Enclosed attics and enclosed rafter spaces formed where ceilings are applied directly to the underside of roof framing members shall have cross ventilation for each separate space by ventilation openings protected against the entrance of rain and snow. Blocking and bridging shall be arranged so as not to interfere with the movement of air. An airspace of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) shall be provided between the insulation and the roof sheathing. The net free ventilating area shall be not less than 1/150 of the area of the space ventilated. Ventilators shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's installation instructions.
Exception: The net free cross-ventilation area shall be permitted to be reduced to 1/300 provided both of the following conditions are met:
- In Climate Zones 14 and 16, a Class I or II vapor retarder is installed on the warm-in-winter side of the ceiling.
- At least 40 percent and not more than 50 percent of the required venting area is provided by ventilators located in the upper portion of the attic or rafter space. Upper ventilators shall be located not more than 3 feet (914 mm) below the ridge or highest point of the space, measured vertically, with the balance of the ventilation provided by eave or cornice vents. Where the location of wall or roof framing members conflicts with the installation of upper ventilators, installation more than 3 feet (914 mm) below the ridge or highest point of the space shall be permitted.
Unvented attics and unvented enclosed roof framing assemblies created by ceilings applied directly to the underside of the roof framing members/rafters and the structural roof sheathing at the top of the roof framing members shall be permitted where all the following conditions are met:
- The unvented attic space is completely within the building thermal envelope.
- No interior Class I vapor retarders are installed on the ceiling side (attic floor) of the unvented attic assembly or on the ceiling side of the unvented enclosed roof framing assembly.
- Where wood shingles or shakes are used, a minimum 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) vented airspace separates the shingles or shakes and the roofing underlayment above the structural sheathing.
- 5.1.1. Where only air-impermeable insulation is provided, it shall be applied in direct contact with the underside of the structural roof sheathing.
- 5.1.2. Where air-permeable insulation is provided inside the building thermal envelope, it shall be installed in accordance with Item 5.1. In addition to the air-permeable insulation installed directly below the structural sheathing, rigid board or sheet insulation shall be installed directly above the structural roof sheathing in accordance with the R-values in Table 1203.3 for condensation control.
- 5.1.3. Where both air-impermeable and air-permeable insulation are provided, the air-impermeable insulation shall be applied in direct contact with the underside of the structural roof sheathing and shall be in accordance with the R-values in Table 1203.3 for condensation control. The air-permeable insulation shall be installed directly under the air-impermeable insulation.
- 5.1.4. Alternatively, sufficient rigid board or sheet insulation shall be installed directly above the structural roof sheathing to maintain the monthly average temperature of the under-side of the structural roof sheathing above 45°F (7°C). For calculation purposes, an interior air temperature of 68°F (20°C) is assumed and the exterior air temperature is assumed to be the monthly average outside air temperature of the three coldest months.
- 5.2. Where preformed insulation board is used as the air-impermeable insulation layer, it shall be sealed at the perimeter of each individual sheet interior surface to form a continuous layer.
The net area of ventilation openings shall be not less than 1 square foot for each 150 square feet (0.67 m2 for each 100 m2) of crawl-space area. Ventilation openings shall be covered for their height and width with any of the following materials, provided that the least dimension of the covering shall be not greater than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm):
- Perforated sheet metal plates not less than 0.070 inch (1.8 mm) thick.
- Expanded sheet metal plates not less than 0.047 inch (1.2 mm) thick.
- Cast-iron grilles or gratings.
- Extruded load-bearing vents.
- Hardware cloth of 0.035-inch (0.89 mm) wire or heavier.
- Corrosion-resistant wire mesh, with the least dimension not greater than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm).
Openings for under-floor ventilation shall be not less than 11/2 square feet (0.135 m2) for each 25 linear feet (7620 linear mm) of exterior wall. They shall be covered with corrosion-resistant wire mesh with mesh openings not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) nor more than 1/2 inch (13 mm) in any dimension.
- Where warranted by climatic conditions, ventilation openings to the outdoors are not required if ventilation openings to the interior are provided.
- The total area of ventilation openings is permitted to be reduced to 1/1,500 of the under-floor area where the ground surface is covered with a Class I vapor retarder material and the required openings are placed so as to provide cross ventilation of the space. The installation of operable louvers shall not be prohibited.
- Ventilation openings are not required where continuously operated mechanical ventilation is provided at a rate of 1.0 cubic foot per minute (cfm) for each 50 square feet (1.02 L/s for each 10 m2) of crawl-space floor area and the ground surface is covered with a Class I vapor retarder.
- Ventilation openings are not required where the ground surface is covered with a Class I vapor retarder, the perimeter walls are insulated and the space is conditioned in accordance with the California Energy Code.
- For buildings in flood hazard areas as established in Section 1612.3, the openings for under-floor ventilation shall be deemed as meeting the flood opening requirements of ASCE 24 provided that the ventilation openings are designed and installed in accordance with ASCE 24.
- [SPCB] For purposes of structural pest control inspections, ventilation shall be considered inadequate when the lack thereof has contributed to the growth of wood-destroying pests or organisms.
Natural ventilation of an occupied space shall be through windows, doors, louvers or other openings to the outdoors. The operating mechanism for such openings shall be provided with ready access so that the openings are readily controllable by the building occupants.
[HCD 1] In employee housing, all openable windows in rooms used for living, dining, cooking or sleeping purposes, and toilet and bath buildings, shall be provided and maintained with insect screening.
[HCD 1] Door openings of rooms used for dining, cooking, toilet and bathing facilities in employee housing shall be provided and maintained with insect screening or with solid doors equipped with self-closing devices in lieu thereof, when approved by the enforcement agency.
[HCD 1] The windows, doors, louvers or other approved closeable openings not required by Section 1029 may open into a passive solar energy collector for ventilation required by this section. The area of ventilation openings to the outside of the passive solar energy collector shall be increased to compensate for the openings required by the interior space.
