CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2015 (IBC 2015)

Copyright

Preface

Acknowledgements

California Code of Regulations, Title 24

How to Distinguish Between Model Code Language and California Amendments

Code Development Committee Responsibilities (Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers)

Effective Use of the International Building Code

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 7A [SFM] Materials and Construction Methods for Exterior Wildfire Exposure

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Reserved

Chapter 11A Housing Accessibility

Chapter 11B Accessibility to Public Buildings, Public Accommodations, Commercial Buildings and Public Housing

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

History Note Appendix

User note: Code change proposals to sections preceded by the designation [BF], [BG] or [P] will be considered by
one of the code development committees meeting during the 2015 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. All other
code change proposals will be considered by the IBC – Structural Code Development Committee during
the 2016 (Group B) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page ix.

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the design, materials, construction and quality of roof assemblies, and rooftop structures.

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

  • AGGREGATE.
  • BALLAST.
  • BUILDING-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC (BIPV) PRODUCT.
  • BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING.
  • INTERLAYMENT.
  • MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN.
  • METAL ROOF PANEL.
  • METAL ROOF SHINGLE.
  • MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING.
  • PENTHOUSE.
  • PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE.
  • PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL.
  • PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL SYSTEM.
  • PHOTOVOLTAIC SHINGLES.
  • POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE.
  • RADIANT BARRIER.
  • REROOFING.
  • ROOF ASSEMBLY.
  • ROOF COVERING.
  • ROOF COVERING SYSTEM.
  • ROOF DECK.
  • ROOF RECOVER.
  • ROOF REPAIR.
  • ROOF REPLACEMENT.
  • ROOF VENTILATION.
  • ROOFTOP STRUCTURE.
  • SCUPPER.
  • SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE.
  • UNDERLAYMENT.
  • VEGETATIVE ROOF.
Roof decks shall be covered with approved roof coverings secured to the building or structure in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. Roof coverings shall be designed and installed in accordance with this code and the approved manufacturer's instructions such that the roof covering shall serve to protect the building or structure.
Flashing shall be installed in such a manner so as to prevent moisture entering the wall and roof through joints in copings, through moisture-permeable materials and at intersections with parapet walls and other penetrations through the roof plane.
Flashing shall be installed at wall and roof intersections, at gutters, wherever there is a change in roof slope or direction and around roof openings. Where flashing is of metal, the metal shall be corrosion resistant with a thickness of not less than 0.019 inch (0.483 mm) (No. 26 galvanized sheet).
Parapet walls shall be properly coped with noncombustible, weatherproof materials of a width no less than the thickness of the parapet wall.
Design and installation of roof drainage systems shall comply with Section 1503 of this code and Chapter 11 of the California Plumbing Code.
Where roof drains are required, secondary (emergency overflow) roof drains or scuppers shall be provided where the roof perimeter construction extends above the roof in such a manner that water will be entrapped if the primary drains allow buildup for any reason. The installation and sizing of secondary emergency overflow drains, leaders and conductors shall comply with Chapter 11 of the California Plumbing Code.
When scuppers are used for secondary (emergency overflow) roof drainage, the quantity, size, location and inlet elevation of the scuppers shall be sized to prevent the depth of ponding water from exceeding that for which the roof was designed as determined by Section 1611.1. Scuppers shall not have an opening dimension of less than 4 inches (102 mm). The flow through the primary system shall not be considered when locating and sizing scuppers.
Gutters and leaders placed on the outside of buildings, other than Group R-3, private garages and buildings of Type V construction, shall be of noncombustible material or a minimum of Schedule 40 plastic pipe.
Intake and exhaust vents shall be provided in accordance with Section 1203.2 and the vent product manufacturer's installation instructions.

A cricket or saddle shall be installed on the ridge side of any chimney or penetration greater than 30 inches (762 mm) wide as measured perpendicular to the slope. Cricket or saddle coverings shall be sheet metal or of the same material as the roof covering.

Exception: Unit skylights installed in accordance with Section 2405.5 and flashed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions shall be permitted to be installed without a cricket or saddle.

Wind loads on clay and concrete tile roof coverings shall be in accordance with Section 1609.5.
Testing of concrete and clay roof tiles shall be in accordance with Sections 1504.2.1.1 and 1504.2.1.2.
Concrete and clay roof tiles shall be tested to determine their resistance to overturning due to wind in accordance with SBCCI SSTD 11 and Chapter 15.
Where concrete and clay roof tiles do not satisfy the limitations in Chapter 16 for rigid tile, a wind tunnel test shall be used to determine the wind characteristics of the concrete or clay tile roof covering in accordance with SBCCI SSTD 11 and Chapter 15.
Roof coverings installed on roofs in accordance with Section 1507 that are mechanically attached or adhered to the roof deck shall be designed to resist the design wind load pressures for components and cladding in accordance with Section 1609.
Built-up, modified bitumen, fully adhered or mechanically attached single-ply roof systems, metal panel roof systems applied to a solid or closely fitted deck and other types of membrane roof coverings shall be tested in accordance with FM 4474, UL 580 or UL 1897.

Where the metal roof panel functions as the roof deck and roof covering and it provides both weather protection and support for loads, the structural metal panel roof system shall comply with this section. Structural standing-seam metal panel roof systems shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E1592 or FM 4474. Structural through-fastened metal panel roof systems shall be tested in accordance with FM 4474, UL 580 or ASTM E1592.

Exceptions:

  1. Metal roofs constructed of cold-formed steel shall be permitted to be designed and tested in accordance with the applicable referenced structural design standard in Section 2210.1.
  2. Metal roofs constructed of aluminum shall be permitted to be designed and tested in accordance with the applicable referenced structural design standard in Section 2002.1.
Ballasted low-slope (roof slope < 2:12) single-ply roof system coverings installed in accordance with Sections 1507.12 and 1507.13 shall be designed in accordance with Section 1504.8 and ANSI/SPRI RP-4.
Low-slope built-up, modified bitumen and single-ply roof system metal edge securement, except gutters, shall be designed and installed for wind loads in accordance with Chapter 16 and tested for resistance in accordance with Test Methods RE-1, RE-2 and RE-3 of ANSI/SPRI ES-1, except Vult wind speed shall be determined from Figure 1609A, 1609B, or 1609C as applicable.
Roof coverings installed on low-slope roofs (roof slope < 2:12) in accordance with Section 1507 shall demonstrate physical integrity over the working life of the roof based upon 2,000 hours of exposure to accelerated weathering tests conducted in accordance with ASTM G152, ASTM G155 or ASTM G154. Those roof coverings that are subject to cyclical flexural response due to wind loads shall not demonstrate any significant loss of tensile strength for unreinforced membranes or breaking strength for reinforced membranes when tested as herein required.
Roof coverings installed on low-slope roofs (roof slope < 2:12) in accordance with Section 1507 shall resist impact damage based on the results of tests conducted in accordance with ASTM D3746, ASTM D4272, CGSB 37-GP-52M or the “Resistance to Foot Traffic Test” in Section 5.5 of FM 4470.

Aggregate used as surfacing for roof coverings and aggregate, gravel or stone used as ballast shall not be used on the roof of a building located in a hurricane-prone region as defined in Section 202, or on any other building with a mean roof height exceeding that permitted by Table 1504.8 based on the exposure category and basic wind speed at the site.

TABLE 1504.8

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE MEAN ROOF HEIGHT PERMITTED FOR BUILDINGS WITH AGGREGATE ON THE ROOF IN AREAS OUTSIDE A HURRICANE-PRONE REGION

NOMINAL DESIGN WIND SPEED, Vasd (mph)b, dMAXIMUM MEAN ROOF HEIGHT (ft)a, c
Exposure category
BCD
851706030
901103515
957520NP
1005515NP
10540NPNP
11030NPNP
11520NPNP
12015NPNP
Greater than 120NPNPNP

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

  1. Mean roof height as defined in ASCE 7.
  2. For intermediate values of Vasd, the height associated with the next higher value of Vasd shall be used, or direct interpolation is permitted.
  3. NP = gravel and stone not permitted for any roof height.
  4. Vasd shall be determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1.

Asphalt shingles shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D7158. Asphalt shingles shall meet the classification requirements of Table 1504.1.1 for the appropriate maximum basic wind speed. Asphalt shingle packaging shall bear a label to indicate compliance with ASTM D7158 and the required classification in Table 1504.1.1.

Exception: Asphalt shingles that are not included in the scope of ASTM D7158 shall be tested and labeled to indicate compliance with ASTM D3161 and the required classification in Table 1504.1.1.

Roof assemblies shall be divided into the classes defined below. Class A, B and C roof assemblies and roof coverings required to be listed by this section shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E108 or UL 790. In addition, fire-retardant-treated wood roof coverings shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D2898. The minimum roof coverings installed on buildings shall comply with Table 1505.1 based on the type of construction of the building.

Exception: Skylights and sloped glazing that comply with Chapter 24 or Section 2610.

TABLE 1505.1a

MINIMUM ROOF COVERING CLASSIFICATION FOR TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION

IAIBIIAIIBIIIAIIIBIVVAVB
BBBCBCBBC

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

  1. Unless otherwise required in accordance with Chapter 7A.

The entire roof covering of every existing structure where more than 50 percent of the total roof area is replaced within any one-year period, the entire roof covering of every new structure, and any roof covering applied in the alteration, repair or replacement of the roof of every existing structure, shall be a fire-retardant roof covering that is at least Class A.

