir#37-811-214-217-4
16Douglas Fir-LarchSS9-614-1119-725-0
Douglas Fir-Larch#19-113-917-521-3
Douglas Fir-Larch#28-912-1016-319-10
Douglas Fir-Larch#36-89-812-415-0
Hem-FirSS8-1114-118-623-8
Hem-Fir#18-913-516-1020-8
Hem-Fir#28-412-816-019-7
Hem-Fir#36-89-812-415-0
Southern PineSS9-414-719-324-7
Southern Pine#18-1114-017-920-9
Southern Pine#28-012-015-318-1
Southern Pine#36-29-211-614-0
Spruce-Pine-FirSS8-913-918-123-1
Spruce-Pine-Fir#18-712-1016-319-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir#28-712-1016-319-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir#36-89-812-415-0
19.2Douglas Fir-LarchSS8-1114-018-523-4
Douglas Fir-Larch#18-712-615-1019-5
Douglas Fir-Larch#28-011-914-1018-2
Douglas Fir-Larch#36-18-1011-313-8
Hem-FirSS8-513-317-522-3
Hem-Fir#18-312-315-618-11
Hem-Fir#27-1011-714-817-10
Hem-Fir#36-18-1011-313-8
Southern PineSS8-913-918-223-1
Southern Pine#18-512-916-218-11
Southern Pine#27-411-013-1116-6
Southern Pine#35-88-410-612-9
Spruce-Pine-FirSS8-312-1117-121-8
Spruce-Pine-Fir#18-011-914-1018-2
Spruce-Pine-Fir#28-011-914-1018-2
Spruce-Pine-Fir#36-18-1011-313-8
24Douglas Fir-LarchSS8-313-017-120-11
Douglas Fir-Larch#17-811-214-217-4
Douglas Fir-Larch#27-210-613-316-3
Douglas Fir-Larch#35-57-1110-012-3
Hem-FirSS7-1012-316-220-6
Hem-Fir#17-610-1113-1016-11
Hem-Fir#27-110-413-116-0
Hem-Fir#35-57-1110-012-3
Southern PineSS8-112-916-1021-6
Southern Pine#17-811-514-616-11
Southern Pine#26-79-1012-614-9
Southern Pine#35-17-59-511-5
Spruce-Pine-FirSS7-812-015-1019-5
Spruce-Pine-Fir#17-210-613-316-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir#27-210-613-316-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir#35-57-1110-012-3

Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Span exceeds 26 feet in length.

Spans for rafters shall be in accordance with Table 2308.7.2(1), 2308.7.2(2), 2308.7.2(3), 2308.7.2(4), 2308.7.2(5) or 2308.7.2(6). For other grades and species and other loading conditions, refer to the AWC STJR. The span of each rafter shall be measured along the horizontal projection of the rafter.

TABLE 2308.7.2(1)

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Roof Live Load = 20 psf, Ceiling Not Attached to Rafters, L/Δ = 180)