Where rooms and spaces without openings to the outdoors are ventilated through an adjoining room, the opening to the adjoining room shall be unobstructed and shall have an area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of the interior room or space, but not less than 25 square feet (2.3 m2). The openable area of the openings to the outdoors shall be based on the total floor area being ventilated.
Exception: Exterior openings required for ventilation shall be permitted to open into a sunroom with thermal isolation or a patio cover provided that the openable area between the sunroom addition or patio cover and the interior room shall have an area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of the interior room or space, but not less than 20 square feet (1.86 m2). The openable area of the openings to the outdoors shall be based on the total floor area being ventilated.
Rooms containing bathtubs, showers, spas and similar bathing fixtures shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.
The minimum exhaust rate shall not be less than that established by Table 403.7 “Minimum Exhaust Rates.” See California Mechanical Code, Chapter 5, for additional provisions related to environmental air ducts.
[HCD 1] In addition to the requirements in this section and in the California Mechanical Code, bathrooms in Group R occupancies shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the California Green Building Standards Code (CALGreen), Chapter 4, Division 4.5.
Interior spaces intended for human occupancy shall be provided with active or passive space heating systems capable of maintaining an indoor temperature of not less than 68°F (20°C) at a point 3 feet (914 mm) above the floor on the design heating day.
- [HCD 1] For limited-density owner-built rural dwellings, a heating facility or appliance shall be installed in each dwelling subject to the provisions of Subchapter 1, Chapter 1, Title 25, California Code of Regulations, commencing with Section 74; however, there shall be no specified requirement for heating capacity or temperature maintenance. The use of solid-fuel or solar-heating devices shall be deemed as complying with the requirements of this section. If nonrenewable fuel is used in these dwellings, rooms so heated shall meet current installation standards.
- [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Space heating systems shall comply with the requirements of the California Mechanical Code.
- [HCD 1] When a passive solar energy collector is designed as a conditioned area it shall comply with the California Energy Code. Nonconditioned passive solar energy collectors are exempt from compliance with the California Energy Code.
Every space intended for human occupancy shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings in accordance with Section 1205.2 or shall be provided with artificial light in accordance with Section 1205.3. Exterior glazed openings shall open directly onto a public way or onto a yard or court in accordance with Section 1206.
[HCD 1] Glazed openings may open into a passive solar energy collector provided the area of exterior glazed openings in the passive solar energy collector is increased to compensate for the area required by the interior space.
For the purpose of natural lighting, any room is permitted to be considered as a portion of an adjoining room where one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feet (2.32 m2), whichever is greater.
Exception: Openings required for natural light shall be permitted to open into a sunroom with thermal isolation or a patio cover where the common wall provides a glazed area of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 20 square feet (1.86 m2), whichever is greater.
[BSC-CG] See California Green Building Standards Code, Chapter 5, Division 5.1 for additional light pollution reduction requirements.
[BSC] Artificial light shall be provided for parking facilities and primary walkways at California State Universities, colleges and community colleges in accordance with provisions of this subsection. This subsection shall not apply to the University of California unless the Regents of the University of California, by resolution, make it applicable.
Based on the recommendations of the most current edition of the Illumination Engineering Society lighting handbook, the following lighting standards shall be used for all new construction of open parking facilities, covered parking facilities and primary walkways:
- 1.1. Medium-level activity usage when medium usage is present.
- 1.2. High-level activity usage when high usage is present.
- 2.1. Medium-level activity usage when medium usage is present.
- 2.2. High-level activity usage when high usage is present.
Floor/ceiling assemblies between dwelling units and sleeping units or between a dwelling unit or sleeping unit and a public or service area within the structure shall have an impact insulation class rating of not less than 50, or not less than 45 if field tested, when tested in accordance with ASTM E492.
Exception: Impact sound insulation is not required for floor-ceiling assemblies over nonhabitable rooms or spaces not designed to be occupied, such as garages, mechanical rooms or storage areas.
Interior noise levels attributable to exterior sources shall not exceed 45 dB in any habitable room. The noise metric shall be either the day-night average sound level (Ldn) or the community noise equivalent level (CNEL), consistent with the noise element of the local general plan.
[BSC-CG] See California Green Building Standards Code, Chapter 5, Division 5.5 for additional sound transmission requirements.
Habitable spaces, other than a kitchen, shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any plan dimension. Kitchens shall have a clear passageway of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) between counter fronts and appliances or counter fronts and walls.
Occupiable spaces, habitable spaces and corridors shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). Bathrooms, toilet rooms, kitchens, storage rooms and laundry rooms shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
- In one- and two-family dwellings, beams or girders spaced not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center shall be permitted to project not more than 6 inches (152 mm) below the required ceiling height.
- If any room in a building has a sloped ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height for the room is required in one-half the area thereof. Any portion of the room measuring less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor to the ceiling shall not be included in any computation of the minimum area thereof.
- The height of mezzanines and spaces below mezzanines shall be in accordance with Section 505.1.
- Corridors contained within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit in a Group R occupancy shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
- [OSHPD 1, 2 & 3] Minimum ceiling heights shall comply with Section 1224.4.10.
- [OSHPD 4] Minimum ceiling heights shall comply with Section 1227.8
[HCD 1] Unless modified by local ordinance pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 17958.1, efficiency dwelling units shall comply with the following:
- The unit shall have a living room of not less than 220 square feet (20.4 m2) of floor area. An additional 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of floor area shall be provided for each occupant of such unit in excess of two.
- The unit shall be provided with a separate closet.
- The unit shall be provided with a kitchen sink, cooking appliance and refrigeration facilities, each having a clear working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in front. Light and ventilation conforming to this code shall be provided.
- The unit shall be provided with a separate bathroom containing a water closet, lavatory and bathtub or shower.
Accessible under-floor areas shall be provided with an 18-inch by 24-inch (457 mm by 610 mm) access crawl hole. Pipes, ducts and other nonstructural construction shall not interfere with the accessibility to or within under-floor areas.