Exception: The requirements shall not apply in any jurisdiction that adopts the model ordinance approved by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to Section 51189 of the Government Code or an ordinance that substantially conforms to the model ordinance and transmits a copy to the State Fire Marshal.

The entire roof covering of every existing structure where more than 50 percent of the total roof area is replaced within any one-year period, the entire roof covering of every new structure and any roof covering applied in the alteration, repair or replacement of the roof of every existing structure shall be a fire-retardant roof covering that is at least Class B.

Exception: Areas designated as moderate fire hazard severity zones.

The entire roof covering of every existing structure where more than 50 percent of the total roof area is replaced within any one-year period, the entire roof covering of every new structure, and any roof covering applied in the alteration, repair or replacement of the roof of every existing structure, shall be a fire-retardant roof covering that is at least Class C.

Roofing requirements for structures located in a Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area shall also comply with Section 705A.

Class A roof assemblies are those that are effective against severe fire test exposure. Class A roof assemblies and roof coverings shall be listed and identified as Class A by an approved testing agency. Class A roof assemblies shall be permitted for use in buildings or structures of all types of construction.

Exceptions:

  1. Class A roof assemblies include those with coverings of brick, masonry or an exposed concrete roof deck.
  2. Class A roof assemblies also include ferrous or copper shingles or sheets, metal sheets and shingles, clay or concrete roof tile or slate installed on noncombustible decks or ferrous, copper or metal sheets installed without a roof deck on noncombustible framing.
  3. Class A roof assemblies include minimum 16 ounce per square foot (0.0416 kg/m2) copper sheets installed over combustible decks.
  4. Class A roof assemblies include slate installed over ASTM D226, Type II underlayment over combustible decks.
Class B roof assemblies are those that are effective against moderate fire-test exposure. Class B roof assemblies and roof coverings shall be listed and identified as Class B by an approved testing agency.
Class C roof assemblies are those that are effective against light fire-test exposure. Class C roof assemblies and roof coverings shall be listed and identified as Class C by an approved testing agency.
Nonclassified roofing is approved material that is not listed as a Class A, B or C roof covering.

Fire-retardant-treated wood shakes and shingles are wood shakes and shingles complying with UBC Standard 15-3 or 15-4 which are impregnated by the full-cell vacuum-pressure process with fire-retardant chemicals, and which have been qualified by UBC Standard 15-2 for use on Class A, B or C roofs.

Fire-retardant-treated wood shakes and shingles shall comply with ICC-ES EG107 and with the weathering requirements contained in Health and Safety Code Section 13132.7(j). Each bundle shall bear labels from an ICC accredited quality control agency identifying their roof-covering classification and indicating their compliance with ICC-ES EG107 and with the weathering requirements contained in Health and Safety Code Section 13132.7(j).

Health and Safety Code Section 13132.7(j). No wood roof covering materials shall be sold or applied in this state unless both of the following conditions are met:

  • (1)The materials have been approved and listed by the State Fire Marshal as complying with the requirements of this section.
  • (2)The materials have passed at least five years of the 10-year natural weathering test. The 10-year natural weathering test required by this subdivision shall be conducted in accordance with standard 15-2 of the 1994 edition of the Uniform Building Code at a testing facility recognized by the State Fire Marshal.
Special purpose wood shingle or wood shake roofing shall conform to the grading and application requirements of Section 1507.8 or 1507.9. In addition, an underlayment of 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X water-resistant gypsum backing board or gypsum sheathing shall be placed under minimum nominal 1/2-inch-thick (12.7 mm) wood structural panel solid sheathing or 1-inch (25 mm) nominal spaced sheathing.
Building-integrated photovoltaic products installed as the roof covering shall be tested, listed and labeled for fire classification in accordance with Section 1505.1.
Rooftop-mounted photovoltaic panel systems shall be tested, listed and identified with a fire classification in accordance with UL 1703. The fire classification shall comply with Table 1505.1 based on the type of construction of the building.
Roof gardens and landscaped roofs shall comply with Section 1507.16 and shall be installed in accordance with ANSI/SPRI VF-1.
The requirements set forth in this section shall apply to the application of roof-covering materials specified herein. Roof coverings shall be applied in accordance with this chapter and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Installation of roof coverings shall comply with the applicable provisions of Section 1507.
Roof-covering materials shall conform to the applicable standards listed in this chapter.
Roof-covering materials shall be delivered in packages bearing the manufacturer's identifying marks and approved testing agency labels required in accordance with Section 1505. Bulk shipments of materials shall be accompanied with the same information issued in the form of a certificate or on a bill of lading by the manufacturer.
Roof coverings shall be applied in accordance with the applicable provisions of this section and the manufacturer's installation instructions.
The installation of asphalt shingles shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Asphalt shingles shall be fastened to solidly sheathed decks.
Asphalt shingles shall only be used on roof slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope) or greater. For roof slopes from two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope) up to four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope), double underlayment application is required in accordance with Section 1507.2.8.
Unless otherwise noted, required underlayment shall conform to ASTM D226, Type I, ASTM D4869, Type I, or ASTM D6757.
Self-adhering polymer modified bitumen sheet shall comply with ASTM D1970.
Asphalt shingles shall comply with ASTM D225 or ASTM D3462.
Fasteners for asphalt shingles shall be galvanized, stainless steel, aluminum or copper roofing nails, minimum 12 gage [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] shank with a minimum 3/8 inch-diameter (9.5 mm) head, of a length to penetrate through the roofing materials and a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing. Where the roof sheathing is less than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) thick, the nails shall penetrate through the sheathing. Fasteners shall comply with ASTM F1667.
Asphalt shingles shall have the minimum number of fasteners required by the manufacturer, but not less than four fasteners per strip shingle or two fasteners per individual shingle. Where the roof slope exceeds 21 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (21:12), shingles shall be installed as required by the manufacturer.

Asphalt shingles shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D7158. Asphalt shingles shall meet the classification requirements of Table 1507.2.7.1(1) for the appropriate maximum basic wind speed. Asphalt shingle packaging shall bear a label to indicate compliance with ASTM D7158 and the required classification in Table 1507.2.7.1(1).

Exception: Asphalt shingles not included in the scope of ASTM D7158 shall be tested and labeled to indicate compliance with ASTM D3161 and the required classification in Table 1507.2.7.1(2).

TABLE 1507.2.7.1(1)

CLASSIFICATION OF ASPHALT ROOF SHINGLES PER ASTM D7158a

NOMINAL DESIGN WIND SPEED, Vasdb (mph)CLASSIFICATION REQUIREMENT
85D, G or H
90D, G or H
100G or H
110G or H
120G or H
130H
140H
150H

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 mph = 0.447 m/s.

  1. The standard calculations contained in ASTM D7158 assume exposure category B or C and building height of 60 feet or less. Additional calculations are required for conditions outside of these assumptions.
  2. Vasd shall be determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1.

TABLE 1507.2.7.1(2)

CLASSIFICATION OF ASPHALT SHINGLES PER ASTM D3161

NOMINAL DESIGN WIND SPEED, Vasd a (mph)CLASSIFICATION REQUIREMENT
85A, D or F
90A, D or F
100A, D or F
110F
120F
130F
140F
150F

For SI: 1 mph = 0.447 m/s.

  1. Vasd shall be determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1.
For roof slopes from two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope) and up to four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope), underlayment shall be two layers applied in the following manner. Apply a minimum 19-inch-wide (483 mm) strip of underlayment felt parallel with and starting at the eaves, fastened sufficiently to hold in place. Starting at the eave, apply 36-inch-wide (914 mm) sheets of underlayment overlapping successive sheets 19 inches (483 mm), by fastened sufficiently to hold in place. Distortions in the underlayment shall not interfere with the ability of the shingles to seal. For roof slopes of four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope) or greater, underlayment shall be one layer applied in the following manner. Underlayment shall be applied shingle fashion, parallel to and starting from the eave and lapped 2 inches (51 mm), fastened sufficiently to hold in place. Distortions in the underlayment shall not interfere with the ability of the shingles to seal.

Underlayment applied in areas subject to high winds [Vasd greater than 110 mph (49 m/s) as determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1] shall be applied with corrosion-resistant fasteners in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap not more than 36 inches (914 mm) on center.

Underlayment installed where Vasd, in accordance with Section 1609.3.1, equals or exceeds 120 mph (54 m/s) shall comply with ASTM D226 Type II, ASTM D4869 Type IV, or ASTM D6757. The underlayment shall be attached in a grid pattern of 12 inches (305 mm) between side laps with a 6-inch (152 mm) spacing at the side laps. Underlayment shall be applied in accordance with Section 1507.2.8 except all laps shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm). Underlayment shall be attached using metal or plastic cap nails with a head diameter of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) with a thickness of at least 32-gauge [0.0134 inch (0.34 mm)] sheet metal. The cap nail shank shall be a minimum of 12 gauge [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] with a length to penetrate through the roof sheathing or a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing.

Exception: As an alternative, adhered underlayment complying with ASTM D1970 shall be permitted.

In areas where there has been a history of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, an ice barrier that consists of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together or of a self-adhering polymer modified bitumen sheet shall be used in lieu of normal underlayment and extend from the lowest edges of all roof surfaces to a point at least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the building.

