CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2015 (IBC 2015)

Copyright

Preface

Acknowledgements

California Code of Regulations, Title 24

How to Distinguish Between Model Code Language and California Amendments

Effective Use of the International Building Code

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 16A Structural Design

Chapter 17 Special Inspections and Tests

Chapter 17A Special Inspections and Tests

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 18A Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 19A Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 21A Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 22A Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board, Gypsum Panel Products and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 31A Systems for Window Cleaning or Exterior Building Maintenance

Chapter 31B [DPH] Public Pools

Chapter 31C [DPH] Radiation

Chapter 31D [DPH] Food Establishments

Chapter 31E Reserved

Chapter 31F [SLC] Marine Oil Terminals

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 34A Existing Structures

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Employee Qualifications

Appendix B Board of Appeals

Appendix C Group U—agricultural Buildings

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Reserved

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Signs

History Note Appendix

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Grading

Appendix K Group R-3 and Group R-3.1 Occupancies Protected by the Facilities of the Central Valley Flood Protection Plan

Appendix L Earthquake Recording Instrumentation

Appendix M Tsunami-Generated Flood Hazard

Italics are used for text within Sections 1903 through 1905 of this code to indicate provisions that differ from ACI 318.

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, quality control, design and construction of concrete used in structures.

The scope of application of Chapter 19 is as follows:

Community college buildings regulated by the Division of the State Architect—Structural Safety/Community Colleges (DSA-SS/CC), as listed in Section 1.9.2.2.

DSA-SS/CC adopts this chapter and all amendments.

Exceptions: Amendments adopted by only one agency appear in this chapter preceded with the appropriate acronym of the adopting agency, as follows:

Division of the State Architect—Structural Safety/Community Colleges:

[DSA-SS/CC] For applications listed in Section 1.9.2.2.

[DSA-SS/CC] Where reference within this chapter is made to sections in Chapters 17 and 18, the provisions in Chapters 17A, and 18A respectively shall apply instead.

[DSA-SS/CC] See Section 1909 for additional requirements applicable to community colleges.

Structural concrete shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter and ACI 318 as amended in Section 1905 of this code. Except for the provisions of Sections 1904 and 1907, the design and construction of slabs on grade shall not be governed by this chapter unless they transmit vertical loads or lateral forces from other parts of the structure to the soil.
Anchoring to concrete shall be in accordance with ACI 318 as amended in Section 1905, and applies to cast-in (headed bolts, headed studs and hooked J- or L-bolts), post-installed expansion (torque-controlled and displacement-controlled), undercut and adhesive anchors.

[OSHPD 2] Power actuated fasteners qualified in accordance with ICC-ES AC 70 shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of ASCE 7 Section 13.4.5.

Power actuated fasteners shall be permitted in seismic shear for components exempt from construction documents review by ASCE 7 Section 13.1.4 and for interior non-bearing non-shear wall partitions only. Power actuated fastener shall not be used to anchor seismic bracing, exterior cladding or curtain wall systems.

Exception: Power actuated fasteners in steel to steel connections prequalified for seismic application by cyclic tests in accordance with ICC-ES AC 70 shall be permitted for seismic design.

[OSHPD 2] Mechanical anchors qualified in accordance with ICC-ES AC 193 shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this section.

Specialty inserts, including cast-in-place specialty inserts, tested in accordance with ICC-ES AC 232 or AC 446 shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this section.

[OSHPD 2] Adhesive anchors qualified in accordance with ICC-ES AC 308 shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this section.

[OSHPD 2] When post-installed anchors are used in lieu of cast-in place bolts, the installation verification test loads, frequency, and acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with this section.

Test loads or torques and acceptance criteria shall be shown on the construction documents.

If any anchor fails testing, all anchors of the same type shall be tested, which are installed by the same trade, not previously tested until twenty (20) consecutive anchors pass, then resume the initial test frequency.

The test procedure shall be as permitted by an approved evaluation report using criteria adopted in this code. All post-installed anchors shall be tension tested.

Exception: Torque controlled post installed anchors shall be permitted to be tested using torque based on an approved test report using criteria adopted in this code.

Alternatively, manufacturer’s recommendation for testing may be approved by the enforcement agency based on an approved test report using criteria adopted in this code.

When post-installed anchors are used for sill plate bolting applications, 10 percent of the anchors shall be tested.

When post-installed anchors are used for other structural applications, all such anchors shall be tested.

When post-installed anchors are used for nonstructural components, such as equipment anchorage, 50 percent or alternate bolts in a group, including at least one-half the anchors in each group, shall be tested.

The testing of the post-installed anchors shall be done in the presence of the special inspector and a report of the test results shall be submitted to the enforcement agency.

