CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2015 (IBC 2015)

Copyright

Preface

Acknowledgements

California Code of Regulations, Title 24

How to Distinguish Between Model Code Language and California Amendments

Code Development Committee Responsibilities (Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers)

Effective Use of the International Building Code

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 7A [SFM] Materials and Construction Methods for Exterior Wildfire Exposure

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Reserved

Chapter 11A Housing Accessibility

Chapter 11B Accessibility to Public Buildings, Public Accommodations, Commercial Buildings and Public Housing

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

History Note Appendix

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, systems and assemblies used for structural fire resistance and fire-resistance-rated construction separation of adjacent spaces to safeguard against the spread of fire and smoke within a building and the spread of fire to or from buildings.
Fire assemblies that serve multiple purposes in a building shall comply with all of the requirements that are applicable for each of the individual fire assemblies.

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

  • ANNULAR SPACE.
  • BUILDING ELEMENT.
  • CEILING RADIATION DAMPER.
  • COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER.
  • CORRIDOR DAMPER.
  • DAMPER.
  • DRAFTSTOP
  • F RATING.
  • FIRE BARRIER.
  • FIRE DAMPER.
  • FIRE DOOR.
  • FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY.
  • FIRE PARTITION.
  • FIRE PROTECTION RATING.
  • FIRE-RATED GLAZING.
  • FIRE RESISTANCE.
  • FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING.
  • FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM.
  • FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE.
  • FIRE-SMOKE BARRIER.
  • FIRE WALL.
  • FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY.
  • FIREBLOCKING.
  • FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY.
  • HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY.
  • JOINT.
  • L RATING.
  • MEMBRANE PENETRATION.
  • MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP.
  • MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM.
  • MINERAL FIBER.
  • MINERAL WOOL.
  • PENETRATION FIRESTOP.
  • SELF-CLOSING.
  • SHAFT.
  • SHAFT ENCLOSURE.
  • SMOKE BARRIER.
  • SMOKE COMPARTMENT.
  • SMOKE DAMPER.
  • SPLICE.
  • T RATING.
  • THROUGH PENETRATION.
  • THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM.
Materials prescribed herein for fire resistance shall conform to the requirements of this chapter.
The fire-resistance rating of building elements, components or assemblies shall be determined in accordance with the test procedures set forth in ASTM E119 or UL 263 or in accordance with Section 703.3. The fire-resistance rating of penetrations and fire-resistant joint systems shall be determined in accordance Sections 714 and 715, respectively.
Interior walls and partitions of nonsymmetrical construction shall be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with ASTM E119 or UL 263. Where evidence is furnished to show that the wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, the wall need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side (see Section 705.5 for exterior walls).
Combustible aggregates are permitted in gypsum and Portland cement concrete mixtures for fire-resistance-rated construction. Any component material or admixture is permitted in assemblies if the resulting tested assembly meets the fire-resistance test requirements of this code.
Fire-resistance-rated assemblies tested under ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall not be considered to be restrained unless evidence satisfactory to the building official is furnished by the registered design professional showing that the construction qualifies for a restrained classification in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263. Restrained construction shall be identified on the construction documents.
Where materials, systems or devices that have not been tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly are incorporated into the building element, component or assembly, sufficient data shall be made available to the building official to show that the required fire-resistance rating is not reduced.
In determining the fire-resistance rating of exterior bearing walls, compliance with the ASTM E119 or UL 263 criteria for unexposed surface temperature rise and ignition of cotton waste due to passage of flame or gases is required only for a period of time corresponding to the required fire-resistance rating of an exterior nonbearing wall with the same fire separation distance, and in a building of the same group. Where the fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with this exception exceeds the fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263, the fire exposure time period, water pressure and application duration criteria for the hose stream test of ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall be based on the fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with this section.

The application of any of the methods listed in this section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance criteria specified in ASTM E119 or UL 263. The required fire resistance of a building element, component or assembly shall be permitted to be established by any of the following methods or procedures:

  1. Fire-resistance designs documented in approved sources.
  2. Prescriptive designs of fire-resistance-rated building elements, components or assemblies as prescribed in Section 721.
  3. Calculations in accordance with Section 722.
  4. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of building element, component or assemblies designs having fire-resistance ratings as determined by the test procedures set forth in ASTM E119 or UL 263.
  5. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 104.11.
  6. Fire-resistance designs certified by an approved agency.
Under the prescriptive fire-resistance requirements of this code, the fire-resistance rating of a building element, component or assembly shall be established without the use of automatic sprinklers or any other fire suppression system being incorporated as part of the assembly tested in accordance with the fire exposure, procedures and acceptance criteria specified in ASTM E119 or UL 263. However, this section shall not prohibit or limit the duties and powers of the building official allowed by Sections 104.10, 104.11 and 1.8.7, as applicable.
The tests indicated in Sections 703.5.1 and 703.5.2 shall serve as criteria for acceptance of building materials as set forth in Sections 602.2, 602.3 and 602.4 in Type I, II, III and IV construction. The term “noncombustible” does not apply to the flame spread characteristics of interior finish or trim materials. A material shall not be classified as a noncombustible building construction material if it is subject to an increase in combustibility or flame spread beyond the limitations herein established through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions.
Materials required to be noncombustible shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E136.
Materials having a structural base of noncombustible material as determined in accordance with Section 703.5.1 with a surfacing not more than 0.125 inch (3.18 mm) thick that has a flame spread index not greater than 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723 shall be acceptable as noncombustible materials.
Fire-resistance-rated glazing, when tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 and complying with the requirements of Section 707, shall be permitted. Fire-resistance-rated glazing shall bear a label marked in accordance with Table 716.3 issued by an agency and shall be permanently identified on the glazing.

Where there is an accessible concealed floor, floor-ceiling or attic space, fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions or any other wall required to have protected openings or penetrations shall be effectively and permanently identified with signs or stenciling in the concealed space. Such identification shall:

  1. Be located within 15 feet (4572 mm) of the end of each wall and at intervals not exceeding 30 feet (9144 mm) measured horizontally along the wall or partition.
  2. Include lettering not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height with a minimum 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) stroke in a contrasting color incorporating the suggested wording, “FIRE AND/OR SMOKE BARRIER—PROTECT ALL OPENINGS,” or other wording..

The fire-resistance ratings of structural members and assemblies shall comply with this section and the requirements for the type of construction as specified in Table 601. The fire-resistance ratings shall be not less than the ratings required for the fire-resistance-rated assemblies supported by the structural members.

Exception: Fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and horizontal assemblies as provided in Sections 707.5, 708.4, 709.4 and 711.4, respectively.

Where columns are required to have protection to achieve a fire-resistance rating, the entire column shall be provided individual encasement protection by protecting it on all sides for the full column height, including connections to other structural members, with materials having the required fire-resistance rating. Where the column extends through a ceiling, the encasement protection shall be continuous from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below through the ceiling space to the top of the column.

Members of the primary structural frame other than columns that are required to have protection to achieve a fire-resistance rating and support more than two floors or one floor and roof, or support a load-bearing wall or a nonload-bearing wall more than two stories high, shall be provided individual encasement protection by protecting them on all sides for the full length, including connections to other structural members, with materials having the required fire-resistance rating.

Exception: Individual encasement protection on all sides shall be permitted on all exposed sides provided the extent of protection is in accordance with the required fire-resistance rating, as determined in Section 703.

Secondary members that are required to have protection to achieve a fire-resistance rating shall be protected by individual encasement protection.
Studs and boundary elements that are integral elements in load-bearing walls of light-frame construction shall be permitted to have required fire-resistance ratings provided by the membrane protection provided for the load-bearing wall.
Horizontal assemblies are permitted to be protected with a membrane or ceiling where the membrane or ceiling provides the required fire-resistance rating and is installed in accordance with Section 711.
The required thickness and construction of fire-resistance-rated assemblies enclosing trusses shall be based on the results of full-scale tests or combinations of tests on truss components or on approved calculations based on such tests that satisfactorily demonstrate that the assembly has the required fire resistance.
The edges of lugs, brackets, rivets and bolt heads attached to structural members shall be permitted to extend to within 1 inch (25 mm) of the surface of the fire protection.
Thickness of protection for concrete or masonry reinforcement shall be measured to the outside of the reinforcement except that stirrups and spiral reinforcement ties are permitted to project not more than 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) into the protection.
Pipes, wires, conduits, ducts or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the required fire protective covering of a structural member that is required to be individually encased.

Where the fire protective covering of a structural member is subject to impact damage from moving vehicles, the handling of merchandise or other activity, the fire protective covering shall be protected by corner guards or by a substantial jacket of metal or other noncombustible material to a height adequate to provide full protection, but not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor.

Exception: Corner protection is not required on concrete columns in open or enclosed parking garages.

Load-bearing structural members located within the exterior walls or on the outside of a building or structure shall be provided with the highest fire-resistance rating as determined in accordance with the following:

  1. As required by Table 601 for the type of building element based on the type of construction of the building;
  2. As required by Table 601 for exterior bearing walls based on the type of construction; and
  3. As required by Table 602 for exterior walls based on the fire separation distance.
Fire protection is not required at the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates, spanning not more than 6 feet 4 inches (1931 mm) whether part of the primary structural frame or not, and from the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates not part of the structural frame, regardless of span.

Fire-resistance ratings for the isolation system shall meet the fire-resistance rating required for the columns, walls or other structural elements in which the isolation system is installed in accordance with Table 601. Isolation systems required to have a fire-resistance rating shall be protected with approved materials or construction assemblies designed to provide the same degree of fire resistance as the structural element in which it is installed when tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 (see Section 703.2).

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units shall be capable of retarding the transfer of heat to the isolator unit in such a manner that the required gravity load-carrying capacity of the isolator unit will not be impaired after exposure to the standard time-temperature curve fire test prescribed in ASTM E119 or UL 263 for a duration not less than that required for the fire-resistance rating of the structure element in which it is installed.

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units shall be suitably designed and securely installed so as not to dislodge, loosen, sustain damage or otherwise impair its ability to accommodate the seismic movements for which the isolator unit is designed and to maintain its integrity for the purpose of providing the required fire-resistance protection.

Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM) shall comply with Sections 704.13.1 through 704.13.5.
The application of SFRM shall be consistent with the fire-resistance rating and the listing, including, but not limited to, minimum thickness and dry density of the applied SFRM, method of application, substrate surface conditions and the use of bonding adhesives, sealants, reinforcing or other materials.
The application of SFRM shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. The instructions shall include, but are not limited to, substrate temperatures and surface conditions and SFRM handling, storage, mixing, conveyance, method of application, curing and ventilation.
The SFRM shall be applied to a substrate in compliance with Sections 704.13.3.1 through 704.13.3.2.
Substrates to receive SFRM shall be free of dirt, oil, grease, release agents, loose scale and any other condition that prevents adhesion. The substrates shall also be free of primers, paints and encapsulants other than those fire tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing agency. Primed, painted or encapsulated steel shall be allowed, provided that testing has demonstrated that required adhesion is maintained.

Where the SFRM is to be applied over primers, paints or encapsulants other than those specified in the listing, the material shall be field tested in accordance with ASTM E736. Where testing of the SFRM with primers, paints or encapsulants demonstrates that required adhesion is maintained, SFRM shall be permitted to be applied to primed, painted or encapsulated wide flange steel shapes in accordance with the following conditions:

  1. The beam flange width does not exceed 12 inches (305 mm); or
  2. The column flange width does not exceed 16 inches (400 mm); or
  3. The beam or column web depth does not exceed 16 inches (400 mm).
  4. The average and minimum bond strength values shall be determined based on a minimum of five bond tests conducted in accordance with ASTM E736. Bond tests conducted in accordance with ASTM E736 shall indicate a minimum average bond strength of 80 percent and a minimum individual bond strength of 50 percent, when compared to the bond strength of the SFRM as applied to clean uncoated 1/8-inch thick (3 mm) steel plate.
A minimum ambient and substrate temperature of 40°F (4.44°C) shall be maintained during and for a minimum of 24 hours after the application of the SFRM, unless the manufacturer's installation instructions allow otherwise.
The finished condition of SFRM applied to structural members or assemblies shall not, upon complete drying or curing, exhibit cracks, voids, spalls, delamination or any exposure of the substrate. Surface irregularities of SFRM shall be deemed acceptable.
Exterior walls shall comply with this section.

Cornices, eave overhangs, exterior balconies and similar projections extending beyond the exterior wall shall conform to the requirements of this section and Section 1406. Exterior egress balconies and exterior exit stairways and ramps shall comply with Sections 1021 and 1027, respectively. Projections shall not extend any closer to the line used to determine the fire separation distance than shown in Table 705.2.

TABLE 705.2

MINIMUM DISTANCE OF PROJECTION

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE (FSD)MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM LINE USED TO DETERMINE FSD
0 feet to 2 feetProjections not permitted
Greater than 2 feet to 3 feet24 inches
Greater than 3 feet to less than 30 feet24 inches plus 8 inches for every foot of FSD beyond 3 feet or fraction thereof

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Exception: Buildings on the same lot and considered as portions of one building in accordance with Section 705.3 are not required to comply with this section for projections between the buildings.

Projections from walls of Type I or II construction shall be of noncombustible materials or combustible materials as allowed by Sections 1406.3 and 1406.4.
Projections from walls of Type III, IV or V construction shall be of any approved material.

Combustible projections extending to within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the line used to determine the fire separation distance shall be of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction, Type IV construction, fire-retardant-treated wood or as required by Section 1406.3.

Exception: Type VB construction shall be allowed for combustible projections in Group R-3 and U occupancies with a fire separation distance greater than or equal to 5 feet (1524 mm).

For the purposes of determining the required wall and opening protection, projections and roof-covering requirements, buildings on the same lot shall be assumed to have an imaginary line between them.

Where a new building is to be erected on the same lot as an existing building, the location of the assumed imaginary line with relation to the existing building shall be such that the exterior wall and opening protection of the existing building meet the criteria as set forth in Sections 705.5 and 705.8.

