UpCodes logo
Table of contentsContents
This article covers general requirements, applications, and construction specifications for flexible cords and flexible cables.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall comply with this article and with the applicable provisions of other articles of this Code.
Flexible cords and cables and their associated fittings shall be suitable for the conditions of use and location.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall conform to the description in Table 400.4. The use of flexible cords and flexible cables other than those in Table 400.4 shall require permission by the authority having jurisdiction.
Table 400.4 Flexible Cords and Cables (See 400.4.)
Trade
Name
Type Letter Voltage AWG or kcmil Number of
Conductors
Insulation AWG or kcmil Nominal Insulation Thickness Braid on
Each
Conductor
Outer
Covering
Use
mm mils
Lamp
cord
C 300 18-16 2 or
more
Thermoset or
thermoplastic
18-16 0.76 30 Cotton None Pendant
or portable
Dry
locations
Not
hard
usage
600 15-10 15-10 1.14 45
Elevator
cable
E1,2,3,4 300 or
600
20-2 2 or more Thermoset 20-16 0.51 20 Cotton Three cotton;
outer one
flame-retardant
& moisture-resistant
Elevator
lighting
and
control
Unclassified
locations
15-12 0.76 30
12-10 1.14 45
8-2 1.52 60
20-16 0.51 20 Flexible
nylon
jacket
15-12 0.76 30
12-10 1.14 45
8-2 1.52 60
Elevator
cable
EO1,2,4 300 or
600
20-2 2 or more Thermoset 20-16 0.51 20 Cotton Three cotton;
outer one
flame-retardant
& moisture-resistant
Elevator
lighting
and
control
Unclassified
locations
15-12 0.76 30 One cotton
and a neoprene
jacket.
Hazardous
(classified)
locations
Elevator
cable
ETP2,4 300 or
600
12-10 1.14 45 Rayon Thermoplastic Hazardous
(classified)
locations
ETT2,4 300 or
600
8-2 1.52 60 None One cotton
or equivalent
and a thermoplastic
jacket
Electric
vehicle
cable
EV5,6 600 18-500 2 or more
plus grounding
conductor(s),
plus optional
hybrid data,
signal
communications
and optical
fiber cables
Thermoset with
optional nylon
18-15
14-10
8-2
1-4/0
250-500
0.76
(0.51)
1.14
(0.76)
1.52
(1.14)
2.03
(1.52)
2.41
(1.90)
30
(20)
45
(30)
60
(45)
80
(60)
95
(75)
Optional Oil-resistant
thermoset
Electric
vehicle
charging
Wet
locations
Extra-hard
usage
EVJ5,6 300 18-12 18-12 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Hard
usage
EVE5,6 600 18-500 2 or more
plus grounding
conductor(s),
plus optional
hybrid data,
signal
communications
and optical
fiber cables
Thermoplastic
elastomer with
optional nylon
18-15
14-10
8-2
1-4/0
250-500
0.76
(0.51)
1.14
(0.76)
1.52
(1.14)
2.03
(1.52)
2.41
(1.90)
30
(20)
45
(30)
60
(45)
80
(60)
95
(75)
Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Extra-hard
usage
EVJE5,6 300 18-12 18-12 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Hard
usage
EVT5,6 600 18-500 2 or more
plus grounding
conductor(s),
plus optional
hybrid data,
signal
communications
and optical
fiber
cables
Thermoplastic
with optional
nylon
18-15
14-10
8-2
1-4/0
250-500
0.76
(0.51)
1.14
(0.76)
1.52
(1.14)
2.03
(1.52)
2.41
(1.90)
30
(20)
45
(30)
60
(45)
80
(60)
95
(75)
Optional Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Electric
vehicle
charging
Wet
locations
Extra-hard
usage
EVJT5,6 300 18-12 18-12 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Hard
usage
Portable
power
cord
G 2000 12-500 2-6 plus
grounding
conductor(s)
Thermoset 12-2
1-4/0
250-500
1.52
2.03
2.41
60
80
95
Oil-resistant
thermoset
Portable and extra-hard usage
G-GC7 2000 12-500 3-6 plus
grounding
conductors
and 1
ground
check
conductor
Thermoset 12-2
1-4/0
250-500
1.52
2.03
2.41
60
80
95
Oil-resistant
thermoset
Heater
cord
HPD 300 18-12 2, 3, or 4 Thermoset 18-16
15-12
0.38
0.76
15
30
None Cotton or
rayon
Portable
heaters
Dry locations Not hard
usage
Parallel
Heater
cord
HPN8 300 18-12 2 or 3 Oil-resistant
thermoset
18-16
15
14
12
1.14
1.52
2.41
45
60
95
None Oil-resistant
thermoset
Portable Damp locations Not hard
usage
Thermoset
jacketed
heater
cords
HSJ 300 18-12 2, 3 or 4 Thermoset 18-16
15-12
0.76
1.14
30
45
None Cotton and
thermoset
Portable or
portable
heater
Damp locations Hard
usage
HSJO 300 18-12 Cotton and
oil-resistant
thermoset
Damp and
wet locations
HSJOW9 300 18-12 Damp locations
HSJOO 300 18-12 Oil-resistant
thermoset
HSJOOW9 300 18-12 Damp and
wet locations
Non-integral
parallel cords
NISP-1 300 20-18 2 or 3 Thermoset 20-18 0.38 15 None Thermoset Pendant
or portable
Damp locations Not hard
usage
NISP-2 300 18-16 18-16 0.76 30
NISPE-18 300 20-18 Thermoplastic
elastomer
20-18 0.38 15 Thermoplastic
elastomer
NISPE-28 300 18-16 18-16 0.76 30
NISPT-18 300 20-18 Thermoplastic 20-18 0.38 15 Thermoplastic
NISPT-28 300 18-16 18-16 0.76 30
Twisted
portable
cord
PD 300
600
18-16
14-10
2 or more Thermoset or
thermoplastic
18-16
15-10
0.76
1.14
30
45
Cotton Cotton or
rayon
Pendant
or portable
Dry locations Not hard
usage
Portable
power
cord
PPE7 2000 12-500 1-6 plus
optional
grounding
conductor(s)
Thermoset
elastomer
12-2
1-4/0
250-500
1.52
2.03
2.41
60
80
95
Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Portable, extra-hard usage
Hard
service
cord
S7 600 18-2 2 or more Thermoset 18-15
14-10
8-2
0.76
1.14
1.52
30
45
60
None Thermoset Pendant
or portable
Damp locations Extra-hard
usage
Flexible stage
and lighting
power cords
SC7,10 600 8-250 1 or more Thermoset 8-2
1-4/0
250
1.52
2.03
2.41
60
80
95
Thermoset Portable, extra-hard usage
SCE7,10 600 Thermoplastic
elastomer
Thermoplastic
elastomer
SCT7,10 600 Thermoplastic Thermoplastic
Hard
service cord
SE7 600 18-2 2 or more Thermoplastic
elastomer
18-15
14-9
8-2
0.76
1.14
1.52
30
45
60
None Thermo
plastic
elastomer
Pendant
or portable
Damp location Extra-hard
usage
SEW7,9 600 Damp and
wet locations
SEO7 600 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Damp and
locations
SEOW7,9 600 Damp and
wet locations
SEOO7 600 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Damp and
locations
SEOOW7,9 600 Damp and
wet locations
Junior
hard service
cord
SJ 300 18-10 2-6 Thermoset 18-11
10
0.76
1.14
30
45
None Thermoset Pendant
or portable
Damp location Extra-hard
usage
SJE 300 Thermoplastic
elastomer
Thermoplastic
elastomer
SJEW9 300 Damp and
wet locations
SJEO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Damp locations
SJEOW9 300 Damp and
wet locations
SJEOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
Damp
locations
SJEOOW9 300 Damp and wet locations
SJO 300 Thermoset Oil-resistant
thermoset
Damp locations
SJOW9 300 Damp and
wet locations
SJOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoset
Damp locations
SJOOW9 300 Damp and
wet locations
SJT 300 Thermoplastic Thermoplastic Damp locations
SJTW9 300 Damp and wet locations
SJTO 300 18-12
10
0.76
1.14
30
45
Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Damp locations
SJTOW9 300 Damp and
wet locations
SJTOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Damp locations
SJTOOW9 300 Damp and
wet locations
Hard
service cord
SO7 600 18-2 2 or more Thermoset 18-15 0.76 30 None Oil-resistant
Thermoset
Pendant
or portable
Damp location Extra-hard
usage
SOW7,9 600 Damp and wet locations
SOO7 600 Oil-resistant
thermoset
14-9
8-2
1.14
1.52
45
60
Damp locations
SOOW7,9 600 Damp and wet locations
All thermoset
parallel cord
SP-1 300 20-18 2 or 3 Thermoset 20-18 0.76 30 None None Pendant or
portable
Damp location Not hard
usage
SP-2 300 18-16 18-16 1.14 45
SP-3 300 18-10 18-16
15,14
12
10
1.52
2.03
2.41
2.80
60
80
95
110
Refrigerators,
room air
conditioners,
and as
permitted
in 422.16(B)
All elastomer
(thermoplastic)
parallel cord
SPE-18 300 20-18 2 or 3 Thermoplastic
elastomer
20-18 0.76 30 None None Pendant
or portable
Damp location Not hard
usage
SPE-28 300 18-16 18-16 1.14 45
SPE-38 300 18-10 18-16
15
14
12
10
1.52
2.03
2.41
2.80
60
80
95
110
Refrigerators,
room air
conditioners,
and as
permitted
in 422.16(B)
All
thermoplastic
parallel cord
SPT-1 300 20-18 2 or 3 Thermoplastic 20-18 0.76 30 None None Pendant or
portable
Damp location Not hard
usage
SPT-1W9 300 2 Damp and
wet locations
SPT-2 300 18-16 2 or 3 18-16 1.14 45 Damp and locations
SPT-2W9 300 2 Damp and
wet locations
SPT-3 300 18-10 2 or 3 18-16
15
14
12
10
1.52
2.03
2.41
2.80
60
80
95
110
Refrigerators,
room air
conditioners,
and as
permitted
in 422.16(B)
Damp locations Not hard
usage
Range,
dryer cord
SRD 300 10-4 3 or 4 Thermoset 10-4 1.14 45 None Thermoset Portable Damp location Range,
dryer
SRDE 300 10-4 3 or 4 Thermoplastic
elastomer
None Thermoplastic
elastomer
SRDT 300 10-4 3 or 4 Thermoplastic None Thermoplastic
Hard
service cord
ST7 600 18-2 2 or more Thermoplastic 18-15
14-9
8-2
0.76
1.14
1.52
30
45
60
None Thermoplastic Pendant or
portable
Damp location Extra-hard
usage
STW7,9 600 Damp and
wet locations
STO7 600 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Damp locations
STWO7,9 600 Damp and
wet locations
STOO7 600 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Damp locations
STOOW7 600 Damp and
wet locations
Vacuum
cleaner cord
SV 300 18-16 2 or 3 Thermoset 18-16 0.38 15 None Thermoset Pendant or
portable
Damp location Not hard
usage
SVE 300 Thermoplastic
elastomer
Thermoplastic
elastomer
SVEO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
SVEOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
elastomer
SVO 300 Thermoset Oil-resistant
thermoset
SVOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoset
Oil-resistant
thermoset
SVT 300 Thermoplastic Thermoplastic
SVTO 300 Thermoplastic Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
SVTOO 300 Oil-resistant
thermoplastic
Parallel
tinsel cord
TPT11 300 27 2 Thermoplastic 27 0.76 30 None Thermoplastic Attached to
an appliance
Damp locations Not hard
usage
Jacketed
tinsel cord
TST11 300 27 2 Thermoplastic 27 0.38 15 None Thermoplastic Attached to
an appliance
Damp locations Not hard
usage
Portable
power cable
W7 2000 12-500
501-1000
1-6
1
Thermoset 12-2
1-4/0
250-500
501-1000
1.52
2.03
2.41
2.80
60
80
95
110
Oil-resistant
thermoset
Portable, extra-hard usage
Notes:
All types listed in Table 400.4 shall have individual conductors twisted together, except for Types HPN, SP-1, SP-2, SP-3, SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-2, SPT-3, SPT-1W, SPT-2W, TPT, NISP-1, NISP-2, NISPT-1. NISPT-2, NISPE-1, NISPE-2, and three-conductor parallel versions of SRD, SRDE, and SRDT.
The individual conductors of all cords, except those of heat-resistant cords, shall have a thermoset or thermoplastic insulation, except that the equipment grounding conductor, where used, shall be in accordance with 400.23(B).
1Rubber-filled or varnished cambric tapes shall be permitted as a substitute for the inner braids.
2Elevator traveling cables for operating control and signal circuits shall contain nonmetallic fillers as necessary to maintain concentricity. Cables shall have steel supporting members as required for suspension by 620.41. In locations subject to excessive moisture or corrosive vapors or gases, supporting members of other materials shall be permitted. Where steel supporting members are used, they shall run straight through the center of the cable assembly and shall not be cabled with the copper strands of any conductor.
In addition to conductors used for control and signaling circuits, Types E, EO, ETP, and ETT elevator cables shall be permitted to incorporate in the construction one or more 20 AWG telephone conductor pairs, one or more coaxial cables, or one or more optical fibers. The 20 AWG conductor pairs shall be permitted to be covered with suitable shielding for telephone, audio, or higher frequency communications circuits; the coaxial cables consist of a center conductor, insulation, and a shield for use in video or other radio frequency communications circuits. The optical fiber shall be suitably covered with flame-retardant thermoplastic. The insulation of the conductors shall be rubber or thermoplastic of a thickness not less than specified for the other conductors of the particular type of cable. Metallic shields shall have their own protective covering. Where used, these components shall be permitted to be incorporated in any layer of the cable assembly but shall not run straight through the center.
3Insulations and outer coverings that meet the requirements as flame retardant, limited smoke, and are so listed, shall be permitted to be marked for limited smoke after the Code type designation.
4Elevator cables in sizes 20 AWG through 14 AWG are rated 300 volts, and sizes 10 AWG through 2 AWG are rated 600 volts. 12 AWG is rated 300 volts with a 0.76 mm (30 mil) insulation thickness and 600 volts with a 1.14 mm (45 mil) insulation thickness.
5Conductor size for Types EV, EVJ, EVE, EVJE, EVT, and EVJT cables apply to nonpower-limited circuits only. Conductors of power-limited (data, signal, or communications) circuits may extend beyond the stated AWG size range. All conductors shall be insulated for the same cable voltage rating.
6Insulation thickness for Types EV, EVJ, EVEJE, EVT, and EVJT cables of nylon construction is indicated in parentheses.
7Types G, G-GC, S, SC, SCE, SCT, SE, SEO, SEOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SO, SOO, SOW, SOOW, ST, STO, STOO, STW, STOW, STOOW, PPE, and W shall be permitted for use on theater stages, in garages, and elsewhere where flexible cords are permitted by this Code.
8The third conductor in Type HPN shall be used as an equipment grounding conductor only. The insulation of the equipment grounding conductor for Types SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-2, SPT-3, NISPT-1, NISPT-2, NISPE-1, and NISPE-2 shall be permitted to be thermoset polymer.
9Cords that comply with the requirements for outdoor cords and are so listed shall be permitted to be designated as weather and water resistant with the suffix "W" after the Code type designation. Cords with the "W" suffix are suitable for use in wet locations and are sunlight resistant.
10The required outer covering on some single-conductor cables may be integral with the insulation.
11Types TPT and TST shall be permitted in lengths not exceeding 2.5 m (8 ft) where attached directly, or by means of a special type of plug, to a portable appliance rated at 50 watts or less and of such nature that extreme flexibility of the cord is essential.
Table 400.5(A)(1) provides the allowable ampacities, and Table 400.5(A)(2) provides the ampacities for flexible cords and cables with not more than three current-carrying conductors. These tables shall be used in conjunction with applicable end-use product standards to ensure selection of the proper size and type. Where cords and cables are used in ambient temperatures other than 30°C (86°F), the temperature correction factors from Table 310.15(B)(2)(a) that correspond to the temperature rating of the cord or cable shall be applied to the ampacity in Table 400.5(A)(1) and Table 400.5(A)(2). Cords and cables rated 105°C shall use correction factors in the 90°C column of Table 310.15(B)(2)(a) for temperature correction. Where the number of current-carrying conductors exceeds three, the allowable ampacity or the ampacity of each conductor shall be reduced from the three-conductor rating as shown in Table 400.5(A)(3).
Informational Note: See Informative Annex B, Table B.310.15(B)(2)(11), for adjustment factors for more than three current-carrying conductors in a raceway or cable with load diversity.