Exceptions:

  1. Undercut anchors that allow visual confirmation of full set shall not require testing.
  2. Where the factored design tension on anchors is less than 100 lbs and those anchors are clearly noted on the approved construction documents, only 10 percent of those anchors shall be tested.
  3. Where adhesive anchor systems are used to install reinforcing dowel bars in hardened concrete, only 25 percent of the dowels shall be tested if all of the following conditions are met:

    1. The dowels are used exclusively to transmit shear forces across joints between existing and new concrete.
    2. The number of dowels in any one member equals or exceeds twelve (12).
    3. The dowels are uniformly distributed across seismic force resisting members (such as shear walls, collectors, and diaphragms).

    Anchors to be tested shall be selected at random by the special inspector/inspector of record (IOR).

  4. Testing of shear dowels across cold joints in slabs on grade, where the slab is not part of the lateral force-resisting system shall not be required.
  5. Testing is not required for power actuated fasteners used to attach tracks of interior non-shear wall partitions for shear only, where there are at least three fasteners per segment of track.

Required test loads shall be determined by one of the following methods:

  1. Twice the maximum allowable tension load or one and a quarter (11/4) times the maximum design strength of anchors as provided in approved evaluation report using criteria adopted in this code or determined in accordance with Chapter 17 of ACI 318.

    Tension test load need not exceed 80 percent of the nominal yield strength of the anchor element (= 0.8 Ase fya).

  2. The manufacturer’s recommended installation torque based on approved evaluation report using criteria adopted in this code.

Acceptance criteria for post-installed anchors shall be based on approved evaluation report using criteria adopted in this code. Field test shall satisfy following minimum requirements.

  1. Hydraulic ram method:

    Anchors tested with a hydraulic jack or spring loaded devices shall maintain the test load for a minimum of 15 seconds and shall exhibit no discernable movement during the tension test, e.g., as evidenced by loosening of the washer under the nut.

    For adhesive anchors, where other than bond is being tested, the testing device shall not restrict the concrete shear cone type failure mechanism from occurring.

  2. Torque wrench method:

    Torque-controlled post-installed anchors tested with a calibrated torque wrench shall attain the specified torque within 1/2 turn of the nut; or one-quarter (1/4) turn of the nut for a 3/8-inch sleeve anchor only.

Systems of structural steel acting compositely with reinforced concrete shall be designed in accordance with Section 2206 of this code.

The construction documents for structural concrete construction shall include:

  1. The specified compressive strength of concrete at the stated ages or stages of construction for which each concrete element is designed.
  2. The specified strength or grade of reinforcement.
  3. The size and location of structural elements, reinforcement and anchors.
  4. Provision for dimensional changes resulting from creep, shrinkage and temperature.
  5. The magnitude and location of prestressing forces.
  6. Anchorage length of reinforcement and location and length of lap splices.
  7. Type and location of mechanical and welded splices of reinforcement.
  8. Details and location of contraction or isolation joints specified for plain concrete.
  9. Minimum concrete compressive strength at time of posttensioning.
  10. Stressing sequence for posttensioning tendons.
  11. For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F, a statement if slab on grade is designed as a structural diaphragm.
Special inspections and tests of concrete elements of buildings and structures and concreting operations shall be as required by Chapter 17.
The words and terms defined in ACI 318 shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code for concrete construction, have the meanings shown in ACI 318 as modified by Section 1905.1.1.

Materials used to produce concrete, concrete itself and testing thereof shall comply with the applicable standards listed in ACI 318.

Exception: The following standards as referenced in Chapter 35 shall be permitted to be used.

  1. ASTM C150
  2. ASTM C595
  3. ASTM C1157
Where required, special inspections and tests shall be in accordance with Chapter 17.
Glass fiber-reinforced concrete (GFRC) and the materials used in such concrete shall be in accordance with the PCI MNL 128 standard.
Insulating concrete form material used for forming flat concrete walls shall conform to ASTM E2634.

Structural concrete shall conform to the durability requirements of ACI 318.

Exception: For Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies not more than three stories above grade plane, the specified compressive strength, f'c, for concrete in basement walls, foundation walls, exterior walls and other vertical surfaces exposed to the weather shall be not less than 3,000 psi (20.7 MPa).

The registered design professional shall assign nonstructural concrete a freeze-thaw exposure class, as defined in ACI 318, based on the anticipated exposure of nonstructural concrete. Nonstructural concrete shall have a minimum specified compressive strength, f'c, of 2,500 psi (17.2 MPa) for Class F0; 3,000 psi (20.7 MPa) for Class F1; and 3,500 psi (24.1 MPa) for Classes F2 and F3. Nonstructural concrete shall be air entrained in accordance with ACI 318.
The text of ACI 318 shall be modified as indicated in Sections 1905.1.1 through 1905.1.8.

Modify existing definitions and add the following definitions to ACI 318, Section 2.3.

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. Total lateral displacement expected for the design-basis earthquake, as specified by Section 12.8.6 of ASCE 7.

DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. A wall complying with the requirements of Chapter 14, including 14.6.2.

ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL. A precast wall complying with the requirements of Chapters 1 through 13, 15, 16 and 19 through 26.

ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. A cast-in-place wall complying with the requirements of Chapters 1 through 13, 15, 16 and 19 through 26.

ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE WALL. A wall complying with the requirements of Chapter 14, excluding 14.6.2.

SPECIAL STRUCTURAL WALL. A cast-in-place or precast wall complying with the requirements of 18.2.4 through 18.2.8, 18.10 and 18.11, as applicable, in addition to the requirements for ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls or ordinary precast structural walls, as applicable. Where ASCE 7 refers to a “special reinforced concrete structural wall,” it shall be deemed to mean a “special structural wall.”

Modify ACI 318 Sections 18.2.1.2 and 18.2.1.6 to read as follows:

18.2.1.2Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A shall satisfy requirements of Chapters 1 through 17 and 19 through 26; Chapter 18 does not apply. Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B, C, D, E or F also shall satisfy 18.2.1.3 through 18.2.1.7, as applicable. Except for structural elements of plain concrete complying with Section 1905.1.7 of the California Building Code, structural elements of plain concrete are prohibited in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F.

18.2.1.6 – Structural systems designated as part of the seismic force-resisting system shall be restricted to those permitted by ASCE 7. Except for Seismic Design Category A, for which Chapter 18 does not apply, the following provisions shall be satisfied for each structural system designated as part of the seismic force-resisting system, regardless of the seismic design category:

  1. Ordinary moment frames shall satisfy 18.3.
  2. Ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls and ordinary precast structural walls need not satisfy any provisions in Chapter 18.
  3. Intermediate moment frames shall satisfy 18.4.
  4. Intermediate precast structural walls shall satisfy 18.5.
  5. Special moment frames shall satisfy 18.6 through 18.9.
  6. Special structural walls shall satisfy 18.10.
  7. Special structural walls constructed using pre-cast concrete shall satisfy 18.11.

All special moment frames and special structural walls shall also satisfy 18.2.4 through 18.2.8.

Modify ACI 318, Section 18.5, by adding new Section 18.5.2.2 and renumbering existing Sections 18.5.2.2 and 18.5.2.3 to become 18.5.2.3 and 18.5.2.4, respectively.

18.5.2.2 – Connections that are designed to yield shall be capable of maintaining 80 percent of their design strength at the deformation induced by the design displacement or shall use Type 2 mechanical splices.

18.5.2.3 – Elements of the connection that are not designed to yield the required strength shall be based on 1.5 Sy of the yielding portion of the connection.

18.5.2.4 – In structures assigned to SDC D, E or F, wall piers shall be designed in accordance with 18.10.8 or 18.14 in ACI 318.

Modify ACI 318, Section 18.11.2.1, to read as follows:

18.11.2.1 – Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete shall satisfy all the requirements of 18.10 for cast-in-place special structural walls in addition to 18.5.2.

Modify ACI 318, Section 18.13.1.1, to read as follows:

18.13.1.1 – Foundations resisting earthquake-induced forces or transferring earthquake-induced forces between a structure and ground shall comply with the requirements of 18.13 and other applicable provisions of ACI 318 unless modified by Chapter 18 of the California Building Code.

Modify ACI 318, Section 14.6, by adding new Section 14.6.2 to read as follows:

14.6.2 – Detailed plain concrete structural walls.

14.6.2.1 – Detailed plain concrete structural walls are walls conforming to the requirements of ordinary structural plain concrete walls and 14.6.2.2.

14.6.2.2 – Reinforcement shall be provided as follows:

  1. Vertical reinforcement of at least 0.20 square inch (129 mm2) in cross-sectional area shall be provided continuously from support to support at each corner, at each side of each opening and at the ends of walls. The continuous vertical bar required beside an opening is permitted to substitute for one of the two No. 5 bars required by 14.6.1.
  2. Horizontal reinforcement at least 0.20 square inch (129 mm2) in cross-sectional area shall be provided:

    1. Continuously at structurally connected roof and floor levels and at the top of walls;
    2. At the bottom of load-bearing walls or in the top of foundations where doweled to the wall; and
    3. At a maximum spacing of 120 inches (3048 mm).

    Reinforcement at the top and bottom of openings, where used in determining the maximum spacing specified in Item 3 above, shall be continuous in the wall.

Delete ACI 318, Section 14.1.4, and replace with the following:

14.1.4 – Plain concrete in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F.

14.1.4.1 – Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F shall not have elements of structural plain concrete, except as follows:

  1. Structural plain concrete basement, foundation or other walls below the base as defined in ASCE 7 are permitted in detached one- and two-family dwellings three stories or less in height constructed with stud-bearing walls. In dwellings assigned to Seismic Design Category D or E, the height of the wall shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm), the thickness shall be not less than 71/2 inches (190 mm), and the wall shall retain no more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced fill. Walls shall have reinforcement in accordance with 14.6.1.
  2. Isolated footings of plain concrete supporting pedestals or columns are permitted, provided the projection of the footing beyond the face of the supported member does not exceed the footing thickness.