Exception: Detached accessory structures that contain no conditioned floor area.

Flashing for asphalt shingles shall comply with this section. Flashing shall be applied in accordance with this section and the asphalt shingle manufacturer's printed instructions.
Base and cap flashing shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Base flashing shall be of either corrosion-resistant metal of minimum nominal 0.019-inch (0.483 mm) thickness or mineral-surfaced roll roofing weighing a minimum of 77 pounds per 100 square feet (3.76 kg/m2). Cap flashing shall be corrosion-resistant metal of minimum nominal 0.019-inch (0.483 mm) thickness.

Valley linings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions before applying shingles. Valley linings of the following types shall be permitted:

  1. For open valleys (valley lining exposed) lined with metal, the valley lining shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm) wide and of any of the corrosion-resistant metals in Table 1507.2.9.2.
  2. For open valleys, valley lining of two plies of mineral-surfaced roll roofing complying with ASTM D3909 or ASTM D6380 shall be permitted. The bottom layer shall be 18 inches (457 mm) and the top layer a minimum of 36 inches (914 mm) wide.
  3. For closed valleys (valleys covered with shingles), valley lining of one ply of smooth roll roofing complying with ASTM D6380, and at least 36 inches (914 mm) wide or types as described in Item 1 or 2 above shall be permitted. Self-adhering polymer modified bitumen underlayment complying with ASTM D1970 shall be permitted in lieu of the lining material.

TABLE 1507.2.9.2

VALLEY LINING MATERIAL

MATERIALMINIMUM THICKNESSGAGEWEIGHT
Aluminum0.024 in.
Cold-rolled copper0.0216 in.ASTM B370, 16 oz. per square ft.
Copper16 oz
Galvanized steel0.0179 in.26 (zinc-coated G90)
High-yield copper0.0162 in.ASTM B370, 12 oz. per square ft.
Lead2.5 pounds
Lead-coated copper0.0216 in.ASTM B101, 16 oz. per square ft.
Lead-coated high-yield copper0.0162 in.ASTM B101, 12 oz. per square ft.
Painted terne20 pounds
Stainless steel28
Zinc alloy0.027 in.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 ounce = 28.35 g, 1 square foot = 0.093 m2.

A drip edge shall be provided at eaves and rake edges of shingle roofs. Adjacent segments of the drip edge shall be lapped a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm). The vertical leg of drip edges shall be a minimum of 11/2 inches (38 mm) in width and shall extend a minimum of 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) below sheathing. The drip edge shall extend back on the roof a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm). Underlayment shall be installed over drip edges along eaves. Drip edges shall be installed over underlayment along rake edges. Drip edges shall be mechanically fastened a maximum of 12 inches (305 mm) on center.
The installation of clay and concrete tile shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Concrete and clay tile shall be installed only over solid sheathing or spaced structural sheathing boards.
Clay and concrete roof tile shall be installed on roof slopes of 21/2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (21-percent slope) or greater. For roof slopes from 21/2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (21-percent slope) to four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope), double underlayment application is required in accordance with Section 1507.3.3.
Unless otherwise noted, required underlayment shall conform to: ASTM D226, Type II; ASTM D2626 or ASTM D6380, Class M mineral-surfaced roll roofing.

For roof slopes from 21/2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (21-percent slope), up to four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope), underlayment shall be a minimum of two layers applied as follows:

  1. Starting at the eave, a 19-inch (483 mm) strip of underlayment shall be applied parallel with the eave and fastened sufficiently in place.
  2. Starting at the eave, 36-inch-wide (914 mm) strips of underlayment felt shall be applied overlapping successive sheets 19 inches (483 mm) and fastened sufficiently in place.
For roof slopes of four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope) or greater, underlayment shall be a minimum of one layer of underlayment felt applied shingle fashion, parallel to, and starting from the eaves and lapped 2 inches (51 mm), fastened only as necessary to hold in place.

Underlayment applied in areas subject to high wind [Vasd greater than 110 mph (49 m/s) as determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1] shall be applied with corrosion-resistant fasteners in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap not farther apart than 36 inches (914 mm) on center.

Underlayment installed where Vasd, in accordance with Section 1609.3.1, equals or exceeds 120 mph (54 m/s) shall be attached in a grid pattern of 12 inches (305 mm) between side laps with a 6-inch (152 mm) spacing at the side laps. Underlayment shall be applied in accordance with Sections 1507.3.3.1 and 1507.3.3.2 except all laps shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm). Underlayment shall be attached using metal or plastic cap nails with a head diameter of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) with a thickness of at least 32-gauge [0.0134 inch (0.34 mm)] sheet metal. The cap nail shank shall be a minimum of 12 gauge [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] with a length to penetrate through the roof sheathing or a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing.

Exception: As an alternative, adhered underlayment complying with ASTM D1970 shall be permitted.

Clay roof tile shall comply with ASTM C1167.
Concrete roof tile shall comply with ASTM C1492.
Tile fasteners shall be corrosion resistant and not less than 11 gage, 5/16-inch (8.0 mm) head, and of sufficient length to penetrate the deck a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) or through the thickness of the deck, whichever is less. Attaching wire for clay or concrete tile shall not be smaller than 0.083 inch (2.1 mm). Perimeter fastening areas include three tile courses but not less than 36 inches (914 mm) from either side of hips or ridges and edges of eaves and gable rakes.

Clay and concrete roof tiles shall be fastened in accordance with Table 1507.3.7.

TABLE 1507.3.7

CLAY AND CONCRETE TILE ATTACHMENTa, b, c

GENERAL - CLAY OR CONCRETE ROOF TILE
Maximum Nominal Design Wind Speed, Vasd f (mph)Mean roof height (feet)Roof slope < 3:12Roof slope 3:12 and over
850-60One fastener per tile. Flat tile without vertical laps, two fasteners per tile.Two fasteners per tile. Only one fastener on slopes of 7:12 and less for tiles with installed weight exceeding 7.5 lbs./sq.ft. having a width not more than 16 inches.
1000-40
100>40-60The head of all tiles shall be nailed. The nose of all eave tiles shall be fastened with approved clips. All rake tiles shall be nailed with two nails. The nose of all ridge, hip and rake tiles shall be set in a bead of roofer’s mastic.
1100-60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.
1200-60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.
1300-60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.
All>60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.
INTERLOCKING CLAY OR CONCRETE ROOF TILE WITH PROJECTING ANCHOR LUGSd, e
(Installations on spaced/solid sheathing with battens or spaced sheathing)
Maximum Nominal Design Wind Speed, Vasd f (mph)Mean roof height (feet)Roof slope < 5:12Roof slope 5:12 < 12:12Roof slope 12:12 and over
850-60Fasteners are not required. Tiles with installed weight less than 9 lbs./sq. ft. require a minimum of one fastener per tile.One fastener per tile every other row. All perimeter tiles require one fastener. Tiles with installed weight less than 9 lbs./sq. ft. require a minimum of one fastener per tile.One fastener required for every tile. Tiles with installed weight less than 9 lbs./sq. ft. require a minimum of one fastener per tile.
1000-40
100>40-60The head of all tiles shall be nailed. The nose of all eave tiles shall be fastened with approved clips. All rake tiles shall be nailed with two nails. The nose of all ridge, hip and rake tiles shall be set in a bead of roofer’s mastic.
1100-60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.
1200-60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.
1300-60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.
All>60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.
INTERLOCKING CLAY OR CONCRETE ROOF TILE WITH PROJECTING ANCHOR LUGS
(Installations on solid sheathing without battens)
Maximum Nominal Design Wind Speed, Vasd f(mph)Mean roof height (feet)All roof slopes
850-60One fastener per tile.
1000-40One fastener per tile.
100> 40-60The head of all tiles shall be nailed. The nose of all eave tiles shall be fastened with approved clips. All rake tiles shall be nailed with two nails. The nose of all ridge, hip and rake tiles shall be set in a bead of roofer’s mastic.
1100-60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.
1200-60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.
1300-60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.
All> 60The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.3.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2.

  1. Minimum fastener size. Corrosion-resistant nails not less than No. 11 gage with 5/16-inch head. Fasteners shall be long enough to penetrate into the sheathing 3/4 inch or through the thickness of the sheathing, whichever is less. Attaching wire for clay and concrete tile shall not be smaller than 0.083 inch.
  2. Snow areas. A minimum of two fasteners per tile are required or battens and one fastener.
  3. Roof slopes greater than 24:12. The nose of all tiles shall be securely fastened.
  4. Horizontal battens. Battens shall be not less than 1 inch by 2 inch nominal. Provisions shall be made for drainage by a minimum of 1/8-inch riser at each nail or by 4-foot-long battens with at least a 1/2-inch separation between battens. Horizontal battens are required for slopes over 7:12.
  5. Perimeter fastening areas include three tile courses but not less than 36 inches from either side of hips or ridges and edges of eaves and gable rakes.
  6. Vasd shall be determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1.