A neutral conductor that carries only the unbalanced current from other conductors of the same circuit shall not be required to meet the requirements of a current-carrying conductor.
In a 3-wire circuit consisting of two phase conductors and the neutral conductor of a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye-connected system, a common conductor carries approximately the same current as the line-to-neutral currents of the other conductors and shall be considered to be a current-carrying conductor.
On a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye circuit where more than 50 percent of the load consists of nonlinear loads, there are harmonic currents present in the neutral conductor and the neutral conductor shall be considered to be a current-carrying conductor.
An equipment grounding conductor shall not be considered a current-carrying conductor.
Where a single conductor is used for both equipment grounding and to carry unbalanced current from other conductors, as provided for in 250.140 for electric ranges and electric clothes dryers, it shall not be considered as a current-carrying conductor.

Table 400.5(A)(1) Allowable Ampacity for Flexible Cords and Cables [Based on Ambient Temperature of 30°C (86°F). See 400.13 and Table 400.4.
Copper Conductor Size (AWG) Thermoplastic Types TPT, TST Thermoset Types C, E, EO, PD, S, SJ, SJO, SJOW, SJOO, SJOOW, SO, SOW, SOO, SOOW, SP-1, SP-2, SP-3, SRD, SV, SVO, SVOO, NISP-1, NISP-2 Types HPD, HPN, HSJ, HSJO, HSJOW, HSJOO, HSJOOW
Thermoplastic Types ETP, ETT, NISPE-1, NISPE-2, NISPT-1,
NISPT-2, SE, SEW, SEO, SEOO, SEOW, SEOOW, SJE, SJEW, SJEO, SJEOO, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJT, SJTW, SJTO, SJTOW, SJTOO,
SJTOOW, SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-1W, SPT-2, SPT-2W, SPT-3, ST, STW, SRDE, SRDT, STO, STOW, STOO, STOOW, SVE, SVEO, SVEOO, SVT, SVTO, SVTOO
    Column Aa Column Bb  
27c 0.5
20 5d e
18 7 10 10
17 9 12 13
16 10 13 15
15 12 16 17
14 15 18 20
13 17 21
12 20 25 30
11 23 27
10 25 30 35
9 29 34
8 35 40
6 45 55
4 60 70
2 80 95
aThe allowable currents under Column A apply to three-conductor cords and other multiconductor cords connected to utilization equipment so that only three-conductors are current-carrying.
bThe allowable currents under Column B apply to two-conductor cords and other multiconductor cords connected to utilization equipment so that only two conductors are current-carrying.
cTinsel cord.
dElevator cables only.
e7amperes for elevator cables only; 2 amperes for other types.
Table 400.5(A)(2) Ampacity of Cable Types SC, SCE, SCT, PPE, G, G-GC, and W. [Based on Ambient Temperature of 30°C (86°F). See Table 400.4.]
Copper Conductor Size (AWG or kcmil) Temperature Rating of Cable
60°C (140°F) 75°C (167°F) 90°C (194°F)
D1 E2 F3 D1 E2 F3 D1 E2 F3
12 31 26 37 31 42 35
10 44 37 52 43 59 49
8 60 55 48 70 65 57 80 74 65
6 80 72 63 95 88 77 105 99 87
4 105 96 84 125 115 101 140 130 114
3 120 113 99 145 135 118 165 152 133
2 140 128 112 170 152 133 190 174 152
1 165 150 131 195 178 156 220 202 177
1/0 195 173 151 230 207 181 260 234 205
2/0 225 199 174 265 238 208 300 271 237
3/0 260 230 201 310 275 241 350 313 274
4/0 300 265 232 360 317 277 405 361 316
250 340 296 259 405 354 310 455 402 352
300 375 330 289 445 395 346 505 449 393
350 420 363 318 505 435 381 570 495 433
400 455 392 343 545 469 410 615 535 468
500 515 448 392 620 537 470 700 613 536
600 575 690 780
700 630 755 855
750 655 785 885
800 680 815 920
900 730 870 985
1000 780 935 1055
1The ampacities under subheading D shall be permitted for single-conductor Types SC, SCE, SCT, PPE, and W cable only where the individual conductors are not installed in raceways and are not in physical contact with each other except in lengths not to exceed 600 mm (24 in.) where passing through the wall of an enclosure.
2The ampacities under subheading E apply to two-conductor cables and other multiconductor cables connected to utilization equipment so that only two conductors are current-carrying.
3The ampacities under subheading F apply to three-conductor cables and other multiconductor cables connected to utilization equipment so that only three conductors are current-carrying.
Table 400.5(A)(3) Adjustment Factors for More Than Three Current-Carrying Conductors in a Flexible Cord or Cable
Number of Conductors Percent of Value in Table 400.5(A)(1)
and Table 400.5(A)(2)
4-6 80
7-9 70
10-20 50
21-30 45
31-10 40
41 and above 35
In no case shall conductors be associated together in such a way with respect to the kind of circuit, the wiring method used, or the number of conductors such that the limiting temperature of the conductors is exceeded.
Under engineering supervision, conductor ampacities shall be permitted to be calculated in accordance with 310.15(C).
Flexible cords and cables shall be marked by means of a printed tag attached to the coil reel or carton. The tag shall contain the information required in 310.120(A). Types S, SC, SCE, SCT, SE, SEO, SEOO, SJ, SJE, SJEO, SJEOO, SJO, SJT, SJTO, SJTOO, SO, SOO, ST, STO, STOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SJEW, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJOW, SJTW, SJTOW, SJTOOW, SOW, SOOW, STW, STOW, and STOOW flexible cords and G, G-GC, PPE, and W flexible cables shall be durably marked on the surface at intervals not exceeding 610 mm (24 in.) with the type designation, size, and number of conductors. Required markings on tags, cords, and cables shall also include the maximum operating temperature of the flexible cord or cable.
Flexible cords and cable types listed in Table 400.4 shall be permitted to be surface marked to indicate special characteristics of the cable materials. These markings include, but are not limited to, markings for limited smoke, sunlight resistance, and so forth.
Flexible cords and cables shall be used only for the following:
  1. Pendants.
  2. Wiring of luminaires.
  3. Connection of portable luminaires, portable and mobile signs, or appliances.
  4. Elevator cables.
  5. Wiring of cranes and hoists.
  6. Connection of utilization equipment to facilitate frequent interchange.
  7. Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration.
  8. Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connections are specifically designed to permit ready removal for maintenance and repair, and the appliance is intended or identified for flexible cord connection.
  9. Connection of moving parts.
  10. Where specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code.
  11. Between an existing receptacle outlet and an inlet, where the inlet provides power to an additional single receptacle outlet. The wiring interconnecting the inlet to the single receptacle outlet shall be a Chapter 3 wiring method. The inlet, receptacle outlet, and Chapter 3 wiring method, including the flexible cord and fittings, shall be a listed assembly specific for this application.
Where used as permitted in 400.7(A)(3), (A)(6), and (A)(8), each flexible cord shall be equipped with an attachment plug and shall be energized from a receptacle outlet or cord connector body.
Exception: As permitted in 368.56.
Unless specifically permitted in 400.7, flexible cords and cables shall not be used for the following:
  1. As a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure
  2. Where run through holes in walls, structural ceilings, suspended ceilings, dropped ceilings, or floors
  3. Where run through doorways, windows, or similar openings
  4. Where attached to building surfaces
    Exception to (4): Flexible cord and cable shall be permitted to be attached to building surfaces in accordance with the provisions of 368.56(B)
  5. Where concealed by walls, floors, or ceilings or located above suspended or dropped ceilings
  6. Where installed in raceways, except as otherwise permitted in this Code
  7. Where subject to physical damage
Flexible cord shall be used only in continuous lengths without splice or tap where initially installed in applications permitted by 400.7(A). The repair of hard-service cord and junior hard-service cord (see Trade Name column in Table 400.4) 14 AWG and larger shall be permitted if conductors are spliced in accordance with 110.14(B) and the completed splice retains the insulation, outer sheath properties, and usage characteristics of the cord being spliced.
Flexible cords and cables shall be connected to devices and to fittings so that tension is not transmitted to joints or terminals.
Exception: Listed portable single-pole devices that are intended to accommodate such tension at their terminals shall be permitted to be used with single-conductor flexible cable.
Informational Note: Some methods of preventing pull on a cord from being transmitted to joints or terminals include knotting the cord, winding with tape, and using support or strain-relief fittings.
Flexible cords used in show windows and showcases shall be Types S, SE, SEO, SEOO, SJ, SJE, SJEO, SJEOO, SJO, SJOO, SJT, SJTO, SJTOO, SO, SOO, ST, STO, STOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SJEW, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJOW, SJOOW, SJTW, SJTOW, SJTOOW, SOW, SOOW, STW, STOW, or STOOW.
Exception No. 1: For the wiring of chain-supported luminaires.
Exception No. 2: As supply cords for portable luminaires and other merchandise being displayed or exhibited.
Flexible cords not smaller than 18 AWG, and tinsel cords or cords having equivalent characteristics of smaller size approved for use with specific appliances, shall be considered as protected against overcurrent in accordance with 240.5.
Flexible cords and cables shall be protected by bushings or fittings where passing through holes in covers, outlet boxes, or similar enclosures.
In industrial establishments where the conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons service the installation, flexible cords and cables shall be permitted to be installed in aboveground raceways that are no longer than 15 m (50 ft) to protect the flexible cord or cable from physical damage. Where more than three current-carrying conductors are installed within the raceway, the allowable ampacity shall be reduced in accordance with Table 400.5(A)(3).
Flexible cords shall be examined and tested at the factory and labeled before shipment.
The individual conductors of a flexible cord or cable shall have flexible stranding and shall not be smaller than the sizes specified in Table 400.4.
The nominal thickness of insulation for conductors of flexible cords and cables shall not be less than specified in Table 400.4.
One conductor of flexible cords that is intended to be used as a grounded circuit conductor shall have a continuous marker that readily distinguishes it from the other conductor or conductors. The identification shall consist of one of the methods indicated in 400.22(A) through (F).
A braid finished to show a white or gray color and the braid on the other conductor or conductors finished to show a readily distinguishable solid color or colors.
A tracer in a braid of any color contrasting with that of the braid and no tracer in the braid of the other conductor or conductors. No tracer shall be used in the braid of any conductor of a flexible cord that contains a conductor having a braid finished to show white or gray.
Exception: In the case of Types C and PD and cords having the braids on the individual conductors finished to show white or gray. In such cords, the identifying marker shall be permitted to consist of the solid white or gray finish on one conductor, provided there is a colored tracer in the braid of each other conductor.
A white or gray insulation on one conductor and insulation of a readily distinguishable color or colors on the other conductor or conductors for cords having no braids on the individual conductors.
For jacketed cords furnished with appliances, one conductor having its insulation colored light blue, with the other conductors having their insulation of a readily distinguishable color other than white or gray.
Exception: Cords that have insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
The insulation shall be permitted to be covered with an outer finish to provide the desired color.
A white or gray separator on one conductor and a separator of a readily distinguishable solid color on the other conductor or conductors of cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
One conductor having the individual strands tinned and the other conductor or conductors having the individual strands untinned for cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
One or more ridges, grooves, or white stripes located on the exterior of the cord so as to identify one conductor for cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
A conductor intended to be used as an equipment grounding conductor shall have a continuous identifying marker readily distinguishing it from the other conductor or conductors. Conductors having a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes shall not be used for other than equipment grounding conductors. Cords or cables consisting of integral insulation and a jacket without a nonintegral grounding conductor shall be permitted to be green. The identifying marker shall consist of one of the methods in 400.23(A) or (B).
A braid finished to show a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes.
For cords having no braids on the individual conductors, an insulation of a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes.
Where a flexible cord is provided with an equipment grounding conductor and equipped with an attachment plug, the attachment plug shall comply with 250.138(A) and (B).
Part III applies to single and multiconductor portable cables used to connect mobile equipment and machinery.
The conductors shall be 12 AWG copper or larger and shall employ flexible stranding.
An equipment grounding conductor(s) shall be provided in cables with three or more conductors. The total area shall not be less than that of the size of the equipment grounding conductor required in 250.122.
All shields shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor.
Equipment grounding conductors shall be connected in accordance with Parts VI and VII of Article 250.
The minimum bending radii for portable cables during installation and handling in service shall be adequate to prevent damage to the cable.
Connectors used to connect lengths of cable in a run shall be of a type that locks firmly together. Provisions shall be made to prevent opening or closing these connectors while energized. Suitable means shall be used to eliminate tension at connectors and terminations.
Portable cables shall not contain splices unless the splices are of the permanent molded, vulcanized types in accordance with 110.14(B). Terminations on portable cables rated over 600 volts, nominal, shall be accessible only to authorized and qualified personnel.
This article covers general requirements and construction specifications for fixture wires.
Fixture wires shall comply with this article and also with the applicable provisions of other articles of this Code.
Informational Note: For application in luminaires, see Article 410.
Fixture wires shall be of a type listed in Table 402.3, and they shall comply with all requirements of that table. The fixture wires listed in Table 402.3 are all suitable for service at 600 volts, nominal, unless otherwise specified.
Informational Note: Thermoplastic insulation may stiffen at temperatures colder than -10°C (+14°F), requiring that care be exercised during installation at such temperatures. Thermoplastic insulation may also be deformed at normal temperatures where subjected to pressure, requiring that care be exercised during installation and at points of support.
Table 402.3 Fixture Wires
Name Type Letter Insulation AWG Thickness of Insulation Outer Covering Maximum Operating Temperature Application Provisions
mm mils
Heat-resistant rubber- covered fixture wire — flexible stranding FFH-2 Heat-resistant rubber 18-16 0.76 30 Nonmetallic covering 75°C
167°F
Fixture wiring
Cross-linked synthetic polymer 18-16 0.76 30
ECTFE — solid or 7-strand HF Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene 18-14 0.38 15 None 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring
ECTFE — flexible stranding HFF Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene 18-14 0.38 15 None 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring
Tape insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand KF-1 Aromatic polyimide tape 18-10 0.14 5.5 None 200°C
392°F
Fixture wiring— limited to 300 volts
KF-2 Aromatic polyimide tape 18-10 0.21 8.4 None 200°C
392°F
Fixture wiring
Tape insulated fixture wire — flexible stranding KFF-1 Aromatic polyimide tape 18-10 0.14 5.5 None 200°C
392°F
Fixture wiring— limited to 300 volts
KFF-2 Aromatic polyimide tape 18-10 0.21 8.4 None 200°C
392°F
Fixture wiring
Perfluoroalkoxy— solid or 7-strand (nickel or nickel-coated copper) PAF Perfluoroalkoxy 18-14 0.51 20 None 250°C
482°F
Fixture wiring (nickel or nickel-coated copper)
Perfluoro-alkoxy — flexible stranding PAFF Perfluoroalkoxy 18-14 0.51 20 None 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire —solid or 7-strand PF Fluorinated ethylene propylene 18-14 0.51 20 None 200°C
392°F
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — flexible stranding PFF Fluorinated ethylene propylene 18-14 0.51 20 None 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — solid or 7-strand PGF Fluorinated ethylene propylene 18-14 0.36 14 Glass braid 200°C
392°F
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — flexible stranding PGFF Fluorinated ethylene propylene 18-14 0.36 14 Glass braid 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring
Extruded polytetrafluoroethylene — solid or 7-strand (nickel or nickel-coated copper) PTF Extruded polytetrafluoroethylene 18-14 0.51 20 None 250°C
482°F
Fixture wiring (nickel or nickel-coated copper)
Extruded polytetrafluoroethylene — flexible stranding 26-36 (AWG silver or nickelcoated copper) PTFF Extruded polytetrafluoroethylene 18-14 0.51 20 None 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring (silver or nickel-coated copper)
Heat-resistant rubber- covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand RFH-1 Heat-resistant rubber 18 0.38 15 Nonmetallic covering 75°C
167°F
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
RFH-2 Heat-resistant rubber Cross-linked synthetic polymer 18-16 0.76 30 None or non-metallic covering 75°C
167°F
Fixture wiring
Heat-resistant cross-linked synthetic polymer-insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand RFHH-2* Cross-linked synthetic polymer 18-16 0.76 30 None or non-metallic covering 90°C
194°F
Fixture wiring
RFHH-3*   18-16 1.14 45      
Silicone insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand SF-1 Silicone rubber 18 0.38 15 Nonmetallic covering 200°C
392°F
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
SF-2 Silicone rubber 18-12
10
0.76
1.14
30
45
Nonmetallic covering 200°C
392°F
Fixture wiring
Silicone insulated fixture wire —flexible stranding SFF-1 Silicone rubber 18 0.38 15 Nonmetallic covering 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
SF-2 Silicone rubber 18-12
10
0.76
1.14
30
45
Nonmetallic covering 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring
Thermoplastic covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand TF* Thermoplastic 18-16 0.76 30 None 60°C
140°F
Fixture wiring
Thermoplastic covered fixture wire — flexible stranding TFF* Thermoplastic 18-16 0.76 30 None 60°C
140°F
Fixture wiring
Heat-resistant thermoplastic covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand TFN* Thermoplastic 18-16 0.38 15 Nylon jacketed or equivalent 90°C
194°F
Fixture wiring
Heat-resistant thermoplastic covered fixture wire — flexible stranded TFFN* Thermoplastic 18-16 0.38 15 Nylon jacketed or equivalent 90°C
194°F
Fixture wiring
Cross-linked polyolefin insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand XF* Cross-linked polyolefin 18-14
12-10
0.76
1.14
30
45
None 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
Cross-linked polyolefin insulated fixture wire — flexible stranded XFF* Cross-linked polyolefin 18-14
12-10
0.76
1.14
30
45
None 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
Modified ETFE — solid or 7-strand ZF Modified ethylene tetrafluoroethylene 18-14 0.38 15 None 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring
Flexible stranding ZFF Modified ethylene tetrafluoroethylene 18-14 0.38 15 None 150°C
302°F
Fixture wiring
High temp. modified ETFE— solid or 7-strand ZHF Modified ethylene tetrafluoroethylene 18-14 0.38 15 None 200°C
392°F
Fixture wiring
*Insulations and outer coverings that meet the requirements of flame retardant, limited smoke, and are so listed, shall be permitted to be marked for limited smoke after the Code type designation.