    Exception: In detached one- and two-family dwellings three stories or less in height, the projection of the footing beyond the face of the supported member is permitted to exceed the footing thickness.

  3. Plain concrete footings supporting walls are permitted, provided the footings have at least two continuous longitudinal reinforcing bars. Bars shall not be smaller than No. 4 and shall have a total area of not less than 0.002 times the gross cross-sectional area of the footing. For footings that exceed 8 inches (203 mm) in thickness, a minimum of one bar shall be provided at the top and bottom of the footing. Continuity of reinforcement shall be provided at corners and intersections.

    Exceptions:

    1. In Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, detached one- and two-family dwellings three stories or less in height constructed with stud-bearing walls are permitted to have plain concrete footings without longitudinal reinforcement.
    2. For foundation systems consisting of a plain concrete footing and a plain concrete stemwall, a minimum of one bar shall be provided at the top of the stemwall and at the bottom of the footing.
    3. Where a slab on ground is cast monolithically with the footing, one No. 5 bar is permitted to be located at either the top of the slab or bottom of the footing.

Modify ACI 318 Sections 17.2.3.4.2, 17.2.3.4.3(d) and 17.2.3.5.2 to read as follows:

17.2.3.4.2 – Where the tensile component of the strength-level earthquake force applied to anchors exceeds 20 percent of the total factored anchor tensile force associated with the same load combination, anchors and their attachments shall be designed in accordance with 17.2.3.4.3. The anchor design tensile strength shall be determined in accordance with 17.2.3.4.4.

Exception: Anchors designed to resist wall out-of-plane forces with design strengths equal to or greater than the force determined in accordance with ASCE 7 Equation 12.11-1 or 12.14-10 and Section 1604.8.2 of this code shall be deemed to satisfy Section 17.2.3.4.3(d).

17.2.3.4.3(d) – The anchor or group of anchors shall be designed for the maximum tension obtained from design load combinations that include E, with E increased by Ω0. The anchor design tensile strength shall be calculated from 17.2.3.4.4.

17.2.3.5.2 – Where the shear component of the strength-level earthquake force applied to anchors exceeds 20 percent of the total factored anchor shear force associated with the same load combination, anchors and their attachments shall be designed in accordance with 17.2.3.5.3. The anchor design shear strength for resisting earthquake forces shall be determined in accordance with 17.5.

Exceptions:

  1. For the calculation of the in-plane shear strength of anchor bolts attaching wood sill plates of bearing or nonbearing walls of light-frame wood structures to foundations or foundation stem walls, the in-plane shear strength in accordance with 17.5.2 and 17.5.3 need not be computed and 17.2.3.5.3 shall be deemed to be satisfied provided all of the following are met:

    1. 1.1. The allowable in-plane shear strength of the anchor is determined in accordance with AWC NDS Table 11E for lateral design values parallel to grain.
    2. 1.2. The maximum anchor nominal diameter is 5/8 inch (16 mm).
    3. 1.3. Anchor bolts are embedded into concrete a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm).
    4. 1.4. Anchor bolts are located a minimum of 13/4 inches (45 mm) from the edge of the concrete parallel to the length of the wood sill plate.
    5. 1.5. Anchor bolts are located a minimum of 15 anchor diameters from the edge of the concrete perpendicular to the length of the wood sill plate.
    6. 1.6. The sill plate is 2-inch (51 mm) or 3-inch (76 mm) nominal thickness.
  2. For the calculation of the in-plane shear strength of anchor bolts attaching cold-formed steel track of bearing or nonbearing walls of light-frame construction to foundations or foundation stem walls, the in-plane shear strength in accordance with 17.5.2 and 17.5.3 need not be computed and 17.2.3.5.3 shall be deemed to be satisfied provided all of the following are met:

    1. 2.1. The maximum anchor nominal diameter is 5/8 inch (16 mm).
    2. 2.2. Anchors are embedded into concrete a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm).
    3. 2.3. Anchors are located a minimum of 13/4 inches (45 mm) from the edge of the concrete parallel to the length of the track.
    4. 2.4. Anchors are located a minimum of 15 anchor diameters from the edge of the concrete perpendicular to the length of the track.
    5. 2.5. The track is 33 to 68 mil (0.84 mm to 1.73 mm) designation thickness.

    Allowable in-plane shear strength of exempt anchors, parallel to the edge of concrete, shall be permitted to be determined in accordance with AISI S100 Section E3.3.1.

  3. In light-frame construction bearing or non-bearing walls, shear strength of concrete anchors less than or equal to 1 inch [25 mm] in diameter attaching sill plate or track to foundation or foundation stem wall need not satisfy 17.2.3.5.3(a) through (c) when the design strength of the anchors is determined in accordance with 17.5.2.1(c).