Walls and partitions within 2 feet (610 mm) of service sinks, urinals and water closets shall have a smooth, hard, nonabsorbent surface, to a height of not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) above the floor, and except for structural elements, the materials used in such walls shall be of a type that is not adversely affected by moisture.
Exception: This section does not apply to the following buildings and spaces:
- Dwelling units and sleeping units.
- Toilet rooms that are not accessible to the public and which have not more than one water closet.
Each water closet utilized by the public or employees shall occupy a separate compartment with walls or partitions and a door enclosing the fixtures to ensure privacy.
- Water closet compartments shall not be required in a single-occupant toilet room with a lockable door.
- Toilet rooms located in child day care facilities and containing two or more water closets shall be permitted to have one water closet without an enclosing compartment.
- This provision is not applicable to toilet areas located within Group I-3 occupancy housing areas.
Each urinal utilized by the public or employees shall occupy a separate area with walls or partitions to provide privacy. The walls or partitions shall begin at a height not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from and extend not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the finished floor surface. The walls or partitions shall extend from the wall surface at each side of the urinal not less than 18 inches (457 mm) or to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the outermost front lip of the urinal measured from the finished backwall surface, whichever is greater.
- Urinal partitions shall not be required in a single-occupant or family or assisted-use toilet room with a lockable door.
- Toilet rooms located in child day care facilities and containing two or more urinals shall be permitted to have one urinal without partitions.
Every extension garage door spring sold or offered for sale, whether new or as a replacement, or installed in any garage or carport which is accessory to an apartment house, hotel, motel or dwelling shall conform to the following requirements:
Hard-drawn spring wire shall conform to ASTM A227 06 (2011) or a more current version, and shall be made by the steel processes described therein, conforming to the chemical composition requirements listed and meeting the standards of steel heat as set forth by the ladle analysis. Wire tensile strength and dimension variations shall meet the prescribed properties of established standards.
Oil-tempered wire shall conform to ASTM A229-12 or a more current version, and shall be made by the steel processes described therein, conforming to the chemical composition requirements listed and meeting the standards of steel heat as set forth by the ladle analysis. Wire tensile strength and dimension variations shall meet the prescribed properties of established standards.
Extension springs shall be fabricated from either hard-drawn spring wire or oil-tempered wire as specified above.
Minimum design standard shall be 9,000 cycles. (One cycle is equal to door opening plus door closing at maximum working load.)
Mill certification of wire physical tests and chemical properties shall be kept on file by the spring manufacturer.
Physical cycling tests shall be performed for each extension spring design and shall be certified by an approved testing agency acceptable to the department and reports kept on file by the manufacturer.
Containment devices shall be physically tested for each extension spring design by installing the device on the spring and by destroying the spring at maximum recommended stretch. Containment tests shall be certified by an approved testing agency acceptable to the department and reports kept on file by the manufacturer.
Each extension spring shall be equipped with an approved device capable of restraining the spring or any part thereof in the event it breaks.
Extension springs shall be permanently identified as to manufacturer and also to indicate maximum recommended stretch. Both extension springs and containment devices shall bear information stating that they have been manufactured in accordance with requirements of the California Department of Housing and Community Development.
Installation of extension springs, containment devices and hardware shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Instructions shall be provided by the manufacturer and shall specify the approved method of restraint and maximum recommended stretch. Unless otherwise permitted by the manufacturer's installation instructions, the hardware and extension springs shall be mounted to nominal 12 by 6 framing members, conforming to the applicable provisions of Section 2303.
Finish materials, including adhesives, sealants, caulks, paints and coatings, aerosol paints and coatings, carpet systems, carpet cushion, carpet adhesive, resilient flooring systems, and composite wood products shall meet the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission limits in accordance with the California Green Building Standards Code (CALGreen), Chapter 4, Division 4.5.
The provisions of this section shall apply to general acute-care hospitals and general acute-care hospitals providing only acute medical rehabilitation center services. The provisions of Section 1225 shall apply to distinct part skilled nursing and intermediate-care services on a general acute-care hospital license, provided either in a separate unit or a freestanding building.
New buildings and additions, alterations or repairs to existing buildings subject to licensure shall comply with applicable provisions of the California Electrical Code, California Mechanical Code, California Plumbing Code, California Energy Code, California Fire Code (Parts 3, 4, 5, 6 and 9 of Title 24) and this section.
- Facilities licensed and in operation prior to the effective date of this section shall not be required to institute corrective alterations or construction to comply with any new requirements imposed thereby or subsequently, except where specifically required or where the enforcing agency determines that a definite hazard to health and safety exists. Facilities for which preliminary drawings have been submitted to the enforcing agency prior to the effective date of this change shall not be required to comply with such new requirements, provided working drawings are submitted within one year of the effective date of such new requirements.
- A change in function shall require compliance with all the functional requirements for new construction in this code, including requirements in Sections 1224, 1225, 1226, 1227 and 1228.
- The provisions of this section do not prohibit the use of alternate space utilization, new concepts of design, treatment techniques, equipment and alternate finish materials provided the intent of this section is accommodated and written approval for such alternative is granted by the enforcing agency. Written substantiating evidence in support of the alternate and a written request for consideration shall be submitted to the enforcing agency.
- Nothing in this section shall prohibit the provisions of required services from a centralized service facility serving two or more licensed facilities when approved in writing by the licensing agency. Buildings and required spaces for services provided in a separate centralized services facility shall comply with all applicable provisions of these regulations and applicable local codes and ordinances for the services so provided.
- Acute psychiatric hospitals and general acute-care hospitals providing only acute medical rehabilitation center services may provide for surgical and anesthesia services to be provided by an outside licensed facility when approved by the licensing agency.
- When the Corrections Standards Authority, the Department of Corrections or the Department of Youth Authority determines that a particular requirement for hospitals located in a correctional facility may compromise the safety, security or protection of staff, inmates or property, the enforcement agency shall consider an alternate design.