Exceptions:

  1. Two or more buildings on the same lot shall be either regulated as separate buildings or shall be considered as portions of one building if the aggregate area of such buildings is within the limits specified in Chapter 5 for a single building. Where the buildings contain different occupancy groups or are of different types of construction, the area shall be that allowed for the most restrictive occupancy or construction.
  2. Where an S-2 parking garage of Construction Type I or IIA is erected on the same lot as a Group R-2 building, and there is no fire separation distance between these buildings, then the adjoining exterior walls between the buildings are permitted to have occupant use openings in accordance with Section 706.8. However, opening protectives in such openings shall only be required in the exterior wall of the S-2 parking garage, not in the exterior wall openings in the R-2 building, and these opening protectives in the exterior wall of the S-2 parking garage shall be not less than 11/2-hour fire protection rating.
Exterior walls shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.

For other than Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, exterior walls shall be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 and 602 and this section. The required fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation distance of greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be rated for exposure to fire from the inside. The required fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation distance of less than or equal to 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be rated for exposure to fire from both sides.

For Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, exterior walls shall be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 and 602 and this section. The required fire-resistance rating of exterior walls shall be rated for exposure to fire from both sides.

Exterior walls shall extend to the height required by Section 705.11. Interior structural elements that brace the exterior wall but that are not located within the plane of the exterior wall shall have the minimum fire-resistance rating required in Table 601 for that structural element. Structural elements that brace the exterior wall but are located outside of the exterior wall or within the plane of the exterior wall shall have the minimum fire-resistance rating required in Tables 601 and 602 for the exterior wall.

Where protected openings are not limited by Section 705.8, the limitation on the rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls as required by ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall not apply. Where protected openings are limited by Section 705.8, the limitation on the rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls as required by ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall not apply provided that a correction is made for radiation from the unexposed exterior wall surface in accordance with the following formula:

(Equation 7-1)

where:

Ae=Equivalent area of protected openings.
A=Actual area of protected openings.
Af=Area of exterior wall surface in the story under consideration exclusive of openings, on which the temperature limitations of ASTM E119 or UL 263 for walls are exceeded.
Feo=An “equivalent opening factor” derived from Figure 705.7 based on the average temperature of the unexposed wall surface and the fire-resistance rating of the wall.

For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32] / 1.8.

FIGURE 705.7

EQUIVALENT OPENING FACTOR

Openings in exterior walls shall comply with Sections 705.8.1 through 705.8.6.

TABLE 705.8

MAXIMUM AREA OF EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS BASED ON FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE AND DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTION

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet)DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTIONALLOWABLE AREAa
0 to less than 3b, c, kUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)Not Permittedk
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)iNot Permittedk
Protected (P)Not Permittedk
3 to less than 5d, eUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)Not Permitted
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i15%
Protected (P)15%
5 to less than 10e, f, jUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)10%h
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i25%
Protected (P)25%
10 to less than 15e, f, gUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)15%h
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i45%
Protected (P)45%
15 to less than 20f, gUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)25%
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i75%
Protected (P)75%
20 to less than 25f, gUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)45%
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)iNo Limit
Protected (P)No Limit
25 to less than 30f, gUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)70%
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)iNo Limit
Protected (P)No Limit
30 or greaterUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)No Limit
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)iNo Limit
Protected (P)No Limit

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

UP, NS = Unprotected openings in buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

UP, S = Unprotected openings in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

P = Openings protected with an opening protective assembly in accordance with Section 705.8.2.

  1. Values indicated are the percentage of the area of the exterior wall, per story.
  2. For the requirements for fire walls of buildings with differing heights, see Section 706.6.1.
  3. For openings in a fire wall for buildings on the same lot, see Section 706.8.
  4. The maximum percentage of unprotected and protected openings shall be 25 percent for Group R-3 occupancies.
  5. Unprotected openings shall not be permitted for openings with a fire separation distance of less than 15 feet for Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies.
  6. The area of unprotected and protected openings shall not be limited for Group R-3 occupancies, with a fire separation distance of 5 feet or greater.
  7. The area of openings in an open parking structure with a fire separation distance of 10 feet or greater shall not be limited.
  8. Includes buildings accessory to Group R-3.
  9. Not applicable to Group H-1, H-2 and H-3 occupancies.
  10. For special requirements for Group U occupancies, see Section 406.3.2.
  11. For openings between S-2 parking garage and Group R-2 building, see Section 705.3, Exception 2.

The maximum area of unprotected and protected openings permitted in an exterior wall in any story of a building shall not exceed the percentages specified in Table 705.8.

Exceptions:

  1. In other than Group H occupancies, unlimited unprotected openings are permitted in the first story above grade plane either:

    1. 1.1. Where the wall faces a street and has a fire separation distance of more than 15 feet (4572 mm); or
    2. 1.2. Where the wall faces an unoccupied space. The unoccupied space shall be on the same lot or dedicated for public use, shall not be less than 30 feet (9144 mm) in width and shall have access from a street by a posted fire lane in accordance with the California Fire Code.
  2. Buildings whose exterior bearing walls, exterior nonbearing walls and exterior primary structural frame are not required to be fire-resistance rated shall be permitted to have unlimited unprotected openings.

Where openings are required to be protected, fire doors and fire shutters shall comply with Section 716.5 and fire window assemblies shall comply with Section 716.6.

Exception: Opening protectives are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the exterior openings are protected by a water curtain using automatic sprinklers approved for that use.

Where unprotected openings are permitted, windows and doors shall be constructed of any approved materials. Glazing shall conform to the requirements of Chapters 24 and 26.

Where both unprotected and protected openings are located in the exterior wall in any story of a building, the total area of openings shall be determined in accordance with the following:

(Equation 7-2)

where:

Ap=Actual area of protected openings, or the equivalent area of protected openings, Ae (see Section 705.7).
ap=Allowable area of protected openings.
Au=Actual area of unprotected openings.
au=Allowable area of unprotected openings.

Openings in exterior walls in adjacent stories shall be separated vertically to protect against fire spread on the exterior of the buildings where the openings are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of each other horizontally and the opening in the lower story is not a protected opening with a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. Such openings shall be separated vertically not less than 3 feet (914 mm) by spandrel girders, exterior walls or other similar assemblies that have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, rated for exposure to fire from both sides, or by flame barriers that extend horizontally not less than 30 inches (762 mm) beyond the exterior wall. Flame barriers shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. The unexposed surface temperature limitations specified in ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall not apply to the flame barriers or vertical separation unless otherwise required by the provisions of this code.

Exceptions:

  1. This section shall not apply to buildings that are three stories or less above grade plane.
  2. This section shall not apply to buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  3. Open parking garages.

For buildings on the same lot, opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour shall be provided in every opening that is less than 15 feet (4572 mm) vertically above the roof of an adjacent building or structure based on assuming an imaginary line between them. The opening protectives are required where the fire separation distance between the imaginary line and the adjacent building or structure is less than 15 feet (4572 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. Opening protectives are not required where the roof assembly of the adjacent building or structure has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from the exterior wall facing the imaginary line and the entire length and span of the supporting elements for the fire-resistance-rated roof assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
  2. Buildings on the same lot and considered as portions of one building in accordance with Section 705.3 are not required to comply with Section 705.8.6.

Joints made in or between exterior walls required by this section to have a fire-resistance rating shall comply with Section 715.

Exception: Joints in exterior walls that are permitted to have unprotected openings.

The void created at the intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 715.4.

Penetrations by air ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exterior walls required to have protected openings shall comply with Section 717.

Exception: Foundation vents installed in accordance with this code are permitted.

Parapets shall be provided on exterior walls of buildings.

Exceptions: A parapet need not be provided on an exterior wall where any of the following conditions exist:

  1. The wall is not required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Table 602 because of fire separation distance.
  2. The building has an area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) on any floor.
  3. Walls that terminate at roofs of not less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or where the roof, including the deck or slab and supporting construction, is constructed entirely of noncombustible materials.
  4. One-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior walls that terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab, provided:

    1. 4.1. Where the roof/ceiling framing elements are parallel to the walls, such framing and elements supporting such framing shall not be of less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a width of 4 feet (1220 mm) for Groups R and U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupancies, measured from the interior side of the wall.
    2. 4.2. Where roof/ceiling framing elements are not parallel to the wall, the entire span of such framing and elements supporting such framing shall not be of less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.
    3. 4.3. Openings in the roof shall not be located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the 1-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior wall for Groups R and U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupancies, measured from the interior side of the wall.
    4. 4.4. The entire building shall be provided with not less than a Class B roof covering.
  5. In Groups R-2 and R-3 where the entire building is provided with a Class C roof covering, the exterior wall shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing or deck in Type III, IV and V construction, provided:

    1. 5.1. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of approved noncombustible materials or of fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 feet (1220 mm); or
    2. 5.2. The roof is protected with 0.625-inch (16 mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch (51 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members for a minimum distance of 4 feet (1220 mm).
  6. Where the wall is permitted to have at least 25 percent of the exterior wall areas containing unprotected openings based on fire separation distance as determined in accordance with Section 705.8.
Parapets shall have the same fire-resistance rating as that required for the supporting wall, and on any side adjacent to a roof surface, shall have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches (457 mm), including counterflashing and coping materials. The height of the parapet shall not be less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the point where the roof surface and the wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at a slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same height as any portion of the roof within a fire separation distance where protection of wall openings is required, but in no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm).

Where installed on the exterior walls of high-rise buildings, exterior graphics, both permanent and temporary, greater than 100 square feet in area or greater than 10 feet in either dimension shall comply with the following conditions subject to the review and approval of the fire code official and building official:

  1. The materials used for graphics installed at a height greater than 40 feet above the grade plane shall be noncombustible materials or shall have a flame spread index not greater than 25 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
  2. The method of attachment and mounting of the graphics to the exterior wall shall be such that the graphics are securely attached.
  3. The graphics shall not interfere with the active or passive ventilation required for the building and the required smoke control systems in the building.
  4. The graphics shall not impair the functions of any fire or life safety systems in the building.
Each portion of a building separated by one or more fire walls that comply with the provisions of this section shall be considered a separate building. The extent and location of such fire walls shall provide a complete separation. Where a fire wall also separates occupancies that are required to be separated by a fire barrier wall, the most restrictive requirements of each separation shall apply.

Any wall located on a lot line between adjacent buildings, which is used or adapted for joint service between the two buildings, shall be constructed as a fire wall in accordance with Section 706. Party walls shall be constructed without openings and shall create separate buildings.

Exception: Openings in a party wall separating an anchor building and a mall shall be in accordance with Section 402.4.2.2.1.

Fire walls shall be designed and constructed to allow collapse of the structure on either side without collapse of the wall under fire conditions. Fire walls designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 221 shall be deemed to comply with this section.

Fire walls shall be of any approved noncombustible materials.

Exception: Buildings of Type V construction.

Fire walls shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Table 706.4.

TABLE 706.4

FIRE WALL FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS

GROUPFIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
A, B, E, H-4, I, R-1, R-2, R-2.1, U, L3a
F-1, H-3b, H-5, M, S-13
H-1, H-24b
F-2, S-2, R-3, R-42
  1. In Type II or V construction, walls shall be permitted to have a 2-hour fire-resistance rating.
  2. For Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 buildings, also see Sections 415.7 and 415.8.

Fire walls shall be continuous from exterior wall to exterior wall and shall extend at least 18 inches (457 mm) beyond the exterior surface of exterior walls.

Exceptions:

  1. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of combustible exterior sheathing or siding provided the exterior wall has a fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour for a horizontal distance of at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.
  2. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing, exterior siding or other noncombustible exterior finishes provided the sheathing, siding, or other exterior noncombustible finish extends a horizontal distance of at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall.
  3. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing where the building on each side of the fire wall is protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

Where the fire wall intersects exterior walls, the fire-resistance rating and opening protection of the exterior walls shall comply with one of the following:

  1. The exterior walls on both sides of the fire wall shall have a 1-hour fire-resistance rating with 3/4-hour protection where opening protection is required by Section 705.8. The fire-resistance rating of the exterior wall shall extend a minimum of 4 feet (1220 mm) on each side of the intersection of the fire wall to exterior wall. Exterior wall intersections at fire walls that form an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3.14 rad) do not need exterior wall protection.
  2. Buildings or spaces on both sides of the intersecting fire wall shall assume to have an imaginary lot line at the fire wall and extending beyond the exterior of the fire wall. The location of the assumed line in relation to the exterior walls and the fire wall shall be such that the exterior wall and opening protection meet the requirements set forth in Sections 705.5 and 705.8. Such protection is not required for exterior walls terminating at fire walls that form an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3.14 rad).

Fire walls shall extend to the outer edge of horizontal projecting elements such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees and similar projections that are within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall.

Exceptions:

  1. Horizontal projecting elements without concealed spaces, provided the exterior wall behind and below the projecting element has not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance not less than the depth of the projecting element on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.
  2. Noncombustible horizontal projecting elements with concealed spaces, provided a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall extends through the concealed space. The projecting element shall be separated from the building by a minimum of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance on each side of the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting element. The wall is not required to extend under the projecting element where the building exterior wall is not less than 1-hour fire-resistance rated for a distance on each side of the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting element. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.
  3. For combustible horizontal projecting elements with concealed spaces, the fire wall need only extend through the concealed space to the outer edges of the projecting elements. The exterior wall behind and below the projecting element shall be of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance not less than the depth of the projecting elements on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire-protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.

Fire walls shall extend from the foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches (762 mm) above both adjacent roofs.

Exceptions:

  1. Stepped buildings in accordance with Section 706.6.1.
  2. Two-hour fire-resistance-rated walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab, provided:

    1. 2.1. The lower roof assembly within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the wall has not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating and the entire length and span of supporting elements for the rated roof assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
    2. 2.2. Openings in the roof shall not be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall.
    3. 2.3. Each building shall be provided with not less than a Class B roof covering.
  3. Walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of noncombustible roof sheathing, deck or slabs where both buildings are provided with not less than a Class B roof covering. Openings in the roof shall not be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall.
  4. In buildings of Type III, IV and V construction, walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of combustible roof sheathing or decks, provided:

    1. 4.1. There are no openings in the roof within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall,
    2. 4.2. The roof is covered with a minimum Class B roof covering, and
    3. 4.3. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the wall or the roof is protected with 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, supported by a minimum of 2-inch (51 mm) nominal ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members for a minimum distance of 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall.
  5. In buildings designed in accordance with Section 510.2, fire walls located above the 3-hour horizontal assembly required by Section 510.2, Item 1 shall be permitted to extend from the top of this horizontal assembly.
  6. Buildings with sloped roofs in accordance with Section 706.6.2.