The allowable ampacity of fixture wire shall be as specified in Table 402.5.
No conductor shall be used under such conditions that its operating temperature exceeds the temperature specified in Table 402.3 for the type of insulation involved.
Informational Note: See 310.15(A)(3) for temperature limitation of conductors.
Table 402.5 Allowable Ampacity for Fixture Wires
Size (AWG) Allowable Ampacity
18 6
16 8
14 17
12 23
10 28
Fixture wires shall not be smaller than 18 AWG.
The number of fixture wires permitted in a single conduit or tubing shall not exceed the percentage fill specified in Table 1, Chapter 9.
Fixture wires that are intended to be used as grounded conductors shall be identified by one or more continuous white stripes on other than green insulation or by the means described in 400.22(A) through (E).
Thermoplastic insulated fixture wire shall be durably marked on the surface at intervals not exceeding 610 mm (24 in.). All other fixture wire shall be marked by means of a printed tag attached to the coil, reel, or carton.
Fixture wire types listed in Table 402.3 shall be permitted to be surface marked to indicate special characteristics of the cable materials. These markings include, but are not limited to, markings for limited smoke, sunlight resistance, and so forth.
Fixture wires shall be permitted (1) for installation in luminaires and in similar equipment where enclosed or protected and not subject to bending or twisting in use, or (2) for connecting luminaires to the branch-circuit conductors supplying the luminaires.
Fixture wires shall not be used as branch-circuit conductors except as permitted elsewhere in this Code.
Overcurrent protection for fixture wires shall be as specified in 240.5.
The provisions of this article apply to all switches, switching devices, and circuit breakers used as switches operating at 1000 volts and below, unless specifically referenced elsewhere in this Code for higher voltages.
Three-way and four-way switches shall be wired so that all switching is done only in the ungrounded circuit conductor. Where in metal raceways or metal-armored cables, wiring between switches and outlets shall be in accordance with 300.20(A).
Exception: Switch loops shall not require a grounded conductor.
Switches or circuit breakers shall not disconnect the grounded conductor of a circuit.
Exception: A switch or circuit breaker shall be permitted to disconnect a grounded circuit conductor where all circuit conductors are disconnected simultaneously, or where the device is arranged so that the grounded conductor cannot be disconnected until all the ungrounded conductors of the circuit have been disconnected.
The grounded circuit conductor for the controlled lighting circuit shall be provided at the location where switches control lighting loads that are supplied by a grounded general-purpose branch circuit for other than the following:
  1. Where conductors enter the box enclosing the switch through a raceway, provided that the raceway is large enough for all contained conductors, including a grounded conductor
  2. Where the box enclosing the switch is accessible for the installation of an additional or replacement cable without removing finish materials
  3. Where snap switches with integral enclosures comply with 300.15(E)
  4. Where a switch does not serve a habitable room or bathroom
  5. Where multiple switch locations control the same lighting load such that the entire floor area of the room or space is visible from the single or combined switch locations
  6. Where lighting in the area is controlled by automatic means
  7. Where a switch controls a receptacle load
Informational Note: The provision for a (future) grounded conductor is to complete a circuit path for electronic lighting control devices.
Switches and circuit breakers shall be of the externally operable type mounted in an enclosure listed for the intended use. The minimum wire-bending space at terminals and minimum gutter space provided in switch enclosures shall be as required in 312.6.
Exception No. 1: Pendant- and surface-type snap switches and knife switches mounted on an open-face switchboard or panelboard shall be permitted without enclosures.
Exception No. 2: Switches and circuit breakers installed in accordance with 110.27(A)(1), (A)(2), (A)(3), or (A)(4) shall be permitted without enclosures.
Enclosures shall not be used as junction boxes, auxiliary gutters, or raceways for conductors feeding through or tapping off to other switches or overcurrent devices, unless the enclosure complies with 312.8.
A surface-mounted switch or circuit breaker shall be enclosed in a weatherproof enclosure or cabinet that shall comply with 312.2.
A flush-mounted switch or circuit breaker shall be equipped with a weatherproof cover.
Switches shall not be installed within tubs or shower spaces unless installed as part of a listed tub or shower assembly.
Time switches, flashers, and similar devices shall be of the enclosed type or shall be mounted in cabinets or boxes or equipment enclosures. Energized parts shall be barriered to prevent operator exposure when making manual adjustments or switching.
Exception: Devices mounted so they are accessible only to qualified persons shall be permitted without barriers, provided they are located within an enclosure such that any energized parts within 152 mm (6.0 in.) of the manual adjustment or switch are covered by suitable barriers.
Single-throw knife switches shall be placed so that gravity will not tend to close them. Single-throw knife switches, approved for use in the inverted position, shall be provided with an integral mechanical means that ensures that the blades remain in the open position when so set.
Double-throw knife switches shall be permitted to be mounted so that the throw is either vertical or horizontal. Where the throw is vertical, integral mechanical means shall be provided to hold the blades in the open position when so set.
Single-throw knife switches and switches with butt contacts shall be connected such that their blades are de-energized when the switch is in the open position. Bolted pressure contact switches shall have barriers that prevent inadvertent contact with energized blades. Single-throw knife switches, bolted pressure contact switches, molded case switches, switches with butt contacts, and circuit breakers used as switches shall be connected so that the terminals supplying the load are de-energized when the switch is in the open position.
Exception: The blades and terminals supplying the load of a switch shall be permitted to be energized when the switch is in the open position where the switch is connected to circuits or equipment inherently capable of providing a backfeed source of power. For such installations, a permanent sign shall be installed on the switch enclosure or immediately adjacent to open switches with the following words or equivalent: WARNING — LOAD SIDE TERMINALS MAY BE ENERGIZED BY BACKFEED. The warning sign or label shall comply with 110.21(B).
General-use and motor-circuit switches, circuit breakers, and molded case switches, where mounted in an enclosure as described in 404.3, shall clearly indicate whether they are in the open (off) or closed (on) position.
Where these switch or circuit breaker handles are operated vertically rather than rotationally or horizontally, the up position of the handle shall be the closed (on) position.
Exception No. 1: Vertically operated double-throw switches shall be permitted to be in the closed (on) position with the handle in either the up or down position.
Exception No. 2: On busway installations, tap switches employing a center-pivoting handle shall be permitted to be open or closed with either end of the handle in the up or down position. The switch position shall be clearly indicating and shall be visible from the floor or from the usual point of operation.
All switches and circuit breakers used as switches shall be located so that they may be operated from a readily accessible place. They shall be installed such that the center of the grip of the operating handle of the switch or circuit breaker, when in its highest position, is not more than 2.0 m (6 ft 7 in.) above the floor or working platform.
Exception No. 1: On busway installations, fused switches and circuit breakers shall be permitted to be located at the same level as the busway. Suitable means shall be provided to operate the handle of the device from the floor.
Exception No. 2: Switches and circuit breakers installed adjacent to motors, appliances, or other equipment that they supply shall be permitted to be located higher than 2.0 m (6 ft 7 in.) and to be accessible by portable means.
Exception No. 3: Hookstick operable isolating switches shall be permitted at greater heights.
A snap switch shall not be grouped or ganged in enclosures with other snap switches, receptacles, or similar devices, unless they are arranged so that the voltage between adjacent devices does not exceed 300 volts, or unless they are installed in enclosures equipped with identified, securely installed barriers between adjacent devices.
A multipole, general-use snap switch shall not be permitted to be fed from more than a single circuit unless it is listed and marked as a two- circuit or three-circuit switch.
Informational Note: See 210.7 for disconnect requirements where more than one circuit supplies a switch.
Faceplates provided for snap switches mounted in boxes and other enclosures shall be installed so as to completely cover the opening and, where the switch is flush mounted, seat against the finished surface.
Snap switches, including dimmer and similar control switches, shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor and shall provide a means to connect metal faceplates to the equipment grounding conductor, whether or not a metal faceplate is installed. Snap switches shall be considered to be part of an effective ground-fault current path if either of the following conditions is met:
  1. The switch is mounted with metal screws to a metal box or metal cover that is connected to an equipment grounding conductor or to a nonmetallic box with integral means for connecting to an equipment grounding conductor.
  2. An equipment grounding conductor or equipment bonding jumper is connected to an equipment grounding termination of the snap switch.
Exception No. 1 to (B): Where no means exists within the snap-switch enclosure for connecting to the equipment grounding conductor, or where the wiring method does not include or provide an equipment grounding conductor, a snap switch without a connection to an equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted for replacement purposes only. A snap switch wired under the provisions of this exception and located within 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically, or 1.5 m (5 ft) horizontally, of ground or exposed grounded metal objects shall be provided with a faceplate of nonconducting noncombustible material with nonmetallic attachment screws, unless the switch mounting strap or yoke is nonmetallic or the circuit is protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter.
Exception No. 2 to (B): Listed kits or listed assemblies shall not be required to be connected to an equipment grounding conductor if all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The device is provided with a nonmetallic faceplate that cannot be installed on any other type of device,
  2. The device does not have mounting means to accept other configurations of faceplates,
  3. The device is equipped with a nonmetallic yoke, and
  4. All parts of the device that are accessible after installation of the faceplate are manufactured of nonmetallic materials.
Exception No. 3 to (B): A snap switch with integral nonmetallic enclosure complying with 300.15(E) shall be permitted without a connection to an equipment grounding conductor.
Metal faceplates shall be of ferrous metal not less than 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) in thickness or of nonferrous metal not less than 1.02 mm (0.040 in.) in thickness. Faceplates of insulating material shall be noncombustible and not less than 2.54 mm (0.100 in.) in thickness, but they shall be permitted to be less than 2.54 mm (0.100 in.) in thickness if formed or reinforced to provide adequate mechanical strength.
Snap switches used with open wiring on insulators shall be mounted on insulating material that separates the conductors at least 13 mm (1/2 in.) from the surface wired over.
Flush-type snap switches mounted in boxes that are set back of the finished surface as permitted in 314.20 shall be installed so that the extension plaster ears are seated against the surface. Flush-type snap switches mounted in boxes that are flush with the finished surface or project from it shall be installed so that the mounting yoke or strap of the switch is seated against the box. Screws used for the purpose of attaching a snap switch to a box shall be of the type provided with a listed snap switch, or shall be machine screws having 32 threads per inch or part of listed assemblies or systems, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
A hand-operable circuit breaker equipped with a lever or handle, or a power-operated circuit breaker capable of being opened by hand in the event of a power failure, shall be permitted to serve as a switch if it has the required number of poles.
Informational Note: See the provisions contained in 240.81 and 240.83.
Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor as specified in Part IV of Article 250. Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers used as service equipment shall comply with the provisions of Part V of Article 250. Where nonmetallic enclosures are used with metal raceways or metal-armored cables, provision shall be made for connecting the equipment grounding conductor(s).
Except as covered in 404.9(B), Exception No. 1, nonmetallic boxes for switches shall be installed with a wiring method that provides or includes an equipment grounding conductor.
Knife switches rated at over 1200 amperes at 250 volts or less, and at over 1000 amperes at 251 to 1000 volts, shall be used only as isolating switches and shall not be opened under load.
To interrupt currents over 1200 amperes at 250 volts, nominal, or less, or over 600 amperes at 251 to 600 volts, nominal, a circuit breaker or a switch of special design listed for such purpose shall be used.
Knife switches of ratings less than specified in 404.13(A) and (B) shall be considered general-use switches.
Informational Note: See the definition of General-Use Switch in Article 100.
Motor-circuit switches shall be permitted to be of the knife-switch type.
Informational Note: See the definition of a Motor-Circuit Switch in Article 100.
Snap switches shall be used within their ratings and as indicated in 404.14(A) through (F).
Informational Note No. 1: For switches on signs and outline lighting, see 600.6.
Informational Note No. 2: For switches controlling motors, see 430.83, 430.109, and 430.110.
A form of general-use snap switch suitable only for use on ac circuits for controlling the following:
  1. Resistive and inductive loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage applied
  2. Tungsten-filament lamp loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at 120 volts
  3. Motor loads not exceeding 80 percent of the ampere rating of the switch at its rated voltage
A form of general-use snap switch suitable for use on either ac or dc circuits for controlling the following:
  1. Resistive loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage applied.
  2. Inductive loads not exceeding 50 percent of the ampere rating of the switch at the applied voltage. Switches rated in horsepower are suitable for controlling motor loads within their rating at the voltage applied.
  3. Tungsten-filament lamp loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the applied voltage if T-rated.
Snap switches rated 20 amperes or less directly connected to aluminum conductors shall be listed and marked CO/ALR.
Snap switches rated 347 volts ac shall be listed and shall be used only for controlling the loads permitted by (D)(1) and (D)(2).
Noninductive loads other than tungsten-filament lamps not exceeding the ampere and voltage ratings of the switch.
Inductive loads not exceeding the ampere and voltage ratings of the switch. Where particular load characteristics or limitations are specified as a condition of the listing, those restrictions shall be observed regardless of the ampere rating of the load.
The ampere rating of the switch shall not be less than 15 amperes at a voltage rating of 347 volts ac. Flush-type snap switches rated 347 volts ac shall not be readily interchangeable in box mounting with switches identified in 404.14(A) and (B).
General-use dimmer switches shall be used only to control permanently installed incandescent luminaires unless listed for the control of other loads and installed accordingly.
Where a snap switch is used to control cord- and plug-connected equipment on a general-purpose branch circuit, each snap switch controlling receptacle outlets or cord connectors that are supplied by permanently connected cord pendants shall be rated at not less than the rating of the maximum permitted ampere rating or setting of the overcurrent device protecting the receptacles or cord connectors, as provided in 210.21(B).
Informational Note: See 210.50(A) and 400.7(A)(1) for equivalency to a receptacle outlet of a cord connector that is supplied by a permanently connected cord pendant.
Exception: Where a snap switch is used to control not more than one receptacle on a branch circuit, the switch shall be permitted to be rated at not less than the rating of the receptacle.
Switches shall be marked with the current, voltage, and, if horsepower rated, the maximum rating for which they are designed.
Where in the off position, a switching device with a marked OFF position shall completely disconnect all ungrounded conductors to the load it controls.
Auxiliary contacts of a renewable or quick-break type or the equivalent shall be provided on all knife switches rated 600 to 1000 volts and designed for use in breaking current over 200 amperes.
A fused switch shall not have fuses in parallel except as permitted in 240.8.
The wire-bending space required by 404.3 shall meet Table 312.6(B) spacings to the enclosure wall opposite the line and load terminals.
This article covers the rating, type, and installation of receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs (cord caps).
Child Care Facility. A building or structure, or portion thereof, for educational, supervisory, or personal care services for more than four children 7 years old or less.
Receptacles shall be listed and marked with the manufacturer's name or identification and voltage and ampere ratings.
Receptacles and cord connectors shall be rated not less than 15 amperes, 125 volts, or 15 amperes, 250 volts, and shall be of a type not suitable for use as lampholders.