The design and construction of structural plain concrete, both cast-in-place and precast, shall comply with the minimum requirements of ACI 318, as modified in Section 1905.

Exception: For Group R-3 occupancies and buildings of other occupancies less than two stories above grade plane of light-frame construction, the required footing thickness of ACI 318 is permitted to be reduced to 6 inches (152 mm), provided that the footing does not extend more than 4 inches (102 mm) on either side of the supported wall.

The thickness of concrete floor slabs supported directly on the ground shall not be less than 31/2 inches (89 mm). A 6-mil (0.006 inch; 0.15 mm) polyethylene vapor retarder with joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed between the base course or subgrade and the concrete floor slab, or other approved equivalent methods or materials shall be used to retard vapor transmission through the floor slab.

Exception: A vapor retarder is not required:

  1. For detached structures accessory to occupancies in Group R-3, such as garages, utility buildings or other unheated facilities.
  2. For unheated storage rooms having an area of less than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) and carports attached to occupancies in Group R-3.
  3. For buildings of other occupancies where migration of moisture through the slab from below will not be detrimental to the intended occupancy of the building.
  4. For driveways, walks, patios and other flatwork that will not be enclosed at a later date.
  5. Where approved based on local site conditions.

When a vapor retarder is required, a capillary break shall be installed in accordance with the California Green Building Standards Code (CALGreen), Chapter 4, Division 4.5.

Shotcrete is mortar or concrete that is pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a surface. Except as specified in this section, shotcrete shall conform to the requirements of this chapter for plain or reinforced concrete.
Shotcrete proportions shall be selected that allow suitable placement procedures using the delivery equipment selected and shall result in finished in-place hardened shotcrete meeting the strength requirements of this code.
Coarse aggregate, if used, shall not exceed 3/4 inch (19.1 mm).
Reinforcement used in shotcrete construction shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1908.4.1 through 1908.4.4.
The maximum size of reinforcement shall be No. 5 bars unless it is demonstrated by preconstruction tests that adequate encasement of larger bars will be achieved.

When No. 5 or smaller bars are used, there shall be a minimum clearance between parallel reinforcement bars of 21/2 inches (64 mm). When bars larger than No. 5 are permitted, there shall be a minimum clearance between parallel bars equal to six diameters of the bars used. When two curtains of steel are provided, the curtain nearer the nozzle shall have a minimum spacing equal to 12 bar diameters and the remaining curtain shall have a minimum spacing of six bar diameters.

Exception: Subject to the approval of the building official, required clearances shall be reduced where it is demonstrated by preconstruction tests that adequate encasement of the bars used in the design will be achieved.

Lap splices of reinforcing bars shall utilize the noncontact lap splice method with a minimum clearance of 2 inches (51 mm) between bars. The use of contact lap splices necessary for support of the reinforcing is permitted when approved by the building official, based on satisfactory preconstruction tests that show that adequate encasement of the bars will be achieved, and provided that the splice is oriented so that a plane through the center of the spliced bars is perpendicular to the surface of the shotcrete.
Shotcrete shall not be applied to spirally tied columns.
Where preconstruction tests are required by Section 1908.4, a test panel shall be shot, cured, cored or sawn, examined and tested prior to commencement of the project. The sample panel shall be representative of the project and simulate job conditions as closely as possible. The panel thickness and reinforcing shall reproduce the thickest and most congested area specified in the structural design. It shall be shot at the same angle, using the same nozzleman and with the same concrete mix design that will be used on the project. The equipment used in preconstruction testing shall be the same equipment used in the work requiring such testing, unless substitute equipment is approved by the building official. Reports of preconstruction tests shall be submitted to the building official as specified in Section 1704.5.
Any rebound or accumulated loose aggregate shall be removed from the surfaces to be covered prior to placing the initial or any succeeding layers of shotcrete. Rebound shall not be used as aggregate.
Except where permitted herein, unfinished work shall not be allowed to stand for more than 30 minutes unless edges are sloped to a thin edge. For structural elements that will be under compression and for construction joints shown on the approved construction documents, square joints are permitted. Before placing additional material adjacent to previously applied work, sloping and square edges shall be cleaned and wetted.
In-place shotcrete that exhibits sags, sloughs, segregation, honeycombing, sand pockets or other obvious defects shall be removed and replaced. Shotcrete above sags and sloughs shall be removed and replaced while still plastic.
During the curing periods specified herein, shotcrete shall be maintained above 40°F (4°C) and in moist condition.
Shotcrete shall be kept continuously moist for 24 hours after shotcreting is complete or shall be sealed with an approved curing compound.
Final curing shall continue for seven days after shotcreting, or for three days if high-early-strength cement is used, or until the specified strength is obtained. Final curing shall consist of the initial curing process or the shotcrete shall be covered with an approved moisture-retaining cover.
Natural curing shall not be used in lieu of that specified in this section unless the relative humidity remains at or above 85 percent, and is authorized by the registered design professional and approved by the building official.
Strength tests for shotcrete shall be made by an approved agency on specimens that are representative of the work and which have been water soaked for at least 24 hours prior to testing. When the maximum-size aggregate is larger than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), specimens shall consist of not less than three 3-inch-diameter (76 mm) cores or 3-inch (76 mm) cubes. When the maximum-size aggregate is 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) or smaller, specimens shall consist of not less than 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) cores or 2-inch (51 mm) cubes.
Specimens shall be taken from the in-place work or from test panels, and shall be taken at least once each shift, but not less than one for each 50 cubic yards (38.2 m3) of shotcrete.
When the maximum-size aggregate is larger than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), the test panels shall have minimum dimensions of 18 inches by 18 inches (457 mm by 457 mm). When the maximum-size aggregate is 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) or smaller, the test panels shall have minimum dimensions of 12 inches by 12 inches (305 mm by 305 mm). Panels shall be shot in the same position as the work, during the course of the work and by the nozzlemen doing the work. The conditions under which the panels are cured shall be the same as the work.
The average compressive strength of three cores from the in-place work or a single test panel shall equal or exceed 0.85 f'c with no single core less than 0.75 f'c. The average compressive strength of three cubes taken from the in-place work or a single test panel shall equal or exceed f'c with no individual cube less than 0.88 f'c. To check accuracy, locations represented by erratic core or cube strengths shall be retested.

