|Portable fire extinguishers||NFPA 10|
|Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system||NFPA 12|
|Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systems||NFPA 12A|
|Dry-chemical extinguishing systems||NFPA 17|
|Wet-chemical extinguishing systems||NFPA 17A|
|Water-based fire protection systems||NFPA 25|
|Fire alarm systems||NFPA 72|
|Mechanical smoke exhaust systems||NFPA 204|
|Smoke and heat vents||NFPA 204|
|Water-mist systems||NFPA 750|
|Clean-agent extinguishing systems||NFPA 2001|
Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with at least one approved means for notification of the fire department and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires.
- The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.
- The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.
- Recommendations have been submitted to management or building owner/manager.
- The fire department has been notified.
- The insurance carrier, the alarm company, building owner/manager, and other authorities having jurisdiction have been notified.
- The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified.
- A tag impairment system has been implemented.
- Necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.
- Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational.
- Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored.
- The fire department has been advised that protection is restored.
- The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm company and other involved parties have been advised that protection is restored.
- The impairment tag has been removed.
- ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
- ALARM SIGNAL.
- ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE.
- AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
- AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
- AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM.
- AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM.
- AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL.
- CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
- CLEAN AGENT.
- CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION.
- DELUGE SYSTEM.
- DETECTOR, HEAT.
- DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.
- ELEVATOR GROUP.
- EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM.
- EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.
- FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.
- FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT.
- FIRE ALARM SIGNAL.
- FIRE ALARM SYSTEM.
- [B] FIRE AREA.
- FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC.
- FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.
- FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS.
- FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO).
- FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
- HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
- IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR.
- INITIATING DEVICE.
- MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX.
- MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE.
- MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.
- NOTIFICATION ZONE.
- NUISANCE ALARM.
- RECORD DRAWINGS.
- SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.
- SLEEPING UNIT.
- SMOKE ALARM.
- SMOKE DETECTOR.
- STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF.
- Class I system.
- Class II system.
- Class III system.
- STANDPIPE, TYPES OF.
- Automatic dry.
- Automatic wet.
- Manual dry.
- Manual wet.
- Semiautomatic dry.
- SUPERVISING STATION.
- SUPERVISORY SERVICE.
- SUPERVISORY SIGNAL.
- SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE.
- TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF.
- TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT.
- TROUBLE SIGNAL.
- VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
- WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.
- WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM.
- ZONE, NOTIFICATION.
- Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.
- One or more care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility.
- A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
- A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
- The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
- A Group F-1 occupancy used for the manufacture of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).
|Fabrication areas||Ordinary Hazard Group 2|
|Service corridors||Ordinary Hazard Group 2|
|Storage rooms without dispensing||Ordinary Hazard Group 2|
|Storage rooms with dispensing||Extra Hazard Group 2|
|Corridors||Ordinary Hazard Group 2|
- An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group I-1 facilities.
- An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be allowed in Group I-1 facilities when in compliance with all of the following:
- An automatic sprinkler system is not required where day care facilities are at the level of exit discharge and where every room where care is provided has at least one exterior exit door.
- In buildings where Group I-4 day care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be installed on the entire floor where care is provided and all floors between the level of care and the level of exit discharge, all floors below the level of exit discharge, other than areas classified as an open parking garage.
- A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
- A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
- The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
- A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
- A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
- A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
- The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
- A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
- A Group S-1 occupancy used for the storage of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).
- Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).
- Buildings no more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
- Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.
- A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
- Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2); or
- Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.
- Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
- Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The height of the bottom of the clear opening shall not exceed 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor.
- Airport control towers.
- Open parking structures.