Where a fire wall serves as an exterior wall for a building and separates buildings having different roof levels, such wall shall terminate at a point not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof level, provided the exterior wall for a height of 15 feet (4572 mm) above the lower roof is not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction from both sides with openings protected by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.

Exception: Where the fire wall terminates at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the lower roof, provided:

  1. The lower roof assembly within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the wall has not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating and the entire length and span of supporting elements for the rated roof assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
  2. Openings in the lower roof shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the fire wall.
Where a fire wall serves as an interior wall for a building, and the roof on one side or both sides of the fire wall slopes toward the fire wall at a slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12), the fire wall shall extend to a height equal to the height of the roof located 4 feet (1219 mm) from the fire wall plus 30 inches (762 mm). In no case shall the extension of the fire wall be less than 30 inches (762 mm).
Adjacent combustible members entering into a concrete or masonry fire wall from opposite sides shall not have less than a 4-inch (102 mm) distance between embedded ends. Where combustible members frame into hollow walls or walls of hollow units, hollow spaces shall be solidly filled for the full thickness of the wall and for a distance not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above, below and between the structural members, with noncombustible materials approved for fireblocking.

Each opening through a fire wall shall be protected in accordance with Section 716.5 and shall not exceed 156 square feet (15 m2). The aggregate width of openings at any floor level shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the wall.

Exceptions:

  1. Openings are not permitted in party walls constructed in accordance with Section 706.1.1.
  2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) where both buildings are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Penetrations of fire walls shall comply with Section 714.
Joints made in or between fire walls shall comply with Section 715.

Ducts and air transfer openings shall not penetrate fire walls.

Exception: Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings of fire walls that are not on a lot line shall be allowed provided the penetrations comply with Section 717. The size and aggregate width of all openings shall not exceed the limitations of Section 706.8.

Fire barriers installed as required elsewhere in this code or the California Fire Code shall comply with this section.
Fire barriers shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.
The fire-resistance rating of fire barriers shall comply with this section.
The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier separating building areas from a shaft shall comply with Section 713.4.
The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier separating building areas from an interior exit stairway or ramp shall comply with Section 1023.1.
The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier separating building areas from an exit access stairway or ramp shall comply with Section 713.4.
The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier separating building areas from an exit passageway shall comply with Section 1024.3.
The fire-resistance rating of the separation between building areas connected by a horizontal exit shall comply with Section 1026.1.
The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier separating atriums shall comply with Section 404.6.
The fire barrier separating incidental uses from other spaces in the building shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table 509.
Fire barriers separating control areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required in Section 414.2.4.
Where the provisions of Section 508.4 are applicable, the fire barrier separating mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table 508.4 based on the occupancies being separated.

The fire barriers or horizontal assemblies, or both, separating a single occupancy into different fire areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table 707.3.10. The fire barriers or horizontal assemblies, or both, separating fire areas of mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than the highest value indicated in Table 707.3.10 for the occupancies under consideration.

TABLE 707.3.10

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE BARRIER ASSEMBLIES OR HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES BETWEEN FIRE AREAS

OCCUPANCY GROUPFIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
H-1, H-24
F-1, H-3, S-13
A, B, E, F-2, H-4, H-5, I, L, M, R, S-22
U1

Where exterior walls serve as a part of a required fire-resistance-rated shaft or stairway or ramp enclosure, or separation, such walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls and the fire-resistance-rated enclosure or separation requirements shall not apply.

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 1021 for exterior egress balconies, Section 1023.7 for interior exit stairways and ramps and Section 1027.6 for exterior exit stairways and ramp.

Fire barriers shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above and shall be securely attached thereto. Such fire barriers shall be continuous through concealed space, such as the space above a suspended ceiling. Joints and voids at intersections shall comply with Sections 707.8 and 707.9

Exceptions:

  1. Shaft enclosures shall be permitted to terminate at a top enclosure complying with Section 713.12.
  2. Interior exit stairway and ramp enclosures required by Section 1023 and exit access stairway and ramp enclosures required by Section 1019 shall be permitted to terminate at a top enclosure complying with Section 713.12.

The supporting construction for a fire barrier shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier supported. Hollow vertical spaces within a fire barrier shall be fire-blocked in accordance with Section 718.2 at every floor level.

Exceptions:

  1. The maximum required fire-resistance rating for assemblies supporting fire barriers separating tank storage as provided for in Section 415.9.1.2 shall be 2 hours, but not less than required by Table 601 for the building construction type.
  2. Supporting construction for 1-hour fire barriers required by Table 509 in buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction is not required to be fire-resistance rated unless required by other sections of this code.

Openings in a fire barrier shall be protected in accordance with Section 716. Openings shall be limited to a maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall, and the maximum area of any single opening shall not exceed 156 square feet (15 m2). Openings in enclosures for exit access stairways and ramps, interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways shall also comply with Sections 1019, 1023.4 and 1024.5, respectively.

Exceptions:

  1. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) where adjoining floor areas are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall where the opening protective is a fire door serving enclosures for exit access stairways and ramps, and interior exit stairways and ramps.
  3. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall where the opening protective has been tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 and has a minimum fire-resistance rating not less than the fire-resistance rating of the wall.
  4. Fire window assemblies permitted in atrium separation walls shall not be limited to a maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall.
  5. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall where the opening protective is a fire door assembly in a fire barrier separating an enclosure for exit access stairways and ramps, and interior exit stairways and ramps from an exit passageway in accordance with Section 1023.3.1.
Penetrations of fire barriers shall comply with Section 714.
Penetrations into enclosures for exit access stairways and ramps, interior exit stairways and ramps, and exit passageways shall be allowed only where permitted by Sections 1019, 1023.5 and 1024.6, respectively.
Joints made in or between fire barriers, and joints made at the intersection of fire barriers with underside of a fire-resistance-rated floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above, and the exterior vertical wall intersection shall comply with Section 715.
The voids created at the intersection of a fire barrier and a nonfire-resistance-rated roof assembly or a nonfire-resistance-rated exterior wall assembly shall be filled. An approved material or system shall be used to fill the void, and shall be securely installed in or on the intersection for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to accommodate expected building movements and to retard the passage of fire and hot gases.
Penetrations in a fire barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 717.

The following wall assemblies shall comply with this section.

  1. Separation walls as required by Section 420.2 for Groups R-1, R-2, R-2.1 and R-3.
  2. Walls separating tenant spaces in covered and open mall buildings as required by Section 402.4.2.1.
  3. Corridor walls as required by Section 1020.1.
  4. Elevator lobby separation as required by Section 3006.2.
  5. Egress balconies as required by Section 1019.2
  6. Walls separating enclosed tenant spaces in high-rise buildings and in buildings of Types I, IIA, IIIA, IV or VA construction of Group A, E, H, I, L and R-2.1 occupancies and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal.
The walls shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.

Fire partitions shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.

Exceptions:

  1. Corridor walls permitted to have a 1/2-hour fire-resistance rating by Table 1020.1.
  2. Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction shall have fire-resistance ratings of not less than 1/2 hour in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  3. Walls separating enclosed tenant spaces in Group B high-rise buildings of Type I and II construction equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

Fire partitions shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above or to the fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly above, and shall be securely attached thereto. In combustible construction where the fire partitions are not required to be continuous to the sheathing, deck or slab, the space between the ceiling and the sheathing, deck or slab above shall be fireblocked or draftstopped in accordance with Sections 718.2 and 718.3 at the partition line. The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the wall supported, except for walls separating tenant spaces in covered and open mall buildings, walls separating dwelling units, walls separating sleeping units and corridor walls, in buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction.

Exceptions:

  1. The wall need not be extended into the crawl space below where the floor above the crawl space has a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating.
  2. Where the room-side fire-resistance-rated membrane of the corridor is carried through to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab of a fire-resistance-rated floor or roof above, the ceiling of the corridor shall be permitted to be protected by the use of ceiling materials as required for a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated floor or roof system.
  3. Where the corridor ceiling is constructed as required for the corridor walls, the walls shall be permitted to terminate at the upper membrane of such ceiling assembly.
  4. The fire partitions separating tenant spaces in a covered or open mall building, complying with Section 402.4.2.1, are not required to extend beyond the underside of a ceiling that is not part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly. A wall is not required in attic or ceiling spaces above tenant separation walls.
  5. Attic fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the partition line in Group R-2 buildings that do not exceed four stories above grade plane, provided the attic space is subdivided by draftstopping into areas not exceeding 3,000 square feet (279 m2) or above every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller.
  6. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the partition line in buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that automatic sprinklers are installed in all combustible floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling spaces.

Where exterior walls serve as a part of a required fire-resistance-rated separation, such walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls, and the fire-resistance-rated separation requirements shall not apply.

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 1021.2 for exterior egress balconies, Section 1023.7 for interior exit stairways and ramps and Section 1027.6 for exterior exit stairways and ramps.

Openings in a fire partition shall be protected in accordance with Section 716.
Penetrations of fire partitions shall comply with Section 714.
Joints made in or between fire partitions shall comply with Section 715.
Penetrations in a fire partition by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 717.
Vertical and horizontal smoke barriers shall comply with this section.
Smoke barriers shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.

A 1-hour fire-resistance rating is required for smoke barriers.

Exception: Smoke barriers constructed of minimum 0.10-inch-thick (2.5 mm) steel in Group I-3 buildings.

Smoke barriers shall form an effective membrane continuous from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above, including continuity through concealed spaces, such as those found above suspended ceilings, and interstitial structural and mechanical spaces. The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the wall or floor supported in buildings of other than Type IIB, IIIB or VB construction. Smoke barrier walls used to separate smoke compartments shall comply with Section 709.4.1. Smoke-barrier walls used to enclose areas of refuge in accordance with Section 1009.6.4 or to enclose elevator lobbies in accordance with Section 405.4.3, 3007.6.2, or 3008.6.2 shall comply with Section 709.4.2.

Exception: Smoke-barrier walls are not required in interstitial spaces where such spaces are designed and constructed with ceilings or exterior walls that provide resistance to the passage of fire and smoke equivalent to that provided by the smoke-barrier walls.

Smoke-barrier walls used to separate smoke compartments shall form an effective membrane continuous from outside wall to outside wall.
Smoke-barrier walls used to enclose areas of refuge in accordance with Section 1009.6.4, or to enclose elevator lobbies in accordance with Section 405.4.3, 3007.6.2, or 3008.6.2, shall form an effective membrane enclosure that terminates at a fire barrier wall having a level of fire protection rating not less than 1 hour, another smoke barrier wall or an outside wall. A smoke and draft control door assembly as specified in Section 716.5.3.1 shall not be required at each elevator hoistway door opening or at each exit doorway between an area of refuge and the exit enclosure.

Openings in a smoke barrier shall be protected in accordance with Section 716.

Exceptions:

  1. In Group I-2, I-2.1, R-2.1 and ambulatory care facilities, where a pair of opposite-swinging doors are installed across a corridor in accordance with Section 709.5.1, the doors shall not be required to be protected in accordance with Section 716. The doors shall be close fitting within operational tolerances, and shall not have a center mullion or undercuts in excess of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm), louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, and astragals or rabbets at meeting edges. Where permitted by the door manufacturer's listing, positive-latching devices are not required.
  2. In Group I-2, R-2.1 and ambulatory care facilities, horizontal sliding doors installed in accordance with Section 1010.1.4.3 and protected in accordance with Section 716.
In Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where doors are installed across a corridor, the doors shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 and shall have a vision panel with fire-protection-rated glazing materials in fire-protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested.
Penetrations of smoke barriers shall comply with Section 714.
Joints made in or between smoke barriers shall comply with Section 715.
Penetrations in a smoke barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 717.
Smoke partitions installed as required elsewhere in the code shall comply with this section.
The walls shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction. In Group I-2 and I-2.1, smoke partitions shall have framing covered with noncombustible materials having an approved thermal barrier with an index of not less than 15 in accordance with FM 4880, UL 1040, NFPA 286 or UL 1715.
Unless required elsewhere in the code, smoke partitions are not required to have a fire-resistance rating.
Smoke partitions shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above or to the underside of the ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed to limit the transfer of smoke.
Openings in smoke partitions shall comply with Sections 710.5.1 and 710.5.2.
Windows in smoke partitions shall be sealed to resist the free passage of smoke or be automatic-closing upon detection of smoke.
Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with Sections 710.5.2.1 through 710.5.2.3.
Doors in smoke partitions shall not include louvers.
Where required elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall meet the requirements for a smoke and draft control door assembly tested in accordance with UL 1784. The air leakage rate of the door assembly shall not exceed 3.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot (0.015424 m3/(s • m2)) of door opening at 0.10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature test and the elevated temperature exposure test. Installation of smoke doors shall be in accordance with NFPA 105.
Smoke and draft control doors complying only with UL 1784 shall be permitted to show the letter “S” on the manufacturer's labeling.
Where required elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall be self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3.
The space around penetrating items shall be filled with an approved material to limit the free passage of smoke.
Joints shall be filled with an approved material to limit the free passage of smoke.

The space around a duct penetrating a smoke partition shall be filled with an approved material to limit the free passage of smoke. Air transfer openings in smoke partitions shall be provided with a smoke damper complying with Section 717.3.2.2. For Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, duct openings in smoke partitions shall also be provided with a smoke damper complying with Section 717.3.2.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Where the installation of a smoke damper will interfere with the operation of a required smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative protection shall be utilized.
  2. [SFM] Smoke dampers are not required in corridor penetrations where the duct is constructed of steel not less than 0.019-inch (0.40 mm) in thickness and there are no openings serving the corridor.
Horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 711.2. Nonfire-resistance-rated floor and roof assemblies shall comply with Section 711.3.
Horizontal assemblies shall comply with Sections 711.2.1 through 711.2.6.
Assemblies shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.
Assemblies shall be continuous without vertical openings, except as permitted by this section and Section 712.