Specific terms and definitions are provided to facilitate consistency in the interpretation and application of these requirements. Some of these terms may have a broader definition in other contexts, but the definitions provided here reflect the use of the terms for OSHPD requirements.
AIR CONDITIONING. The process or system by which simultaneously the temperature, humidity, air motion and quality are maintained within required limits.
AIRBORNE INFECTION ISOLATION ROOM. A single-occupancy patient room where environmental factors are controlled in an effort to minimize the transmission of those infectious agents usually spread from person to person by droplet nuclei associated with coughing and inhalation.
AMBULATORY CARE. A defined health care encounter(s) of less than 24 hours in duration that requires direct professional health care support within a specific facility.
AMBULATORY SURGICAL FACILITY. Any surgical facility organized for the purpose of providing procedural, invasive surgical care to patients with the expectation that they will be recovered sufficiently to be discharged in less than a 24-hour period.
ANGIOGRAPHY. The radiographic visualization of blood vessels following introduction of contrast material for purposes of diagnosis.
BASIC SERVICES. Those essential services required for licensure as a hospital, including medical, nursing, surgical, anesthesia, laboratory, radiology, pharmacy, dietary services and support services. See “SUPPLEMENTAL SERVICES.”
BIOTERRORISM. The use, or threat of use, of biological agents to intimidate a political entity or population group.
CHANGE IN FUNCTION. A change in function is a change in activity, service or licensed service provided, within the project limits, that does not necessarily change the use, specific use, and/or occupancy. Conversion of a space that results in a change in activity such that the space will be required to satisfy the functional space requirements under a different code sub-section than that of the prior use is considered a change in function.
CLEAR DIMENSION. An unobstructed room dimension exclusive of built-in casework and equipment and available for functional use.
ENVIRONMENT OF CARE. Those features in a built health care entity that are created, structured, and maintained to support quality health care.
EXAM ROOM. A room with a bed, stretcher, or examination table and capability for periodic monitoring (e.g., measurement of blood pressure or pulse oximetry) in which procedures that do not require a specialized suite can be performed (e.g., pelvic examination, blood transfusion).
FLOOR AREA, CLEAR. The actual occupied area exclusive of fixed or wall-mounted cabinets, fixed beds and furnishings, built-in shelves, toilet rooms, closets, lockers, wardrobes, alcoves, anterooms or vestibules.
GENERAL ACUTE-CARE HOSPITAL. A hospital, licensed by the California Department of Public Health, having a duly constituted governing body with overall administrative and professional responsibility and an organized medical staff which provides 24-hour inpatient care, including the basic services.
HANDWASHING STATION. An area that provides a hand-washing fixture, cleansing agents and means for drying hands. Refer to the California Plumbing Code, Section 210.0 for the definition of handwashing fixture.
HOSPITAL. A general acute-care hospital, including those providing only acute medical rehabilitation center services and acute psychiatric hospitals.
HOUSEKEEPING. Services anywhere within a health care facility that include general cleaning and tidying and the provision and positioning of identified materials, e.g., soaps, towels, etc. (While routine disinfection protocols can be included in such a definition, the definition is not intended to include complex, nonroutine disinfection procedures nor the nonroutine disposition of hazardous materials such as potentially toxic drugs or other chemicals and radioactive wastes.)
LDR. Labor, Delivery, Recovery (an unlicensed patient bed)
LDRP. Labor, Delivery, Recovery, Postpartum (a licensed patient bed)
LOCATION TERMINOLOGY (terms for relationship to an area or room)
ADJACENT. Located next to but not necessarily connected to the identified area or room.
DIRECTLY ACCESSIBLE. Connected to the identified area or room through a doorway, pass-through, or other opening without going through an intervening room or public space.
IMMEDIATELY ACCESSIBLE. Available either in or adjacent to the identified area or room.
IN. Located within the identified area or room.
READILY ACCESSIBLE. Available on the same floor as the identified area or room.
MONOLITHIC. A surface free of fissures, cracks, perforations, and crevices.
MONOLITHIC CEILING. A ceiling constructed with a surface free of fissures, cracks, and crevices. Any penetrations such as lights, diffusers, and access panels shall be sealed or gasketed. Lay-in ceilings are not considered “monolithic.”
NURSING UNIT. A designated patient care area of the hospital which is planned, organized, operated and maintained to function as a unit. It includes patient rooms with adequate support facilities, services and personnel providing nursing care and necessary management of patients.
OPERATING ROOM. A room specifically designed for the performance of surgical procedures. (In common understanding, this means most types of surgical procedures, especially those involving the administration of anesthesia, multiple personnel, recovery room access, and a fully controlled environment.)
HYBRID OPERATING ROOM. A room that meets the definition of an operating room and is also equipped to enable diagnostic imaging before, during, and after surgical procedures. Imaging equipment is permanently installed in the room and may include MRI, fixed single-plane and bi-plane tomographic imaging systems, and computed tomographic equipment.
Note: Use of portable imaging technology does not make an operating room a hybrid operating room.
OUTPATIENT SERVICE. An organizational unit of the hospital, which provides nonemergency healthcare services to patients.
PATIENT CARE LOCATIONS
CUBICLE. A space intended for human occupancy that has at least one opening and no door and is enclosed on three sides with full-height or partial-height partitions.
PATIENT CARE STATION. A designated space for a specific patient care function. This term does not imply any structural requirement (e.g., a Post-anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) can have 10 patient care stations of which three are rooms, three are cubicles, and four are bays).
PATIENT ROOM. Licensed patient bed rooms.
PERIOPERATIVE. Patient care and other related supportive activities before, during or after the operative event.
PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENT. A bedded unit or patient room where severely immunosuppressed patients are cared for.
RESTRICTED AREA. A designated space with limited access eligibility. Such space has one or more of the following attributes: specific signage, physical barriers, security controls and protocols that delineate requirements for monitoring, maintenance, attire, and use. The term is often applied to specialized procedure suites, such as operating rooms and suites, interventional imaging, cardiac catheterization labs, angiography suites, etc.