Openings larger than 12 inches (305 mm) in any dimension shall be detailed on the structural drawings.

Where required, special inspections and tests shall be in accordance with Chapter 17A and this section.

Modify ACI 318 Section 26.4.1.2.1(a).(1) as follows:

(1) Normal weight aggregate: Aggregate shall be non-reactive as determined by one of the methods in ASTM C33 Appendix XI Methods for Evaluating Potential for Deleterious Expansion Due to Alkali Reactivity of an Aggregate. Aggregates deemed to be deleterious or potentially deleterious may be used with the addition of a material that has been shown to prevent harmful expansion in accordance with Appendix XI of ASTM C33, when approved by the building official.

Not permitted.

The concrete supplier shall furnish to the enforcement agency certification that the cement proposed for use on the project has been manufactured and tested in compliance with the requirements of ASTM C150 for portland cement and ASTM C595or ASTM C1157 for blended hydraulic cement, whichever is applicable. When a mineral admixture or ground granulated blast-furnace slag is proposed for use, the concrete supplier shall furnish to the enforcement agency certification that they have been manufactured and tested in compliance with ASTM C618 or ASTM C989, whichever is applicable. The concrete producer shall provide copies of the cementitious material supplier's certificate of compliance that represents the materials used by date of shipment for concrete. Cementitious materials without certification of compliance shall not be used.

Samples shall be taken from bundles as delivered from the mill, with the bundles identified as to heat number and the accompanying mill certificate. One tensile test and one bend test shall be made from a sample from each 10 tons (9080 kg) or fraction thereof of each size of reinforcing steel.

Where positive identification of the heat number cannot be made or where random samples are to be taken, one series of tests shall be made from each 21/2 tons (2270 kg) or fraction thereof of each size of reinforcing steel.

Tests of reinforcing bars may be waived by the structural engineer with the approval of the Building Official for one-story buildings or non-building structures provided they are identified in the construction documents and certified mill test reports are provided to the inspector of record for each shipment of such reinforcement.

All wires or bars of each size from each mill heat and all strands from each manufactured reel to be shipped to the site shall be assigned an individual lot number and shall be tagged in such a manner that each lot can be accurately identified at the job site. Each lot of tendon and anchorage assemblies and bar couplers to be installed shall be likewise identified.

The following samples of materials and tendons selected by the engineer or the designated testing laboratory from the prestressing steel at the plant or job site shall be furnished by the contractor and tested by an approved independent testing agency:

  1. For wire, strand or bars, 7-foot-long (2134 mm) samples shall be taken of the coil of wire or strand reel or rods. A minimum of one random sample per 5,000 pounds (2270 kg) of each heat or lot used on the job shall be selected.
  2. For prefabricated prestressing tendons other than bars, one completely fabricated tendon 10 feet (3048 mm) in length between grips with anchorage assembly at one end shall be furnished for each size and type of tendon and anchorage assembly.

    Variations of the bearing plate size need not be considered.

    The anchorages of unbonded tendons shall develop at least 95 percent of the minimum specified ultimate strength of the prestressing steel. The total elongation of the tendon under ultimate load shall not be less than 2 percent measured in a minimum gage length of 10 feet (3048 mm).

    Anchorages of bonded tendons shall develop at least 90 percent of the minimum specified strength of the prestressing steel tested in an unbonded state. All couplings shall develop at least 95 percent of the minimum specified strength of the prestressing steel and shall not reduce the elongation at rupture below the requirements of the tendon itself.