- Occupancies in Group F-2.
|914.2.1||Covered and open mall buildings|
|914.3.1||High rise buildings|
|914.7.1||Special amusement buildings|
|914.8.2, 914.8.5||Aircraft hangars|
|914.11.1||Ambulatory care facilities|
|1028.6.2.3||Smoke-protected assembly seating|
|1103.5.1||Pyroxylin plastic storage in existing buildings|
|1103.5.2||Existing Group I-2 occupancies|
|2108.2||Dry cleaning plants|
|2108.3||Dry cleaning machines|
|2309.3.2.6.2||Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies|
|2404.2||Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R|
|2404.4||Spray booths and spray rooms|
|2405.2||Dip-tank rooms in Group A, I or R|
|2405.9.4||Hardening and tempering tanks|
|2703.10.1.1||HPM work station exhaust|
|2703.10.2||HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures|
|2703.10.3||HPM exit access corridor|
|2703.10.4||HPM exhaust ducts|
|2703.10.4.1||HPM noncombustible ducts|
|2703.10.4.2||HPM combustible ducts|
|2807.3||Lumber production conveyor enclosures|
|2808.7||Recycling facility conveyor enclosures|
|3006.1||Class A and B ovens|
|3006.2||Class C and D ovens|
|Table 3206.2||Storage fire protection|
|5004.5||Indoor storage of hazardous materials|
|5005.1.8||Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials|
|5106.3.2||Aerosol display and merchandising areas|
|5204.5||Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose combustible fibers|
|5306.2.1||Exterior medical gas storage room|
|5306.2.2||Interior medical gas storage room|
|5306.2.3||Medical gas storage cabinet|
|5606.5.2.1||Storage of smokeless propellant|
|5606.5.2.3||Storage of small arms primers|
|5704.3.7.5.1||Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms|
|5704.3.8.4||Flammable and combustible liquid storage warehouses|
|5705.3.7.3||Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or H-3 areas|
|6004.1.2||Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas|
|6004.1.3||Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas|
|6004.2.2.6||Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas|
|6004.3.3||Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas|
|6504.1.1||Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets|
|6504.1.3||Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults|
|6504.2||Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing|
- Any room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.
- Any room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, when approved by the fire code official.
- Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
- Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.
- Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.
- Machine rooms and machinery spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code.
- Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with the International Building Code.
- Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.
- Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I-1 and R occupancies.
- Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.
- Valves shall not be installed between the domestic water riser control valve and the sprinklers.
Exception: An approved indicating control valve supervised in the open position in accordance with Section 903.4.
- The domestic service shall be capable of supplying the simultaneous domestic demand and the sprinkler demand required to be hydraulically calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13D or NFPA 13R.
- Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
- Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.
- Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.
- Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
- Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
- Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
- Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.
- Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.
- Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.
- Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.
- Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.
- Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.
- Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.
- Identification of devices with proper designations.
- Operating instructions.
- For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon ( 6 L) capacity.
- For every additional group of four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one additional Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon (6 L) capacity shall be provided.
- For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet (0.55 m2) in surface area: Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with the extinguisher manufacturer's recommendations.
- Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
- Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
- Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.
- Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
- In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider:
- Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less, and
- Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.
- Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.
- At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways opening directly on the mall.
- At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building
- At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.
- At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.
- In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate floor level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.
- On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.
- In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.
Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.
- In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.
- Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of a stairway with stair access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1009.16.
- Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.
- Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.
- Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.
- Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.
- Approved locking arrangements.
- Group I-3 occupancies.
- Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.
- Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.
- In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.
Exception: In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C.
- Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.
- In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.
- On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1.
- Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1.
- Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.
|309.4||Powered industrial trucks|
|2005.2||Aircraft towing vehicles|
|2005.3||Aircraft welding apparatus|
|2005.4||Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles|
|2005.5||Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles|
|2005.6||Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations|
|2007.7||Heliports and helistops|
|2108.4||Dry cleaning plants|
|2305.5||Motor fuel-dispensing facilities|
|2310.6.4||Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities|
|2809.5||Exterior lumber storage|
|3104.12||Tents and membrane structures|
|3315.1||Buildings under construction or demolition|
|3504.2.6||Welding and other hot work|
|5703.2.1||Flammable and combustible liquids, general|
|5704.3.3.1||Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids|
|5704.3.7.5.2||Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids|
|5705.4.9||Solvent distillation units|
|5706.2.7||Farms and construction sites—flammable and |
combustible liquids storage
|5706.4.10.1||Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and |
|5706.5.4.5||Commercial, industrial, governmental or |
manufacturing establishments—fuel dispensing
|5706.6.4||Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids|
- The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.
- Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met:
- Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.
- Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.
- The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.
- Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every three years when extinguisher maintenance is performed.
- A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10.
- In Group I-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.
|Maximum floor area
per unit of A
|Maximum floor area
distance to extinguisher
|75 feet||75 feet||75 feet|
- Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
- Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.
- Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.
|TYPE OF HAZARD||BASIC MINIMUM
- For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.
- Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.
- In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.
- A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.
- Locations of alarm-initiating devices.
- Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.
- Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.
- Power connection.
- Battery calculations.
- Conductor type and sizes.
- Voltage drop calculations.
- Manufacturers' data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.
- Details of ceiling height and construction.
- The interface of fire safety control functions.
- Classification of the supervising station.
- Project name and address. Owner's name, address and phone number.
- Contractor name, address, phone number, license number, license classification and license limit.
- Occupancy classification for building and each area, including occupant load.
- Fire alarm circuit classification (power-limited),
- Class/style designation of all initiating device circuit (IDC), signaling circuits (SLC) and notification appliance circuits (NAC).
- Conductor type and size.
- Sequence of operation input/output matrix, as required by NFPA 72.
- Symbol legend with equipment description (manufacturer's name and model number) and mounting description (surface, semi-flush, flush, and exterior).
- When required by the fire code official, symbols used on the shop drawings shall follow NFPA 170.
- Site plan.
- Floor plan drawn to an indicated scale (1/8 inch
minimum) on sheets of a uniform size showing:
- Point of compass (north arrow).
- Key plans.
- Walls, doors, windows, stairs, elevators, high piled storage racks, etc., as needed to indicate all conditions and requirements.
- Room use identification labels.
- Alarm initiating device, notification appliance, and auxiliary controlled or monitored equipment and systems, control and annunciation equipment location(s).
- Conductor/conduit routing and size.
- Location of end-of-line resistors.
- Device address.
- Notification appliance numbering by circuit and device corresponding to the riser and/or one-line diagrams.
- Power panels and circuits connections.
- Ceiling heights and construction (i.e., beam, joist, soffit or projection extending below the ceiling when a ceiling-mounted device and/or appliance is used).
- Mounting height detail for wall-mounted device and/or appliance.
- Riser diagram including the following information:
- Standardized calculations:
- Battery (all panels).
- Load (all notification appliance and auxiliary circuits).
- Voltage drop (all notification appliance circuits, including remote annunciators and auxiliary appliances).
- Project data submittal including a cover index sheet listing products used by make and model number, manufacturer data sheets and listing information for all equipment, devices, materials, wire and cable.
- Design number and detail of penetration fire stop system where required.
- Any additional information determined necessary by the fire code official.
A minimum of one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or water-flow detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire alarm box shall be installed.
- The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and supervisory service.
- The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the public.
- A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 30 or less.
- Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:
- Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the emergency voice/alarm communication system will activate on sprinkler water flow and manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.
- On the ceiling or wall outside of each child care room used for sleeping (in the immediate vicinity of the room).
- In each child care room used for sleeping.
- Manual fire alarm boxes in sleeping units of Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all care providers' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.
- Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official.
- Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where such units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at the care provider station attending each unit.
- Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
- Other approved smoke detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, including, but not limited to, placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective guards listed for the purpose, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering.
- Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as described in Section 308 of the International Building Code.
- Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping units with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
- The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons.
- The Group M occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
- A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered or open mall buildings complying with Section 402 of the International Building Code.
- Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
- A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
- Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when the following conditions are met:
- Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge;
- Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit; or
- The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.
- A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
- Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler water flow.
- A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1026.6, Exception 4.
- Common spaces outside of dwelling units and sleeping units.