ROOM. A space enclosed by hard walls and having a door. Where the word “room” or “office” is used, a separate, enclosed space for the one named function is intended. Otherwise, the described area may be a specific space in another room or common area.
SCRUB SINK. A sink used to wash and scrub the hands and arms during the aseptic preparation for surgery, and equipped with a supply spout and controls as required for a handwashing fixture. Refer to the California Plumbing Code Sections 210.0 and 221.0.
SUB-ACUTE CARE. A segment within a continuum of levels of care determined by patient acuity, clinical stability, and resource needs.
SUPPLEMENTAL SERVICE. An inpatient or outpatient service which is not required to be provided by law or regulation for licensure. A supplemental service, when provided, must accommodate the provisions of this section.
Note: See “BASIC SERVICES.”
See Section 3416A.
Spaces for dietary, laundry, morgue, ambulance entrance, receiving areas, power plants, mechanical equipment, incinerator, garbage can cleaning, automobile parking and storage areas for garbage, trash and medical gases shall be located and constructed to minimize noise, steam, odors, hazards and unsightliness in patient-care areas and bedrooms.
Radiology, laboratory, pharmacy, physical therapy and service spaces serving only outpatients and similar outpatient service departments shall not be located in nursing units, surgical units, peri-natal units, nursery areas, central sterilization rooms, food-service' areas, power plants, mechanical equipment rooms, maintenance shops, general storage, laundry, employees' dressing or housekeeping facilities.
Exception: Physical and occupational therapy spaces of a rehabilitation service may serve both outpatients and inpatients.
Identifiable spaces shall be provided for each function indicated in all Basic and applicable Supplemental Service Space sections with requirements for support areas. The following rooms and spaces are common to most types of health care facilities and the requirements associated with each, as listed below, shall be used unless modified under a specific Service Space section.
Unless specified elsewhere, if an exam room is provided, it shall have a minimum clear floor area of 80 square feet (7.4 m2), the least dimension of which shall be 8 feet (2438mm). The room shall contain a handwashing fixture and accommodations for written or electronic documentation shall be provided.
Unless specified elsewhere, if a treatment room is provided, it shall have a minimum clear floor area of 120 square feet (11.15 m2), the least dimension of which shall be 10 feet (3048 mm). A minimum of 3 feet (914 mm) is required between the sides and foot of the bed/gurney/table and any wall or other fixed obstruction. The room shall contain an examination light, a work counter for medical equipment, a handwashing fixture, cabinets, medication storage and counter space for writing or electronic documentation. Multi-bed treatment rooms shall have separate patient cubicles with a minimum clear floor area of 80 square feet (7.4 m2) per cubicle. Each cubicle shall contain an examination light, counter and storage facilities, In multi-bed treatment rooms, a hand-washing fixture shall be provided in the room for each three or fewer cubicles.
When provided, the airborne infection isolation room shall be an exam/treatment room, shall be labeled with the words “Airborne Infection Room”, and provide the following:
- Capacity. Each airborne infection isolation exam/treatment room shall contain only one examination table or recliner.
- Handwashing station. A handwashing station shall be located in each airborne infection isolation exam/treatment room.
- Gowning and storage area. An area for gowning and storage of clean and soiled materials shall be located directly outside or inside the entry door to the airborne infection isolation exam/treatment room.
- Doors. Room doors shall be self-closing and include latching devices.
- Sealed-tight room. Room perimeter walls, ceiling, floors, doors and penetration shall be sealed tightly to minimize air infiltration from the outside or from other spaces.
- Ventilation. The ventilation shall be provided as required by the California Mechanical Code for airborne infection isolation room.
An airborne infection isolation anteroom is not required; however, when an anteroom is provided, it shall meet the following requirements:
- The anteroom shall provide space for persons to don personal protective equipment before entering the patient room.
- All doors to the anteroom shall have self-closing devices.
- The anteroom shall provide storage of personal protective equipment (e.g. respirators, gowns, gloves) and clean equipment.
- Ventilation shall be provided in the anteroom as required by the California Mechanical Code for airborne infection isolation anteroom.
- Capacity. Each room shall accommodate only one patient.
- Layout and access. Seclusion rooms shall be accessed through an anteroom or vestibule that also provides access to a toilet room. The door openings to the anteroom and the toilet room shall have a minimum clear width of 3 feet 8 inches (1118 mm).
- The room(s) shall be located to permit observation from the nurse station.
- Seclusion rooms shall be permitted to be grouped together and may share a common vestibule/anteroom.
- The walls, ceiling, and floor of the seclusion room shall be designed to withstand direct and forceful impact. If padded materials are used inside the room, they shall meet the interior finish requirements in Chapter 8, Interior Finishes, of this code.
- Minimum ceiling height shall be 9 feet (2743 mm).
- Door hardware shall be ligature resistant.
- The entrance door to the seclusion room shall swing outward.
- Doors shall permit staff observation of the patient through a view panel while also maintaining provisions for patient privacy. The maximum sill height shall be 36 inches (914 mm) above the finish floor. The view panel shall be fixed glazing with polycarbonate or laminate on the inside of the glazing.
- Seclusion rooms shall not contain outside corners or edges.
- All items in the room (e.g., lighting fixtures, sprinkler heads, HVAC grilles, and surveillance cameras, etc.) shall be tamper resistant.
- Electrical switches and receptacles are prohibited in the seclusion room.
This area shall have space for counters and storage and at least one hand-washing station shall be located in, adjacent to, or directly accessible to the administrative center or nurse station. It may be combined with or include centers for reception, charting and communication.
When provided, specimen collection facilities shall comply with the following requirements:
- Use of the toilet room provided within the examination and treatment room shall be permitted for specimen collection.
Provision shall be made for distribution of medications. This shall be done from a medication preparation room or from a self-contained dispensing unit.
If provided, this room shall be directly accessible from the nursing station. When a medicine preparation room is to be used to store one or more self-contained medicine dispensing units, the room shall be designed with adequate space to prepare medicines with the self-contained medicine dispensing unit(s) present. Medicine preparation rooms shall include:
- Work counter.