  3. If the prestressing tendon is a bar, one 7-foot (2134 mm) length complete with one end anchorage shall be furnished and, in addition, if couplers are to be used with the bar, two 4-foot (1219 mm) lengths of bar fabricated to fit and equipped with one coupler shall be furnished.
  4. Mill tests of materials used for end anchorages shall be furnished. In addition, at least one Brinnell hardness test shall be made of each thickness of bearing plate.

Cores of the completed composite concrete construction shall be taken to demonstrate the shear strength along the contact surfaces. The cores shall be tested when the cast-in-place concrete is approximately 28 days old and shall be tested by a shear loading parallel to the joint between the precast concrete and the cast-in-place concrete. The minimum unit shear strength of the contact surface area of the core shall not be less than 100 psi (689 kPa).

At least one core shall be taken from each building for each 5,000 square feet (465 m2) of area of composite concrete construction and not less than three cores shall be taken from each project. The architect or structural engineer in responsible charge of the project or his or her representative shall designate the location for sampling.

When post-installed anchors are used in lieu of cast-in-place bolts, the installation verification test loads frequency and acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with this section.

Test loads or torques and acceptance criteria shall be shown on the construction documents.

If any anchor fails testing, all anchors of the same type shall be tested, which are installed by the same trade, not previously tested until twenty (20) consecutive anchors pass, then resume the initial test frequency.

The test procedure shall be as permitted by an approved evaluation report using criteria adopted in this code. All post-installed anchors shall be tension tested.

Exception:Torque-controlled post-installed anchors and screw type anchors shall be permitted to be tested using torque based on an approved test report using criteria adopted in this code.

Alternatively, the manufacturer’s recommendation for testing may be approved by the enforcement agency based on approved test report using criteria adopted in this code.

When post-installed anchors are used for sill plate bolting applications, 10 percent of the anchors shall be tested.

When post-installed anchors are used for other structural applications, all such anchors shall be tested.

When post-installed anchors are used for nonstructural applications such as equipment anchorage, 50 percent or alternate bolts in a group, including at least one-half the anchors in each group, shall be tested.

The testing of the post-installed anchors shall be done in the presence of the special inspector and a report of the test results shall be submitted to the enforcement agency.

Exceptions:

  1. Undercut anchors that allow visual confirmation of full set shall not require testing.
  2. Where the factored design tension on anchors is less than 100 lb and those anchors are clearly noted on the approved construction documents, only 10 percent of those anchors shall be tested.
  3. Where adhesive anchor systems are used to install reinforcing dowel bars in hardened concrete, only 25 percent of the dowels shall be tested if all the following conditions are met:

    1. The dowels are used exclusively to transmit shear forces across joints between existing and new concrete.
    2. The number of dowels in any one member equals or exceeds 12.
    3. The dowels are uniformly distributed across seismic force resisting members (such as shear walls, collectors and diaphragms).

    Anchors to be tested shall be selected at random by the special inspector/inspector of record (IOR).

  4. Testing of shear dowels across cold joints in slabs on grade, where the slab is not part of the lateral force-resisting system shall not be required.
  5. Testing is not required for power actuated fasteners used to attach tracks of interior non-shear wall partitions for shear only, where there are at least three fasteners per segment of track.

Required test loads shall be determined by one of the following methods:

  1. Twice the maximum allowable tension load or one and a quarter (11/4) times the maximum design strength of anchors as provided in an approved test report using criteria adopted in this code or determined in accordance with Chapter 17 of ACI 318.

    Tension test load need not exceed 80 percent of the nominal yield strength of the anchor element (= 0.8 Ase fya).

  2. The manufacturer's recommended installation torque based on an approved test report using criteria adopted in this code.

Acceptance criteria for post-installed anchors shall be based on an approved test report using criteria adopted in this code. Field tests shall satisfy the following minimum requirements.

1. Hydraulic ram method:

Anchors tested with a hydraulic jack or spring loaded apparatus shall maintain the test load for a minimum of 15 seconds and shall exhibit no discernible movement during the tension test, e.g., as evidenced by loosening of the washer under the nut.

For adhesive anchors, where other than bond is being tested, the testing apparatus support shall not be located within 1.5 times the anchor’s embedment depth to avoid restricting the concrete shear cone type failure mechanism from occurring.

2. Torque wrench method:

Torque-controlled post-installed anchors tested with a calibrated torque wrench shall attain the specified torque within 1/2 turn of the nut; or one-quarter (1/4) turn of the nut for a 3/8-inch sleeve anchor only.

Screw-type anchors tested with a calibrated torque wrench shall attain the specified torque within one-quarter (1/4) turn of the screw after initial seating of the screw head.