- Laundry rooms, mechanical equipment rooms, and storage rooms.
- All interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units.
- A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
- Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when the following conditions are met:
- Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits where located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.
- Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
- An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
- In sleeping areas.
- In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.
- In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
- On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.
- In each room used for sleeping purposes.
- In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
- Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface level;
- Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions;
- Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency; and
- Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound which is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.
- Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 907.2.22 and Section 412 of the International Building Code.
- Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5 of the International Building Code.
- Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1 of the International Building Code.
- Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1 of the International Building Code.
- Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415 of the International Building Code.
- In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.
- In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room which is not provided with sprinkler protection.
- In each elevator machine room and in elevator lobbies.
- In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
- At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.
- Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.
- Elevator lobbies.
- The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
- Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air inlet openings.
- The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building's alarm notification appliances.
- In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble.
- Visible alarm notification appliances shall be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appliances in critical care areas of Group I-2 occupancies.
- Where provided, audible notification appliances located in each occupant evacuation elevator lobby in accordance with Section 3008.10.1 of the International Building Code shall be connected to a separate notification zone for manual paging only.
- Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.
- Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Chapter 2.
- Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.
- A calibrated test method;
- The manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument;
- Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose;
- A smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control unit where the detector's sensitivity is outside its acceptable sensitivity range; or
- Another calibrated sensitivity test method acceptable to the fire code official.
- Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recalibrated or they shall be replaced.
- This requirement shall not apply to single-station smoke alarms.
- The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more than one story above or below any story which contains a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage;
- The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts to any room containing a fuel-burning appliance or to an attached garage; and
- The building is equipped with a common area carbon monoxide alarm system.
- Walls: A/Aw= 0.00100
- Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw = 0.00035
- Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150
- Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050
|A||=||Total leakage area, square feet (m2).|
|AF||=||Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).|
|Aw||=||Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).|
The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be included in calculating the total leakage area.
- Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
- Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.
- In Group I-2, where such doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 722.214.171.124 of the International Building Code. Positive-latching devices are not required.
- Group I-3.
- Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.
|F = Fdc + K(WAΔP)/2(W - d)||(Equation 9-1)|
|A||=||Door area, square feet (m2).|
|d||=||Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).|
|F||=||Total door opening force, pounds (N).|
|Fdc||=||Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).|
|K||=||Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).|
|W||=||Door width, feet (m).|
|ΔP||=||Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).|
|ν= 217.2 [h(Tf - To)/(Tf + 460)]1/2||(Equation 9-2)|
|h||=||Height of opening, feet (m).|
|Tf||=||Temperature of smoke, °F (K).|
|To||=||Temperature of ambient air, °F (K).|
|ν||=||Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute).|
|Ts = (Qc/mc) + (Ta)||(Equation 9-3)|
|c||=||Specific heat of smoke at smokelayer temperature, |
Btu/lb°F • (kJ/kg • K).
|m||=||Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).|
|Qc||=||Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).|
|Ta||=||Ambient temperature, °F (K).|
|Ts||=||Smoke temperature, °F (K).|
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from measurement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.
Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.
Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report.
- Tubing shall comply with the requirements of Section 602.2.1.3 of the International Mechanical Code.
- Tubing and the connected device shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No.22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suitable brass compression to male-barbed adapter.
- Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.
- Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or moveable device shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status—WHITE.
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status—RED.
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status—GREEN.
- Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status—YELLOW/AMBER.
- ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can also be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.
- OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are also controlled from other sources within the building.
- ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire-fighter's control panel.
- ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter's control panel, no automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices), such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire-fighter's control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire-fighter's control panel switch position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.
Exception: Power disconnects required by NFPA 70.
- Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire-fighter's control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire-fighter's control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described above. When directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.
- During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.
- Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.
- Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of Class I and II commodities where protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.
- Where areas of buildings are equipped with early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, automatic smoke and heat vents shall not be required within these areas.