- Handwashing station.
- Locked storage for controlled drugs.
If provided, a self-contained medicine dispensing unit shall be located at the nurses’ station, in the clean utility room, or in an alcove.
Nourishment areas or rooms required in patient care areas shall include the following:
- Work counter
- Storage cabinets
- Equipment for hot and cold nourishment between scheduled meals.
- The nourishment shall include space for trays and dishes used for nonscheduled meal service.
- Provisions and space shall be included for separate temporary storage of unused and soiled dietary trays not picked up at mealtime.
- Handwashing fixtures separate from the nourishment sink shall be in or adjacent to the nourishment area.
The clean work-room or clean supply room shall be separate from and have no connection with the soiled workroom or soiled holding room. If the room is used for preparing patient care items, it shall contain the following:
- Work counter
- Handwashing station
- Storage facilities for clean and sterile supplies
If the room is used only for storage and holding as part of a system for distribution of clean and sterile materials, the work counter or a handwashing station may be omitted.
The soiled work-room or soiled holding room shall be separate from and have no connection with either clean workrooms or clean supply rooms. The soiled utility/workroom shall contain:
If x-ray examinations are to be performed on outpatients, outpatient access to the radiological spaces shall not traverse a nursing unit.
STATION OUTLETS FOR OXYGEN, VACUUM (SUCTION), AND MEDICAL AIR SYSTEMS1, 6
|1||Patient rooms (medical/surgical unit)||1/bed||1/bed||—||—|
|2||Examination or treatment (medical/surgical unit and postpartum care)||1/room||1/room||—||—|
|3||Airborne infection isolation or protective environment rooms (medical/surgical unit)||1/bed||1/bed||—||—|
|4||Seclusion room (medical/surgical unit and postpartum care)||1/bed||1/bed||—||—|
|5||Intensive care (general)||3/bed||3/bed||1/bed||—|
|6||Airborne infection isolation||3/bed||3/bed||1/bed||—|
|7||Coronary-care service space||3/bed||2/bed||1/bed||—|
|8||Pediatric intensive care||3/bed||3/bed||1/bed||—|
|9||Newborn intensive care||3/bassinet||3/bassinet||3/bassinet||—|
|10||Newborn nursery (full term)||1/4 bassinets2||1/4 bassinets2||1/4 bassinets2||—|
|11||Pediatric and adolescent||1/bed||1/bed||1/bed||—|
|13||Psychiatric patient room||—||—||—||—|
|14||Seclusion treatment room (psychiatric unit)||—||—||—||—|
|15||General operating room||2/room||5/room||1/room||1/room|
|16||Cardio and special procedures||2/room||5/room||1/room||1/room|
|18||Surgical cystoscopic and other endo-urologic procedures||1/room||3/room||—||—|
|19||Post-anesthesia care unit||2/bed||3/bed||1/bed||—|
|21||Endoscopy procedure room||1/room||3/room||—||—|
|23||Cesarean operating/delivery room||2/room||4/room||1/room||1/room|
|24||Recovery space for cesarean delivery||1/bed||3/bed||1/bed||—|
|25||Infant resuscitation space4||3/bassinet||3/bassinet||3/bassinet||—|
|27||OB recovery room||1/bed||3/bed||—||—|
|30||Initial emergency management||1/bed||1/bed||1/bed||—|
|31||Triage area (definitive emergency care)||1/station||1/station||—||—|
|32||Definitive emergency care examination or treatment rooms||1/bed||1/bed||1/bed||—|
|35||Orthopedic and cast room||1/room||1/room||—||—|
|36||Cardiac catheterization lab||2/bed||2/bed||2/bed||—|
|39||Interventional imaging procedure room||2/room||2/room||1/room||—|
|40||Hyperbaric suite pre-procedure/patient holding area||2/station||2/station||—||—|
|41||Electroconvulsive therapy procedure room||1/room7||1/room7||—||—|
- For any area or room not described above, the facility clinical staff shall determine outlet requirements after consultation with the enforcing agency.
- Four bassinets may share one outlet that is accessible to each bassinet.
- WAGD stands for “waste anesthesia gas disposal” system.
- When infant resuscitation takes place in a room such as cesarean section/delivery or LDRP, then the infant resuscitation services shall be provided in that room in addition to the minimum service required for the mother.
- One outlet for mother and one for each bassinet.
- Renovation projects of existing spaces where the existing function is not changed, are not required to comply with the requirements of this table.
- Use of portable equipment shall be permitted.
The design, installation and testing of medical gas and vacuum systems shall conform to Table 118.104.22.168 and NFPA 99.
The design and construction of hospital laboratories shall conform to NFPA 99.
The location of nurse call devices shall comply with Table 122.214.171.124. The design of call systems shall comply with the California Electrical Code, Part 3 of Title 24.
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] LOCATION OF NURSE CALL DEVICES
KEY: ● Required
|AREA DESIGNATION||PATIENT STATION||BATH STATION||STAFF EMERGENCY STATION||CODE CALL STATION||NURSE MASTER STATION||DUTY STATION||NOTES|
|Nursing Unit bed location||●||1, 2, 3, 4|
|Patient showers and baths||●||2|
|Critical care bed locations, including NICU||●||●||●||1, 2, 4, 5|
|LDR/LDRP rooms||●||●||●||1, 2, 3, 4|
|Newborn and special care nurseries||●||●|
|Medication preparation room||●|
|Diagnostic and Treatment Areas|
|Psychiatric seclusion ante/exam rooms||●|
|Cesarean delivery rooms||●||2|
|Emergency exam, treatment, triage rooms||●||●||●||1, 2, 4|
|Observation unit patient station||●|
|Preoperative patient care area||●||●||1, 2|
|MRI, CT, stress testing areas||●||●||2, 4|
|Diagnostic radiology, fluoroscopy and ultrasound procedure rooms||●||2|
|Cardiac catheterization, interventional imaging, angiography||●||●|
|Nuclear medicine procedure room||●||2|
|Endoscopy procedure room||●||2|
|Electroconvulsive therapy procedure room||●|
- One device shall be permitted to accommodate both patient station and emergency staff assistance station functionality.