Tile shall be applied according to the manufacturer's installation instructions, based on the following:

  1. Climatic conditions.
  2. Roof slope.
  3. Underlayment system.
  4. Type of tile being installed.
At the juncture of the roof vertical surfaces, flashing and counterflashing shall be provided in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions, and where of metal, shall not be less than 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 galvanized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal. The valley flashing shall extend at least 11 inches (279 mm) from the centerline each way and have a splash diverter rib not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high at the flow line formed as part of the flashing. Sections of flashing shall have an end lap of not less than 4 inches (102 mm). For roof slopes of three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope) and over, the valley flashing shall have a 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment of either one layer of Type I underlayment running the full length of the valley, or a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet complying with ASTM D1970, in addition to other required underlayment. In areas where the average daily temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less or where there is a possibility of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, the metal valley flashing underlayment shall be solid cemented to the roofing underlayment for slopes under seven units vertical in 12 units horizontal (58-percent slope) or self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall be installed.

[DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD 1 & 4] In addition to the requirements of 1507.3.6 and 1507.3.7, the installation of clay and concrete tile roof coverings shall comply with seismic anchorage provisions of Section 1513.

The installation of metal roof panels shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Metal roof panel roof coverings shall be applied to a solid or closely fitted deck, except where the roof covering is specifically designed to be applied to spaced supports.

Minimum slopes for metal roof panels shall comply with the following:

  1. The minimum slope for lapped, nonsoldered seam metal roof panels without applied lap sealant shall be three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope).
  2. The minimum slope for lapped, nonsoldered seam metal roof panels with applied lap sealant shall be one-half unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope). Lap sealants shall be applied in accordance with the approved manufacturer's installation instructions.
  3. The minimum slope for standing-seam metal roof panel systems shall be one-quarter unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope).

Metal-sheet roof covering systems that incorporate supporting structural members shall be designed in accordance with Chapter 22. Metal-sheet roof coverings installed over structural decking shall comply with Table 1507.4.3(1). The materials used for metal-sheet roof coverings shall be naturally corrosion resistant or provided with corrosion resistance in accordance with the standards and minimum thicknesses shown in Table 1507.4.3(2).

TABLE 1507.4.3(1)

METAL ROOF COVERINGS

ROOF COVERING TYPESTANDARD APPLICATION RATE/THICKNESS
AluminumASTM B209, 0.024 inch minimum thickness for roll-formed panels and 0.019 inch minimum thickness for press-formed shingles.
Aluminum-zinc alloy coated steelASTM A792 AZ 50
Cold-rolled copperASTM B370 minimum 16 oz./sq. ft. and 12 oz./sq. ft. high yield copper for metal-sheet roof covering systems: 12 oz./sq. ft. for preformed metal shingle systems.
Copper16 oz./sq. ft. for metal-sheet roof-covering systems; 12 oz./sq. ft. for preformed metal shingle systems.
Galvanized steelASTM A653 G-90 zinc-coateda.
Hard lead2 lbs./sq. ft.
Lead-coated copperASTM B101
Prepainted steelASTM A755
Soft lead3 lbs./sq. ft.
Stainless steelASTM A240, 300 Series Alloys
SteelASTM A924
Terne and terne-coated stainlessTerne coating of 40 lbs. per double base box, field painted where applicable in accordance with manufacturer's installation instructions.
Zinc0.027 inch minimum thickness; 99.995% electrolytic high grade zinc with alloy additives of copper (0.08% - 0.20%), titanium (0.07% - 0.12%) and aluminum (0.015%).

For SI: 1 ounce per square foot = 0.0026 kg/m2, 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

  1. For Group U buildings, the minimum coating thickness for ASTM A653 galvanized steel roofing shall be G-60.

TABLE 1507.4.3(2)

MINIMUM CORROSION RESISTANCE

55% Aluminum-zinc alloy coated steelASTM A792 AZ 50
5% Aluminum alloy-coated steelASTM A875 GF60
Aluminum-coated steelASTM A463 T2 65
Galvanized steelASTM A653 G-90
Prepainted steelASTM A755a
  1. Paint systems in accordance with ASTM A755 shall be applied over steel products with corrosion-resistant coatings complying with ASTM A792, ASTM A875, ASTM A463 or ASTM A653.

Metal roof panels shall be secured to the supports in accordance with the approved manufacturer's fasteners. In the absence of manufacturer recommendations, the following fasteners shall be used:

  1. Galvanized fasteners shall be used for steel roofs.
  2. Copper, brass, bronze, copper alloy or 300 series stainless-steel fasteners shall be used for copper roofs.
  3. Stainless-steel fasteners are acceptable for all types of metal roofs.
  4. Aluminum fasteners are acceptable for aluminum roofs attached to aluminum supports.

Underlayment applied in areas subject to high winds [Vasd greater than 110 mph (49 m/s) as determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1] shall be applied with corrosion-resistant fasteners in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap not more than 36 inches (914 mm) on center.

Underlayment installed where Vasd, in accordance with Section 1609.3.1, equals or exceeds 120 mph (54 m/s) shall comply with ASTM D226 Type II, ASTM D4869 Type IV, or ASTM D1970. The underlayment shall be attached in a grid pattern of 12 inches (305 mm) between side laps with a 6-inch (152 mm) spacing at the side laps. Underlayment shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions except all laps shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm). Underlayment shall be attached using metal or plastic cap nails with a head diameter of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) with a thickness of at least 32-gauge [0.0134 inch (0.34 mm)] sheet metal. The cap nail shank shall be a minimum of 12 gauge [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] with a length to penetrate through the roof sheathing or a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing.

Exception: As an alternative, adhered underlayment complying with ASTM D1970 shall be permitted.

The installation of metal roof shingles shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Metal roof shingles shall be applied to a solid or closely fitted deck, except where the roof covering is specifically designed to be applied to spaced sheathing.
Metal roof shingles shall not be installed on roof slopes below three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope).
Underlayment shall comply with ASTM D226, Type I or ASTM D4869.

Underlayment applied in areas subject to high winds [Vasd greater than 110 mph (49 m/s) as determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1] shall be applied with corrosion-resistant fasteners in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap not farther apart than 36 inches (914 mm) on center.

Underlayment installed where Vasd, in accordance with Section 1609.3.1, equals or exceeds 120 mph (54 m/s) shall comply with ASTM D226 Type II or ASTM D4869 Type IV. The underlayment shall be attached in a grid pattern of 12 inches (305 mm) between side laps with a 6-inch spacing (152 mm) at the side laps. Underlayment shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions except all laps shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm). Underlayment shall be attached using metal or plastic cap nails with a head diameter of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) with a thickness of at least 32-gauge [0.0134 inch (0.34 mm)] sheet metal. The cap nail shank shall be a minimum of 12 gauge [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] with a length to penetrate through the roof sheathing or a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing.

Exception: As an alternative, adhered underlayment complying with ASTM D1970 shall be permitted.

In areas where there has been a history of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, an ice barrier that consists of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together or of a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall be used in lieu of normal underlayment and extend from the lowest edges of all roof surfaces to a point at least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the building.

Exception: Detached accessory structures that contain no conditioned floor area.

Metal roof shingle roof coverings shall comply with Table 1507.4.3(1). The materials used for metal-roof shingle roof coverings shall be naturally corrosion resistant or provided with corrosion resistance in accordance with the standards and minimum thicknesses specified in the standards listed in Table 1507.4.3(2).
Metal roof shingles shall be secured to the roof in accordance with the approved manufacturer's installation instructions.
Roof valley flashing shall be of corrosion-resistant metal of the same material as the roof covering or shall comply with the standards in Table 1507.4.3(1). The valley flashing shall extend at least 8 inches (203 mm) from the centerline each way and shall have a splash diverter rib not less than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) high at the flow line formed as part of the flashing. Sections of flashing shall have an end lap of not less than 4 inches (102 mm). In areas where the average daily temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less or where there is a possibility of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, the metal valley flashing shall have a 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment directly under it consisting of either one layer of underlayment running the full length of the valley or a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet complying with ASTM D1970, in addition to underlayment required for metal roof shingles. The metal valley flashing underlayment shall be solidly cemented to the roofing underlayment for roof slopes under seven units vertical in 12 units horizontal (58-percent slope) or self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall be installed.
The installation of mineral-surfaced roll roofing shall comply with this section.
Mineral-surfaced roll roofing shall be fastened to solidly sheathed roofs.
Mineral-surfaced roll roofing shall not be applied on roof slopes below one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope).
Underlayment shall comply with ASTM D226, Type I or ASTM D4869.

Underlayment applied in areas subject to high winds [Vasd greater than 110 mph (49 m/s) as determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1] shall be applied with corrosion-resistant fasteners in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap not more than 36 inches (914 mm) on center.

Underlayment installed where Vasd, in accordance with Section 1609.3.1, equals or exceeds 120 mph (54 m/s) shall comply with ASTM D226 Type II. The underlayment shall be attached in a grid pattern of 12 inches (305 mm) between side laps with a 6-inch (152 mm) spacing at the side laps. Underlayment shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions except all laps shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm). Underlayment shall be attached using metal or plastic cap nails with a head diameter of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) with a thickness of at least 32-gauge [0.0134 inch (0.34 mm)] sheet metal. The cap nail shank shall be a minimum of 12 gauge [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] with a length to penetrate through the roof sheathing or a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing.

Exception: As an alternative, adhered underlayment complying with ASTM D1970 shall be permitted.

In areas where there has been a history of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, an ice barrier that consists of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together or of a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall be used in lieu of normal underlayment and extend from the lowest edges of all roof surfaces to a point at least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the building.