The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the horizontal assembly supported.

Exception: In buildings of Type IIB, IIIB or VB construction, the construction supporting the horizontal assembly is not required to be fire-resistance rated at the following:

  1. Horizontal assemblies at the separations of incidental uses as specified by Table 509 provided the required fire-resistance rating does not exceed 1 hour.
  2. Horizontal assemblies at the separations of dwelling units and sleeping units as required by Section 420.3.
  3. Horizontal assemblies at smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 709.
The fire-resistance rating of horizontal assemblies shall comply with Sections 711.2.4.1 through 711.2.4.6 but shall be not less than that required by the building type of construction.
Where the horizontal assembly separates mixed occupancies, the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Section 508.4 based on the occupancies being separated.
Where the horizontal assembly separates a single occupancy into different fire areas, the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Section 707.3.10.

Horizontal assemblies serving as dwelling or sleeping unit separations in accordance with Section 420.3 shall be not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

Exception: Horizontal assemblies separating dwelling units and sleeping units shall be not less than 1/2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction in a building of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction, where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

Where the horizontal assembly is required to be a smoke barrier, the assembly shall comply with Section 709.
Where the horizontal assembly separates incidental uses from the remainder of the building, the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Section 509.
Where a horizontal assembly is required by other sections of this code, the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by that section.
Where the weight of lay-in ceiling panels, used as part of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies, is not adequate to resist an upward force of 1 pound per square foot (48 Pa), wire or other approved devices shall be installed above the panels to prevent vertical displacement under such upward force.
In 1-hour fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assemblies, the ceiling membrane is not required to be installed over unusable crawl spaces. In 1-hour fire-resistance-rated roof assemblies, the floor membrane is not required to be installed where unusable attic space occurs above.
Nonfire-resistance-rated floor, floor/ceiling, roof and roof/ceiling assemblies shall comply with Sections 711.3.1 and 711.3.2.
Assemblies shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.
Assemblies shall be continuous without vertical openings, except as permitted by Section 712.
Each vertical opening shall comply in accordance with one of the protection methods in Sections 712.1.1 through 712.1.16.
Vertical openings contained entirely within a shaft enclosure complying with Section 713 shall be permitted.
Unconcealed vertical openings totally within an individual residential dwelling unit and connecting four stories or less shall be permitted.
Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, vertical openings for escalators shall be permitted where protected in accordance with Section 712.1.3.1 or 712.1.3.2.
Protection by a draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be permitted where the area of the vertical opening between stories does not exceed twice the horizontal projected area of the escalator. In other than Groups B and M, this application is limited to openings that do not connect more than four stories.
Protection of the vertical opening by approved shutters at every penetrated floor shall be permitted in accordance with this section. The shutters shall be of noncombustible construction and have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1.5 hours. The shutter shall be so constructed as to close immediately upon the actuation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 907.3.1 and shall completely shut off the well opening. Escalators shall cease operation when the shutter begins to close. The shutter shall operate at a speed of not more than 30 feet per minute (152.4 mm/s) and shall be equipped with a sensitive leading edge to arrest its progress where in contact with any obstacle, and to continue its progress on release there from.
Penetrations, concealed and unconcealed, shall be permitted where protected in accordance with Section 714.
Joints shall be permitted where complying with Section 712.1.5.1 or 712.1.5.2, as applicable.
Joints made in or between horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 715. The void created at the intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly shall be permitted where protected in accordance with Section 715.4.

Joints in or between floor assemblies without a required fire-resistance rating shall be permitted where they comply with one of the following:

  1. The joint shall be concealed within the cavity of a wall.
  2. The joint shall be located above a ceiling.
  3. The joint shall be sealed, treated or covered with an approved material or system to resist the free passage of flame and the products of combustion.

Exception: Joints meeting one of the exceptions listed in Section 715.1.

Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings shall be protected in accordance with Section 717. Grease ducts shall be protected in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.
In other than Group H occupancies, atriums complying with Section 404 shall be permitted.
Approved vertical openings for masonry chimneys shall be permitted where the annular space is fireblocked at each floor level in accordance with Section 718.2.5.

In other than Groups I-2, I-2.1 and I-3, a vertical opening that is not used as one of the applications listed in this section shall be permitted if the opening complies with all of the items below:

  1. Does not connect more than two stories.
  2. Does not penetrate a horizontal assembly that separates fire areas or smoke barriers that separate smoke compartments.
  3. Is not concealed within the construction of a wall or a floor/ceiling assembly.
  4. Is not open to a corridor in Group I and R occupancies.
  5. Is not open to a corridor on nonsprinklered floors.
  6. Is separated from floor openings and air transfer openings serving other floors by construction conforming to required shaft enclosures.
Vertical openings in parking garages for automobile ramps, elevators and duct systems shall comply with Section 712.1.10.1, 712.1.10.2 or 712.1.10.3, as applicable.
Vertical openings for automobile ramps in open and enclosed parking garages shall be permitted where constructed in accordance with Sections 406.5 and 406.6, respectively.
Vertical openings for elevator hoistways in open or enclosed parking garages that serve only the parking garage, and complying with Sections 406.5 and 406.6, respectively, shall be permitted.
Vertical openings for mechanical exhaust or supply duct systems in open or enclosed parking garages complying with Sections 406.5 and 406.6, respectively, shall be permitted to be unenclosed where such duct system is contained within and serves only the parking garage.
Vertical openings between a mezzanine complying with Section 505 and the floor below shall be permitted.
Vertical openings containing exit access stairways or ramps in accordance with Section 1019 shall be permitted.
Vertical openings for floor fire doors and access doors shall be permitted where protected by Section 712.1.13.1 or 712.1.13.2.
Horizontal fire door assemblies used to protect openings in fire-resistance-rated horizontal assemblies shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 288, and shall achieve a fire-resistance rating not less than the assembly being penetrated. Horizontal fire door assemblies shall be labeled by an approved agency. The label shall be permanently affixed and shall specify the manufacturer, the test standard and the fire-resistance rating.
Access doors shall be permitted in ceilings of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling assemblies, provided such doors are tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 as horizontal assemblies and labeled by an approved agency for such purpose.
In Group I-3 occupancies, vertical openings shall be permitted in accordance with Section 408.5.
Skylights and other penetrations through a fire-resistance-rated roof deck or slab are permitted to be unprotected, provided that the structural integrity of the fire-resistance-rated roof assembly is maintained. Unprotected skylights shall not be permitted in roof assemblies required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 705.8.6. The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the horizontal assembly supported.
Vertical openings shall be permitted where allowed by other sections of this code.
The provisions of this section shall apply to shafts required to protect openings and penetrations through floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling assemblies. Interior exit stairways and ramps shall be enclosed in accordance with Section 1023.
Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 711, or both.
The shaft enclosure shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.
Shaft enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting four stories or more, and not less than 1 hour where connecting less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the shaft enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezzanines. Shaft enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 hours. Shaft enclosures shall meet the requirements of Section 703.2.1.
Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both, and shall have continuity in accordance with Section 707.5 for fire barriers or Section 711.4 for horizontal assemblies as applicable.

Where exterior walls serve as a part of a required shaft enclosure, such walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls and the fire-resistance-rated enclosure requirements shall not apply.

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 1021.2 for exterior egress balconies, Section 1023.7 for interior exit stairways and ramps and Section 1027.6 for exterior exit stairways and ramps.

Openings in a shaft enclosure shall be protected in accordance with Section 716 as required for fire barriers. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3.
Openings other than those necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be permitted in shaft enclosures.
Penetrations in a shaft enclosure shall be protected in accordance with Section 714 as required for fire barriers. Structural elements, such as beams or joists, where protected in accordance with Section 714 shall be permitted to penetrate a shaft enclosure.
Penetrations other than those necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be permitted in shaft enclosures.
Joints in a shaft enclosure shall comply with Section 715.
Penetrations of a shaft enclosure by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 717.

Shafts that do not extend to the bottom of the building or structure shall comply with one of the following:

  1. They shall be enclosed at the lowest level with construction of the same fire-resistance rating as the lowest floor through which the shaft passes, but not less than the rating required for the shaft enclosure.
  2. They shall terminate in a room having a use related to the purpose of the shaft. The room shall be separated from the remainder of the building by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating and opening protectives shall be at least equal to the protection required for the shaft enclosure.
  3. They shall be protected by approved fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing at the lowest floor level within the shaft enclosure.

Exceptions:

  1. The fire-resistance-rated room separation is not required, provided there are no openings in or penetrations of the shaft enclosure to the interior of the building except at the bottom. The bottom of the shaft shall be closed off around the penetrating items with materials permitted by Section 718.3.1 for draftstopping, or the room shall be provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
  2. A shaft enclosure containing a waste or linen chute shall not be used for any other purpose and shall discharge in a room protected in accordance with Section 713.13.4.
  3. The fire-resistance-rated room separation and the protection at the bottom of the shaft are not required provided there are no combustibles in the shaft and there are no openings or other penetrations through the shaft enclosure to the interior of the building.
A shaft enclosure that does not extend to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the building shall be enclosed at the top with construction of the same fire-resistance rating as the topmost floor penetrated by the shaft, but not less than the fire-resistance rating required for the shaft enclosure.

Waste and linen chutes shall comply with the provisions of NFPA 82, Chapter 5 and shall meet the requirements of Sections 713.13.1 through 713.13.6. Incinerator rooms shall meet the provisions of Sections 713.13.4 through 713.13.5.

Exception: Chutes serving and contained within a single dwelling unit.

A shaft enclosure containing a recycling, or waste or linen chute shall not be used for any other purpose and shall be enclosed in accordance with Section 713.4. Openings into the shaft, from access rooms and discharge rooms, shall be protected in accordance with this section and Section 716. Openings into chutes shall not be located in corridors. Doors into chutes shall be self-closing. Discharge doors shall be self- or automatic-closing upon the actuation of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3, except that heat-activated closing devices shall be permitted between the shaft and the discharge room.
A shaft enclosure containing a waste, recycling, or linen chute shall be constructed of materials as permitted by the building type of construction.
Access openings for waste or linen chutes shall be located in rooms or compartments enclosed by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Openings into the access rooms shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing upon the detection of smoke in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3.
Waste or linen chutes shall discharge into an enclosed room separated by fire barriers with a fire-resistance rating not less than the required fire rating of the shaft enclosure and constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Openings into the discharge room from the remainder of the building shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating equal to the protection required for the shaft enclosure. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing upon the detection of smoke in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3. Waste chutes shall not terminate in an incinerator room. Waste and linen rooms that are not provided with chutes need only comply with Table 509.
Incinerator rooms shall comply with Table 509.
An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with Section 903.2.11.2.
Elevator, dumbwaiter and other hoistway enclosures shall be constructed in accordance with Section 713 and Chapter 30.
The provisions of this section shall govern the materials and methods of construction used to protect through penetrations and membrane penetrations of horizontal assemblies and fire-resistance-rated wall assemblies.
Penetrations of fire-resistance-rated walls by ducts that are not protected with dampers shall comply with Sections 714.2 through 714.3.3. Penetrations of horizontal assemblies not protected with a shaft as permitted by Section 717.6, and not required to be protected with fire dampers by other sections of this code, shall comply with Sections 714.4 through 714.4.2.2. Ducts and air transfer openings that are protected with dampers shall comply with Section 717.
Where sleeves are used, they shall be securely fastened to the assembly penetrated. The space between the item contained in the sleeve and the sleeve itself and any space between the sleeve and the assembly penetrated shall be protected in accordance with this section. Insulation and coverings on or in the penetrating item shall not penetrate the assembly unless the specific material used has been tested as part of the assembly in accordance with this section.
Penetrations into or through fire walls, fire barriers, smoke barrier walls and fire partitions shall comply with Sections 714.3.1 through 714.3.3. Penetrations in smoke barrier walls shall also comply with Section 714.5.

Through penetrations of fire-resistance-rated walls shall comply with Section 714.3.1.1 or 714.3.1.2.

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, ferrous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular space between the penetrating item and the fire-resistance-rated wall is permitted to be protected as follows:

  1. In concrete or masonry walls where the penetrating item is a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal diameter and the area of the opening through the wall does not exceed 144 square inches (0.0929 m2), concrete, grout or mortar is permitted where it is installed the full thickness of the wall or the thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating; or
  2. The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to ASTM E119 or UL 263 time-temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the construction penetrated.
Penetrations shall be installed as tested in an approved fire-resistance-rated assembly.
Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water and shall have an F rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated.

Membrane penetrations shall comply with Section 714.3.1. Where walls or partitions are required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that the required fire-resistance will not be reduced.

Exceptions:

  1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (0.0 103 m2) in area, provided the aggregate area of the openings through the membrane does not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m2) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of wall area. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall or partition shall be separated by one of the following:

    1. 1.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 inches (610 mm) where the wall or partition is constructed with individual noncommunicating stud cavities;
    2. 1.2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the wall cavity where the wall cavity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation;
    3. 1.3. By solid fireblocking in accordance with Section 718.2.1;
    4. 1.4. By protecting both outlet boxes with listed putty pads; or
    5. 1.5. By other listed materials and methods.
  2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any material, provided such boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall or partition shall be separated by one of the following:

    1. 2.1. By the horizontal distance specified in the listing of the electrical boxes;
    2. 2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with Section 718.2.1;
    3. 2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads; or
    4. 2.4. By other listed materials and methods.
  3. Membrane penetrations by electrical boxes of any size or type, that have been listed as part of a wall opening protective material system for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing.
  4. Membrane penetrations by boxes other than electrical boxes, provided such penetrating items and the annular space between the wall membrane and the box, are protected by an approved membrane penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water, and shall have an F and T rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated and be installed in accordance with their listing.
  5. The annular space created by the penetration of an automatic sprinkler, provided it is covered by a metal escutcheon plate.
  6. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour fire resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel electrical boxes that exceed 16 square inches (0.0 103 m2) in area, or steel electrical boxes of any size having an aggregate area through the membrane exceeding 100 square inches (0.0645 m2) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of wall area, provided such penetrating items are protected by listed putty pads or other listed materials and methods, and installed in accordance with the listing.
Noncombustible penetrating items shall not connect to combustible items beyond the point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the fire-resistance integrity of the wall is maintained.
Penetrations of a fire-resistance-rated floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly not required to be enclosed in a shaft by Section 712.1 shall be protected in accordance with Sections 714.4.1 through 714.4.4.