- A visible signal shall be activated in the corridor at the patient’s door, at the nurse/control station, and at all duty stations. In multicorridor nursing units, additional visible signals shall be installed at corridor intersections.
- Two-way voice communication shall be provided with the nurse/control station.
- One device shall be permitted to accommodate both emergency staff assistance and code call station functionality.
- A patient station shall not be required in the NICU.
The minimum width of corridors and hallways shall be 8 feet (2438 mm).
Exception: Patient-care corridors and hallways in hospitals for psychiatric care of patients who are not bedridden shall have a minimum clear and unobstructed width of 6 feet (1829 mm). For the purposes of this section, bedridden patients shall be defined as patients confined to beds who would be transported or evacuated in beds or litters.
Outpatient clinics or outpatient departments which contain facilities for out-patient use only, such as laboratory, x-ray, physical therapy or occupational therapy, shall have a minimum corridor or hallway width of 5 feet (1524 mm). Outpatient clinics and outpatient departments consisting only of waiting rooms, business offices, doctor's offices, and examining rooms, where there is no traffic through such area to other services or to exits from the building, shall have a minimum corridor or hallway width of 44 inches (1118 mm).
Pocket sliding doors are not permitted.
Exception: Administration and business areas.
Rooms approved for the housing of patients shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings excluding clerestory windows, obscure glass and skylights, with an area not less than one tenth of the total floor area.
Patient room windows shall have sills not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. If operable windows are provided that require the use of tools or keys for operation, the tools or keys shall be located at the nurses’ station.
Exception: Window sills in intensive-care units may be 60 inches (1524 mm) above the floor.
If operable windows are provided in airborne infection isolation or protective environment rooms, they shall only be operable by the use of tools or keys which shall be located at the nurses’ station.
Safety glass or plastic glazing materials shall be used in windows in psychiatric patient areas.
Windows which may be frequently left in an open position shall be provided with insect screens of 16 meshes to the inch.
All portions of a building used by patients, personnel or other persons shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system as specified in the California Electrical Code and the California Mechanical Code.
The minimum height of ceilings shall be 8 feet (2438 mm).
Exception: Closet, toilet room and bathroom minimum ceiling heights shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
Operating rooms, emergency rooms, delivery rooms, radiographic rooms and other rooms containing ceiling-mounted, major fixed equipment or ceiling-mounted surgical light fixtures shall have ceiling heights to accommodate the equipment or fixtures and their normal movement. Suspended tracks, rails and pipes located in the traffic path for patients in beds and/or on stretchers, including those in inpatient service areas, shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the floor.
Exception: Mobile suspended tracks such as traverse rails for overhead patient lifts that may be moved out of the traffic path shall provide a clearance of not less than 6 feet, 8 inches (2032mm) above the floor when in use.
ACCEPTABLE CEILING AND CARPET LOCATIONS
|AREAS/ROOMS3,4||GENERAL ACUTE CARE HOSPITAL CEILING/CARPET||ACUTE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL CEILING/ CARPET||SKILLED NURSING AND INTERMEDIATE-CARE FACILITIES CEILING/CARPET||CLINIC CEILING/ CARPET|
|Airborne infection isolation rooms||2||N||2||N||2||N||2||N|
|Protective environment rooms||1||N||1||N||1||N||-||-|
|Nurses’ or administration station||3||Y||3||Y||3||Y||3||Y|
|Central sterile supply||2||N||2||N||2||N||2||N|
|Morgue and autopsy||3||N||—||—||—||—||—||—|
|General storage rooms||3||N||3||N||3||N||3||N|
|Dietary day storage||2||N||2||N||2||N||—||—|
|Labor rooms, LDRP and LDR||3||N||—||—||—||—||—||—|
|Speech pathology and audiology||3||Y||3||Y||3||Y||3||Y|
1 – Continuous monolithic surface equal in smoothness to enamel plaster.
2 – Smooth and easily cleanable without perforations or fissures.
3 – Pin perforated, fine fissured, or lightly textured.
4 – Any finish meeting code requirements.
Yes = Y
No = N
* Upon approval by the licensing agency with adequate maintenance procedure. However, should the carpet not be maintained adequately, the licensing agency has the right to have it removed and replaced with another acceptable material.
- Carpet permitted in mammography.
- Except those rooms specified otherwise.
- For rooms not listed, contact the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD).
- Table applies to new construction, additions, remodels, and conversions. The patching and replacement of existing materials will be permitted.
- Lay-in ceiling meeting the requirements of Section 1126.96.36.199.1.7 may be substituted in laundry and kitchens
Floor finishes shall be smooth, waterproof and durable. Flooring surfaces shall provide smooth transitions between different floor materials. Slip-resistant flooring products shall be used for flooring surfaces in wet areas (e.g., kitchens, shower and bath areas), ramps, stairways, entries from exterior to interior space, and other areas as determined by the functional program. Joints for floor openings for pipes, ducts and conduits shall be tightly sealed. Joints of structural elements shall be similarly sealed.
In all areas subject to frequent wet-cleaning methods, flooring materials shall not be physically affected by germicidal or other types of cleaning solutions.
These rooms and anterooms shall have seamless flooring with integral coved base.
The material and textures of bases and the installation thereof shall be such as to minimize dust-catching surfaces, moisture, infiltration and the harboring of vermin.
Exception: In locations where carpet is permitted as a floor finish material, the use of carpeted base (coved or strip base) up to a maximum height of 5 inches (127 mm) is also permissible.