Exception: Detached accessory structures that contain no conditioned floor area.

Mineral-surfaced roll roofing shall conform to ASTM D3909 or ASTM D6380.
The installation of slate shingles shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Slate shingles shall be fastened to solidly sheathed roofs.
Slate shingles shall only be used on slopes of four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (4:12) or greater.
Underlayment shall comply with ASTM D 226, Type II or ASTM D 4869, Type III or IV.

Underlayment applied in areas subject to high winds [Vasd greater than 110 mph (49 m/s) as determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1] shall be applied with corrosion-resistant fasteners in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap not farther apart than 36 inches (914 mm) on center.

Underlayment installed where Vasd, in accordance with Section 1609.3.1, equals or exceeds 120 mph (54 m/s) shall comply with ASTM D226 Type II or ASTM D4869 Type IV. The underlayment shall be attached in a grid pattern of 12 inches (305 mm) between side laps with a 6-inch (152 mm) spacing at the side laps. Underlayment shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions except all laps shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm). Underlayment shall be attached using metal or plastic cap nails with a head diameter of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) with a thickness of at least 32-gauge [0.0134 inch (0.34 mm)] sheet metal. The cap nail shank shall be a minimum of 12 gauge [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] with a length to penetrate through the roof sheathing or a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing.

Exception: As an alternative, adhered underlayment complying with ASTM D1970 shall be permitted.

In areas where the average daily temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less or where there is a possibility of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, an ice barrier that consists of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together or of a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall extend from the lowest edges of all roof surfaces to a point at least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the building.

Exception: Detached accessory structures that contain no conditioned floor area.

Slate shingles shall comply with ASTM C406.

Minimum headlap for slate shingles shall be in accordance with Table 1507.7.6. Slate shingles shall be secured to the roof with two fasteners per slate.

TABLE 1507.7.6

SLATE SHINGLE HEADLAP

SLOPEHEADLAP (inches)
4:12 < slope < 8:124
8:12 < slope < 20:123
slope ≥ 20:122

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Flashing and counterflashing shall be made with sheet metal. Valley flashing shall be a minimum of 15 inches (381 mm) wide. Valley and flashing metal shall be a minimum uncoated thickness of 0.0179-inch (0.455 mm) zinc-coated G90. Chimneys, stucco or brick walls shall have a minimum of two plies of felt for a cap flashing consisting of a 4-inch-wide (102 mm) strip of felt set in plastic cement and extending 1 inch (25 mm) above the first felt and a top coating of plastic cement. The felt shall extend over the base flashing 2 inches (51 mm).

[DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD 1 & 4] In addition to the requirements of Section 1507.7.5, the installation of slate shingle roof coverings shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1507.3.6 and 1507.3.7, and the seismic anchorage provisions of Section 1513.

The installation of wood shingles shall comply with the provisions of this section and Table 1507.8.

TABLE 1507.8

WOOD SHINGLE AND SHAKE INSTALLATION

ROOF ITEMWOOD SHINGLESWOOD SHAKES
1. Roof slopeWood shingles shall be installed on slopes of not less than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (3:12).Wood shakes shall be installed on slopes of not less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (4:12).
2. Deck requirement
Temperate climateShingles shall be applied to roofs with solid or spaced sheathing. Where spaced sheathing is used, sheathing boards shall be not less than 1″ × 4″ nominal dimensions and shall be spaced on centers equal to the weather exposure to coincide with the placement of fasteners.Shakes shall be applied to roofs with solid or spaced sheathing. Where spaced sheathing is used, sheathing boards shall be not less than 1″ × 4″ nominal dimensions and shall be spaced on centers equal to the weather exposure to coincide with the placement of fasteners. When 1″ × 4″ spaced sheathing is installed at 10 inches, boards must be installed between the sheathing boards.
In areas where the average daily temperature in January is 25°F or less or where there is a possibility of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water.Solid sheathing is required.Solid sheathing is required.
3. InterlaymentNo requirements.Interlayment shall comply with ASTM D 226, Type 1.
4. Underlayment
Temperate climateUnderlayment shall comply with ASTM D 226, Type 1.Underlayment shall comply with ASTM D 226, Type 1.
In areas where there is a possibility of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water.An ice barrier that consists of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together or of a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall extend from the eave's edge to a point at least 24 inches inside the exterior wall line of the building.An ice barrier that consists of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together or of a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall extend from the lowest edges of all roof surfaces to a point at least 24 inches inside the exterior wall line of the building.
5. Application
AttachmentFasteners for wood shingles shall be hot-dipped galvanized or Type 304 (Type 316 for coastal areas) stainless steel with a minimum penetration of 0.75 inch into the sheathing. For sheathing less than 0.5 inch thick, the fasteners shall extend through the sheathing.Fasteners for wood shakes shall be hot-dipped galvanized or Type 304 (Type 316 for coastal areas) with a minimum penetration of 0.75 inch into the sheathing. For sheathing less than 0.5 inch thick, the fasteners shall extend through the sheathing.
No. of fastenersTwo per shingle.Two per shake.
ExposureWeather exposures shall not exceed those set forth in Table 1507.8.7.Weather exposures shall not exceed those set forth in Table 1507.9.8.
MethodShingles shall be laid with a side lap of not less than 1.5 inches between joints in courses, and no two joints in any three adjacent courses shall be in direct alignment. Spacing between shingles shall be 0.25 to 0.375 inch.Shakes shall be laid with a side lap of not less than 1.5 inches between joints in adjacent courses. Spacing between shakes shall not be less than 0.375 inch or more than 0.625 inch for shakes and taper sawn shakes of naturally durable wood and shall be 0.25 to 0.375 inch for preservative-treated taper sawn shakes.
FlashingIn accordance with Section 1507.8.8.In accordance with Section 1507.9.9.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.

Wood shingles shall be installed on solid or spaced sheathing. Where spaced sheathing is used, sheathing boards shall not be less than 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) nominal dimensions and shall be spaced on centers equal to the weather exposure to coincide with the placement of fasteners.
Solid sheathing is required in areas where the average daily temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less or where there is a possibility of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water.
Wood shingles shall be installed on slopes of not less than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope).
Underlayment shall comply with ASTM D226, Type I or ASTM D4869.

Underlayment applied in areas subject to high winds [Vasd greater than 110 mph (49 m/s) as determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1] shall be applied with corrosion-resistant fasteners in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap not more than 36 inches (914 mm) on center.

Underlayment installed where Vasd, in accordance with Section 1609.3.1, equals or exceeds 120 mph (54 m/s) shall comply with ASTM D226 Type II or ASTM D4869 Type IV. The underlayment shall be attached in a grid pattern of 12 inches (305 mm) between side laps with a 6-inch (152 mm) spacing at the side laps. Underlayment shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions except all laps shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm). Underlayment shall be attached using metal or plastic cap nails with a head diameter of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) with a thickness of at least 32-gauge [0.0134 inch (0.34 mm)] sheet metal. The cap nail shank shall be a minimum of 12 gauge [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] with a length to penetrate through the roof sheathing or a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing.

Exception: As an alternative, adhered underlayment complying with ASTM D1970 shall be permitted.

In areas where there has been a history of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, an ice barrier that consists of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together or of a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall be used in lieu of normal underlayment and extend from the lowest edges of all roof surfaces to a point at least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the building.

Exception: Detached accessory structures that contain no conditioned floor area.

Wood shingles shall be of naturally durable wood and comply with the requirements of Table 1507.8.5.

TABLE 1507.8.5

WOOD SHINGLE MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

MATERIALAPPLICABLE MINIMUM GRADESGRADING RULES
Wood shingles of naturally durable wood1, 2 or 3CSSB

CSSB = Cedar Shake and Shingle Bureau

Fasteners for wood shingles shall be corrosion resistant with a minimum penetration of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the sheathing. For sheathing less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness, the fasteners shall extend through the sheathing. Each shingle shall be attached with a minimum of two fasteners.

Wood shingles shall be laid with a side lap not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) between joints in adjacent courses, and not be in direct alignment in alternate courses. Spacing between shingles shall be 1/4 to 3/8 inches (6.4 to 9.5 mm). Weather exposure for wood shingles shall not exceed that set in Table 1507.8.7.

TABLE 1507.8.7

WOOD SHINGLE WEATHER EXPOSURE AND ROOF SLOPE

ROOFING MATERIALLENGTH (inches)GRADEEXPOSURE (inches)
3:12 pitch to < 4:124:12 pitch or steeper
Shingles of naturally durable wood16No. 13.755
No. 23.54
No. 333.5
18No. 14.255.5
No. 244.5
No. 33.54
24No. 15.757.5
No. 25.56.5
No. 355.5

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

At the juncture of the roof and vertical surfaces, flashing and counterflashing shall be provided in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions, and where of metal, shall be not less than 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 galvanized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal. The valley flashing shall extend at least 11 inches (279 mm) from the centerline each way and have a splash diverter rib not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high at the flow line formed as part of the flashing. Sections of flashing shall have an end lap of not less than 4 inches (102 mm). For roof slopes of three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope) and over, the valley flashing shall have a 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment of either one layer of Type I underlayment running the full length of the valley or a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet complying with ASTM D 1970, in addition to other required underlayment. In areas where the average daily temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less or where there is a possibility of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, the metal valley flashing underlayment shall be solidly cemented to the roofing underlayment for slopes under seven units vertical in 12 units horizontal (58-percent slope) or self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall be installed.
The installation of wood shakes shall comply with the provisions of this section and Table 1507.8.
Wood shakes shall only be used on solid or spaced sheathing. Where spaced sheathing is used, sheathing boards shall be not less than 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) nominal dimensions and shall be spaced on centers equal to the weather exposure to coincide with the placement of fasteners. Where 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) spaced sheathing is installed at 10 inches (254 mm) on center, additional 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) boards shall be installed between the sheathing boards.
Solid sheathing is required in areas where the average daily temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less or where there is a possibility of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water.
Wood shakes shall only be used on slopes of not less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope).
Underlayment shall comply with ASTM D226, Type I or ASTM D4869.