Informational Note: See 210.21(B) for receptacle ratings where installed on branch circuits.
Receptacles rated 20 amperes or less and designed for the direct connection of aluminum conductors shall be marked CO/ALR.
Receptacles incorporating an isolated grounding conductor connection intended for the reduction of electrical noise (electromagnetic interference) as permitted in 250.146(D) shall be identified by an orange triangle located on the face of the receptacle.
Isolated ground receptacles installed in nonmetallic boxes shall be covered with a nonmetallic faceplate.
Exception: Where an isolated ground receptacle is installed in a nonmetallic box, a metal faceplate shall be permitted if the box contains a feature or accessory that permits the effective grounding of the faceplate.
All nonlocking-type, 125-volt,15- and 20-ampere receptacles that are controlled by an automatic control device, or that incorporate control features that remove power from the outlet for the purpose of energy management or building automation, shall be marked with the symbol shown in Figure 406.3(E) and located on the controlled receptacle outlet where visible after installation.
Figure 406.3(E) Controlled Receptacle Marking Symbol.
Exception: The marking is not required for receptacles controlled by a wall switch that provide the required room lighting outlets as permitted by 210.70.
Receptacle outlets shall be located in branch circuits in accordance with Part III of Article 210. General installation requirements shall be in accordance with 406.4(A) through (F).
Except as provided in 406.4(D), receptacles installed on 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits shall be of the grounding type. Grounding-type receptacles shall be installed only on circuits of the voltage class and current for which they are rated, except as provided in Table 210.21(B)(2) and Table 210.21(B)(3).
Receptacles and cord connectors that have equipment grounding conductor contacts shall have those contacts connected to an equipment grounding conductor.
Exception No. 1: Receptacles mounted on portable and vehicle-mounted generators in accordance with 250.34.
Exception No. 2: Replacement receptacles as permitted by 406.4(D).
The equipment grounding conductor contacts of receptacles and cord connectors shall be grounded by connection to the equipment grounding conductor of the circuit supplying the receptacle or cord connector.
Informational Note: For installation requirements for the reduction of electrical noise, see 250.146(D).
The branch-circuit wiring method shall include or provide an equipment grounding conductor to which the equipment grounding conductor contacts of the receptacle or cord connector are connected.
Informational Note No. 1: See 250.118 for acceptable grounding means.
Informational Note No. 2: For extensions of existing branch circuits, see 250.130.
Replacement of receptacles shall comply with 406.4(D)(1) through (D)(6), as applicable. Arc-fault circuit-interrupter type and ground-fault circuit-interrupter type receptacles shall be installed in a readily accessible location.
Where a grounding means exists in the receptacle enclosure or an equipment grounding conductor is installed in accordance with 250.130(C), grounding-type receptacles shall be used and shall be connected to the equipment grounding conductor in accordance with 406.4(C) or 250.130(C).
Where attachment to an equipment grounding conductor does not exist in the receptacle enclosure, the installation shall comply with (D)(2)(a), (D)(2)(b), or (D)(2)(c).
(a) A non-grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with another non-grounding-type receptacle(s).
(b) A non-grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with a ground-fault circuit interrupter-type of receptacle(s). These receptacles shall be marked "No Equipment Ground." An equipment grounding conductor shall not be connected from the ground-fault circuit interrupter-type receptacle to any outlet supplied from the ground-fault circuit-interrupter receptacle.
(c) A non-grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with a grounding-type receptacle(s) where supplied through a ground-fault circuit interrupter. Grounding-type receptacles supplied through the ground-fault circuit interrupter shall be marked "GFCI Protected" and "No Equipment Ground." An equipment grounding conductor shall not be connected between the grounding-type receptacles.
Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protected receptacles shall be provided where replacements are made at receptacle outlets that are required to be so protected elsewhere in this Code.
Exception: Where replacement of the receptacle type is impracticable, such as where the outlet box size will not permit the installation of the GFCI receptacle, the receptacle shall be permitted to be replaced with a new receptacle of the existing type, where GFCI protection is provided and the receptacle is marked "GFCI protected" and "no equipment ground," in accordance with 406.4(D)(2)(a), (b), or (c).
Where a receptacle outlet is supplied by a branch circuit that requires arc-fault circuit-interrupter protection as specified elsewhere in this Code, a replacement receptacle at this outlet shall be one of the following:
  1. A listed outlet branch-circuit type arc-fault circuit interrupter receptacle
  2. A receptacle protected by a listed outlet branch-circuit type arc-fault circuit-interrupter type receptacle
  3. A receptacle protected by a listed combination type arc-fault circuit-interrupter type circuit breaker
This requirement becomes effective January 1, 2014.
Listed tamper-resistant receptacles shall be provided where replacements are made at receptacle outlets that are required to be tamper-resistant elsewhere in this Code.
Weather-resistant receptacles shall be provided where replacements are made at receptacle outlets that are required to be so protected elsewhere in this Code.
The installation of grounding-type receptacles shall not be used as a requirement that all cord-and plug-connected equipment be of the grounded type.
Informational Note: See 250.114 for types of cord-and plug-connected equipment to be grounded.
Receptacles connected to circuits that have different voltages, frequencies, or types of current (ac or dc) on the same premises shall be of such design that the attachment plugs used on these circuits are not interchangeable.
Receptacles shall be mounted in identified boxes or assemblies. The boxes or assemblies shall be securely fastened in place unless otherwise permitted elsewhere in this Code. Screws used for the purpose of attaching receptacles to a box shall be of the type provided with a listed receptacle, or shall be machine screws having 32 threads per inch or part of listed assemblies or systems, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Receptacles mounted in boxes that are set back from the finished surface as permitted in 314.20 shall be installed such that the mounting yoke or strap of the receptacle is held rigidly at the finished surface.
Receptacles mounted in boxes that are flush with the finished surface or project therefrom shall be installed such that the mounting yoke or strap of the receptacle is held rigidly against the box or box cover.
Receptacles mounted to and supported by a cover shall be held rigidly against the cover by more than one screw or shall be a device assembly or box cover listed and identified for securing by a single screw.
After installation, receptacle faces shall be flush with or project from faceplates of insulating material and shall project a minimum of 0.4 mm (0.015 in.) from metal faceplates.
Exception: Listed kits or assemblies encompassing receptacles and nonmetallic faceplates that cover the receptacle face, where the plate cannot be installed on any other receptacle, shall be permitted.
Receptacles, unless listed as receptacle assemblies for countertop applications, shall not be installed in a face-up position in countertops or similar work surfaces. Where receptacle assemblies for counter top applications are required to provide ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel in accordance with 210.8, such assemblies shall be permitted to be listed as GFCI receptacle assemblies for countertop applications.
In seating areas or similar surfaces, receptacles shall not be installed in a face-up position unless the receptacle is any of the following:
  1. Part of an assembly listed as a furniture power distribution unit, if cord-and plug-connected
  2. Part of an assembly listed either as household furnishings or as commercial furnishings
  3. Listed either as a receptacle assembly for countertop applications or as a GFCI receptacle assembly for countertop applications
  4. Installed in a listed floor box
Receptacles shall be enclosed so that live wiring terminals are not exposed to contact.
A receptacle shall not be grouped or ganged in enclosures with other receptacles, snap switches, or similar devices, unless they are arranged so that the voltage between adjacent devices does not exceed 300 volts, or unless they are installed in enclosures equipped with identified, securely installed barriers between adjacent devices.
Receptacle faceplates shall be installed so as to completely cover the opening and seat against the mounting surface.
Receptacle faceplates mounted inside a box having a recess-mounted receptacle shall effectively close the opening and seat against the mounting surface.
Metal faceplates shall be of ferrous metal not less than 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) in thickness or of nonferrous metal not less than 1.02 mm (0.040 in.) in thickness.
Metal faceplates shall be grounded.
Faceplates of insulating material shall be noncombustible and not less than 2.54 mm (0.10 in.) in thickness but shall be permitted to be less than 2.54 mm (0.10 in.) in thickness if formed or reinforced to provide adequate mechanical strength.
All attachment plugs, cord connectors, and flanged surface devices (inlets and outlets) shall be listed and marked with the manufacturer's name or identification and voltage and ampere ratings.
Attachment plugs and cord connectors shall be constructed so that there are no exposed current-carrying parts except the prongs, blades, or pins. The cover for wire terminations shall be a part that is essential for the operation of an attachment plug or connector (dead-front construction).
Attachment plugs shall be installed so that their prongs, blades, or pins are not energized unless inserted into an energized receptacle or cord connectors. No receptacle shall be installed so as to require the insertion of an energized attachment plug as its source of supply.
Attachment plug ejector mechanisms shall not adversely affect engagement of the blades of the attachment plug with the contacts of the receptacle.
A flanged surface inlet shall be installed such that the prongs, blades, or pins are not energized unless an energized cord connector is inserted into it.
Receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs shall be constructed such that receptacle or cord connectors do not accept an attachment plug with a different voltage or current rating from that for which the device is intended. However, a 20-ampere T-slot receptacle or cord connector shall be permitted to accept a 15-ampere attachment plug of the same voltage rating. Non-grounding-type receptacles and connectors shall not accept grounding-type attachment plugs.
A receptacle installed outdoors in a location protected from the weather or in other damp locations shall have an enclosure for the receptacle that is weatherproof when the receptacle is covered (attachment plug cap not inserted and receptacle covers closed).
An installation suitable for wet locations shall also be considered suitable for damp locations.
A receptacle shall be considered to be in a location protected from the weather where located under roofed open porches, canopies, marquees, and the like, and will not be subjected to a beating rain or water runoff. All 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking receptacles shall be a listed weather-resistant type.
Informational Note: The types of receptacles covered by this requirement are identified as 5-15, 5-20, 6-15, and 6-20 in ANSI/NEMA WD 6-2002, National Electrical Manufacturers Association Standard for Dimensions of Attachment Plugs and Receptacles.
Receptacles of 15 and 20 amperes, 125 and 250 volts installed in a wet location shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof whether or not the attachment plug cap is inserted. An outlet box hood installed for this purpose shall be listed and shall be identified as "extra duty." All 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking-type receptacles shall be listed weather-resistant type.
Informational Note No. 1: Requirements for extra-duty outlet box hoods are found in ANSI/UL 514D-2000. Cover Plates for Flush-Mounted Wiring Devices.
Informational Note No. 2: The types of receptacles covered by this requirement are identified as 5-15, 5-20, 6-15, and 6-20 in ANSI/NEMA WD 6-2002, Standard for Dimensions of Attachment Plugs and Receptacles.
Exception: 15- and 20-ampere, 125- through 250-volt receptacles installed in a wet location and subject to routine high-pressure spray washing shall be permitted to have an enclosure that is weatherproof when the attachment plug is removed.
All other receptacles installed in a wet location shall comply with (B)(2)(a) or (B)(2)(b).
(a) A receptacle installed in a wet location, where the product intended to be plugged into it is not attended while in use, shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof with the attachment plug cap inserted or removed.
(b) A receptacle installed in a wet location where the product intended to be plugged into it will be attended while in use (e.g., portable tools) shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof when the attachment plug is removed.
Receptacles shall not be installed within or directly over a bathtub or shower stall.
Standpipes of floor receptacles shall allow floor-cleaning equipment to be operated without damage to receptacles.
The enclosure for a receptacle installed in an outlet box flush-mounted in a finished surface shall be made weatherproof by means of a weatherproof faceplate assembly that provides a watertight connection between the plate and the finished surface.
Grounding-type receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs shall be provided with one fixed grounding pole in addition to the circuit poles. The grounding contacting pole of grounding-type plug-in ground-fault circuit interrupters shall be permitted to be of the movable, self-restoring type on circuits operating at not over 150 volts between any two conductors or any conductor and ground.
Grounding-type receptacles, adapters, cord connections, and attachment plugs shall have a means for connection of an equipment grounding conductor to the grounding pole.
A terminal for connection to the grounding pole shall be designated by one of the following:
  1. A green-colored hexagonal-headed or -shaped terminal screw or nut, not readily removable.
  2. A green-colored pressure wire connector body (a wire barrel).
  3. A similar green-colored connection device, in the case of adapters. The grounding terminal of a grounding adapter shall be a green-colored rigid ear, lug, or similar device. The equipment grounding connection shall be so designed that it cannot make contact with current-carrying parts of the receptacle, adapter, or attachment plug. The adapter shall be polarized.
  4. If the terminal for the equipment grounding conductor is not visible, the conductor entrance hole shall be marked with the word green or ground, the letters G or GR, a grounding symbol, or otherwise identified by a distinctive green color. If the terminal for the equipment grounding conductor is readily removable, the area adjacent to the terminal shall be similarly marked.
Informational Note: See Informational Note Figure 406.10(B)(4).
Informational Note Figure 406.10(B)(4) One Example of a Symbol Used to Identify the Termination Point for an Equipment Grounding Conductor.
A grounding terminal shall not be used for purposes other than grounding.
Grounding-type attachment plugs and mating cord connectors and receptacles shall be designed such that the equipment grounding connection is made before the current-carrying connections. Grounding-type devices shall be so designed that grounding poles of attachment plugs cannot be brought into contact with current-carrying parts of receptacles or cord connectors.
Grounding-type attachment plugs shall be used only with a cord having an equipment grounding conductor.
Informational Note: See 250.126 for identification of grounding conductor terminals.
Tamper-resistant receptacles shall be installed as specified in 406.12(A) through (C).
In all areas specified in 210.52, all nonlocking-type 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles shall be listed tamper-resistant receptacles.
All nonlocking-type 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles located in guest rooms and guest suites of hotels and motels shall be listed tamper-resistant receptacles.
In all child care facilities, all nonlocking-type 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles shall be listed tamper-resistant receptacles.
Exception to (A), (B), and (C): Receptacles in the following locations shall not be required to be tamper resistant:
  1. Receptacles located more than 1.7 m (51/2 ft) above the floor.
  2. Receptacles that are part of a luminaire or appliance.
  3. A single receptacle or a duplex receptacle for two appliances located within dedicated space for each appliance that, in normal use, is not easily moved from one place to another and that is cord-and plug-connected in accordance with 400.7(A)(6), (A)(7), or (A)(8).
  4. Nongrounding receptacles used for replacements as permitted in 406.4(D)(2)(a).
A receptacle supplying lighting loads shall not be connected to a dimmer unless the plug/receptacle combination is a nonstandard configuration type that is specifically listed and identified for each such unique combination.
This article covers switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards. It does not apply to equipment operating at over 1000 volts, except as specifically referenced elsewhere in the Code.
Switches, circuit breakers, and overcurrent devices used on switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards and their enclosures shall comply with this article and also with the requirements of Articles 240, 250, 312, 404, and other articles that apply. Switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards in hazardous (classified) locations shall comply with the applicable provisions of Articles 500 through 517.
Conductors and busbars on a switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard shall comply with 408.3(A)(1), (A)(2), and (A)(3) as applicable.
Conductors and busbars shall be located so as to be free from physical damage and shall be held firmly in place.
Barriers shall be placed in all service switchboards and switchgear such that no uninsulated, ungrounded service busbar or service terminal is exposed to inadvertent contact by persons or maintenance equipment while servicing load terminations.
Other than the required interconnections and control wiring, only those conductors that are intended for termination in a vertical section of a switchboard or switchgear shall be located in that section.
Exception: Conductors shall be permitted to travel horizontally through vertical sections of switchboards and switchgear where such conductors are isolated from busbars by a barrier.
The arrangement of busbars and conductors shall be such as to avoid overheating due to inductive effects.
Each switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard, if used as service equipment, shall be provided with a main bonding jumper sized in accordance with 250.28(D) or the equivalent placed within the panelboard or one of the sections of the switchboard or switchgear for connecting the grounded service conductor on its supply side to the switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard frame. All sections of a switchboard or switchgear shall be bonded together using an equipment bonding conductor sized in accordance with Table 250.122 or Table 250.66 as appropriate.
Exception: Switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards used as service equipment on high-impedance grounded neutral systems in accordance with 250.36 shall not be required to be provided with a main bonding jumper.
In switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards, load terminals for field wiring, including grounded circuit conductor load terminals and connections to the equipment grounding conductor bus for load equipment grounding conductors, shall be so located that it is not necessary to reach across or beyond an uninsulated ungrounded line bus in order to make connections.
Alternating-current phase arrangement on 3-phase buses shall be A, B, C from front to back, top to bottom, or left to right, as viewed from the front of the switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard. The B phase shall be that phase having the higher voltage to ground on 3-phase, 4-wire, delta-connected systems. Other busbar arrangements shall be permitted for additions to existing installations and shall be marked.