Through penetrations of horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 714.4.1.1 or 714.4.1.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents or concrete or masonry items through a single fire-resistance-rated floor assembly where the annular space is protected with materials that prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to ASTM E119 or UL 263 time-temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the construction penetrated. Penetrating items with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal diameter shall not be limited to the penetration of a single fire-resistance-rated floor assembly, provided the aggregate area of the openings through the assembly does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm2) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of floor area.
  2. Penetrations in a single concrete floor by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal diameter, provided the concrete, grout or mortar is installed the full thickness of the floor or the thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating. The penetrating items shall not be limited to the penetration of a single concrete floor, provided the area of the opening through each floor does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm2).
  3. Penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any material, provided such boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing.
Through penetrations shall be installed as tested in the approved fire-resistance-rated assembly.

Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved through-penetration firestop system installed and tested in accordance with ASTM E814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water (2.49 Pa). The system shall have an F rating/T rating of not less than 1 hour but not less than the required rating of the floor penetrated.

Exceptions:

  1. Floor penetrations contained and located within the cavity of a wall above the floor or below the floor do not require a T rating.
  2. Floor penetrations by floor drains, tub drains or shower drains contained and located within the concealed space of a horizontal assembly do not require a T rating.
  3. Floor penetrations of maximum 4-inch (102 mm) nominal diameter penetrating directly into metal-enclosed electrical power switch-gear do not require a T rating.

Penetrations of membranes that are part of a horizontal assembly shall comply with Section 714.4.1.1 or 714.4.1.2. Where floor/ceiling assemblies are required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that the required fire resistance will not be reduced.

Exceptions:

  1. Membrane penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents, or concrete or masonry items where the annular space is protected either in accordance with Section 714.4.1 or to prevent the free passage of flame and the products of combustion. The aggregate area of the openings through the membrane shall not exceed 100 square inches (64 500 mm2) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of ceiling area in assemblies tested without penetrations.
  2. Ceiling membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour horizontal assemblies by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (10 323 mm2) in area, provided the aggregate area of such penetrations does not exceed 100 square inches (44 500 mm2) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of ceiling area, and the annular space between the ceiling membrane and the box does not exceed 1/8 inch (3.2 mm).
  3. Membrane penetrations by electrical boxes of any size or type, that have been listed as part of an opening protective material system for use in horizontal assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing.
  4. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any material, provided such boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing. The annular space between the ceiling membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) unless listed otherwise.
  5. The annular space created by the penetration of a fire sprinkler, provided it is covered by a metal escutcheon plate.
  6. Noncombustible items that are cast into concrete building elements and that do not penetrate both top and bottom surfaces of the element.
  7. The ceiling membrane of 1- and 2-hour fire-resistance-rated horizontal assemblies is permitted to be interrupted with the double wood top plate of a wall assembly that is sheathed with Type X gypsum wallboard, provided that all penetrating items through the double top plates are protected in accordance with Section 714.4.1.1 or 714.4.1.2 and the ceiling membrane is tight to the top plates.
Noncombustible penetrating items shall not connect to combustible materials beyond the point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the fire-resistance integrity of the horizontal assembly is maintained.

Penetrations in smoke barriers shall be protected by an approved through-penetration firestop system installed and tested in accordance with the requirements of UL 1479 for air leakage. The L rating of the system measured at 0.30 inch (7.47 Pa) of water in both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests shall not exceed:

  1. 5.0 cfm per square foot (0.025 m3/ s • m2) of penetration opening for each through-penetration firestop system; or
  2. A total cumulative leakage of 50 cfm (0.024 m3/s) for any 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of wall area, or floor area.
Penetrations of nonfire-resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies or the ceiling membrane of a nonfire-resistance-rated roof/ceiling assembly shall meet the requirements of Section 713 or shall comply with Section 714.5.1 or 714.5.2.
Noncombustible penetrating items that connect not more than five stories are permitted, provided that the annular space is filled to resist the free passage of flame and the products of combustion with an approved noncombustible material or with a fill, void or cavity material that is tested and classified for use in through-penetration firestop systems.
Penetrating items that connect not more than two stories are permitted, provided that the annular space is filled with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and the products of combustion.

Joints installed in or between fire-resistance-rated walls, floor or floor/ceiling assemblies and roofs or roof/ceiling assemblies shall be protected by an approved fire-resistant joint system designed to resist the passage of fire for a time period not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall, floor or roof in or between which the system is installed. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be tested in accordance with Section 715.3.

Exception: Fire-resistant joint systems shall not be required for joints in all of the following locations:

  1. Floors within a single dwelling unit.
  2. Floors where the joint is protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 713.
  3. Floors within atriums where the space adjacent to the atrium is included in the volume of the atrium for smoke control purposes.
  4. Floors within malls.
  5. Floors and ramps within open and enclosed parking garages or structures constructed in accordance with Sections 406.5 and 406.6, respectively.
  6. Mezzanine floors.
  7. Walls that are permitted to have unprotected openings.
  8. Roofs where openings are permitted.
  9. Control joints not exceeding a maximum width of 0.625 inch (15.9 mm) and tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263.
The void created at the intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 715.4.
A fire-resistant joint system shall be securely installed in accordance with the listing criteria in or on the joint for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to accommodate expected building movements and to resist the passage of fire and hot gases.

Fire-resistant joint systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of either ASTM E1966 or UL 2079. Nonsymmetrical wall joint systems shall be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration obtained from the two tests. Where evidence is furnished to show that the wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, the wall need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side.

Exception: For exterior walls with a horizontal fire separation distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the joint system shall be required to be tested for interior fire exposure only.

Where fire resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies are required, voids created at the intersection of the exterior curtain wall assemblies and such floor assemblies shall be sealed with an approved system to prevent the interior spread of fire. Such systems shall be securely installed and tested in accordance with ASTM E2307 to provide an F rating for a time period not less than the fire-resistance rating of the floor assembly. Height and fire-resistance requirements for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 705.8.5.

Exception: Voids created at the intersection of the exterior curtain wall assemblies and such floor assemblies where the vision glass extends to the finished floor level shall be permitted to be sealed with an approved material to prevent the interior spread of fire. Such material shall be securely installed and capable of preventing the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E119 time-temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (0.254 mm) of water column (2.5 Pa) for the time period not less than the fire-resistance rating of the floor assembly.

Voids created at the intersection of exterior curtain wall assemblies and nonfire-resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies shall be sealed with an approved material or system to retard the interior spread of fire and hot gases between stories.
Voids created at the intersection of nonfire-resistance-rated exterior curtain wall assemblies and fire barriers shall be filled. An approved material or system shall be used to fill the void and shall be securely installed in or on the intersection for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to accommodate expected building movements and to retard the passage of fire and hot gases.
Height and fire-resistance requirements for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 705.8.5. Where Section 705.8.5 does not require a fire-resistance-rated spandrel wall, the requirements of Section 715.4 shall still apply to the intersection between the spandrel wall and the floor.
Fire-resistant joint systems in smoke barriers, and joints at the intersection of a horizontal smoke barrier and an exterior curtain wall, shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of UL 2079 for air leakage. The L rating of the joint system shall not exceed 5 cfm per linear foot (0.00775 m3/s m) of joint at 0.30 inch (7.47 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests.
Opening protectives required by other sections of this code shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Fire-resistance-rated glazing tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated wall or floor/ceiling assembly in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 and labeled in accordance with Section 703.6 shall not otherwise be required to comply with this section where used as part of a wall or floor/ceiling assembly. Fire-resistance-rated glazing shall be permitted in fire door and fire window assemblies where tested and installed in accordance with their listings and where in compliance with the requirements of this section.

Fire-rated glazing assemblies shall be marked in accordance with Tables 716.3, 716.5, and 716.6.

TABLE 716.3

MARKING FIRE-RATED GLAZING ASSEMBLIES

FIRE TEST STANDARDMARKINGDEFINITION OF MARKING
ASTM E119 or UL 263WMeets wall assembly criteria.
NFPA 257 or UL 9OHMeets fire window assembly criteria including the hose stream test.
NFPA 252 or UL 10B or UL 10CDMeets fire door assembly criteria.
HMeets fire door assembly “Hose Stream” test.
TMeets 450°F temperature rise criteria for 30 minutes
XXXThe time in minutes of the fire resistance or fire protection rating of the glazing assembly

For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.

For fire-rated glazing, the label shall bear the identification required in Tables 716.3 and 716.5. “D” indicates that the glazing is permitted to be used in fire door assemblies and that the glazing meets the fire protection requirements of NFPA 252. “H” shall indicate that the glazing meets the hose stream requirements of NFPA 252. “T” shall indicate that the glazing meets the temperature requirements of Section 716.5.5.1. The placeholder “XXX” represents the fire-rating period, in minutes.
For fire-protection-rated glazing, the label shall bear the following identification required in Tables 716.3 and 716.6: “OH – XXX.” “OH” indicates that the glazing meets both the fire protection and the hose-stream requirements of NFPA 257 or UL 9 and is permitted to be used in fire window openings. The placeholder “XXX” represents the fire-rating period, in minutes.
Fire-rated glazing assemblies marked as complying with hose stream requirements (H) shall be permitted in applications that do not require compliance with hose stream requirements. Fire-rated glazing assemblies marked as complying with temperature rise requirements (T) shall be permitted in applications that do not require compliance with temperature rise requirements. Fire-rated glazing assemblies marked with ratings (XXX) that exceed the ratings required by this code shall be permitted.

The application of any of the alternative methods listed in this section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance criteria specified in NFPA 252, NFPA 257 or UL 9. The required fire resistance of an opening protective shall be permitted to be established by any of the following methods or procedures:

  1. Designs documented in approved sources.
  2. Calculations performed in an approved manner.
  3. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of opening protective designs having fire protection ratings as determined by the test procedures set forth in NFPA 252, NFPA 257 or UL 9.
  4. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 104.11.

Approved fire door and fire shutter assemblies shall be constructed of any material or assembly of component materials that conforms to the test requirements of Section 716.5.1, 716.5.2 or 716.5.3 and the fire protection rating indicated in Table 716.5. Fire door frames with transom lights, sidelights or both shall be permitted in accordance with Section 716.5.6. Fire door assemblies and shutters shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of this section and NFPA 80.

Exceptions:

  1. Labeled protective assemblies that conform to the requirements of this section or UL 10A, UL 14B and UL 14C for tin-clad fire door assemblies.
  2. Floor fire door assemblies in accordance with Section 711.8.

TABLE 716.5

OPENING FIRE PROTECTION ASSEMBLIES, RATINGS AND MARKINGS

TYPE OF ASSEMBLYREQUIRED WALL ASSEMBLY RATING (hours)MINIMUM FIRE DOOR AND FIRE SHUTTER ASSEMBLY RATING (hours)DOOR VISION PANEL SIZEbFIRE-RATED GLAZING MARKING DOOR VISION PANEL dMINIMUM SIDELIGHT/TRANSOM ASSEMBLY RATING (hours)FIRE-RATED GLAZING MARKING SIDELIGHT/TRANSOM PANEL
Fire protectionFire resistanceFire protectionFire resistance
Fire walls and fire barriers having a required fire-resistance rating greater than 1 hour43See Note bD-H-W-240Not Permitted4Not PermittedW-240
33aSee Note bD-H-W-180Not Permitted3Not PermittedW-180
211/2100 sq. in.≤100 sq. in. = D-H-90 >100 sq. in.= D-H-W-90Not Permitted2Not PermittedW-120
11/211/2100 sq. in.≤100 sq. in. = D-H-90 >100 sq. in.= D-H-W-90Not Permitted11/2Not PermittedW-90
Enclosures for shafts, interior exit stairways and interior exit ramps.211/2100 sq. in.≤100 sq. in. = D-H-90 > 100 sq. in.= D-H-T-W-90Not Permitted2Not PermittedW-120
Horizontal exits in fire wallse43100 sq. in.≤100 sq. in. = D-H-180 > 100 sq. in.= D-H-W-240Not Permitted4Not PermittedW-240
33a100 sq. in.≤100 sq. in. = D-H-180 > 100 sq. in.= D-H-W-180Not Permitted3Not PermittedW-180
Fire barriers having a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour: Enclosures for shafts, exit access stairways, exit ac-cess ramps, interior exit stairways and interior exit ramps; and exit passageway walls11100 sq. in.c≤100 sq. in. = D-H-60 >100 sq. in.= D-H-T-W-60Not Permitted1Not PermittedW-60
Fire protection
Other fire barriers13/4Maximum size testedD-H3/4D-H
Fire partitions: Corridor walls11/3bMaximum size testedD-203/4bD-H-OH-45
0.51/3bMaximum size testedD-201/3D-H-OH-20
Other fire partitions13/4Maximum size testedD-H-453/4D-H-45
0.51/3Maximum size testedD-H-201/3D-H-20
Exterior walls311/2100 sq. in.b≤100 sq. in. = D-H-90 >100 sq. in = D-H-W-90Not Permitted3Not PermittedW-180
211/2100 sq. in.b≤100 sq. in. = D-H-90 >100 sq. in.= D-H-W-90Not Permitted2Not PermittedW-120
Fire protection
13/4Maximum size testedD-H-453/4D-H-45
Smoke barriersFire protection
11/3Maximum size testedD-203/4D-H-OH-45

For SI: 1 square inch = 645.2 mm.