Modify ACI 318 by adding Section 14.9 as follows:

11.9 - Foundation walls. Horizontal reinforcing of concrete foundation walls for wood-frame or light-steel buildings shall consist of the equivalent of not less than one No. 5 bar located at the top and bottom of the wall. Where such walls exceed 3 feet (914 mm) in height, intermediate horizontal reinforcing shall be provided at spacing not to exceed 2 feet (610 mm) on center. Minimum vertical reinforcing shall consist of No. 3 bars at 24 inches (610 mm) on center.

Where concrete foundation walls or curbs extend above the floor line and support wood-frame or light-steel exterior, bearing or shear walls, they shall be doweled to the foundation wall below with a minimum of No. 3 bars at 24 inches (610 mm) on center. Where the height of the wall above the floor line exceeds 18 inches (457 mm), the wall above and below the floor line shall meet the requirements of ACI 318 Section 11.6 and 11.7.

Add Section 12.7.3.4 to ACI 318 as follows:

12.7.3.4 – At least two No. 5 bars in diaphragms having two layers of reinforcement in both directions and one No. 5 bar in diaphragms having a single layer of reinforcement in both directions shall be provided around openings larger than 12 inches in any dimension in addition to the minimum reinforcement required by Section 12.6.

Plain concrete is not permitted.

Modify ACI 318, Section 18.10.6.5 by adding the following:

Where boundary members are not required by ACI 318 Section 18.10.6.2 or 18.10.6.3, minimum reinforcement parallel to the edges of all structural walls and the boundaries of all openings shall consist of twice the cross-sectional area of the minimum shear reinforcement required per lineal foot of wall. Horizontal extent of boundary element shall be per ACI 318 Section 18.10.6.4 (a), (b) and (c).

Add Section 18.12.6.2 to ACI 318 as follows:

Collector and boundary elements in topping slabs placed over precast floor and roof elements shall not be less than 3 inches (76 mm) or 6 db thick, where db is the diameter of the largest reinforcement in the topping slab.

Replace Table 21.2.2 as follows:

TABLE 21.2.2

STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTOR ϕ FOR MOMENT, AXIAL FORCE, OR COMBINED MOMENT AND AXIAL FORCE

NET TENSILE STRAIN εtCLASSIFICATIONϕ
Type of transverse reinforcement
Spirals conforming to 25.7.3Other
εt ≤ εtyCompression-controlled0.75(a)0.65(b)
εty < εt < 0.005Transition1, 2(c)(d)
εt ≥ 0.005Tension-controlled30.9(e)0.9(f)
  1. For sections classified as transition, it shall be permitted to use ϕ corresponding to compression-controlled sections.
  2. εt* is the greater of net tensile strain calculated for Pn = 0.1Agf'c and 0.005.
  3. For sections with factored axial compression force Pu ≥ 0.1 Agf'c, ϕ shall be calculated using equation (c) or (d) for sections classified as transition, as applicable.

Replace ACI 318 Section 26.12.2.1(a) by the following:

26.12.2.1(a) - Samples for strength tests of each class of concrete placed each day shall be taken not less than once a day, or not less than once for each 50 cubic yards (38.2 m3) of concrete, or not less than once for each 2,000 square feet (186 m2) of surface area for slabs or walls. Additional samples for seven-day compressive strength tests shall be taken for each class of concrete at the beginning of the concrete work or whenever the mix or aggregate is changed.

A test panel prepared in accordance with Section 1908.5 is required. Approval from the enforcement agency must be obtained prior to performing test panels.

Concrete or masonry to receive shotcrete shall have the entire surface thoroughly cleaned and roughened by sand blasting, and just prior to receiving shotcrete, shall be thoroughly cleaned of all debris, dirt and dust. Concrete and masonry shall be wetted before shotcrete is deposited, but not so wet as to overcome suction.

The film of laitance which forms on the surface of the shotcrete shall be removed within approximately two hours after application by brushing with a stiff broom. If this film is not removed within two hours, it shall be removed by thorough wire brushing or sand blasting. Construction joints over eight hours old shall be thoroughly cleaned with air and water prior to receiving shot-crete.

Forms for shotcrete shall be substantial and rigid. Forms shall be built and placed so as to permit the escape of air and rebound.

Adequate ground wires, which are to be used as screeds, shall be placed to establish the thickness, surface planes and form of the shotcrete work. All surfaces shall be rodded to these wires.

Shotcrete shall be placed in accordance with ACI 506.

The structural use of existing concrete with a core strength less than 1,500 psi (10.3MPa) is not permitted in rehabilitation work.

For existing concrete structures, sufficient cores shall be taken at representative locations throughout the structure, as designated by the architect or structural engineer, so that knowledge will be had of the in-place strength of the concrete. At least three cores shall be taken from each building for each 4,000 square feet (372 m2) of floor area, or fraction thereof. Cores shall be at least 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter. Cores as small as 2.75 inches (70 mm) in diameter may be allowed by the enforcement agency when reinforcement is closely spaced and the coarse aggregate does not exceed 3/4 inch (19 mm).

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