Underlayment applied in areas subject to high winds [Vasd greater than 110 mph (49 m/s) as determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1] shall be applied with corrosion-resistant fasteners in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap not more than 36 inches (914 mm) on center.

Underlayment installed where Vasd, in accordance with Section 1609.3.1, equals or exceeds 120 mph (54 m/s) shall comply with ASTM D226 Type II or ASTM D4869 Type IV. The underlayment shall be attached in a grid pattern of 12 inches (305 mm) between side laps with a 6-inch (152 mm) spacing at the side laps. Underlayment shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions except all laps shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm). Underlayment shall be attached using metal or plastic cap nails with a head diameter of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) with a thickness of at least 32-gauge [0.0134 inch (0.34 mm)] sheet metal. The cap nail shank shall be a minimum of 12 gauge [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] with a length to penetrate through the roof sheathing or a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing.

Exception: As an alternative, adhered underlayment complying with ASTM D1970 shall be permitted.

In areas where there has been a history of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, an ice barrier that consists of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together or of a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall be used in lieu of normal underlayment and extend from the lowest edges of all roof surfaces to a point at least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the building.

Exception: Detached accessory structures that contain no conditioned floor area.

Interlayment shall comply with ASTM D226, Type I.

Wood shakes shall comply with the requirements of Table 1507.9.6.

TABLE 1507.9.6

WOOD SHAKE MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

MATERIALMINIMUM GRADESAPPLICABLE GRADING RULES
Wood shakes of naturally durable wood1CSSB
Taper sawn shakes of naturally durable wood1 or 2CSSB
Preservative-treated shakes and shingles of naturally durable wood1CSSB
Fire-retardant-treated shakes and shingles of naturally durable wood1CSSB
Preservative-treated taper sawn shakes of Southern pine treated in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specification A, Use Category 3B and Section 5.6)1 or 2TFS

CSSB = Cedar Shake and Shingle Bureau.

TFS = Forest Products Laboratory of the Texas Forest Services.

Fasteners for wood shakes shall be corrosion resistant with a minimum penetration of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the sheathing. For sheathing less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness, the fasteners shall extend through the sheathing. Each shake shall be attached with a minimum of two fasteners.

Wood shakes shall be laid with a side lap not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) between joints in adjacent courses. Spacing between shakes in the same course shall be 3/8 to 5/8 inches (9.5 to 15.9 mm) for shakes and taper sawn shakes of naturally durable wood and shall be 1/4 to 3/8 inch (6.4 to 9.5 mm) for preservative taper sawn shakes. Weather exposure for wood shakes shall not exceed those set in Table 1507.9.8.

TABLE 1507.9.8

WOOD SHAKE WEATHER EXPOSURE AND ROOF SLOPE

ROOFING MATERIALLENGTH (inches)GRADEEXPOSURE (inches) 4:12 PITCH OR STEEPER
Shakes of naturally durable wood18No. 17.5
24No. 110a
Preservative-treated taper sawn shakes of Southern yellow pine18No. 17.5
24No. 110
18No. 25.5
24No. 27.5
Taper sawn shakes of naturally durable wood18No. 17.5
24No. 110
18No. 25.5
24No. 27.5

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. For 24-inch by 0.375-inch handsplit shakes, the maximum exposure is 7.5 inches.
At the juncture of the roof and vertical surfaces, flashing and counterflashing shall be provided in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions, and where of metal, shall be not less than 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 galvanized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal. The valley flashing shall extend at least 11 inches (279 mm) from the centerline each way and have a splash diverter rib not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high at the flow line formed as part of the flashing. Sections of flashing shall have an end lap of not less than 4 inches (102 mm). For roof slopes of three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope) and over, the valley flashing shall have a 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment of either one layer of Type I underlayment running the full length of the valley or a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet complying with ASTM D 1970, in addition to other required underlayment. In areas where the average daily temperature in January is 25°F (-4°C) or less or where there is a possibility of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, the metal valley flashing underlayment shall be solidly cemented to the roofing underlayment for slopes under seven units vertical in 12 units horizontal (58-percent slope) or self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall be installed.
The installation of built-up roofs shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Built-up roofs shall have a design slope of not less than one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for drainage, except for coal-tar built-up roofs that shall have a design slope of not less than one-eighth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1-percent slope).

Built-up roof covering materials shall comply with the standards in Table 1507.10.2 or UL 55A.

TABLE 1507.10.2

BUILT-UP ROOFING MATERIAL STANDARDS

MATERIAL STANDARDSTANDARD
Acrylic coatings used in roofingASTM D 6083
Aggregate surfacingASTM D 1863
Asphalt adhesive used in roofingASTM D 3747
Asphalt cements used in roofingASTM D 3019; D 2822; D 4586
Asphalt-coated glass fiber base sheetASTM D 4601
Asphalt coatings used in roofingASTM D 1227; D 2823; D 2824; D 4479
Asphalt glass feltASTM D 2178
Asphalt primer used in roofingASTM D 41
Asphalt-saturated and asphalt-coated organic felt base sheetASTM D 2626
Asphalt-saturated organic felt (perforated)ASTM D 226
Asphalt used in roofingASTM D 312
Coal-tar cements used in roofingASTM D 4022; D 5643
Coal-tar saturated organic feltASTM D 227
Coal-tar pitch used in roofingASTM D 450; Type I or II
Coal-tar primer used in roofing, dampproofing and waterproofingASTM D 43
Glass mat, coal tarASTM D 4990
Glass mat, venting typeASTM D 4897
Mineral-surfaced inorganic cap sheetASTM D 3909
Thermoplastic fabrics used in roofingASTM D 5665, D 5726
The installation of modified bitumen roofing shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Modified bitumen membrane roofs shall have a design slope of not less than one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for drainage.
Modified bitumen roof coverings shall comply with CGSB 37-GP-56M, ASTM D6162, ASTM D6163, ASTM D6164, ASTM D6222, ASTM D6223, ASTM D6298 or ASTM D6509.
The installation of thermoset single-ply roofing shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Thermoset single-ply membrane roofs shall have a design slope of not less than one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for drainage.
Thermoset single-ply roof coverings shall comply with ASTM D4637, ASTM D5019 or CGSB 37-GP-52M.
Ballasted thermoset low-slope roofs (roof slope < 2:12) shall be installed in accordance with this section and Section 1504.4. Stone used as ballast shall comply with ASTM D 448 or ASTM D 7655.
The installation of thermoplastic single-ply roofing shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Thermoplastic single-ply membrane roofs shall have a design slope of not less than one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope).
Thermoplastic single-ply roof coverings shall comply with ASTM D 4434, ASTM D 6754, ASTM D 6878 or CGSB CAN/CGSB 37-54.
Ballasted thermoplastic low-slope roofs (roof slope < 2:12) shall be installed in accordance with this section and Section 1504.4. Stone used as ballast shall comply with ASTM D 448 or ASTM D 7655.
The installation of sprayed polyurethane foam roofing shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Sprayed polyurethane foam roofs shall have a design slope of not less than one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for drainage.
Spray-applied polyurethane foam insulation shall comply with Type III or IV as defined in ASTM C1029.

Foamed-in-place roof insulation shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. A liquid-applied protective coating that complies with Table 1507.14.3 shall be applied no less than 2 hours nor more than 72 hours following the application of the foam.

TABLE 1507.14.3

PROTECTIVE COATING MATERIAL STANDARDS

MATERIALSTANDARD
Acrylic coatingASTM D6083
Silicone coatingASTM D6694
Moisture-cured polyurethane coatingASTM D6947
Foam plastic materials and installation shall comply with Chapter 26.
The installation of liquid-applied roofing shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Liquid-applied roofing shall have a design slope of not less than one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope).
Liquid-applied roofing shall comply with ASTM C836, ASTM C957, ASTM D1227 or ASTM D3468, ASTM D6083, ASTM D6694 or ASTM D6947.
Vegetative roofs, roof gardens and landscaped roofs shall comply with the requirements of this chapter, Sections 1607.12.3 and 1607.12.3.1 and the California Fire Code.
The structural frame and roof construction supporting the load imposed upon the roof by the vegetative roof, roof gardens or landscaped roofs shall comply with the requirements of Table 601.
The installation of photovoltaic shingles shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Photovoltaic shingles shall be applied to a solid or closely fitted deck, except where the shingles are specifically designed to be applied over spaced sheathing.
Photovoltaic shingles shall not be installed on roof slopes less than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope).
Unless otherwise noted, required underlayment shall conform to ASTM D 226, ASTM D 4869 or ASTM D 6757.
Underlayment shall be applied shingle fashion, parallel to and starting from the eave, lapped 2 inches (51 mm) and fastened sufficiently to hold in place.