  1. Two doors, each with a fire protection rating of 11/2 hours, installed on opposite sides of the same opening in a fire wall, shall be deemed equivalent in fire protection rating to one 3-hour fire door.
  2. Fire-resistance-rated glazing tested to ASTM E119 in accordance with Section 716.2 shall be permitted, in the maximum size tested.
  3. Except where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler and the fire-rated glazing meets the criteria established in Section 716.5.5.
  4. Under the column heading “Fire-rated glazing marking door vision panel,” W refers to the fire-resistance rating of the glazing, not the frame.
  5. See Section 716.5.8.1.2.1.
Fire door assemblies with side-hinged and pivoted swinging doors shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 252 or UL 10C. After 5 minutes into the NFPA 252 test, the neutral pressure level in the furnace shall be established at 40 inches (1016 mm) or less above the sill.
Fire door assemblies with other types of doors, including swinging elevator doors, horizontal sliding fire door assemblies, and fire shutter assemblies, bottom and side-hinged chute intake doors, and top-hinged chute discharge doors, shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 252 or UL 10B. The pressure in the furnace shall be maintained as nearly equal to the atmospheric pressure as possible. Once established, the pressure shall be maintained during the entire test period.

Fire door assemblies required to have a minimum fire protection rating of 20 minutes where located in corridor walls or smoke barrier walls having a fire-resistance rating in accordance with Table 716.5 shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 252 or UL 10C without the hose stream test.

Exceptions:

  1. Viewports that require a hole not larger than 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter through the door, have at least a 0.25-inch-thick (6.4 mm) glass disc and the holder is of metal that will not melt out where subject to temperatures of 1,700°F (927°C).
  2. Corridor door assemblies in occupancies of Group I-2 shall be in accordance with Section 407.3.1.
  3. Unprotected openings shall be permitted for corridors in multitheater complexes where each motion picture auditorium has at least one-half of its required exit or exit access doorways opening directly to the exterior or into an exit passageway.
  4. Horizontal sliding doors in smoke barriers that comply with Sections 408.6 and 408.8.1 in occupancies in Group I-3.
  5. Cell or room doors, including cell or room doors with integral side-lites that are part of the door assembly in Group I-3 occupancies which open into a required exit corridor within a cell complex.
Fire door assemblies shall also meet the requirements for a smoke and draft control door assembly tested in accordance with UL 1784. The air leakage rate of the door assembly shall not exceed 3.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot (0.01524 m3/s • m2) of door opening at 0.10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests. Louvers shall be prohibited. Installation of smoke doors shall be in accordance with NFPA 105.
In a 20-minute fire door assembly, the glazing material in the door itself shall have a minimum fire-protection-rated glazing of 20 minutes and shall be exempt from the hose stream test. Glazing material in any other part of the door assembly, including transom lights and sidelights, shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 257 or UL 9, including the hose stream test, in accordance with Section 716.6.
Fire door assemblies required to have a minimum fire protection rating of 20 minutes where located in other fire partitions having a fire-resistance rating of 0.5 hour in accordance with Table 716.5 shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 252, UL 10B or UL 10C with the hose stream test.

Fire door assemblies in interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways shall have a maximum transmitted temperature rise of not more than 450°F (250°C) above ambient at the end of 30 minutes of standard fire test exposure.

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature rise is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

Fire-protection-rated glazing in excess of 100 square inches (0.065 m2) is not permitted. Fire-resistance-rated glazing in excess of 100 square inches (0.065 m2) shall be permitted in door fire doors. Listed fire-resistance-rated glazing in a fire door shall have a maximum transmitted temperature rise in accordance with Section 716.5.5 when the fire door is tested in accordance with NFPA 252, UL 10B or UL 10C.
Door frames with transom lights, sidelights or both, shall be permitted where a 3/4-hour fire protection rating or less is required in accordance with Table 716.5. Fire door frames with transom lights, sidelights, or both, installed with fire-resistance-rated glazing tested as an assembly in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall be permitted where a fire protection rating exceeding 3/4 hour is required in accordance with Table 716.5.
Fire door assemblies shall be labeled by an approved agency. The labels shall comply with NFPA 80, and shall be permanently affixed to the door or frame.

Fire doors shall be labeled showing the name of the manufacturer or other identification readily traceable back to the manufacturer, the name or trademark of the third-party inspection agency, the fire protection rating and, where required for fire doors in interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways by Section 716.5.5, the maximum transmitted temperature end point. Smoke and draft control doors complying with UL 1784 shall be labeled as such and shall comply with Section 716.5.7.3. Labels shall be approved and permanently affixed. The label shall be applied at the factory or location where fabrication and assembly are performed.

Exception: In Group I-3 doors that are required to be 45 minutes or higher shall be fire-rated assemblies or certified by the manufacturer as being equivalent to the required standard.

Listed light kits and louvers and their required preparations shall be considered as part of the labeled door where such installations are done under the listing program of the third-party agency. Fire doors and door assemblies shall be permitted to consist of components, including glazing, vision light kits and hardware that are listed or classified and labeled for such use by different third-party agencies.
Oversized fire doors shall bear an oversized fire door label by an approved agency or shall be provided with a certificate of inspection furnished by an approved testing agency. Where a certificate of inspection is furnished by an approved testing agency, the certificate shall state that the door conforms to the requirements of design, materials and construction, but has not been subjected to the fire test.
Smoke and draft control doors complying with UL 1784 shall be labeled in accordance with Section 716.5.7.1 and shall show the letter “S” on the fire-rating label of the door. This marking shall indicate that the door and frame assembly are in compliance where listed or labeled gasketing is installed.
Fire door frames shall be labeled showing the names of the manufacturer and the third-party inspection agency.
Fire door operators for horizontal sliding doors shall be labeled and listed for use with the assembly.
Fire-rated glazing and fire-resistance-rated glazing conforming to the opening protection requirements in Section 716.5 shall be permitted in fire door assemblies.
Fire-resistance-rated glazing shall comply with the size limitations in Section 716.5.8.1.1. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall comply with the size limitations of NFPA 80, and as provided in Section 716.5.8.1.2.
Fire-resistance-rated glazing tested to ASTM E119 or UL 263 and NFPA 252, UL 10B or UL 10C shall be permitted in fire door assemblies located in fire walls and in fire barriers in accordance with Table 716.5 to the maximum size tested and in accordance with their listings.
Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be prohibited in fire walls and fire barriers except as provided in Sections 716.5.8.1.2.1 and 716.5.8.1.2.2.
Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be permitted as vision panels in self-closing swinging fire door assemblies serving as horizontal exits in fire walls where limited to 100 square inches (0.065 m2) with no dimension exceeding 10 inches (0.3 mm).
Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be permitted in fire doors having a 11/2-hour fire protection rating intended for installation in fire barriers, where limited to 100 square inches (0.065 m2).
Approved fire-protection-rated glazing used in fire door assemblies in elevator, stairway and ramp enclosures shall be so located as to furnish clear vision of the passageway or approach to the elevator, stairway or ramp.
Fire-rated glazing shall bear a label or other identification showing the name of the manufacturer, the test standard and information required in Table 716.3 that shall be issued by an approved agency and shall be permanently identified on the glazing.
Fire-protection-rated glazing and fire-resistance-rated glazing installed in fire door assemblies shall comply with the safety glazing requirements of Chapter 24 where applicable.

Fire doors shall be latching and self- or automatic-closing in accordance with this section.

Exceptions:

  1. Fire doors located in common walls separating sleeping units in Group R-1 shall be permitted without automatic- or self-closing devices.
  2. The elevator car doors and the associated hoistway enclosure doors at the floor level designated for recall in accordance with Section 3003.2 shall be permitted to remain open during Phase I emergency recall operation.
Unless otherwise specifically permitted, single fire doors and both leaves of pairs of side-hinged swinging fire doors shall be provided with an active latch bolt that will secure the door when it is closed.
Chute intake doors shall be positive latching, remaining latched and closed in the event of latch spring failure during a fire emergency.
Automatic-closing fire door assemblies shall be self-closing in accordance with NFPA 80.

Automatic-closing doors installed in the following locations shall be automatic-closing by the actuation of smoke detectors installed in accordance with Section 907.3 or by loss of power to the smoke detector or hold-open device. Doors that are automatic-closing by smoke detection shall not have more than a 10-second delay before the door starts to close after the smoke detector is actuated:

  1. Doors installed across a corridor.
  2. Doors installed in the enclosures of exit access stairways and ramps in accordance with Sections 1019 and 1023, respectively.
  3. Doors that protect openings in exits or corridors required to be of fire-resistance-rated construction.
  4. Doors that protect openings in walls that are capable of resisting the passage of smoke in accordance with Section 509.4.
  5. Doors installed in smoke barriers in accordance with Section 709.5.
  6. Doors installed in fire partitions in accordance with Section 708.6.
  7. Doors installed in a fire wall in accordance with Section 706.8.
  8. Doors installed in shaft enclosures in accordance with Section 713.7.
  9. Doors installed in waste and linen chutes, discharge openings and access and discharge rooms in accordance with Section 713.13. Loading doors installed in waste and linen chutes shall meet the requirements of Sections 716.5.9 and 716.5.9.1.1.
  10. Doors installed in the walls for compartmentation of underground buildings in accordance with Section 405.4.2.
  11. Doors installed in the elevator lobby walls of underground buildings in accordance with Section 405.4.3.
  12. Doors installed in smoke partitions in accordance with Section 710.5.2.3.
  13. [SFM] Doors installed in walls required to be fire rated in accordance with Section 509.4.
  14. [SFM] Doors installed in walls required to be fire rated in accordance with Section 508.4.

In Group I-2 and I-2.1 occupancies smoke activated doors installed in the above locations shall be automatic closing by actuation of the fire alarm system, or actuation of smoke detectors installed in accordance with Section 907.3, or activation of the sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.1.

Vertical sliding or vertical rolling steel fire doors in openings through which pedestrians travel shall be heat activated or activated by smoke detectors with alarm verification.
Where fire shutters of the swinging type are installed in exterior openings, not less than one row in every three vertical rows shall be arranged to be readily opened from the outside, and shall be identified by distinguishing marks or letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high.
Where fire shutters of the rolling type are installed, such shutters shall include approved automatic-closing devices.

Glazing in fire window assemblies shall be fire protection rated in accordance with this section and Table 716.6. Glazing in fire door assemblies shall comply with Section 716.5.8. Fire-protection-rated glazing in fire window assemblies shall be tested in accordance with and shall meet the acceptance criteria of NFPA 257 or UL 9. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall comply with NFPA 80. Openings in nonfire-resistance-rated exterior wall assemblies that require protection in accordance with Section 705.3, 705.8, 705.8.5 or 705.8.6 shall have a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. Fire-protection-rated glazing in 0.5-hour fire-resistance-rated partitions is permitted to have an 0.33-hour fire protection rating.

TABLE 716.6

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS

TYPE OF WALL ASSEMBLYREQUIRED WALL ASSEMBLY RATING (hours)MINIMUM FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY RATING (hours)FIRE-RATED GLAZING MARKING
Interior walls
Fire wallsAllNPaW-XXXb
Fire barriers> 1NPaW-XXXb
1NPaW-XXXb
Incidental use areas (707.3.7),
Mixed occupancy separations (707.3.9)
13/4OH-45 or W-60
Fire partitions13/4OH-45 or W-60
0.51/3OH-20 or W-30
Smoke barriers13/4OH-45 or W-60
Exterior walls> 111/2OH-90 or W-XXXb
13/4OH-45 or W-60
0.51/3OH-20 or W-30
Party wallAllNPNot Applicable

NP = Not Permitted.

  1. Not permitted except fire-resistance-rated glazing assemblies tested to ASTM E119 or UL 263, as specified in Section 716.2.
  2. XXX = The fire rating duration period in minutes, which shall be equal to the fire-resistance rating required for the wall assembly.
NFPA 257 or UL 9 shall evaluate fire-protection-rated glazing under positive pressure. Within the first 10 minutes of a test, the pressure in the furnace shall be adjusted so not less than two-thirds of the test specimen is above the neutral pressure plane, and the neutral pressure plane shall be maintained at that height for the balance of the test.
Nonsymmetrical fire-protection-rated glazing systems in fire partitions, fire barriers or in exterior walls with a fire separation distance of 5 feet (1524 mm) or less pursuant to Section 705 shall be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned fire protection rating shall be the shortest duration obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with NFPA 257 or UL 9.
Fire-protection-rated glazing and fire-resistance-rated glazing installed in fire window assemblies shall comply with the safety glazing requirements of Chapter 24 where applicable.
Glazing in fire window assemblies shall be fire-protection-rated glazing installed in accordance with and complying with the size limitations set forth in NFPA 80.
Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be in the fixed position or be automatic-closing and shall be installed in approved frames.
Metal mullions that exceed a nominal height of 12 feet (3658 mm) shall be protected with materials to afford the same fire-resistance rating as required for the wall construction in which the protective is located.
Fire-protection-rated glazing used in fire window assemblies located in fire partitions and fire barriers shall be limited to use in assemblies with a maximum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour in accordance with this section.
Fire-protection-rated glazing requiring 45-minute opening protection in accordance with Table 716.6 shall be limited to fire partitions designed in accordance with Section 708 and fire barriers utilized in the applications set forth in Sections 707.3.7 and 707.3.9 where the fire-resistance rating does not exceed 1 hour. Fire-resistance-rated glazing assemblies tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall not be subject to the limitations of this section.
The total area of the glazing in fire-protection-rated window assemblies shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of a common wall with any room.
Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be permitted in window assemblies tested to NFPA 257 or UL 9 in smoke barriers and fire partitions requiring 1/3-hour opening protection in accordance with Table 716.6.
Fire-protection-rated glazing shall bear a label or other identification showing the name of the manufacturer, the test standard and information required in Section 716.3.2 and Table 716.6 that shall be issued by an approved agency and permanently identified on the glazing.
The provisions of this section shall govern the protection of duct penetrations and air transfer openings in assemblies required to be protected and duct penetrations in nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies.
Ducts transitioning horizontally between shafts shall not require a shaft enclosure provided that the duct penetration into each associated shaft is protected with dampers complying with this section.
Ducts that penetrate fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are not required by this section to have dampers shall comply with the requirements of Sections 714.2 through 714.3.3. Ducts that penetrate horizontal assemblies not required to be contained within a shaft and not required by this section to have dampers shall comply with the requirements of Sections 714.4 through 714.5.2.
The space around a duct penetrating a nonfire-resistance-rated floor assembly shall comply with Section 717.6.3.
Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers located within air distribution and smoke control systems shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of this section, the manufacturer's instructions and the dampers’ listing.
Where the installation of a fire damper will interfere with the operation of a required smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative protection shall be utilized. Where mechanical systems including ducts and dampers utilized for normal building ventilation serve as part of the smoke control system, the expected performance of these systems in smoke control mode shall be addressed in the rational analysis required by Section 909.4.
Fire dampers for hazardous exhaust duct systems shall comply with the California Mechanical Code.
Damper testing, ratings and actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 717.3.1 through 717.3.3.