Exception: Equipment within the same single section or multisection switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard as the meter on 3-phase, 4-wire, delta-connected systems shall be permitted to have the same phase configuration as the metering equipment.
Informational Note: See 110.15 for requirements on marking the busbar or phase conductor having the higher voltage to ground where supplied from a 4-wire, delta-connected system.
Direct-current ungrounded buses shall be permitted to be in any order. Arrangement of dc buses shall be field marked as to polarity, grounding system, and nominal voltage.
A caution sign(s) or a label(s) provided in accordance with 408.3(F)(1) through (F)(5) shall comply with 110.21(B).
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing a 4-wire, delta-connected system where the midpoint of one phase winding is grounded shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
"Caution_____Phase Has_____Volts to Ground"
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing an ungrounded ac electrical system as permitted in 250.21 shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
"Caution Ungrounded System Operating — _____ Volts Between Conductors"
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing a high- impedance grounded neutral ac system in accordance with 250.36 shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
CAUTION: HIGH-IMPEDANCE GROUNDED NEUTRAL AC SYSTEM OPERATING — _____ VOLTS BETWEEN CONDUCTORS AND MAY OPERATE — _____VOLTS TO GROUND FOR INDEFINITE PERIODS UNDER FAULT CONDITIONS
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing an ungrounded dc electrical system in accordance with 250.169 shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
CAUTION: UNGROUNDED DC SYSTEM OPERATING — _____ VOLTS BETWEEN CONDUCTORS
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing a resistive connection between current-carrying conductors and the grounding system to stabilize voltage to ground shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
CAUTION: DC SYSTEM OPERATING — _____ VOLTS BETWEEN CONDUCTORS AND MAY OPERATE — _____ VOLTS TO GROUND FOR INDEFINITE PERIODS UNDER FAULT CONDITIONS
The minimum wire-bending space at terminals and minimum gutter space provided in switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards shall be as required in 312.6.
Every circuit and circuit modification shall be legibly identified as to its clear, evident, and specific purpose or use. The identification shall include an approved degree of detail that allows each circuit to be distinguished from all others. Spare positions that contain unused overcurrent devices or switches shall be described accordingly. The identification shall be included in a circuit directory that is located on the face or inside of the panel door in the case of a panelboard and at each switch or circuit breaker in a switchboard or switchgear. No circuit shall be described in a manner that depends on transient conditions of occupancy.
All switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards supplied by a feeder(s) in other than one- or two-family dwellings shall be marked to indicate each device or equipment where the power originates.
Where conduits or other raceways enter a switchboard, switchgear, floor-standing panelboard, or similar enclosure at the bottom, approved space shall be provided to permit installation of conductors in the enclosure. The wiring space shall not be less than shown in Table 408.5 where the conduit or raceways enter or leave the enclosure below the busbars, their supports, or other obstructions. The conduit or raceways, including their end fittings, shall not rise more than 75 mm (3 in.) above the bottom of the enclosure.
Table 408.5 Clearance for Conductors Entering Bus Enclosures
Conductor Minimum Spacing Between Bottom of Enclosure and Busbars, Their Supports, or Other Obstructions
mm in.
Insulated busbars, their supports,
or other obstructions
200 8
Noninsulated busbars 250 10
Unused openings for circuit breakers and switches shall be closed using identified closures, or other approved means that provide protection substantially equivalent to the wall of the enclosure.
Switchboards and switchgear shall be placed so as to reduce to a minimum the probability of communicating fire to adjacent combustible materials. Where installed over a combustible floor, suitable protection thereto shall be provided.
For other than a totally enclosed switchboard or switchgear, a space not less than 900 mm (3 ft) shall be provided between the top of the switchboard or switchgear and any combustible ceiling, unless a noncombustible shield is provided between the switchboard or switchgear and the ceiling.
Clearances around switchboards and switchgear shall comply with the provisions of 110.26.
An insulated conductor used within a switchboard or switchgear shall be listed, shall be flame retardant, and shall be rated not less than the voltage applied to it and not less than the voltage applied to other conductors or busbars with which it may come into contact.
Switchboards and switchgear that have any exposed live parts shall be located in permanently dry locations and then only where under competent supervision and accessible only to qualified persons. Switchboards and switchgear shall be located such that the probability of damage from equipment or processes is reduced to a minimum.
Instruments, relays, meters, and instrument transformers located on switchboards and switchgear shall be grounded as specified in 250.170 through 250.178.
All panelboards shall have a rating not less than the minimum feeder capacity required for the load calculated in accordance with Part III, IV, or V of Article 220, as applicable.
In addition to the requirement of 408.30, a panelboard shall be protected by an overcurrent protective device having a rating not greater than that of the panelboard. This overcurrent protective device shall be located within or at any point on the supply side of the panelboard.
Exception No. 1: Individual protection shall not be required for a panelboard used as service equipment with multiple disconnecting means in accordance with 230.71. In panelboards protected by three or more main circuit breakers or sets of fuses, the circuit breakers or sets of fuses shall not supply a second bus structure within the same panelboard assembly.
Exception No. 2: Individual protection shall not be required for a panelboard protected on its supply side by two main circuit breakers or two sets of fuses having a combined rating not greater than that of the panelboard. A panelboard constructed or wired under this exception shall not contain more than 42 overcurrent devices. For the purposes of determining the maximum of 42 overcurrent devices, a 2-pole or a 3-pole circuit breaker shall be considered as two or three overcurrent devices, respectively.
Exception No. 3: For existing panelboards, individual protection shall not be required for a panelboard used as service equipment for an individual residential occupancy.
Panelboards equipped with snap switches rated at 30 amperes or less shall have overcurrent protection of 200 amperes or less.
Where a panelboard is supplied through a transformer, the overcurrent protection required by 408.36 shall be located on the secondary side of the transformer.
Exception: A panelboard supplied by the secondary side of a transformer shall be considered as protected by the overcurrent protection provided on the primary side of the transformer where that protection is in accordance with 240.21(C)(1).
A 3-phase disconnect or overcurrent device shall not be connected to the bus of any panelboard that has less than 3-phase buses. Delta breakers shall not be installed in panelboards.
Plug-in-type overcurrent protection devices or plug-in type main lug assemblies that are backfed and used to terminate field-installed ungrounded supply conductors shall be secured in place by an additional fastener that requires other than a pull to release the device from the mounting means on the panel.
Panelboards in damp or wet locations shall be installed to comply with 312.2.
Panelboards shall be mounted in cabinets, cutout boxes, or identified enclosures and shall be dead-front.
Exception: Panelboards other than of the dead-front, externally operable type shall be permitted where accessible only to qualified persons.
In panelboards, fuses of any type shall be installed on the load side of any switches.
Exception: Fuses installed as part of service equipment in accordance with the provisions of 230.94 shall be permitted on the line side of the service switch.
Panelboard cabinets and panelboard frames, if of metal, shall be in physical contact with each other and shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor. Where the panelboard is used with nonmetallic raceway or cable or where separate equipment grounding conductors are provided, a terminal bar for the equipment grounding conductors shall be secured inside the cabinet. The terminal bar shall be bonded to the cabinet and panelboard frame, if of metal; otherwise it shall be connected to the equipment grounding conductor that is run with the conductors feeding the panelboard.
Exception: Where an isolated equipment grounding conductor is provided as permitted by 250.146(D), the insulated equipment grounding conductor that is run with the circuit conductors shall be permitted to pass through the panelboard without being connected to the panelboard's equipment grounding terminal bar.
Equipment grounding conductors shall not be connected to a terminal bar provided for grounded conductors or neutral conductors unless the bar is identified for the purpose and is located where interconnection between equipment grounding conductors and grounded circuit conductors is permitted or required by Article 250.
Each grounded conductor shall terminate within the panelboard in an individual terminal that is not also used for another conductor.
Exception: Grounded conductors of circuits with parallel conductors shall be permitted to terminate in a single terminal if the terminal is identified for connection of more than one conductor.
The panels of switchboards and switchgear shall be made of moisture-resistant, noncombustible material.
Insulated or bare busbars shall be rigidly mounted.
Instruments, pilot lights, voltage (potential) transformers, and other switchboard or switchgear devices with potential coils shall be supplied by a circuit that is protected by standard overcurrent devices rated 15 amperes or less.
Exception No. 1: Overcurrent devices rated more than 15 amperes shall be permitted where the interruption of the circuit could create a hazard. Short-circuit protection shall be provided.
Exception No. 2: For ratings of 2 amperes or less, special types of enclosed fuses shall be permitted.
Switches, fuses, and fuseholders used on panelboards shall comply with the applicable requirements of Articles 240 and 404.
A panelboard shall be provided with physical means to prevent the installation of more overcurrent devices than that number for which the panelboard was designed, rated, and listed.
For the purposes of this section, a 2-pole circuit breaker or fusible switch shall be considered two overcurrent devices; a 3-pole circuit breaker or fusible switch shall be considered three overcurrent devices.
The enclosure for a panelboard shall have the top and bottom wire-bending space sized in accordance with Table 312.6(B) for the largest conductor entering or leaving the enclosure.
Exception No. 1: Either the top or bottom wire-bending space shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) for a panelboard rated 225 amperes or less and designed to contain not over 42 overcurrent devices. For the purposes of this exception, a 2-pole or a 3-pole circuit breaker shall be considered as two or three overcurrent devices, respectively.
Exception No. 2: Either the top or bottom wire-bending space for any panelboard shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) where at least one side wire-bending space is sized in accordance with Table 312.6(B) for the largest conductor to be terminated in any side wire-bending space.
Exception No. 3: The top and bottom wire-bending space shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) spacings if the panelboard is designed and constructed for wiring using only a single 90-degree bend for each conductor, including the grounded circuit conductor, and the wiring diagram shows and specifies the method of wiring that shall be used.
Exception No. 4: Either the top or the bottom wire-bending space, but not both, shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) where there are no conductors terminated in that space.
Side wire-bending space shall be in accordance with Table 312.6(A) for the largest conductor to be terminated in that space.
Where a raceway or cable entry is in the wall of the enclosure opposite a removable cover, the distance from that wall to the cover shall be permitted to comply with the distance required for one wire per terminal in Table 312.6(A). The distance between the center of the rear entry and the nearest termination for the entering conductors shall not be less than the distance given in Table 312.6(B).
The distance between bare metal parts, busbars, and so forth shall not be less than specified in Table 408.56.
Where close proximity does not cause excessive heating, parts of the same polarity at switches, enclosed fuses, and so forth shall be permitted to be placed as close together as convenience in handling will allow.
Exception: The distance shall be permitted to be less than that specified in Table 408.56 at circuit breakers and switches and in listed components installed in switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards.
Table 408.56 Minimum Spacings Between Bare Metal Parts
AC or DC Voltage Opposite Polarity Where Mounted on the Same Surface Opposite Polarity Where Held Free in Air Live Parts to Ground*
mm in. mm in. mm in.
Not over 125 volts, nominal 19.1 3/4 12.7 1/2 12.7 1/2
Not over 250 volts, nominal 31.8 11/4 19.1 3/4 12.7 1/2
Not over 1000 volts, nominal 50.8 2 25.4 1 25.4 1
*For spacing between live parts and doors of cabinets, see 312.11(A)(1), (2), and (3).
Panelboards shall be durably marked by the manufacturer with the voltage and the current rating and the number of ac phases or dc buses for which they are designed and with the manufacturer's name or trademark in such a manner so as to be visible after installation, without disturbing the interior parts or wiring.
This article covers industrial control panels intended for general use and operating at 1000 volts or less.
Informational Note: ANSI/UL 508A Standard for Industrial Control Panels, is a safety standard for industrial control panels.
In addition to the requirements of Article 409, industrial control panels that contain branch circuits for specific loads or components, or are for control of specific types of equipment addressed in other articles of this Code, shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the applicable requirements from the specific articles in Table 409.3.
Table 409.3 Other Articles
Equipment/Occupancy Article Section
Branch circuits 210
Luminaires 410
Motors, motor circuits, and controllers 430
Air-conditioning and refrigerating equipment 440
Capacitors 460.8, 460.9
Hazardous (classified) locations 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505
Commercial garages; aircraft hangars; motor fuel
and dispensing facilities; bulk storage plants; spray application, dipping, and
coating processes; and inhalation anesthetizing locations
511, 513, 514,515, 516, and 517 Part IV
Cranes and hoists 610
Electrically driven or controlled irrigation machines 675
Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks,
wheelchair lifts, and stairway chair lifts
620
Industrial machinery 670
Resistors and reactors 470
Transformers 450
Class 1, Class 2, and Class3 remote-control, signaling,
and power-limited circuits
725
The size of the industrial control panel supply conductor shall have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the full-load current rating of all heating loads plus 125 percent of the full-load current rating of the highest rated motor plus the sum of the full-load current ratings of all other connected motors and apparatus based on their duty cycle that may be in operation at the same time.
Industrial control panels shall be provided with overcurrent protection in accordance with Parts I, II, and IX of Article 240.
This protection shall be provided for each incoming supply circuit by either of the following:
  1. An overcurrent protective device located ahead of the industrial control panel.
  2. A single main overcurrent protective device located within the industrial control panel. Where overcurrent protection is provided as part of the industrial control panel, the supply conductors shall be considered as either feeders or taps as covered by 240.21.
The rating or setting of the overcurrent protective device for the circuit supplying the industrial control panel shall not be greater than the sum of the largest rating or setting of the branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protective device provided with the industrial control panel, plus 125 percent of the full-load current rating of all resistance heating loads, plus the sum of the full-load currents of all other motors and apparatus that could be in operation at the same time.
Exception: Where one or more instantaneous trip circuit breakers or motor short-circuit protectors are used for motor branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protection as permitted by 430.52(C), the procedure specified above for determining the maximum rating of the protective device for the circuit supplying the industrial control panel shall apply with the following provision: For the purpose of the calculation, each instantaneous trip circuit breaker or motor short-circuit protector shall be assumed to have a rating not exceeding the maximum percentage of motor full-load current permitted by Table 430.52 for the type of control panel supply circuit protective device employed.
Where no branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protective device is provided with the industrial control panel for motor or combination of motor and non-motor loads, the rating or setting of the overcurrent protective device shall be based on 430.52 and 430.53, as applicable.
An industrial control panel shall not be installed where the available fault current exceeds its short-circuit current rating as marked in accordance with 409.110(4).
Disconnecting means that supply motor loads shall comply with Part IX of Article 430.
Multisection industrial control panels shall be bonded together with an equipment grounding conductor or an equivalent equipment grounding bus sized in accordance with Table 250.122. Equipment grounding conductors shall be connected to this equipment grounding bus or to an equipment grounding termination point provided in a single-section industrial control panel.
Table 110.28 shall be used as the basis for selecting industrial control panel enclosures for use in specific locations other than hazardous (classified) locations. The enclosures are not intended to protect against conditions such as condensation, icing, corrosion, or contamination that may occur within the enclosure or enter via the conduit or unsealed openings.
Busbars shall be protected from physical damage and be held firmly in place.
The phase arrangement on 3-phase horizontal common power and vertical buses shall be A, B, C from front to back, top to bottom, or left to right, as viewed from the front of the industrial control panel. The B phase shall be that phase having the higher voltage to ground on 3-phase, 4-wire, delta-connected systems. Other busbar arrangements shall be permitted for additions to existing installations, and the phases shall be permanently marked.
Industrial control panel enclosures shall not be used as junction boxes, auxiliary gutters, or raceways for conductors feeding through or tapping off to other switches or overcurrent devices or other equipment, unless the conductors fill less than 40 percent of the cross-sectional area of the wiring space. In addition, the conductors, splices, and taps shall not fill the wiring space at any cross section to more than 75 percent of the cross-sectional area of that space.
Wire bending space within industrial control panels for field wiring terminals shall be in accordance with the requirements in 430.10(B).
Spacings in feeder circuits between uninsulated live parts of adjacent components, between uninsulated live parts of components and grounded or accessible non-current-carrying metal parts, between uninsulated live parts of components and the enclosure, and at field wiring terminals shall be as shown in Table 430.97(D).
Exception: Spacings shall be permitted to be less than those specified in Table 430.97(D) at circuit breakers and switches and in listed components installed in industrial control panels.
Where used as service equipment, each industrial control panel shall be of the type that is suitable for use as service equipment.
Where a grounded conductor is provided, the industrial control panel shall be provided with a main bonding jumper, sized in accordance with 250.28(D), for connecting the grounded conductor, on its supply side, to the industrial control panel equipment ground bus or equipment ground terminal.