AND COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION
|DESIGNATED STORAGE HEIGHT (feet)||MINIMUM DRAFT CURTAIN DEPTH (feet)||MAXIMUM AREA FORMED BY DRAFT CURTAINS
|MAXIMUM SPACING OF VENT CENTERS
|MAXIMUM DISTANCE FROM VENTS TO WALL OR DRAFT CURTAINb
|Group F-1 and S-1||—||0.2 × Hd but ≥ 4||50,000||1:100||120||60|
(see Section 910.2.2 ) Class I-IV Commodities (Option 1)
|> 20 ≤ 40||6||8,000||1:75||100||55|
(see Section 910.2.2 ) Class I-IV Commodities (Option 2)
|> 20 ≤ 40||4||3,000||1:50||100||50|
(see Section 910.2.2 ) High-hazard Commodities (Option 1)
|> 20 ≤ 30||6||6,000||1:40||90||45|
(see Section 910.2.2 ) High-hazard Commodities (Option 2)
|> 20 ≤ 30||4||2,000||1:30||75||40|
- Additional requirements for rack storage heights in excess of those indicated shall be in accordance with Chapter 32. For solid-piled storage heights in excess of those indicated, an approved engineered design shall be used.
- Vents adjacent to walls or draft curtains shall be located within a horizontal distance not greater than the maximum distance specified in this column as measured perpendicular to the wall or draft curtain that forms the perimeter of the draft curtained area.
- Where draft curtains are not required, the vent area to floor area ratio shall be calculated based on a minimum draft curtain depth of 6 feet (Option 1).
- "H" is the height of the vent, in feet, above the floor.
|C = A × 300||(Equation 9-4)|
|C||=||Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in cubic feet per minute (m3/s).|
|A||=||Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m2) in accordance with Table 910.3.|
- Where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as identified in Table 911.1.
- Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in Table 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 5003.1.1(1).
Such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagration) venting, explosion (deflagration) prevention systems, or barricades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69, or NFPA 495 as applicable. Deflagration venting shall not be utilized as a means to protect buildings from detonation hazards.
|MATERIAL||CLASS||EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS|
|Explosion (deflagration) venting or explosion (deflagration) prevention systems|
|Combustible dustsa||—||Not required||Required|
|Cryogenic fluids||Flammable||Not required||Required|
|Organic peroxides||Unclassified detonable
|Oxidizer liquids and solids||4||Required||Not permitted|
|Water-reactive liquids and solids||3
|Acetylene generator rooms||—||Not required||Required|
|Grain processing||—||Not required||Required|
|Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilities||—||Not required||Required|
|Where explosion hazards existd||Detonation
- Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of Combustible Dust in Chapter 22.
- Storage or use.
- In open use or dispensing.
- Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
- Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure of 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa). The minimum internal design pressure shall not be less than five times the maximum internal relief pressure specified in Section 911.2, Item 5.
- Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior walls and roofs.
- Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unacceptable structural damage. Where relieving a deflagration, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening injuries to the occupants or other persons on the property or adjacent public ways.
- The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices shall be governed by the pressure resistance of the construction assemblies specified in Item 1 of this section and the maximum internal pressure allowed by Item 5 of this section.
- Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance with the International Building Code. Vents shall consist of any one or any combination of the following to relieve at a maximum internal pressure of 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), but not less than the loads required by the International Building Code:
- Exterior walls designed to release outward.
- Hatch covers.
- Outward swinging doors.
- Roofs designed to uplift.
- Venting devices listed for the purpose.
- Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs of the building when venting a deflagration shall discharge directly to the exterior of the building where an unoccupied space not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in width is provided between the exterior walls of the building and the lot line.
Exception: Vents complying with Item 7 of this section.
- Vents designed to remain attached to the building when venting a deflagration shall be so located that the discharge opening shall not be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) vertically from window openings and exits in the building and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits in the building, from window openings and exits in adjacent buildings on the same lot, and from the lot line.
- Discharge from vents shall not be into the interior of the building.