Dampers shall be listed and labeled in accordance with the standards in this section.

  1. Fire dampers shall comply with the requirements of UL 555. Only fire dampers and ceiling radiation dampers labeled for use in dynamic systems shall be installed in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems designed to operate with fans on during a fire.
  2. Smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of UL 555S.
  3. Combination fire/smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of both UL 555 and UL 555S.
  4. Ceiling radiation dampers shall comply with the requirements of UL 555C or shall be tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263.
  5. Corridor dampers shall comply with requirements of both UL 555 and UL 555S. Corridor dampers shall demonstrate acceptable closure performance when subjected to 150 feet per minute (0.76 mps) velocity across the face of the damper during the UL 555 fire exposure test.
Damper ratings shall be in accordance with Sections 717.3.2.1 through 717.3.2.4.

Fire dampers shall have the minimum fire protection rating specified in Table 717.3.2.1 for the type of penetration.

TABLE 717.3.2.1

FIRE DAMPER RATING

TYPE OF PENETRATIONMINIMUM DAMPER RATING (hours)
Less than 3-hour fire-resistance-rated assemblies1.5
3-hour or greater fire-resistance-rated assemblies3
Smoke damper leakage ratings shall be Class I or II. Elevated temperature ratings shall be not less than 250°F (121°C).
Combination fire/smoke dampers shall have the minimum fire protection rating specified for fire dampers in Table 717.3.2.1 for the type of penetration and shall have a minimum smoke damper rating as specified in Section 717.3.2.2.

Corridor dampers shall have the following minimum ratings:

  1. One hour fire-resistance rating.
  2. Class I or II leakage rating as specified in Section 717.3.2.2.
Damper actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 717.3.3.1 through 717.3.3.5 as applicable.

The fire damper actuation device shall meet one of the following requirements:

  1. The operating temperature shall be approximately 50°F (10°C) above the normal temperature within the duct system, but not less than 160°F (71°C).
  2. The operating temperature shall be not more than 350°F (177°C) where located in a smoke control system complying with Section 909.

The smoke damper shall close upon actuation of a listed smoke detector or detectors installed in accordance with Section 907.3 and one of the following methods, as applicable:

  1. Where a smoke damper is installed within a duct, a smoke detector shall be installed inside the duct or outside the duct with sampling tubes protruding into the duct. The detector or tubes within the duct shall be within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the damper. Air outlets and inlets shall not be located between the detector or tubes and the damper. The detector shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and humidity anticipated at the point where it is installed. Other than in mechanical smoke control systems, dampers shall be closed upon fan shutdown where local smoke detectors require a minimum velocity to operate.
  2. Where a smoke damper is installed above smoke barrier doors in a smoke barrier, a spot-type detector shall be installed on either side of the smoke barrier door opening. The detector shall be listed for releasing service if used for direct interface with the damper.
  3. Where a smoke damper is installed within an air transfer opening in a wall, a spot-type detector shall be installed within 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally of the damper. The detector shall be listed for releasing service if used for direct interface with the damper.
  4. Where a smoke damper is installed in a corridor wall or ceiling, the damper shall be permitted to be controlled by a smoke detection system installed in the corridor.
  5. Where a smoke detection system is installed in all areas served by the duct in which the damper will be located, the smoke dampers shall be permitted to be controlled by the smoke detection system.
Combination fire/smoke damper actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 717.3.3.1 and 717.3.3.2. Combination fire/smoke dampers installed in smoke control system shaft penetrations shall not be activated by local area smoke detection unless it is secondary to the smoke management system controls.
The operating temperature of a ceiling radiation damper actuation device shall be 50°F (27.8°C) above the normal temperature within the duct system, but not less than 160°F (71°C).
Corridor damper actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 717.3.3.1 and 717.3.3.2.
Fire and smoke dampers shall be provided with an approved means of access that is large enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the damper and its operating parts. The access shall not affect the integrity of fire-resistance-rated assemblies. The access openings shall not reduce the fire-resistance rating of the assembly. Access points shall be permanently identified on the exterior by a label having letters not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in height reading: FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER, SMOKE DAMPER or FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in ducts shall be tight fitting and suitable for the required duct construction.
Fire, dampers, smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers, ceiling radiation dampers and corridor dampers shall be provided at the locations prescribed in Sections 717.5.1 through 717.5.7 and 717.6. Where an assembly is required to have both fire dampers and smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers or a fire damper and a smoke damper shall be provided.
Ducts and air transfer openings permitted in fire walls in accordance with Section 706.11 shall be protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing.
A listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a fire wall that serves as a horizontal exit.

In other than Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal. Ducts and air transfer openings shall not penetrate enclosures for interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways, except as permitted by Sections 1023.5 and 1024.6, respectively.

Exception: Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of fire barriers where any of the following apply:

  1. Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 as part of the fire-resistance-rated assembly.
  2. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke control system in accordance with Section 909 and where the use of a fire damper would interfere with the operation of a smoke control system.
  3. Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC systems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour or less, are in areas of other than Group H and are in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. For the purposes of this exception, a ducted HVAC system shall be a duct system for conveying supply, return or exhaust air as part of the structure’s HVAC system. Such a duct system shall be constructed of sheet steel not less than No. 26 gage thickness and shall be continuous from the air-handling appliance or equipment to the air outlet and inlet terminals.

    [SFM] For Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, ducts and air transfer openings of fire barriers shall be protected with approved fire and smoke dampers installed in accordance with their listing. Ducts and air transfer openings shall not penetrate exit enclosures and exit passageways except as permitted by Sections 1022.4 and 1023.6, respectively.

    Exceptions:

    1. Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of fire barriers where penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM E119 as part of the fire-resistance rated assembly.
    2. Fire and smoke dampers are not required where ducts are used as part of an approved smoke control system in accordance with Section 909 and where the use of a fire or smoke damper would interfere with the operation of a smoke control system.
A listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a fire barrier that serves as a horizontal exit.

Shaft enclosures that are permitted to be penetrated by ducts and air transfer openings shall be protected with approved fire and smoke dampers installed in accordance with their listing.

Exceptions:

  1. Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of shafts where any of the following criteria are met:

    1. 1.1. Steel exhaust subducts are extended not less than 22 inches (559 mm) vertically in exhaust shafts, provided there is a continuous airflow upward to the outside.
    2. 1.2. Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 as part of the fire-resistance-rated assembly.
    3. 1.3. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke control system designed and installed in accordance with Section 909 and where the fire damper will interfere with the operation of the smoke control system.
    4. 1.4. The penetrations are in parking garage exhaust or supply shafts that are separated from other building shafts by not less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.
  2. In Group B and R occupancies equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, smoke dampers are not required at penetrations of shafts where all of the following criteria are met:

    1. 2.1. Kitchen, clothes dryer, bathroom and toilet room exhaust openings are installed with steel exhaust subducts, having a minimum wall thickness of 0.0187-inch (0.4712 mm) (No. 26 gage).
    2. 2.2. The subducts extend not less than 22 inches (559 mm) vertically.
    3. 2.3. An exhaust fan is installed at the upper terminus of the shaft that is powered continuously in accordance with the provisions of Section 909.11, so as to maintain a continuous upward airflow to the outside.
  3. Smoke dampers are not required at penetration of exhaust or supply shafts in parking garages that are separated from other building shafts by not less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.
  4. Smoke dampers are not required at penetrations of shafts where ducts are used as part of an approved mechanical smoke control system designed in accordance with Section 909 and where the smoke damper will interfere with the operation of the smoke control system.
  5. Fire dampers and combination fire/smoke dampers are not required in kitchen and clothes dryer exhaust systems where installed in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.

In other than Group A, E, I and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, ducts and air transfer openings that penetrate fire partitions shall be protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing.

Exceptions: In occupancies other than Group H and L, fire dampers are not required where any of the following apply:

  1. Corridor walls in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the duct is protected as a through penetration in accordance with Section 714.
  2. Tenant partitions in covered and open mall buildings where the walls are not required by provisions elsewhere in the code to extend to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above.
  3. The duct system is constructed of approved materials in accordance with the California Mechanical Code and the duct penetrating the wall complies with all of the following requirements:

    1. 3.1. The duct shall not exceed 100 square inches (0.06 m2).
    2. 3.2. The duct shall be constructed of steel not less than 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in thickness.
    3. 3.3. The duct shall not have openings that communicate the corridor with adjacent spaces or rooms.
    4. 3.4. The duct shall be installed above a ceiling.
    5. 3.5. The duct shall not terminate at a wall register in the fire-resistance-rated wall.
    6. 3.6. A minimum 12-inch-long (305 mm) by 0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel sleeve shall be centered in each duct opening. The sleeve shall be secured to both sides of the wall and all four sides of the sleeve with minimum 11/2-inch by 11/2-inch by 0.060-inch (38 mm by 38 mm by 1.52 mm) steel retaining angles. The retaining angles shall be secured to the sleeve and the wall with No. 10 (M5) screws. The annular space between the steel sleeve and the wall opening shall be filled with mineral wool batting on all sides.
  4. Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC systems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour or less, and are in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. For the purposes of this exception, a ducted HVAC system shall be a duct system for conveying supply, return or exhaust air as part of the structure’s HVAC system. Such a duct system shall be constructed of sheet steel not less than No. 26 gage thickness and shall be continuous from the air-handling appliance or equipment to the air outlet and inlet terminals.

For Group A, E, I and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, ducts and air transfer openings that penetrate fire partitions shall be protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance with their listings.

Exceptions:

  1. Fire dampers are not required in corridor penetrations where the duct is constructed of steel not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in thickness, protected as a through penetration in accordance with Section 713 and there are no openings serving the corridor.
  2. Fire dampers are not required where the duct system is constructed of approved materials in accordance with the California Mechanical Code and the duct penetrating the wall complies with all of the following requirements:

    1. 2.1. For other than corridors in Group I-2 occupancies the duct shall not exceed 100 square inches (0.6 m2).
    2. 2.2. The duct shall be constructed of steel a minimum of 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in thickness.
    3. 2.3. The duct shall not have openings that communicate the corridor with adjacent spaces or rooms.
    4. 2.4. The duct shall be installed above a ceiling.
    5. 2.5. The duct shall not terminate at a wall register in the fire-resistance rated wall.
    6. 2.6. The duct shall be protected as a through penetration in accordance with Section 714 or shall comply with the all of the following:

      1. A minimum 12-inch-long (305 mm) by 0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel sleeve shall be centered in each duct opening.
      2. The sleeve shall be secured to both sides of the wall and for all four sides of the sleeve with minimum 11/2-inch by 11/2-inch by 0.060-inch (38 mm by 38 mm by 1.52 mm) steel retaining angles.
      3. The retaining angles shall be secured to the sleeve and the wall with No. 10 (M5) screws.
      4. The annular space between the steel sleeve and the wall opening shall be filled with mineral wool batting on all sides.

In other than Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, duct and air transfer openings that penetrate corridors shall be protected with dampers as follows:

  1. A corridor damper shall be provided where corridor ceilings, constructed as required for the corridor walls as permitted in Section 708.4, Exception 3, are penetrated.
  2. A ceiling radiation damper shall be provided where the ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assembly, constructed as permitted in Section 708.4, Exception 2, is penetrated.
  3. A listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a corridor enclosure required to have smoke and draft control doors in accordance with Section 716.5.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Smoke dampers are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an approved smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, and smoke dampers are not necessary for the operation and control of the system.
  2. Smoke dampers are not required in corridor penetrations where the duct is constructed of steel not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in thickness and there are no openings serving the corridor.

[SFM] For Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, a listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall also be provided at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a fire-resistance rated corridor enclosure required to have smoke and draft doors in accordance with Section 716.5.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Smoke dampers are not required where ducts are used as part of an approved mechanical smoke control system designed in accordance with Section 909 and where the smoke damper will interfere with the operation of the smoke control system.
  2. Smoke damper are not required in corridor penetrations where the duct is constructed of steel not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in thickness and there are no openings serving the corridor.

A listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a smoke barrier. Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall comply with Section 717.3.3.2.

Exception: Smoke dampers are not required where the openings in ducts are limited to a single smoke compartment and the ducts are constructed of steel.

Ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exterior walls required to have protected openings in accordance with Section 705.10 shall be protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing.

A listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point that an air transfer opening penetrates a smoke partition. Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall comply with Section 717.3.3.2.

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper will interfere with the operation of a required smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative protection shall be utilized.

Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings of a floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected by a shaft enclosure that complies with Section 713 or shall comply with Sections 717.6.1 through 717.6.3.

In occupancies other than Groups I-2, I-2.1 and I-3, a duct constructed of approved materials in accordance with the California Mechanical Code that penetrates a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assembly that connects not more than two stories is permitted without shaft enclosure protection, provided a listed fire damper is installed at the floor line or the duct is protected in accordance with Section 714.4. For air transfer openings, see Section 712.1.9.

Exception: A duct is permitted to penetrate three floors or less without a fire damper at each floor, provided such duct meets all of the following requirements:

  1. The duct shall be contained and located within the cavity of a wall and shall be constructed of steel having a minimum wall thickness of 0.0187 inches (0.4712 mm) (No. 26 gage).
  2. The duct shall open into only one dwelling or sleeping unit and the duct system shall be continuous from the unit to the exterior of the building.
  3. The duct shall not exceed 4-inch (102 mm) nominal diameter and the total area of such ducts shall not exceed 100 square inches (0.065 m2) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of floor area.
  4. The annular space around the duct is protected with materials that prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E119 or UL 263 time-temperature conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the construction penetrated.
  5. Grille openings located in a ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected with a listed ceiling radiation damper installed in accordance with Section 717.6.2.1.