- Operating rooms
- Interventional imaging rooms, including cardiac catheterization labs
- Cesarean delivery rooms
- Cystoscopy, urology, and minor surgical procedure rooms
- Endoscopy procedure rooms
- Endoscopy instrument processing rooms
- IV and chemotherapy preparation rooms
- Airborne infection isolation (AII) rooms
- Protective environment (PE) rooms
- Anterooms to AII and PE rooms, where provided
- Cast rooms
Wall finishes shall comply with the following requirements:
- Wall finishes shall be washable. In the vicinity of plumbing fixtures, wall finishes shall be smooth, scrubbable and water-resistant.
- Wall finishes in areas such as operating rooms, delivery rooms and trauma rooms shall be monolithic, scrubbable and able to withstand cleaning with chemicals.
- Wall finishes in operating rooms, cesarean delivery rooms, isolation rooms and sterile processing rooms shall be free of fissures, open joints or crevices that may retain or permit passage of dirt particles.
- Wall finishes in areas such as clean corridors, central sterile supply spaces, specialized radiographic rooms and minor surgical procedure rooms shall be washable, smooth and able to withstand cleaning with chemicals.
- Wall areas penetrated by pipes, ducts and conduits shall be tightly sealed to minimize entry of rodents and insects. Joints of structural elements shall be similarly sealed.
- Wall finish requirements of Section 1188.8.131.52 do not apply to boiler rooms, mechanical equipment rooms, administration departments, other offices, enclosed stairways, maintenance shops and similar spaces.
Dietary and food preparation areas shall comply with the following requirements:
- In dietary and food preparation areas, wall construction, finish, and trim, including the joints between the walls and the floors, shall be free of spaces that can harbor insects and rodents.
- Wall surfaces in wet areas (e.g., kitchens, environmental services closets) shall be monolithic and all seams shall be covered and/or sealed.
Ceilings in areas occupied by patients and the public shall be cleanable with the use of routine housekeeping equipment. Acoustic and lay-in ceiling, where used, shall not create ledges or crevices.
Ceiling finishes shall comply with Table 1224.4.11 and the following requirements:
- Ceiling finishes in semirestricted areas such as airborne infection isolation exam/treatment rooms, surgical corridors, central sterile supply spaces and minor surgical procedure rooms, shall be nonabsorptive, nonperforated, capable of withstanding cleaning with chemicals, and without crevices that can harbor mold and bacterial growth.
- If a lay-in ceiling is provided in semi-restricted areas, it shall be gasketed or each ceiling tile shall weigh at least one pound per square foot to prevent the passage of particles from the cavity above the ceiling plane into the semirestricted environment. Perforated, tegular, serrated cut or highly textured tiles are not acceptable.
- 3. Ceilings in restricted areas shall be monolithic with no cracks or perforations.
- 4. Ceilings in restricted areas shall be scrubbable and able to withstand cleaning and/ or disinfecting chemicals.
- 5. All access openings in restricted area ceilings shall be gasketed.
Dietary and laundry areas:
- 6. Provide either a sealed monolithic and scrubbable gypsum board ceiling or a layin ceiling.
- A rust-free grid.
- Ceiling tiles that weigh at least one pound per square foot and are smooth, scrubbable, nonabsorptive, nonperforated and able to withstand cleaning with chemicals.
- 8. Ceiling finish requirements of Section 1184.108.40.206.1 do not apply to boiler rooms, mechanical equipment rooms, administration departments, other offices, enclosed stairways, maintenance shops and similar spaces.
At least one patient elevator and one service elevator shall be provided in hospitals with a capacity of from 60 to 149 beds on floors other than the main entrance floor.
Rooms or screening enclosures shall be provided for the washing and cleaning of garbage containers and for the storage of garbage, trash and other solid wastes. Such rooms or screening enclosures shall include the following:
- A concrete floor with a curb and with a drain connected to the sewer.
- Steam or hot-water and cold-water supply.
- A minimum floor area of 1/2 square foot (0.046 m2) per bed, but not less than 25 square feet (2.3 m2), the least dimension of which shall be 4 feet (1219 mm).
- A method of limiting access to the material except by authorized persons.
Gravity-type laundry and trash chutes shall have a minimum diameter of 2 feet (610 mm) and shall be designed to prevent distribution of airborne contaminating elements to all floors served.
Each floor accommodating patients shall have a telephone installed for patient use. Such telephones shall be readily accessible to patients who are limited to wheel chairs and stretchers. This may not be required in separate buildings having six or fewer beds which are restricted to occupancy by ambulatory patients.
SOUND TRANSMISSION LIMITATIONS IN HOSPITALS
|NEW CONSTRUCTION||AIRBORNE SOUND TRANSMISSION CLASS (STC)1|
|Patient room to patient room||45||40|
|Public space to patient room3||55||40|
|Service areas to patient room4||65||45|
|Patient room access corridor5||45||45|
|Exam room to exam room||45|
|Exam room to public space||45|
|Toilet room to public space||45|
|Consultation rooms/conference rooms to public space||45|
|Consultation rooms/conference rooms to patient rooms||45|
|Staff lounges to patient rooms||45|
- Sound Transmission Class (STC) shall be determined by tests in accordance with methods set forth in ASTM 90 and ASTM 413. Where partitions do not extend to the structure above, sound transmission through ceilings and composite STC performance shall be considered.
- Treatment rooms shall be treated the same as patient rooms.
- Public space includes corridors (except patient room access corridors), lobbies, dining rooms, recreation rooms, and similar space.
- Service areas for the purposes of this table include kitchens, elevators, elevator machine rooms, laundries, garages, maintenance rooms, boiler and mechanical equipment rooms, and similar spaces of high noise. Mechanical equipment located on the same floor or above patient rooms, offices, nurses stations, and similar occupied space shall be effectively isolated from the floor.
- Patient room access corridors contain composite walls with doors/ windows and have direct access to patient rooms.
- Renovation projects of existing spaces where the existing function is not changed, are not required to comply with the requirements of Table 1224.5.
Recreation rooms, exercise rooms, equipment rooms and similar spaces where impact noises may be generated, shall not be located directly over patient bed areas or delivery and operating suites, unless special provisions are made to minimize such noise.