An industrial control panel shall be marked with the following information that is plainly visible after installation:
  1. Manufacturer's name, trademark, or other descriptive marking by which the organization responsible for the product can be identified.
  2. Supply voltage, number of phases, frequency, and full-load current for each incoming supply circuit.
  3. Industrial control panels supplied by more than one power source such that more than one disconnecting means is required to disconnect all power within the control panel shall be marked to indicate that more than one disconnecting means is required to de-energize the equipment.
  4. Short-circuit current rating of the industrial control panel based on one of the following:
    1. Short-circuit current rating of a listed and labeled assembly
    2. Short-circuit current rating established utilizing an approved method
    Informational Note: ANSI/UL 508, Standard for Industrial Control Panels, Supplement SB, is an example of an approved method.
    Exception to (4): Short-circuit current rating markings are not required for industrial control panels containing only control circuit components.
  5. If the industrial control panel is intended as service equipment, it shall be marked to identify it as being suitable for use as service equipment.
  6. Electrical wiring diagram or the identification number of a separate electrical wiring diagram or a designation referenced in a separate wiring diagram.
  7. An enclosure type number shall be marked on the industrial control panel enclosure.
This article covers luminaires, portable luminaires, lampholders, pendants, incandescent filament lamps, arc lamps, electric-discharge lamps, decorative lighting products, lighting accessories for temporary seasonal and holiday use, portable flexible lighting products, and the wiring and equipment forming part of such products and lighting installations.
Closet Storage Space. The volume bounded by the sides and back closet walls and planes extending from the closet floor vertically to a height of 1.8 m (6 ft) or to the highest clothes-hanging rod and parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 600 mm (24 in.) from the sides and back of the closet walls, respectively, and continuing vertically to the closet ceiling parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 300 mm (12 in.) or the width of the shelf, whichever is greater; for a closet that permits access to both sides of a hanging rod, this space includes the volume below the highest rod extending 300 mm (12 in.) on either side of the rod on a plane horizontal to the floor extending the entire length of the rod. See Figure 410.2.
Figure 410.2 Closet Storage Space.
Luminaires, portable luminaires, lampholders, and lamps shall have no live parts normally exposed to contact. Exposed accessible terminals in lampholders and switches shall not be installed in metal luminaire canopies or in open bases of portable table or floor luminaires.
Exception: Cleat-type lampholders located at least 2.5 m (8 ft) above the floor shall be permitted to have exposed terminals.
All luminaires, lampholders, and retrofit kits shall be listed.
Luminaires shall be installed such that the connections between the luminaire conductors and the circuit conductors can be inspected without requiring the disconnection of any part of the wiring unless the luminaires are connected by attachment plugs and receptacles.
Luminaires installed in wet or damp locations shall be installed such that water cannot enter or accumulate in wiring compartments, lampholders, or other electrical parts. All luminaires installed in wet locations shall be marked, "Suitable for Wet Locations." All luminaires installed in damp locations shall be marked "Suitable for Wet Locations" or "Suitable for Damp Locations."
Luminaires installed in corrosive locations shall be of a type suitable for such locations.
Luminaires shall be permitted to be installed in commercial cooking hoods where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The luminaire shall be identified for use within commercial cooking hoods and installed such that the temperature limits of the materials used are not exceeded.
  2. The luminaire shall be constructed so that all exhaust vapors, grease, oil, or cooking vapors are excluded from the lamp and wiring compartment. Diffusers shall be resistant to thermal shock.
  3. Parts of the luminaire exposed within the hood shall be corrosion resistant or protected against corrosion, and the surface shall be smooth so as not to collect deposits and to facilitate cleaning.
  4. Wiring methods and materials supplying the luminaire(s) shall not be exposed within the cooking hood.
Informational Note: See 110.11 for conductors and equipment exposed to deteriorating agents.
No parts of cord-connected luminaires, chain-, cable-, or cord-suspended luminaires, lighting track, pendants, or ceiling-suspended (paddle) fans shall be located within a zone measured 900 mm (3 ft) horizontally and 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower stall threshold. This zone is all encompassing and includes the space directly over the tub or shower stall. Luminaires located within the actual outside dimension of the bathtub or shower to a height of 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower threshold shall be marked for damp locations, or marked for wet locations where subject to shower spray.
Luminaires subject to physical damage, using a mercury vapor or metal halide lamp, installed in playing and spectator seating areas of indoor sports, mixed-use, or all-purpose facilities shall be of the type that protects the lamp with a glass or plastic lens. Such luminaires shall be permitted to have an additional guard.
Luminaires installed in exposed or concealed locations under metal-corrugated sheet roof decking shall be installed and supported so there is not less than 38 mm (11/2 in.) measured from the lowest surface of the roof decking to the top of the luminaire.
Luminaires shall be constructed, installed, or equipped with shades or guards so that combustible material is not subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Lampholders installed over highly combustible material shall be of the unswitched type. Unless an individual switch is provided for each luminaire, lampholders shall be located at least 2.5 m (8 ft) above the floor or shall be located or guarded so that the lamps cannot be readily removed or damaged.
Chain-supported luminaires used in a show window shall be permitted to be externally wired. No other externally wired luminaires shall be used.
Only luminaires of the following types shall be permitted in a closet:
  1. Surface-mounted or recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with completely enclosed light sources
  2. Surface-mounted or recessed fluorescent luminaires
  3. Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires identified as suitable for installation within the closet storage space
Incandescent luminaires with open or partially enclosed lamps and pendant luminaires or lampholders shall not be permitted.
The minimum clearance between luminaires installed in clothes closets and the nearest point of a closet storage space shall be as follows:
  1. 300 mm (12 in.) for surface-mounted incandescent or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling.
  2. 150 mm (6 in.) for surface-mounted fluorescent luminaires installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling.
  3. 150 mm (6 in.) for recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source installed in the wall or the ceiling.
  4. 150 mm (6 in.) for recessed fluorescent luminaires installed in the wall or the ceiling.
  5. Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires shall be permitted to be installed within the closet storage space where identified for this use.
Coves shall have adequate space and shall be located so that lamps and equipment can be properly installed and maintained.
Canopies and outlet boxes taken together shall provide sufficient space so that luminaire conductors and their connecting devices are capable of being installed in accordance with 314.16.
Luminaires shall be of such construction or installed so that the conductors in outlet boxes shall not be subjected to temperatures greater than that for which the conductors are rated.
Branch-circuit wiring, other than 2-wire or multiwire branch circuits supplying power to luminaires connected together, shall not be passed through an outlet box that is an integral part of a luminaire unless the luminaire is identified for through-wiring.
Informational Note: See 410.64(C) for wiring supplying power to luminaires connected together.
In a completed installation, each outlet box shall be provided with a cover unless covered by means of a luminaire canopy, lampholder, receptacle, or similar device.
Any combustible wall or ceiling finish exposed between the edge of a luminaire canopy or pan and an outlet box having a surface area of 1160 mm2 (180 in.2) or more shall be covered with noncombustible material.
Electric-discharge and LED luminaires supported independently of the outlet box shall be connected to the branch circuit through metal raceway, nonmetallic raceway, Type MC cable, Type AC cable, Type MI cable, nonmetallic sheathed cable, or by flexible cord as permitted in 410.62(B) or 410.62(C).
Electric-discharge and LED luminaires surface mounted over concealed outlet, pull, or junction boxes and designed not to be supported solely by the outlet box shall be provided with suitable openings in the back of the luminaire to provide access to the wiring in the box.
Luminaires and lampholders shall be securely supported. A luminaire that weighs more than 3 kg (6 lb) or exceeds 400 mm (16 in.) in any dimension shall not be supported by the screw shell of a lampholder.
Metal or nonmetallic poles shall be permitted to be used to support luminaires and as a raceway to enclose supply conductors, provided the following conditions are met:
  1. A pole shall have a handhole not less than 50 mm × 100 mm (2 in. × 4 in.) with a cover suitable for use in wet locations to provide access to the supply terminations within the pole or pole base.
    Exception No. 1: No handhole shall be required in a pole 2.5 m (8 ft) or less in height abovegrade where the supply wiring method continues without splice or pull point, and where the interior of the pole and any splices are accessible by removing the luminaire.
    Exception No. 2: No handhole shall be required in a pole 6.0 m (20 ft) or less in height above grade that is provided with a hinged base.
  2. Where raceway risers or cable is not installed within the pole, a threaded fitting or nipple shall be brazed, welded, or attached to the pole opposite the handhole for the supply connection.
  3. A metal pole shall be provided with an equipment grounding terminal as follows:
    1. A pole with a handhole shall have the equipment grounding terminal accessible from the handhole.
    2. A pole with a hinged base shall have the equipment grounding terminal accessible within the base.
      Exception to (3): No grounding terminal shall be required in a pole 2.5 m (8 ft) or less in height abovegrade where the supply wiring method continues without splice or pull, and where the interior of the pole and any splices are accessible by removing the luminaire.
  4. A metal pole with a hinged base shall have the hinged base and pole bonded together.
  5. Metal raceways or other equipment grounding conductors shall be bonded to the metal pole with an equipment grounding conductor recognized by 250.118 and sized in accordance with 250.122.
  6. Conductors in vertical poles used as raceway shall be supported as provided in 300.19.
Outlet boxes or fittings installed as required by 314.23 and complying with the provisions of 314.27(A)(1) and 314.27(A)(2) shall be permitted to support luminaires.
Framing members of suspended ceiling systems used to support luminaires shall be securely fastened to each other and shall be securely attached to the building structure at appropriate intervals. Luminaires shall be securely fastened to the ceiling framing member by mechanical means such as bolts, screws, or rivets. Listed clips identified for use with the type of ceiling framing members) and luminaire(s) shall also be permitted.
Luminaire studs that are not a part of outlet boxes, hickeys, tripods, and crowfeet shall be made of steel, malleable iron, or other material suitable for the application.
Insulating joints that are not designed to be mounted with screws or bolts shall have an exterior metal casing, insulated from both screw connections.
Raceway fittings used to support a luminaire(s) shall be capable of supporting the weight of the complete fixture assembly and lamp(s).
Luminaires shall be permitted to be connected to busways in accordance with 368.17(C).
Outdoor luminaires and associated equipment shall be permitted to be supported by trees.
Informational Note No. 1: See 225.26 for restrictions for support of overhead conductors.
Informational Note No. 2: See 300.5(D) for protection of conductors.
Luminaires and lighting equipment shall be grounded as required in Article 250 and Part V of this article.
Exposed metal parts shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor or insulated from the equipment grounding conductor and other conducting surfaces or be inaccessible to unqualified personnel. Lamp tie wires, mounting screws, clips, and decorative bands on glass spaced at least 38 mm (11/2 in.) from lamp terminals shall not be required to be grounded.
Luminaires and equipment shall be mechanically connected to an equipment grounding conductor as specified in 250.118 and sized in accordance with 250.122.
Exception No. 1: Luminaires made of insulating material that is directly wired or attached to outlets supplied by a wiring method that does not provide a ready means for grounding attachment to an equipment grounding conductor shall be made of insulating material and shall have no exposed conductive parts.
Exception No. 2: Replacement luminaires shall be permitted to connect an equipment grounding conductor from the outlet in compliance with 250.130(C). The luminaire shall then comply with 410.42.
Exception No. 3: Where no equipment grounding conductor exists at the outlet, replacement luminaires that are GFCI protected shall not be required to be connected to an equipment grounding conductor.
Luminaires with exposed metal parts shall be provided with a means for connecting an equipment grounding conductor for such luminaires.
Wiring on or within luminaires shall be neatly arranged and shall not be exposed to physical damage. Excess wiring shall be avoided. Conductors shall be arranged so that they are not subjected to temperatures above those for which they are rated.
Luminaires shall be wired so that the screw shells of lampholders are connected to the same luminaire or circuit conductor or terminal. The grounded conductor, where connected to a screw shell lampholder, shall be connected to the screw shell.
Luminaires shall be wired with conductors having insulation suitable for the environmental conditions, current, voltage, and temperature to which the conductors will be subjected.
Informational Note: For ampacity of fixture wire, maximum operating temperature, voltage limitations, minimum wire size, and other information, see Article 402.
Pendant lampholders with permanently attached leads, where used for other than festoon wiring, shall be hung from separate stranded rubber-covered conductors that are soldered directly to the circuit conductors but supported independently thereof.
Unless part of listed decorative lighting assemblies, pendant conductors shall not be smaller than 14 AWG for mogul-base or medium-base screw shell lampholders or smaller than 18 AWG for intermediate or candelabra-base lampholders.
Pendant conductors longer than 900 mm (3 ft) shall be twisted together where not cabled in a listed assembly.
Conductors shall be secured in a manner that does not tend to cut or abrade the insulation.
Conductor insulation shall be protected from abrasion where it passes through metal.
Splices and taps shall not be located within luminaire arms or stems.
No unnecessary splices or taps shall be made within or on a luminaire.
Informational Note: For approved means of making connections, see 110.14.
Stranded conductors shall be used for wiring on luminaire chains and on other movable or flexible parts.
Conductors shall be arranged so that the weight of the luminaire or movable parts does not put tension on the conductors.
Individual showcases, other than fixed, shall be permitted to be connected by flexible cord to permanently installed receptacles, and groups of not more than six such showcases shall be permitted to be coupled together by flexible cord and separable locking-type connectors with one of the group connected by flexible cord to a permanently installed receptacle.
The installation shall comply with 410.59(A) through (E).
Flexible cord shall be of the hard-service type, having conductors not smaller than the branch-circuit conductors, having ampacity at least equal to the branch-circuit overcurrent device, and having an equipment grounding conductor.
Informational Note: See Table 250.122 for size of equipment grounding conductor.
Flexible cords shall be secured to the undersides of showcases such that all of the following conditions are ensured:
  1. The wiring is not exposed to physical damage.
  2. The separation between cases is not in excess of 50 mm (2 in.), or more than 300 mm (12 in.) between the first case and the supply receptacle.
  3. The free lead at the end of a group of showcases has a female fitting not extending beyond the case.
Equipment other than showcases shall not be electrically connected to showcases.
Where showcases are cord-connected, the secondary circuit(s) of each electric-discharge lighting ballast shall be limited to one showcase.
Where a metal lampholder is attached to a flexible cord, the inlet shall be equipped with an insulating bushing that, if threaded, is not smaller than metric designator 12 (trade size 3/8) pipe size. The cord hole shall be of a size appropriate for the cord, and all burrs and fins shall be removed in order to provide a smooth bearing surface for the cord.
Bushing having holes 7 mm (9/32 in.) in diameter shall be permitted for use with plain pendant cord and holes 11 mm (13/32 in.) in diameter with reinforced cord.
Luminaires that require adjusting or aiming after installation shall not be required to be equipped with an attachment plug or cord connector, provided the exposed cord is of the hard-usage or extra-hard-usage type and is not longer than that required for maximum adjustment. The cord shall not be subject to strain or physical damage.
A luminaire or a listed assembly shall be permitted to be cord connected if the following conditions apply:
  1. The luminaire is located directly below the outlet or busway.
  2. The flexible cord meets all the following:
    1. Is visible for its entire length outside the luminaire
    2. Is not subject to strain or physical damage
    3. Is terminated in a grounding-type attachment plug cap or busway plug, or is a part of a listed assembly incorporating a manufactured wiring system connector in accordance with 604.6(C), or has a luminaire assembly with a strain relief and canopy having a maximum 152 mm (6 in.) long section of raceway for attachment to an outlet box above a suspended ceiling
Electric-discharge luminaires provided with mogul-base, screw shell lampholders shall be permitted to be connected to branch circuits of 50 amperes or less by cords complying with 240.5. Receptacles and attachment plugs shall be permitted to be of a lower ampere rating than the branch circuit but not less than 125 percent of the luminaire full-load current.
Electric-discharge luminaires equipped with a flanged surface inlet shall be permitted to be supplied by cord pendants equipped with cord connectors. Inlets and connectors shall be permitted to be of a lower ampere rating than the branch circuit but not less than 125 percent of the luminaire load current.
Luminaires shall not be used as a raceway for circuit conductors unless they comply with 410.64(A), (B), or (C).
Luminaires listed and marked for use as a raceway shall be permitted to be used as a raceway.
Luminaires identified for through-wiring, as permitted by 410.21, shall be permitted to be used as a raceway.
Luminaires designed for end-to-end connection to form a continuous assembly, or luminaires connected together by recognized wiring methods, shall be permitted to contain the conductors of a 2-wire branch circuit, or one multiwire branch circuit, supplying the connected luminaires and shall not be required to be listed as a raceway. One additional 2-wire branch circuit separately supplying one or more of the connected luminaires shall also be permitted.