RAFTER SPACING (inches)SPECIES AND GRADEDEAD LOAD = 10 psfDEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2 × 42 × 62 × 82 × 102 × 122 × 42 × 62 × 82 × 102 × 12
Maximum rafter spansa
(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)
12Douglas Fir-LarchSS11-618-023-9Note bNote b11-618-023-5Note bNote b
Douglas Fir-Larch#111-117-422-5Note bNote b10-615-419-523-9Note b
Douglas Fir-Larch#210-1016-721-025-8Note b9-1014-418-222-325-9
Douglas Fir-Larch#38-712-615-1019-522-67-510-1013-916-919-6
Hem-FirSS10-1017-022-5Note bNote b10-1017-022-5Note bNote b
Hem-Fir#110 -716-821-10Note bNote b10-314-1118-1123-2Note b
Hem-Fir#210-115-1120-825-3Note b9-814-217-1121-1125-5
Hem-Fir#38-712-615-1019-522-67-510-1013-916-919-6
Southern PineSS11-317-823-4Note bNote b11-317-823-4Note bNote b
Southern Pine#110-1017-022-526-026-010-615-819-1023-2Note b
Southern Pine#210-415-719-823-526-09-013-617-120-323-10
Southern Pine#38-011-914-1018-021-46-1110-212-1015-718-6
Spruce-Pine-FirSS10-716-821-11Note bNote b10-716-821-9Note bNote b
Spruce-Pine-Fir#110-416-321-025-8Note b9-1014-418-222-325-9
Spruce-Pine-Fir#210-416-321-025-8Note b9-1014-418-222-325-9
Spruce-Pine-Fir#38-712-615-1019-522-67-510-1013-916-919-6
16Douglas Fir-LarchSS10-516-421-7Note bNote b10-516-020-324-9Note b
Douglas Fir-Larch#110-015-419-523-9Note b9-113-316-1020-723-10
Douglas Fir-Larch#29-1014-418-222-325-98-612-515-919-322-4
Douglas Fir-Larch#37-510-1013-916-919-66-59-511-1114-616-10
Hem-FirSS9-1015-620-5Note bNote b9-1015-619-1124-4Note b
Hem-Fir#19-814-1118-1123-2Note b8-1012-1116-520-023-3
Hem-Fir#29-214-217-1121-1125-58-512-315-618-1122-0
Hem-Fir#37-510-1013-916-919-66-59-511-1114-616-10
Southern PineSS10-316-121-2Note bNote b10-316-121-225-7Note b
Southern Pine#19-1015-619-1023-226-09-113-717-220-123-10
Southern Pine#29-013-617-120-323-107-911-814-917-620-8
Southern Pine#36-1110-212-1015-718-66-08-1011-213-616-0
Spruce-Pine-FirSS9-815-219-1125-5Note b9-814-1018-1023-0Note b
Spruce-Pine-Fir#19-514-418-222-325-98-612-515-919-322-4
Spruce-Pine-Fir#29-514-418-222-325-98-612-515-919-322-4
Spruce-Pine-Fir#37-510-1013-916-919-66-59-511-1114-616-10
19.2Douglas Fir-LarchSS9-1015-520-425-11Note b9-1014-718-622-7Note b
Douglas Fir-Larch#19-514-017-921-825-28-412-215-418-921-9
Douglas Fir-Larch#28-1113-116-720-323-67-911-414-417-720-4
Douglas Fir-Larch#36-99-1112-715-417-95-108-710-1013-315-5
Hem-FirSS9-314-719-224-6Note b9-314-418-222-325-9
Hem-Fir#19-113-817-421-124-68-111-1015-018-421-3
Hem-Fir#28-812-1116-420-023-27-811-214-217-420-1
Hem-Fir#36-99-1112-715-417-95-108-710-1013-315-5
Southern PineSS9-815-219-1125-5Note b9-815-219-723-4Note b
Southern Pine#19-314-318-121-225-28-412-415-818-421-9
Southern Pine#28-212-315-718-621-97-110-813-616-018-10
Southern Pine#36-49-411-914-316-105-68-110-212-414-7
Spruce-Pine-FirSS9-114-318-923-11Note b9-113-717-221-024-4
Spruce-Pine-Fir#18-1013-116-720-323-67-911-414-417-720-4
Spruce-Pine-Fir#28-1013-116-720-323-67-911-414-417-720-4
Spruce-Pine-Fir#36-99-1112-715-417-95-108-710-1013-315-5
24Douglas Fir-LarchSS9-114-418-1023-4Note b8-1113-116-720-323-5
Douglas Fir-Larch#18-712-615-1019-522-67-510-1013-916-919-6
Douglas Fir-Larch#28-011-914-1018-221-06-1110-212-1015-818-3
Douglas Fir-Larch#36-18-1011-313-815-115-37-89-911-1013-9
Hem-FirSS8-713-617-1022-9Note b8-712-1016-319-1023-0
Hem-Fir#18-412-315-618-1121-117-310-713-516-419-0
Hem-Fir#27-1111-714-817-1020-96-1010-012-815-617-11
Hem-Fir#36-18-1011-313-8