Ducts and air transfer openings constructed of approved materials in accordance with the California Mechanical Code that penetrate the ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected with one of the following:

  1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 713.
  2. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the ceiling line where a duct penetrates the ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly.
  3. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the ceiling line where a diffuser with no duct attached penetrates the ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly.

Ceiling radiation dampers shall be tested in accordance with Section 717.3.1. Ceiling radiation dampers shall be installed in accordance with the details listed in the fire-resistance-rated assembly and the manufacturer's instructions and the listing. Ceiling radiation dampers are not required where one of the following applies:

  1. Tests in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 have shown that ceiling radiation dampers are not necessary in order to maintain the fire-resistance rating of the assembly.
  2. Where exhaust duct penetrations are protected in accordance with Section 714.4.2, are located within the cavity of a wall and do not pass through another dwelling unit or tenant space.
  3. Where duct and air transfer openings are protected with a duct outlet protection system tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263.

Duct systems constructed of approved materials in accordance with the California Mechanical Code that penetrate non-fire-resistance-rated floor assemblies shall be protected by any of the following methods:

  1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 713.
  2. The duct connects not more than two stories, and the annular space around the penetrating duct is protected with an approved noncombustible material that resists the free passage of flame and the products of combustion.
  3. In floor assemblies composed of noncombustible materials, a shaft shall not be required where the duct connects not more than three stories, the annular space around the penetrating duct is protected with an approved noncombustible material that resists the free passage of flame and the products of combustion and a fire damper is installed at each floor line.

Exception: Fire dampers are not required in ducts within individual residential dwelling units.

Flexible ducts and air connectors shall not pass through any fire-resistance-rated assembly. Flexible air connectors shall not pass through any wall, floor or ceiling.
Fireblocking and draftstopping shall be installed in combustible concealed locations in accordance with this section. Fireblocking shall comply with Section 718.2. Draftstopping in floor/ceiling spaces and attic spaces shall comply with Sections 718.3 and 718.4, respectively. The permitted use of combustible materials in concealed spaces of buildings of Type I or II construction shall be limited to the applications indicated in Section 718.5.
In combustible construction, fireblocking shall be installed to cut off concealed draft openings (both vertical and horizontal) and shall form an effective barrier between floors, between a top story and a roof or attic space. Fireblocking shall be installed in the locations specified in Sections 718.2.2 through 718.2.7.

Fireblocking shall consist of the following materials:

  1. Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber.
  2. Two thicknesses of 1-inch (25 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints.
  3. One thickness of 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels with joints backed by 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels.
  4. One thickness of 0.75-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard with joints backed by 0.75-inch (19 mm) particle-board.
  5. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.
  6. One-fourth-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard.
  7. Batts or blankets of mineral wool, mineral fiber or other approved materials installed in such a manner as to be securely retained in place.
  8. Cellulose insulation installed as tested for the specific application.
Batts or blankets of mineral wool or mineral fiber or other approved nonrigid materials shall be permitted for compliance with the 10-foot (3048 mm) horizontal fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs.
Unfaced fiberglass batt insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire cross section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 16 inches (406 mm) measured vertically. Where piping, conduit or similar obstructions are encountered, the insulation shall be packed tightly around the obstruction.
Loose-fill insulation material, insulating foam sealants and caulk materials shall not be used as a fireblock unless specifically tested in the form and manner intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and to retard the spread of fire and hot gases.
The integrity of fire-blocks shall be maintained.
Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials shall be allowed as fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs.

Fireblocking shall be provided in concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, including furred spaces, and parallel rows of studs or staggered studs, as follows:

  1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels.
  2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm).
Fireblocking shall be provided at interconnections between concealed vertical stud wall or partition spaces and concealed horizontal spaces created by an assembly of floor joists or trusses, and between concealed vertical and horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings, cove ceilings and similar locations.
Fireblocking shall be provided in concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairways shall comply with Section 1011.7.3.
Where required by Section 712.1.8, Exception 1 of Section 714.4.1.2 or Section 714.5, fireblocking of the annular space around vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys and fireplaces at ceilings and floor levels shall be installed with a material specifically tested in the form and manner intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and resist the free passage of flame and the products of combustion.
Factory-built chimneys and fireplaces shall be fire-blocked in accordance with UL 103 and UL 127.

Fireblocking shall be installed within concealed spaces of exterior wall coverings and other exterior architectural elements where permitted to be of combustible construction as specified in Section 1406 or where erected with combustible frames. Fireblocking shall be installed at maximum intervals of 20 feet (6096 mm) in either dimension so that there will be no concealed space exceeding 100 square feet (9.3 m2) between fireblocking. Where wood furring strips are used, they shall be of approved wood of natural decay resistance or preservative-treated wood. If noncontinuous, such elements shall have closed ends, with not less than 4 inches (102 mm) of separation between sections.

Exceptions:

  1. Fireblocking of cornices is not required in single-family dwellings. Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family dwelling is required only at the line of dwelling unit separation.
  2. Fireblocking shall not be required where the exterior wall covering is installed on noncombustible framing and the face of the exterior wall covering exposed to the concealed space is covered by one of the following materials:

    1. 2.1. Aluminum having a minimum thickness of 0.019 inch (0.5 mm).
    2. 2.2. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness not less than 0.016 inch (0.4 mm) at any point.
    3. 2.3. Other approved noncombustible materials.
  3. Fireblocking shall not be required where the exterior wall covering has been tested in accordance with, and complies with the acceptance criteria of, NFPA 285. The exterior wall covering shall be installed as tested in accordance with NFPA 285.

Where wood sleepers are used for laying wood flooring on masonry or concrete fire-resistance-rated floors, the space between the floor slab and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and products of combustion or fireblocked in such a manner that there will be no open spaces under the flooring that will exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m2) in area and such space shall be filled solidly under permanent partitions so that there is no communication under the flooring between adjoining rooms.

Exceptions:

  1. Fireblocking is not required for slab-on-grade floors in gymnasiums.
  2. Fireblocking is required only at the juncture of each alternate lane and at the ends of each lane in a bowling facility.
In combustible construction, draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide floor/ceiling assemblies in the locations prescribed in Sections 718.3.2 through 718.3.3.
Draftstopping materials shall be not less than 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard, 1-inch (25-mm) nominal lumber, cement fiberboard, batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber, or other approved materials adequately supported. The integrity of draftstops shall be maintained.

Draftstopping shall be provided in floor/ceiling spaces in Group R-1 buildings, in Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling units, in Group R-3 buildings with two dwelling units and in Group R-4 buildings. Draftstopping shall be located above and in line with the dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations.

Exceptions:

  1. Draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, provided that automatic sprinklers are installed in the combustible concealed spaces where the draftstopping is being omitted.

In other groups, draftstopping shall be installed so that horizontal floor areas do not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 m2).

Exceptions:

  1. In other than Group A, E, H, I, L and R-2.1 occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. In Group A, E, H, I and L occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, where an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 is installed, the area between draft stops may be 3,000 square feet (279 m2)and the greatest horizontal dimension may be 100 feet (30 480 mm).
In combustible construction, draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide attic spaces and concealed roof spaces in the locations prescribed in Sections 718.4.2 and 718.4.3. Ventilation of concealed roof spaces shall be maintained in accordance with Section 1203.2.
Materials utilized for draftstopping of attic spaces shall comply with Section 718.3.1.
Openings in the partitions shall be protected by self-closing doors with automatic latches constructed as required for the partitions.

Draftstopping shall be provided in attics, mansards, overhangs or other concealed roof spaces of Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling units and in all Group R-1 buildings. Draftstopping shall be installed above, and in line with, sleeping unit and dwelling unit separation walls that do not extend to the underside of the roof sheathing above.

Exceptions:

  1. Where corridor walls provide a sleeping unit or dwelling unit separation, draftstopping shall only be required above one of the corridor walls.
  2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  3. In occupancies in Group R-2 that do not exceed four stories above grade plane, the attic space shall be subdivided by draftstops into areas not exceeding 3,000 square feet (279 m2) or above every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller.
  4. Draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, provided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in the combustible concealed space where the draftstopping is being omitted.

Draftstopping shall be installed in attics and concealed roof spaces, such that any horizontal area does not exceed 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

Exceptions:

  1. In other than Group A, E, H, I and L and R-2.1 occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. In Group A, E, H, I, L and R-2.1 occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, where an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 is installed, the area between draft stops may be 9,000 square feet (836 m2) and the greatest horizontal dimension may be 100 feet (30 480 mm).

Combustible materials shall not be permitted in concealed spaces of buildings of Type I or II construction.

Exceptions:

  1. Combustible materials in accordance with Section 603.
  2. Combustible materials exposed within plenums complying with Section 602 of the California Mechanical Code.
  3. Class A interior finish materials classified in accordance with Section 803.
  4. Combustible piping within partitions or shaft enclosures installed in accordance with the provisions of this code.
  5. Combustible piping within concealed ceiling spaces installed in accordance with the California Mechanical Code and the California Plumbing Code.
  6. Combustible insulation and covering on pipe and tubing, installed in concealed spaces other than plenums, complying with Section 720.7.
The minimum thickness of gypsum plaster or Portland cement plaster used in a fire-resistance-rated system shall be determined by the prescribed fire tests. The plaster thickness shall be measured from the face of the lath where applied to gypsum lath or metal lath.
For fire-resistance purposes, 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of unsanded gypsum plaster shall be deemed equivalent to 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) of one-to-three gypsum sand plaster or 1 inch (25 mm) of Portland cement sand plaster.
In buildings of Type I and II construction, plaster shall be applied directly on concrete or masonry or on approved noncombustible plastering base and furring.

Plaster protection more than 1 inch (25 mm) in thickness shall be reinforced with an additional layer of approved lath embedded not less than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) from the outer surface and fixed securely in place.

Exception: Solid plaster partitions or where otherwise determined by fire tests.

In reinforced concrete construction, gypsum plaster or Portland cement plaster is permitted to be substituted for 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of the required poured concrete protection, except that a minimum thickness of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) of poured concrete shall be provided in reinforced concrete floors and 1 inch (25 mm) in reinforced concrete columns in addition to the plaster finish. The concrete base shall be prepared in accordance with Section 2510.7.

Insulating materials, including facings such as vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes, similar coverings and all layers of single and multilayer reflective foil insulations, shall comply with the requirements of this section. Where a flame spread index or a smoke-developed index is specified in this section, such index shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723. Any material that is subject to an increase in flame spread index or smoke-developed index beyond the limits herein established through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions shall not be permitted.

Exceptions:

  1. Fiberboard insulation shall comply with Chapter 23.
  2. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Chapter 26.
  3. Duct and pipe insulation and duct and pipe coverings and linings in plenums shall comply with the California Mechanical Code.
  4. All layers of single and multilayer reflective plastic core insulation shall comply with Section 2613.

Insulating materials, where concealed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450.

Exception: Cellulosic fiber loose-fill insulation complying with the requirements of Section 720.6 shall not be required to meet a flame spread index requirement but shall be required to meet a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2.

Where such materials are installed in concealed spaces in buildings of Type III, IV or V construction, the flame spread and smoke-developed limitations do not apply to facings, coverings, and layers of reflective foil insulation that are installed behind and in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, wall or floor finish.

Exception: All layers of single and multilayer reflective plastic core insulation shall comply with Section 2613.

Insulating materials, where exposed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450.

Exception: Cellulosic fiber loose-fill insulation complying with the requirements of Section 720.6 shall not be required to meet a flame spread index requirement but shall be required to meet a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2.

Exposed insulation materials installed on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux of not less than 0.12 watt per square centimeter when tested in accordance with ASTM E970.

Loose-fill insulation materials that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E84 or UL 723 apparatus without a screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed limits of Sections 720.2 and 720.3 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2.

Exception: Cellulosic fiber loose-fill insulation shall not be required to meet a flame spread index requirement when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2, provided such insulation has a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 and complies with the requirements of Section 720.6.

The use of combustible roof insulation not complying with Sections 720.2 and 720.3 shall be permitted in any type of construction provided it is covered with approved roof coverings directly applied thereto.
Cellulosic fiber loose-fill insulation and self-supported spray-applied cellulosic insulation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR Parts 1209 and 1404. Each package of such insulating material shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR Parts 1209 and 1404.

Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450.

Exception: Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing installed in plenums shall comply with the California Mechanical Code.

The provisions of this section contain prescriptive details of fire-resistance-rated building elements, components or assemblies. The materials of construction listed in Tables 721.1(1), 721.1(2), and 721.1(3) shall be assumed to have the fire-resistance ratings prescribed therein. Where materials that change the capacity for heat dissipation are incorporated into a fire-resistance-rated assembly, fire test results or other substantiating data shall be made available to the building official to show that the required fire-resistance-rating time period is not reduced.

TABLE 721.1(1)

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALSm

STRUCTURAL PARTS TO BE PROTECTEDITEM NUMBERINSULATING MATERIAL USEDMINIMUM THICKNESS OF INSULATING MATERIAL FOR THE FOLLOWING FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS (inches)
4 hours3 hours2 hours1
hour
1. Steel columns and all of primary trusses (continued)1-1.1Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 6″ × 6″ or greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel).a21/2211/21
1-1.2Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 8″ × 8″ or greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel).a211/211
1-1.3Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 12″ × 12″ or greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel).a11/2111
1-1.4Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 6″ × 6″ or greater.a3211/21
1-1.5Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 8″ × 8″ or greater.a21/2211
1-1.6Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 12″ × 12″ or greater.a2111
1-2.1Clay or shale brick with brick and mortar fill.a33/421/4
1-3.14″ hollow clay tile in two 2″ layers; 1/2″ mortar between tile and column; 3/8″ metal mesh 0.046″ wire diameter in horizontal joints; tile fill.a4
1-3.22″ hollow clay tile; 3/4″ mortar between tile and column; 3/8″ metal mesh 0.046″ wire diameter in horizontal joints; limestone concrete filla; plastered with 3/4″ gypsum plaster.3
1-3.32″ hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08″ diameter at each course