Underlayment applied in areas subject to high winds [Vasd greater than 110 mph (49 m/s) as determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1] shall be applied with corrosion-resistant fasteners in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Fasteners shall be applied along the overlap at not more than 36 inches (914 mm) on center. Underlayment installed where Vasd is not less than 120 mph (54 m/s) shall comply with ASTM D 226, Type II, ASTM D 4869, Type IV or ASTM D 6757. The underlayment shall be attached in a grid pattern of 12 inches (305 mm) between side laps with a 6-inch (152 mm) spacing at the side laps. Underlayment shall be applied in accordance with Section 1507.2.8 except all laps shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm). Underlayment shall be attached using metal or plastic cap nails with a head diameter of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) with a thickness of not less than 32-gage [0.0134 inch (0.34 mm)] sheet metal. The cap nail shank shall be a minimum of 12 gage [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] with a length to penetrate through the roof sheathing or a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing.

Exception: As an alternative, adhered underlayment complying with ASTM D 1970 shall be permitted.

In areas where there has been a history of ice forming along the eaves causing a backup of water, an ice barrier that consists of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together or of a self-adhering polymer modified bitumen sheet shall be used instead of normal underlayment and extend from the lowest edges of all roof surfaces to a point not less than 24 inches (610 mm) inside the exterior wall line of the building.

Exception: Detached accessory structures that contain no conditioned floor area.

Fasteners for photovoltaic shingles shall be galvanized, stainless steel, aluminum or copper roofing nails, minimum 12-gage [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] shank with a minimum 3/8-inch-diameter (9.5 mm) head, of a length to penetrate through the roofing materials and a minimum of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing. Where the roof sheathing is less than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) thick, the nails shall penetrate through the sheathing. Fasteners shall comply with ASTM F 1667.
Photovoltaic shingles shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1703.
Photovoltaic shingles shall be attached in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Photovoltaic shingles shall be tested in accordance with procedures and acceptance criteria in ASTM D 3161. Photovoltaic shingles shall comply with the classification requirements of Table 1504.1.1 for the appropriate maximum nominal design wind speed. Photovoltaic shingle packaging shall bear a label to indicate compliance with the procedures in ASTM D 3161 and the required classification from Table 1504.1.1.

The use of above-deck thermal insulation shall be permitted provided such insulation is covered with an approved roof covering and passes the tests of NFPA 276 or UL 1256 when tested as an assembly.

Exceptions:

  1. Foam plastic roof insulation shall conform to the material and installation requirements of Chapter 26.
  2. Where a concrete roof deck is used and the above-deck thermal insulation is covered with an approved roof covering.
Cellulosic fiberboard roof insulation shall conform to the material and installation requirements of Chapter 23.

Above-deck thermal insulation board shall comply with the standards in Table 1508.2.

[BF] TABLE 1508.2

MATERIAL STANDARDS FOR ROOF INSULATION

Cellular glass boardASTM C 552
Composite boardsASTM C 1289, Type III, IV, V or VI
Expanded polystyreneASTM C 578
Extruded polystyreneASTM C 578
Fiber-reinforced gypsum boardASTM C 1278
Glass-faced gypsum boardASTM C 1177
Mineral fiber insulation boardASTM C 726
Perlite boardASTM C 728
Polyisocyanurate boardASTM C 1289, Type I or II
Wood fiberboardASTM C 208
A radiant barrier installed above a deck shall comply with Sections 1509.2 through 1509.4.
Radiant barriers shall be permitted for use above decks where the radiant barrier is covered with an approved roof covering and the system consisting of the radiant barrier and the roof covering complies with the requirements of either FM 4550 or UL 1256.
The low emittance surface of the radiant barrier shall face the continuous airspace between the radiant barrier and the roof covering.
A radiant barrier installed above a deck shall comply with ASTM C 1313/1313M.
The provisions of this section shall govern the construction of rooftop structures.
Penthouses in compliance with Sections 1510.2.1 through 1510.2.5 shall be considered as a portion of the story directly below the roof deck on which such penthouses are located. All other penthouses shall be considered as an additional story of the building.

Penthouses constructed on buildings of other than Type I construction shall not exceed 18 feet (5486 mm) in height above the roof deck as measured to the average height of the roof of the penthouse.

Exceptions:

  1. Where used to enclose tanks or elevators that travel to the roof level, penthouses shall be permitted to have a maximum height of 28 feet (8534 mm) above the roof deck.
  2. Penthouses located on the roof of buildings of Type I construction shall not be limited in height.
The aggregate area of penthouses and other enclosed rooftop structures shall not exceed one-third the area of the supporting roof deck. Such penthouses and other enclosed rooftop structures shall not be required to be included in determining the building area or number of stories as regulated by Section 503.1. The area of such penthouses shall not be included in determining the fire area specified in Section 901.7.
Penthouses shall not be used for purposes other than the shelter of mechanical or electrical equipment, tanks, or vertical shaft openings in the roof assembly.
Provisions such as louvers, louver blades or flashing shall be made to protect the mechanical and electrical equipment and the building interior from the elements.

Penthouses shall be constructed with walls, floors and roofs as required for the type of construction of the building on which such penthouses are built.

Exceptions:

  1. On buildings of Type I construction, the exterior walls and roofs of penthouses with a fire separation distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) and less than 20 feet (6096 mm) shall be permitted to have not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. The exterior walls and roofs of penthouses with a fire separation distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) or greater shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating.
  2. On buildings of Type I construction two stories or less in height above grade plane or of Type II construction, the exterior walls and roofs of penthouses with a fire separation distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) and less than 20 feet (6096 mm) shall be permitted to have not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating or a lesser fire-resistance rating as required by Table 602 and be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood. The exterior walls and roofs of penthouses with a fire separation distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) or greater shall be permitted to be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood and shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating. Interior framing and walls shall be permitted to be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood.
  3. On buildings of Type III, IV or V construction, the exterior walls of penthouses with a fire separation distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) and less than 20 feet (6096 mm) shall be permitted to have not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating or a lesser fire-resistance rating as required by Table 602. On buildings of Type III, IV or VA construction, the exterior walls of penthouses with a fire separation distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) or greater shall be permitted to be of Type IV or noncombustible construction or fire-retardant-treated wood and shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating.
Tanks having a capacity of more than 500 gallons (1893 L) located on the roof deck of a building shall be supported on masonry, reinforced concrete, steel or Type IV construction provided that, where such supports are located in the building above the lowest story, the support shall be fire-resistance rated as required for Type IA construction.
In the bottom or on the side near the bottom of the tank, a pipe or outlet, fitted with a suitable quick-opening valve for discharging the contents into a drain in an emergency shall be provided.
Tanks shall not be placed over or near a stairway or an elevator shaft, unless there is a solid roof or floor underneath the tank.
Unenclosed roof tanks shall have covers sloping toward the perimeter of the tanks.

Cooling towers located on the roof deck of a building and greater than 250 square feet (23.2 m2) in base area or greater than 15 feet (4572 mm) in height above the roof deck, as measured to the highest point on the cooling tower, where the roof is greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in height above grade plane shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. The base area of cooling towers shall not exceed one-third the area of the supporting roof deck.

Exception: Drip boards and the enclosing construction shall be permitted to be of wood not less than 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness, provided the wood is covered on the exterior of the tower with noncombustible material.

Towers, spires, domes and cupolas shall be of a type of construction having fire-resistance ratings not less than required for the building on top of which such tower, spire, dome or cupola is built. Towers, spires, domes and cupolas greater than 85 feet (25 908 mm) in height above grade plane as measured to the highest point on such structures, and either greater than 200 square feet (18.6 m2) in horizontal area or used for any purpose other than a belfry or an architectural embellishment, shall be constructed of and supported on Type I or II construction.
Towers, spires, domes and cupolas greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height above the highest point at which such structure contacts the roof as measured to the highest point on such structure, or that exceeds 200 square feet (18.6 m2) in area at any horizontal section, or which is intended to be used for any purpose other than a belfry or architectural embellishment, or is located on the top of a building greater than 50 feet (1524 mm) in building height shall be constructed of and supported by noncombustible materials and shall be separated from the building below by construction having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1.5 hours with openings protected in accordance with Section 712. Such structures located on the top of a building greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in building height shall be supported by noncombustible construction.
Enclosed towers and spires shall have exterior walls constructed as required for the building on top of which such towers and spires are built. The roof covering of spires shall be not less than the same class of roof covering required for the building on top of which the spire is located.
Mechanical equipment screens shall be constructed of the materials specified for the exterior walls in accordance with the type of construction of the building. Where the fire separation distance is greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), mechanical equipment screens shall not be required to comply with the fire-resistance rating requirements.

Mechanical equipment screens shall not exceed 18 feet (5486 mm) in height above the roof deck, as measured to the highest point on the mechanical equipment screen.

Exception: Where located on buildings of Type IA construction, the height of mechanical equipment screens shall not be limited.