Informational Note: See Article 100 for the definition of Multiwire Branch Circuit.
Feeder and branch-circuit conductors within 75 mm (3 in.) of a ballast, LED driver, power supply, or transformer shall have an insulation temperature rating not lower than 90°C (194°F), unless supplying a luminaire marked as suitable for a different insulation temperature.
Adequate airspace shall be provided between lamps and shades or other enclosures of combustible material.
All luminaires shall be marked with the maximum lamp wattage or electrical rating, manufacturer's name, trademark, or other suitable means of identification. A luminaire requiring supply wire rated higher than 60°C (140°F) shall be marked with the minimum supply wire temperature rating on the luminaire and shipping carton or equivalent.
The electrical rating shall include the voltage and frequency and shall indicate the current rating of the unit, including the ballast, transformer, LED driver, power supply, or autotransformer.
Portable luminaires shall be wired with flexible cord recognized by 400.4 and an attachment plug of the polarized or grounding type. Where used with Edison- base lampholders, the grounded conductor shall be identified and attached to the screw shell and the identified blade of the attachment plug.
In addition to the provisions of 410.82(A), portable handlamps shall comply with the following:
  1. Metal shell, paper-lined lampholders shall not be used.
  2. Handlamps shall be equipped with a handle of molded composition or other insulating material.
  3. Handlamps shall be equipped with a substantial guard attached to the lampholder or handle.
  4. Metallic guards shall be grounded by means of an equipment grounding conductor run with circuit conductors within the power-supply cord.
  5. Portable handlamps shall not be required to be grounded where supplied through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary of not over 50 volts.
A bushing or the equivalent shall be provided where flexible cord enters the base or stem of a portable luminaire. The bushing shall be of insulating material unless a jacketed type of cord is used.
Lampholders of the screw shell type shall be installed for use as lampholders only. Where supplied by a circuit having a grounded conductor, the grounded conductor shall be connected to the screw shell.
Where supplied by the ungrounded conductors of a circuit, the switching device of lampholders of the switched type shall simultaneously disconnect both conductors of the circuit.
Lampholders installed in wet locations shall be listed for use in wet locations. Lampholders installed in damp locations shall be listed for damp locations or shall be listed for wet locations.
Lampholders shall be constructed, installed, or equipped with shades or guards so that combustible material is not subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
An incandescent lamp for general use on lighting branch circuits shall not be equipped with a medium base if rated over 300 watts, or with a mogul base if rated over 1500 watts. Special bases or other devices shall be used for over 1500 watts.
Auxiliary equipment for electric-discharge lamps shall be enclosed in noncombustible cases and treated as sources of heat.
Where supplied by the ungrounded conductors of a circuit, the switching device of auxiliary equipment shall simultaneously disconnect all conductors.
Luminaires installed in recessed cavities in walls or ceilings, including suspended ceilings, shall comply with 410.115 through 410.122.
Luminaires shall be installed so that adjacent combustible material will not be subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Where a luminaire is recessed in fire-resistant material in a building of fire-resistant construction, a temperature higher than 90°C (194°F) but not higher than 150°C (302°F) shall be considered acceptable if the luminaire is plainly marked for that service.
Incandescent luminaires shall have thermal protection and shall be identified as thermally protected.
Exception No. 1: Thermal protection shall not be required in a recessed luminaire identified for use and installed in poured concrete.
Exception No. 2: Thermal protection shall not be required in a recessed luminaire whose design, construction, and thermal performance characteristics are equivalent to a thermally protected luminaire and are identified as inherently protected.
A recessed luminaire that is not identified for contact with insulation shall have all recessed parts spaced not less than 13 mm (1/2 in.) from combustible materials. The points of support and the trim finishing off the openings in the ceiling, wall, or other finished surface shall be permitted to be in contact with combustible materials.
A recessed luminaire that is identified for contact with insulation. Type IC, shall be permitted to be in contact with combustible materials at recessed parts, points of support, and portions passing through or finishing off the opening in the building structure.
Thermal insulation shall not be installed above a recessed luminaire or within 75 mm (3 in.) of the recessed luminaire's enclosure, wiring compartment, ballast, transformer, LED driver, or power supply unless the luminaire is identified as Type IC for insulation contact.
Conductors that have insulation suitable for the temperature encountered shall be used.
Branch-circuit conductors that have an insulation suitable for the temperature encountered shall be permitted to terminate in the luminaire.
Tap conductors of a type suitable for the temperature encountered shall be permitted to run from the luminaire terminal connection to an outlet box placed at least 300 mm (1 ft) from the luminaire. Such tap conductors shall be in suitable raceway or Type AC or MC cable of at least 450 mm (18 in.) but not more than 1.8 m (6 ft) in length.
Luminaires shall be constructed such that adjacent combustible material is not subject to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Incandescent lamp luminaires shall be marked to indicate the maximum allowable wattage of lamps. The markings shall be permanently installed, in letters at least 6 mm (1/4 in.) high, and shall be located where visible during relamping.
No solder shall be used in the construction of a luminaire recessed housing.
Lampholders of the screw shell type shall be of porcelain or other suitable insulating materials.
Equipment for use with electric-discharge lighting systems and designed for an open-circuit voltage of 1000 volts or less shall be of a type identified for such service.
The terminals of an electric-discharge lamp shall be considered as energized where any lamp terminal is connected to a circuit of over 300 volts.
Transformers of the oil-filled type shall not be used.
In addition to complying with the general requirements for luminaires, such equipment shall comply with Part XII of this article.
The ballast of a fluorescent luminaire installed indoors shall have integral thermal protection. Replacement ballasts shall also have thermal protection integral with the ballast.
A simple reactance ballast in a fluorescent luminaire with straight tubular lamps shall not be required to be thermally protected.
A ballast in a fluorescent exit luminaire shall not have thermal protection.
A ballast in a fluorescent luminaire that is used for egress lighting and energized only during a failure of the normal supply shall not have thermal protection.
Recessed high-intensity luminaires designed to be installed in wall or ceiling cavities shall have thermal protection and be identified as thermally protected.
Thermal protection shall not be required in a recessed high-intensity luminaire whose design, construction, and thermal performance characteristics are equivalent to a thermally protected luminaire and are identified as inherently protected.
Thermal protection shall not be required in a recessed high-intensity discharge luminaire identified for use and installed in poured concrete.
A recessed remote ballast for a high-intensity discharge luminaire shall have thermal protection that is integral with the ballast and shall be identified as thermally protected.
Luminaires that use a metal halide lamp other than a thick-glass parabolic reflector lamp (PAR) shall be provided with a containment barrier that encloses the lamp, or shall be provided with a physical means that only allows the use of a lamp that is Type O.
Informational Note: See ANSI Standard C78.389, American National Standard for Electric Lamps — High Intensity Discharge, Methods of Measuring Characteristics.
In indoor locations other than dwellings and associated accessory structures, fluorescent luminaires that utilize double-ended lamps and contain ballast(s) that can be serviced in place shall have a disconnecting means either internal or external to each luminaire. For existing installed luminaires without disconnecting means, at the time a ballast is replaced, a disconnecting means shall be installed. The line side terminals of the disconnecting means shall be guarded.
Exception No. 1: A disconnecting means shall not be required for luminaires installed in hazardous (classified) location(s).
Exception No. 2: A disconnecting means shall not be required for emergency illumination required in 700.16.
Exception No. 3: For cord-and-plug-connected luminaires, an accessible separable connector or an accessible plug and receptacle shall be permitted to serve as the disconnecting means.
Exception No. 4: Where more than one luminaire is installed and supplied by other than a multiwire branch circuit, a disconnecting means shall not be required for every luminaire when the design of the installation includes disconnecting means, such that the illuminated space cannot be left in total darkness.
When connected to multiwire branch circuits, the disconnecting means shall simultaneously break all the supply conductors to the ballast, including the grounded conductor.
The disconnecting means shall be located so as to be accessible to qualified persons before servicing or maintaining the ballast. Where the disconnecting means is external to the luminaire, it shall be a single device, and shall be attached to the luminaire or the luminaire shall be located within sight of the disconnecting means.
Luminaires installed on dc circuits shall be equipped with auxiliary equipment and resistors designed for dc operation. The luminaires shall be marked for dc operation.
Equipment having an open-circuit voltage exceeding 300 volts shall not be installed in dwelling occupancies unless such equipment is designed so that there will be no exposed live parts when lamps are being inserted, are in place, or are being removed.
Luminaires that have exposed ballasts, transformers, LED drivers, or power supplies shall be installed such that ballasts, transformers, LED drivers, or power supplies shall not be in contact with combustible material unless listed for such condition.
Where a surface-mounted luminaire containing a ballast, transformer, LED driver, or power supply is to be installed on combustible low-density cellulose fiberboard, it shall be marked for this condition or shall be spaced not less than 38 mm (11/2 in.) from the surface of the fiberboard. Where such luminaires are partially or wholly recessed, the provisions of 410.110 through 410.122 shall apply.
Informational Note: Combustible low-density cellulose fiberboard includes sheets, panels, and tiles that have a density of 320 kg/m3 (20 lb/ft3) or less and that are formed of bonded plant fiber material but does not include solid or laminated wood or fiberboard that has a density in excess of 320 kg/m3 (20 lb/ft3) or is a material that has been integrally treated with fire-retarding chemicals to the degree that the flame spread index in any plane of the material will not exceed 25, determined in accordance with tests for surface burning characteristics of building materials. See ANSI/ASTM E84-2011b, Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials.
Auxiliary equipment, including reactors, capacitors, resistors, and similar equipment, where not installed as part of a luminaire assembly, shall be enclosed in accessible, permanently installed metal cabinets.
Separately mounted ballasts, transformers, LED drivers, or power supplies that are listed for direct connection to a wiring system shall not be required to be additionally enclosed.
Wired luminaire sections are paired, with a ballast(s) supplying a lamp or lamps in both. For interconnection between paired units, it shall be permissible to use metric designator 12 (trade size 3/8) flexible metal conduit in lengths not exceeding 7.5 m (25 ft), in conformance with Article 348. Luminaire wire operating at line voltage, supplying only the ballast(s) of one of the paired luminaires shall be permitted in the same raceway as the lamp supply wires of the paired luminaires.
An autotransformer that is used to raise the voltage to more than 300 volts, as part of a ballast for supplying lighting units, shall be supplied only by a grounded system.
Snap switches shall comply with 404.14.
Electric-discharge lighting systems with an open-circuit voltage exceeding 1000 volts shall be listed and installed in conformance with that listing.
Equipment that has an open circuit voltage exceeding 1000 volts shall not be installed in or on dwelling occupancies.
The terminal of an electric-discharge lamp shall be considered as a live part.
In addition to complying with the general requirements for luminaires, such equipment shall comply with Part XIII of this article.
Informational Note: For signs and outline lighting, see Article 600.
Luminaires or lamp installation shall be controlled either singly or in groups by an externally operable switch or circuit breaker that opens all ungrounded primary conductors.
The switch or circuit breaker shall be located within sight from the luminaires or lamps, or it shall be permitted to be located elsewhere if it is lockable in accordance with 110.25.
Parts that must be removed for lamp replacement shall be hinged or held captive. Lamps or lampholders shall be designed so that there are no exposed live parts when lamps are being inserted or removed.
Transformers shall be enclosed, identified for the use, and listed.
The secondary circuit voltage shall not exceed 15,000 volts, nominal, under any load condition. The voltage to ground of any output terminals of the secondary circuit shall not exceed 7500 volts under any load conditions.
Transformers shall have a secondary short-circuit current rating of not more than 150 mA if the open-circuit voltage is over 7500 volts, and not more than 300 mA if the open-circuit voltage rating is 7500 volts or less.
Secondary circuit outputs shall not be connected in parallel or in series.
Transformers shall be accessible after installation.
Transformers shall be installed as near to the lamps as practicable to keep the secondary conductors as short as possible.
Transformers shall be located so that adjacent combustible materials are not subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Lamps shall not be located where normally exposed to physical damage.
Each luminaire or each secondary circuit of tubing having an open-circuit voltage of over 1000 volts shall have a clearly legible marking in letters not less than 6 mm (1/4 in.) high reading "Caution ____ volts." The voltage indicated shall be the rated open-circuit voltage. The caution sign(s) or label(s) shall comply with 110.21(B).
Lighting track shall be permanently installed and permanently connected to a branch circuit. Only lighting track fittings shall be installed on lighting track. Lighting track fittings shall not be equipped with general-purpose receptacles.
The connected load on lighting track shall not exceed the rating of the track. Lighting track shall be supplied by a branch circuit having a rating not more than that of the track. The load calculation in 220.43(B) shall not be required to limit the length of track on a single branch circuit, and it shall not be required to limit the number of luminaires on a single track.
Lighting track shall not be installed in the following locations:
  1. Where likely to be subjected to physical damage
  2. In wet or damp locations
  3. Where subject to corrosive vapors
  4. In storage battery rooms
  5. In hazardous (classified) locations
  6. Where concealed
  7. Where extended through walls or partitions
  8. Less than 1.5 m (5 ft) above the finished floor except where protected from physical damage or track operating at less than 30 volts rms open-circuit voltage
  9. Where prohibited by 410.10(D)
Fittings identified for use on lighting track shall be designed specifically for the track on which they are to be installed. They shall be securely fastened to the track, shall maintain polarization and connections to the equipment grounding conductor, and shall be designed to be suspended directly from the track.
Heavy-duty lighting track is lighting track identified for use exceeding 20 amperes. Each fitting attached to a heavy-duty lighting track shall have individual overcurrent protection.
Lighting track shall be securely mounted so that each fastening is suitable for supporting the maximum weight of luminaires that can be installed. Unless identified for supports at greater intervals, a single section 1.2 m (4 ft) or shorter in length shall have two supports, and, where installed in a continuous row, each individual section of not more than 1.2 m (4 ft) in length shall have one additional support.
The housing for the lighting track system shall be of substantial construction to maintain rigidity. The conductors shall be installed within the track housing, permitting insertion of a luminaire, and designed to prevent tampering and accidental contact with live parts. Components of lighting track systems of different voltages shall not be interchangeable. The track conductors shall be a minimum 12 AWG or equal and shall be copper. The track system ends shall be insulated and capped.
Lighting track shall be grounded in accordance with Article 250, and the track sections shall be securely coupled to maintain continuity of the circuitry, polarization, and grounding throughout.
Decorative lighting and similar accessories used for holiday lighting and similar purposes, in accordance with 590.3(B), shall be listed.
This article covers lighting systems operating at 30 volts or less and their associated components. This article also covers lighting equipment connected to a Class 2 power source.
Lighting systems operating at 30 volts or less shall consist of an isolating power supply, low-voltage luminaires, and associated equipment that are all identified for the use. The output circuits of the power supply shall be rated for 25 amperes and 30 volts (42.4 volts peak) maximum under all load conditions.
Listed Class 2 lighting equipment shall be rated in conformance with Chapter 9, Table 11(A) or Table 11(B).
Lighting systems operating at 30 volts or less shall comply with 411.4(A) or 411.4(B). Class 2 power sources and lighting equipment connected to Class 2 power sources shall be listed.
Lighting systems operating at 30 volts or less shall be listed as a complete system. The luminaires, power supply, and luminaire fittings (including the exposed bare conductors) of an exposed bare conductor lighting system shall be listed for the use as part of the same identified lighting system.
A lighting system assembled from the following listed parts shall be permitted:
  1. Low-voltage luminaires
  2. Low-voltage luminaire power supply
  3. Low-voltage luminaire fittings
  4. Cord (secondary circuit) for which the luminaires and power supply are listed for use
  5. Cable, conductors in conduit, or other fixed wiring method for the secondary circuit
The luminaires, power supply, and luminaire fittings (including the exposed bare conductors) of an exposed bare conductor lighting system shall be listed for use as part of the same identified lighting system.
Conductors concealed or extended through a wall, floor, or ceiling shall be in accordance with (1) or (2):
  1. Installed using any of the wiring methods specified in Chapter 3
  2. Installed using wiring supplied by a listed Class 2 power source and installed in accordance with 725.130
Lighting systems shall be installed not less than 3 m (10 ft) horizontally from the nearest edge of the water, unless permitted by Article 680.
Secondary circuits shall not be grounded.
The secondary circuit shall be insulated from the branch circuit by an isolating transformer.
Exposed bare conductors and current-carrying parts shall be permitted for indoor installations only. Bare conductors shall not be installed less than 2.1 m (7 ft) above the finished floor, unless specifically listed for a lower installation height.