Regardless of the requirements in Section 1510.6, mechanical equipment screens that are located on the roof decks of buildings of Type I, II, III or IV construction shall be permitted to be constructed of combustible materials in accordance with any one of the following limitations:

  1. The fire separation distance shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) and the height of the mechanical equipment screen above the roof deck shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) as measured to the highest point on the mechanical equipment screen.
  2. The fire separation distance shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) and the mechanical equipment screen shall be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2 for exterior installation.
  3. Where exterior wall covering panels are used, the panels shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less when tested in the minimum and maximum thicknesses intended for use, with each face tested independently in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. The panels shall be tested in the minimum and maximum thicknesses intended for use in accordance with, and shall comply with the acceptance criteria of, NFPA 285 and shall be installed as tested. Where the panels are tested as part of an exterior wall assembly in accordance with NFPA 285, the panels shall be installed on the face of the mechanical equipment screen supporting structure in the same manner as they were installed on the tested exterior wall assembly.

The height of mechanical equipment screens located on the roof decks of buildings of Type V construction, as measured from grade plane to the highest point on the mechanical equipment screen, shall be permitted to exceed the maximum building height allowed for the building by other provisions of this code where complying with any one of the following limitations, provided the fire separation distance is greater than 5 feet (1524 mm):

  1. Where the fire separation distance is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm), the height above grade plane of the mechanical equipment screen shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) more than the maximum building height allowed;
  2. The mechanical equipment screen shall be constructed of noncombustible materials;
  3. The mechanical equipment screen shall be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2 for exterior installation; or
  4. Where the fire separation distance is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm), the mechanical equipment screen shall be constructed of materials having a flame spread index of 25 or less when tested in the minimum and maximum thicknesses intended for use with each face tested independently in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.
Rooftop-mounted photovoltaic panels and modules shall be designed in accordance with this section.

Rooftop-mounted photovoltaic panels and modules shall be designed for component and cladding wind loads in accordance with Chapter 16 using an effective wind area based on the dimensions of a single unit frame.

Exception: [BSC, HCD-1, HCD-2, DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC] The effective wind area shall be in accordance with Chapter 16 and ASCE 7 Section 26.2.

Rooftop-mounted photovoltaic panels and modules shall have the fire classification in accordance with Section 1505.9.
Rooftop-mounted photovoltaic panels and modules shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Rooftop-mounted photovoltaic panels and modules shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1703 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Rooftop structures not regulated by Sections 1510.2 through 1510.7 shall comply with Sections 1510.8.1 through 1510.8.5, as applicable.

Aerial supports shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

Exception: Aerial supports not greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height as measured from the roof deck to the highest point on the aerial supports shall be permitted to be constructed of combustible materials.

Bulkheads used for the shelter of mechanical or electrical equipment or vertical shaft openings in the roof assembly shall comply with Section 1510.2 as penthouses. Bulkheads used for any other purpose shall be considered as an additional story of the building.
Dormers shall be of the same type of construction as required for the roof in which such dormers are located or the exterior walls of the building.
Fences and similar structures shall comply with Section 1510.6 as mechanical equipment screens.
Flagpoles and similar structures shall not be required to be constructed of noncombustible materials and shall not be limited in height or number.
The structural frame and roof construction supporting imposed loads upon the roof by any rooftop structure shall comply with the requirements of Table 601. The fire-resistance reduction permitted by Table 601, Note a, shall not apply to roofs containing rooftop structures.materials and shall not be limited in height or number.

Materials and methods of application used for recovering or replacing an existing roof covering shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 15.

Exceptions:

  1. Roof replacement or roof recover of existing low-slope roof coverings shall not be required to meet the minimum design slope requirement of one-quarter unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in Section 1507 for roofs that provide positive roof drainage.
  2. Recovering or replacing an existing roof covering shall not be required to meet the requirement for secondary (emergency overflow) drains or scuppers in Section 1503.4 for roofs that provide for positive roof drainage. For the purposes of this exception, existing secondary drainage or scupper systems required in accordance with this code shall not be removed unless they are replaced by secondary drains or scuppers designed and installed in accordance with Section 1503.4.
Structural roof components shall be capable of supporting the roof-covering system and the material and equipment loads that will be encountered during installation of the system.

Roof replacement shall include the removal of all existing layers of roof coverings down to the roof deck.

Exception: Where the existing roof assembly includes an ice barrier membrane that is adhered to the roof deck, the existing ice barrier membrane shall be permitted to remain in place and covered with an additional layer of ice barrier membrane in accordance with Section 1507.

The installation of a new roof covering over an existing roof covering shall be permitted where any of the following conditions occur:

  1. Where the new roof covering is installed in accordance with the roof covering manufacturer's approved instructions.
  2. Complete and separate roofing systems, such as standing-seam metal roof panel systems, that are designed to transmit the roof loads directly to the building’s structural system and that do not rely on existing roofs and roof coverings for support, shall not require the removal of existing roof coverings.
  3. Metal panel, metal shingle and concrete and clay tile roof coverings shall be permitted to be installed over existing wood shake roofs when applied in accordance with Section 1511.4.
  4. The application of a new protective coating over an existing spray polyurethane foam roofing system shall be permitted without tear off of existing roof coverings.

A roof recover shall not be permitted where any of the following conditions occur:

  1. Where the existing roof or roof covering is water soaked or has deteriorated to the point that the existing roof or roof covering is not adequate as a base for additional roofing.
  2. Where the existing roof covering is slate, clay, cement or asbestos-cement tile.
  3. Where the existing roof has two or more applications of any type of roof covering.
Where the application of a new roof covering over wood shingle or shake roofs creates a combustible concealed space, the entire existing surface shall be covered with gypsum board, mineral fiber, glass fiber or other approved materials securely fastened in place.
Existing slate, clay or cement tile shall be permitted for reinstallation, except that damaged, cracked or broken slate or tile shall not be reinstalled. Existing vent flashing, metal edgings, drain outlets, collars and metal counterflashings shall not be reinstalled where rusted, damaged or deteriorated. Aggregate surfacing materials shall not be reinstalled.
Flashings shall be reconstructed in accordance with approved manufacturer's installation instructions. Metal flashing to which bituminous materials are to be adhered shall be primed prior to installation.
Photovoltaic panels and modules installed upon a roof or as an integral part of a roof assembly shall comply with the requirements of this code (see Section 3111) and the California Fire Code.

Nails shall be long enough to penetrate into the sheathing 3/4 inch (19 mm). Where sheathing is less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) in thickness, nails shall be driven into supports, unless nails with ring shanks are used.

All fasteners shall be corrosion resistant and fabricated of copper, stainless steel, or brass, or shall have a hot dipped galvanized coating not less than 1.0 ounce of zinc per square foot (305 gm/m2).

Nails for slate shingles and clay or concrete tile shall be copper, brass or stainless steel with gage and length per common ferrous nails.

Wire for attaching slate shingles and clay or concrete tile shall be copper, brass or stainless steel capable of supporting four times the weight of tile.

Wire supporting a single tile or shingle shall not be smaller than 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) in diameter. Continuous wire ties supporting more than one tile shall not be smaller than 0.084 inch (2 mm) in diameter.

Metal strips for attaching slate shingles and clay or concrete tile shall be copper, brass or stainless steel capable of supporting four times the weight of tile.

Clay or concrete tile shall be installed in accordance with Table 1507.3.7 and as described herein.

1. On wood roofs or roofs of other material to which wood strips are secured, every cover or top tile when fastened with nails shall be nailed directly into 11/4 inches (32 mm) sound grain soft wood strips of sufficient height to support the tile.

Pan or bottom tiles shall be nailed directly to the roof sheathing or to wood strips. Wood strips shall be secured to the roof by nails spaced not over 12 inches (305 mm) apart.

2. On concrete roofs, wires shall be secured in place by wire loops embedded into the concrete not less than 2 inches (51 mm). The wire loops shall be spaced not more than 36 inches (914 mm) on center parallel to the eaves, and spaced vertically to allow for the minimum 3 inches (76 mm) lapping of the tile.

3. Where continuous ties of twisted wire, interlocking wires or metal strips extending from the ridge to eave are used to attach tile, the ties shall be attached to the roof construction at the ridge, eave and at intervals not exceeding 10 feet 0 inch (3048 mm) on center. The ties within 2 feet 0 inch (610 mm) of the rake shall be attached at intervals of 5 feet 0 inch (1524 mm).

Attachment for continuous ties shall be nails, screws staples or approved clips of the same material as the ties, and shall not be subjected to withdrawal forces. Attachments for continuous ties shall have an allowable working stress shear resistance of not less than twice the dead weight of the tile tributary to the attachment, but not less than 300 pounds (136 kg).

4. Tile with projecting anchor lugs at the bottom of the tiles shall be held in position by means of 1- inch by 2-inch (25mm by 51mm) wood stripping nailed to the roof sheathing over the underlay.

5. Clay or concrete tile on roofs with slopes exceeding 24 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (200 percent slope) shall be attached as required for veneer in Chapter 14. The nose of all tiles shall be securely fastened.

6. Clay or concrete tile shall have a minimum of two fasteners per tile. Tiles that are 8 inches (203 mm) in width or less are permitted to be fastened at the center of the head with one fastener per tile.

7. Interlocking clay or concrete tile shall have a minimum of one nail near center of head or two wire ties per tile.

Slate shingles on roofs with slopes exceeding 24 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (200 percent slope) shall be attached as required for veneer per Chapter 14.

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