Exposed insulated secondary circuit conductors shall be of the type, and installed as, described in (1), (2), or (3):
  1. Class 2 cable supplied by a Class 2 power source and installed in accordance with Parts I and III of Article 725.
  2. Conductors, cord, or cable of the listed system and installed not less than 2.1 m (7 ft) above the finished floor unless the system is specifically listed for a lower installation height.
  3. Wiring methods described in Chapter 3.
Lighting systems covered by this article shall be supplied from a maximum 20-ampere branch circuit.
Where installed in hazardous (classified) locations, these systems shall conform with Articles 500 through 517 in addition to this article.
This article covers electrical appliances used in any occupancy.
Vending Machine. Any self-service device that dispenses products or merchandise without the necessity of replenishing the device between each vending operation and is designed to require insertion of coin, paper currency, token, card, key, or receipt of payment by other means.
The requirements of Article 430 shall apply to the installation of motor-operated appliances, and the requirements of Article 440 shall apply to the installation of appliances containing a hermetic refrigerant motor compressor(s), except as specifically amended in this article.
Appliances shall have no live parts normally exposed to contact other than those parts functioning as open-resistance heating elements, such as the heating element of a toaster, which are necessarily exposed.
The device providing GFCI protection required in this article shall be readily accessible.
This section specifies the ratings of branch circuits capable of carrying appliance current without overheating under the conditions specified.
The rating of an individual branch circuit shall not be less than the marked rating of the appliance or the marked rating of an appliance having combined loads as provided in 422.62.
The rating of an individual branch circuit for motor-operated appliances not having a marked rating shall be in accordance with Part II of Article 430.
The branch-circuit rating for an appliance that is a continuous load, other than a motor-operated appliance, shall not be less than 125 percent of the marked rating, or not less than 100 percent of the marked rating if the branch-circuit device and its assembly are listed for continuous loading at 100 percent of its rating.
Branch circuits and branch-circuit conductors for household ranges and cooking appliances shall be permitted to be in accordance with Table 220.55 and shall be sized in accordance with 210.19(A)(3).
For branch circuits supplying appliance and other loads, the rating shall be determined in accordance with 210.23.
Appliances shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance with 422.11(A) through (G) and 422.10.
Branch circuits shall be protected in accordance with 240.4.
If a protective device rating is marked on an appliance, the branch-circuit overcurrent device rating shall not exceed the protective device rating marked on the appliance.
Household-type appliances with surface heating elements having a maximum demand of more than 60 amperes calculated in accordance with Table 220.55 shall have their power supply subdivided into two or more circuits, each of which shall be provided with overcurrent protection rated at not over 50 amperes.
Infrared lamp commercial and industrial heating appliances shall have overcurrent protection not exceeding 50 amperes.
Open-coil or exposed sheathed-coil types of surface heating elements in commercial-type heating appliances shall be protected by overcurrent protective devices rated at not over 50 amperes.
If the branch circuit supplies a single non-motor-operated appliance, the rating of overcurrent protection shall comply with the following:
  1. Not exceed that marked on the appliance.
  2. Not exceed 20 amperes if the overcurrent protection rating is not marked and the appliance is rated 13.3 amperes or less; or
  3. Not exceed 150 percent of the appliance rated current if the overcurrent protection rating is not marked and the appliance is rated over 13.3 amperes. Where 150 percent of the appliance rating does not correspond to a standard overcurrent device ampere rating, the next higher standard rating shall be permitted.
Electric heating appliances employing resistance-type heating elements rated more than 48 amperes, other than household appliances with surface heating elements covered by 422.11(B), and commercial-type heating appliances covered by 422.11(D), shall have the heating elements subdivided. Each subdivided load shall not exceed 48 amperes and shall be protected at not more than 60 amperes.
These supplementary overcurrent protective devices shall be (1) factory-installed within or on the heater enclosure or provided as a separate assembly by the heater manufacturer; (2) accessible; and (3) suitable for branch-circuit protection.
The main conductors supplying these overcurrent protective devices shall be considered branch-circuit conductors.
Commercial kitchen and cooking appliances using sheathed-type heating elements not covered in 422.11(D) shall be permitted to be subdivided into circuits not exceeding 120 amperes and protected at not more than 150 amperes where one of the following is met:
  1. Elements are integral with and enclosed within a cooking surface.
  2. Elements are completely contained within an enclosure identified as suitable for this use.
  3. Elements are contained within an ASME-rated and stamped vessel.
Resistance-type immersion electric heating elements shall be permitted to be subdivided into circuits not exceeding 120 amperes and protected at not more than 150 amperes as follows:
  1. Where contained in ASME-rated and stamped vessels
  2. Where included in listed instantaneous water heaters
  3. Where installed in low-pressure water heater tanks or open-outlet water heater vessels
Informational Note: Low-pressure and open-outlet heaters are atmospheric pressure water heaters as defined in IEC 60335-2-21. Household and similar electrical appliances — Safety — Particular requirements for storage water heaters.
Motors of motor- operated appliances shall be provided with overload protection in accordance with Part III of Article 430. Hermetic refrigerant motor-compressors in air-conditioning or refrigerating equipment shall be provided with overload protection in accordance with Part VI of Article 440. Where appliance overcurrent protective devices that are separate from the appliance are required, data for selection of these devices shall be marked on the appliance. The minimum marking shall be that specified in 430.7 and 440.4.
Central heating equipment other than fixed electric space-heating equipment shall be supplied by an individual branch circuit.
Exception No. 1: Auxiliary equipment, such as a pump, valve, humidifier, or electrostatic air cleaner directly associated with the heating equipment, shall be permitted to be connected to the same branch circuit.
Exception No. 2: Permanently connected air-conditioning equipment shall be permitted to be connected to the same branch circuit.
A fixed storage-type water heater that has a capacity of 450 L (120 gal) or less shall be considered a continuous load for the purposes of sizing branch circuits.
Informational Note: For branch-circuit rating, see 422.10.
In industrial occupancies, infrared heating appliance lampholders shall be permitted to be operated in series on circuits of over 150 volts to ground, provided the voltage rating of the lampholders is not less than the circuit voltage.
Each section, panel, or strip carrying a number of infrared lampholders (including the internal wiring of such section, panel, or strip) shall be considered an appliance. The terminal connection block of each such assembly shall be considered an individual outlet.
Listed central vacuum outlet assemblies shall be permitted to be connected to a branch circuit in accordance with 210.23(A).
The ampacity of the connecting conductors shall not be less than the ampacity of the branch circuit conductors to which they are connected.
Accessible non-current-carrying metal parts of the central vacuum outlet assembly likely to become energized shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor in accordance with 250.110. Incidental metal parts such as screws or rivets installed into or on insulating material shall not be considered likely to become energized.
Flexible cord shall be permitted (1) for the connection of appliances to facilitate their frequent interchange or to prevent the transmission of noise or vibration or (2) to facilitate the removal or disconnection of appliances that are fastened in place, where the fastening means and mechanical connections are specifically designed to permit ready removal for maintenance or repair and the appliance is intended or identified for flexible cord connection.
Electrically operated in-sink waste disposers shall be permitted to be cord-and plug-connected with a flexible cord identified as suitable in the installation instructions of the appliance manufacturer where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The flexible cord shall be terminated with a grounding-type attachment plug.
    Exception: A listed in-sink waste disposer distinctly marked to identify it as protected by a system of double insulation, or its equivalent, shall not be required to be terminated with a grounding-type attachment plug.
  2. The length of the cord shall not be less than 450 mm (18 in.) and not over 900 mm (36 in.).
  3. Receptacles shall be located to avoid physical damage to the flexible cord.
  4. The receptacle shall be accessible.
Built-in dishwashers and trash compactors shall be permitted to be cord-and-plug-connected with a flexible cord identified as suitable for the purpose in the installation instructions of the appliance manufacturer where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The flexible cord shall be terminated with a grounding-type attachment plug.
    Exception: A listed dishwasher or trash compactor distinctly marked to identify it as protected by a system of double insulation, or its equivalent, shall not be required to be terminated with a grounding-type attachment plug.
  2. The length of the cord shall be 0.9 m to 1.2 m (3 ft to 4 ft) measured from the face of the attachment plug to the plane of the rear of the appliance.
  3. Receptacles shall be located to avoid physical damage to the flexible cord.
  4. The receptacle shall be located in the space occupied by the appliance or adjacent thereto.
  5. The receptacle shall be accessible.
Wall-mounted ovens and counter-mounted cooking units complete with provisions for mounting and for making electrical connections shall be permitted to be permanently connected or, only for ease in servicing or for installation, cord-and-plug-connected.
A separable connector or a plug and receptacle combination in the supply line to an oven or cooking unit shall be approved for the temperature of the space in which it is located.
Range hoods shall be permitted to be cord-and-plug-connected with a flexible cord identified as suitable for use on range hoods in the installation instructions of the appliance manufacturer, where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The flexible cord is terminated with a grounding-type attachment plug.
    Exception: A listed range hood distinctly marked to identify it as protected by a system of double insulation, or its equivalent, shall not be required to be terminated with a grounding-type attachment plug.
  2. The length of the cord is not less than 450 mm (18 in.) and not over 900 mm (36 in.).
  3. Receptacles are located to avoid physical damage to the flexible cord.
  4. The receptacle is accessible.
  5. The receptacle is supplied by an individual branch circuit.
Each electrically heated appliance that is intended by size, weight, and service to be located in a fixed position shall be placed so as to provide ample protection between the appliance and adjacent combustible material.
Ceiling-suspended (paddle) fans shall be supported independently of an outlet box or by listed outlet box or outlet box systems identified for the use and installed in accordance with 314.27(C).
Canopies of ceiling- suspended (paddle) fans and outlet boxes taken together shall provide sufficient space so that conductors and their connecting devices are capable of being installed in accordance with 314.16.
In a completed installation, each outlet box shall be provided with a cover unless covered by means of a ceiling-suspended (paddle) fan canopy.
Any combustible ceiling finish exposed between the edge of a ceiling-suspended (paddle) fan canopy or pan and an outlet box shall be covered with noncombustible material.
Appliances employing methods of installation other than covered by this article shall be permitted to be used only by special permission.
Tire inflation machines and automotive vacuum machines provided for public use shall be protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter.
A means shall be provided to simultaneously disconnect each appliance from all ungrounded conductors in accordance with the following sections of Part III. If an appliance is supplied by more than one branch-circuit or feeder, these disconnecting means shall be grouped and identified as the appliance disconnect.
For permanently connected appliances rated at not over 300 volt-amperes or 1/8 hp, the branch-circuit overcurrent device shall be permitted to serve as the disconnecting means.
For permanently connected appliances rated over 300 volt-amperes, the branch-circuit switch or circuit breaker shall be permitted to serve as the disconnecting means where the switch or circuit breaker is within sight from the appliance or is lockable in accordance with 110.25.
Informational Note: For appliances employing unit switches, see 422.34.
The disconnecting means shall comply with 430.109 and 430.110. For permanently connected motor-operated appliances with motors rated over 1/8 hp, the disconnecting means shall meet 422.31(C)(1) or (2).
  1. The branch-circuit switch or circuit breaker shall be permitted to serve as the disconnecting means where the switch or circuit breaker is within sight from the appliance.
  2. The disconnecting means shall be installed within sight of the appliance.
Exception: If an appliance of more than 1/8 hp is provided with a unit switch that complies with 422.34(A), (B), (C), or (D), the switch or circuit breaker serving as the other disconnecting means shall be permitted to be out of sight from the appliance.
For cord-and-plug-connected appliances, an accessible separable connector or an accessible plug and receptacle shall be permitted to serve as the disconnecting means. Where the separable connector or plug and receptacle are not accessible, cord-and-plug-connected appliances shall be provided with disconnecting means in accordance with 422.31.
For cord- and-plug-connected household electric ranges, an attachment plug and receptacle connection at the rear base of a range, if it is accessible from the front by removal of a drawer, shall be considered as meeting the intent of 422.33(A).
The rating of a receptacle or of a separable connector shall not be less than the rating of any appliance connected thereto.
Exception: Demand factors authorized elsewhere in this Code shall be permitted to be applied to the rating of a receptacle or of a separable connector.
A unit switch(es) with a marked-off position that is a part of an appliance and disconnects all ungrounded conductors shall be permitted as the disconnecting means required by this article where other means for disconnection are provided in occupancies specified in 422.34(A) through (D).
In multifamily dwellings, the other disconnecting means shall be within the dwelling unit, or on the same floor as the dwelling unit in which the appliance is installed, and shall be permitted to control lamps and other appliances.
In two-family dwellings, the other disconnecting means shall be permitted either inside or outside of the dwelling unit in which the appliance is installed. In this case, an individual switch or circuit breaker for the dwelling unit shall be permitted and shall also be permitted to control lamps and other appliances.
In other occupancies, the branch-circuit switch or circuit breaker, where readily accessible for servicing of the appliance, shall be permitted as the other disconnecting means.
If the appliance is provided with a manually operated, line-connected, single-pole switch for appliance on-off operation, an Edison-base lampholder, or a 15- or 20-ampere receptacle, the attachment plug shall be of the polarized or grounding type.
A 2-wire, nonpolarized attachment plug shall be permitted to be used on a listed double-insulated shaver.
Informational Note: For polarity of Edison-base lampholders, see 410.82(A).
Cord-and plug-connected portable, freestanding hydromassage units and hand-held hair dryers shall be constructed to provide protection for personnel against electrocution when immersed while in the "on" or "off' position.
In other than dwelling-type occupancies, each electrically heated appliance or group of appliances intended to be applied to combustible material shall be provided with a signal or an integral temperature-limiting device.
All cord-and plug-connected smoothing irons and electrically heated appliances that are rated at more than 50 watts and produce temperatures in excess of 121°C (250°F) on surfaces with which the cord is likely to be in contact shall be provided with one of the types of approved heater cords listed in Table 400.4.
All other cord-and plug-connected electrically heated appliances shall be connected with one of the approved types of cord listed in Table 400.4, selected in accordance with the usage specified in that table.
Electric heaters of the cord-and plug-connected immersion type shall be constructed and installed so that current-carrying parts are effectively insulated from electrical contact with the substance in which they are immersed.
Each smoothing iron and other cord-and plug- connected electrically heated appliance intended to be applied to combustible material shall be equipped with an approved stand, which shall be permitted to be a separate piece of equipment or a part of the appliance.
Electrically heated smoothing irons shall be equipped with an identified temperature-limiting means.
All storage or instantaneous- type water heaters shall be equipped with a temperature limiting means in addition to its control thermostat to disconnect all ungrounded conductors. Such means shall comply with both of the following:
  1. Installed to sense maximum water temperature.
  2. Be either a trip-free, manually reset type or a type having a replacement element. Such water heaters shall be marked to require the installation of a temperature and pressure relief valve.
Exception No. 1: Storage water heaters that are identified as being suitable for use with a supply water temperature of 82° C (180°F) or above and a capacity of 60 kW or above.
Exception No. 2: Instantaneous-type water heaters that are identified as being suitable for such use, with a capacity of 4 L (1 gal) or less.
Informational Note: See ANSI Z21.22-1999/CSA 4.4- M99, Relief Valves for Hot Water Supply Systems.
Infrared heating lamps rated at 300 watts or less shall be permitted with lampholders of the medium-base, unswitched porcelain type or other types identified as suitable for use with infrared heating lamps rated 300 watts or less.
Screw shell lampholders shall not be used with infrared lamps rated over 300 watts, unless the lampholders are identified as being suitable for use with infrared heating lamps rated over 300 watts.
Cord-and plug- connected high-pressure spray washing machines as specified in 422.49(1) or (2) shall be provided with factory- installed ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel that is an integral part of the attachment plug or that is located in the supply cord within 300 mm (12 in.) of the attachment plug.
  1. All single-phase equipment rated 250 volts or less
  2. All 3-phase equipment rated 208Y/120 volts and 60 amperes or less
Cord-and plug-connected pipe heating assemblies intended to prevent freezing of piping shall be listed.
Cord-and plug-connected vending machines manufactured or remanufactured on or after January 1, 2005, shall include a ground-fault circuit interrupter as an integral part of the attachment plug or be located within 300 mm (12 in.) of the attachment plug. Older vending machines manufactured or remanufactured prior to January 1, 2005, shall be connected to a GFCI-protected outlet.
Vending machines not utilizing a cord and plug connection shall be connected to a ground-fault circuit-interrupter protected circuit.
Informational Note: For further information, see ANSI/UL 541-2010, Standard for Refrigerated V