- Sprinklers shall be installed throughout the premises.
- Sprinklers shall be located so as not to exceed the maximum protection area per sprinkler.
- * Sprinklers shall be positioned and located so as to provide satisfactory performance with respect to activation time and distribution.
- Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from areas specifically allowed by this standard.
- When sprinklers are specifically tested and test results demonstrate that deviations from clearance requirements to structural members do not impair the ability of the sprinkler to control or suppress a fire, their positioning and locating in accordance with the test results shall be permitted.
- Clearance between sprinklers and ceilings exceeding the maximums specified in this standard shall be permitted, provided that tests or calculations demonstrate comparable sensitivity and performance of the sprinklers to those installed in conformance with these sections.
- A combined total area of not more than 20 percent of the ceiling, construction feature, or plane shall be used to determine the boundaries of the concealed space.
- Gaps greater than 4 ft (1.2 m) long shall not be more than 8 in. (200 mm) wide.
- The surface materials have a flame spread index of 25 or less, and the materials have been demonstrated not to propagate fire more than 10.5 ft (3.2 m) when tested in accordance with ASTM E84, Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or UL 723, Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, extended for an additional 20 minutes.
- The surface materials comply with the requirements of ASTM E2768, Standard Test Method for Extended Duration Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials (30 min Tunnel Test).
- The space is not accessible for storage purposes and is protected against accumulation of wind-borne debris.
- The space contains no equipment such as conveyors or fuel-fired heating units.
- The floor over the space is of tight construction.
- No combustible or flammable liquids or materials that under fire conditions would convert into combustible or flammable liquids are processed, handled, or stored on the floor above the space.
- Combustible concealed spaces filled entirely with noncombustible insulation
- Light or ordinary hazard occupancies where noncombustible or limited-combustible ceilings are directly attached to the bottom of solid wood joists so as to create enclosed joist spaces 160 ft3 (4.5 m3) or less in volume, including space below insulation that is laid directly on top or within the ceiling joists in an otherwise sprinklered attic [see 126.96.36.199.5.2(4)]
- Concealed spaces over isolated small exterior projections not exceeding 55 ft2 (5.1 m2) in area
- The room is dedicated to electrical equipment only.
- Only dry-type or liquid-type with listed K-class fluid electrical equipment is used.
- Equipment is installed in a 2-hour fire-rated enclosure including protection for penetrations.
- Storage is not permitted in the room.
- * The combined total area of the openings around the cloud are less than or equal to 20 percent of the area of the ceiling, construction feature, or plane used to determine the boundaries of the compartment.
- The width of the gap and the maximum sprinkler protection area are in accordance with Table 188.8.131.52.
- The requirements of 184.108.40.206 are met.
- Spaces above cloud ceilings contain either noncombustible or limited-combustible construction with minimal combustible loading.
|Ceiling Cloud — Minimum Width Dimension (ft)||Maximum Area (ft2) — Opening Width ≤0.5 in./ft of Ceiling Height||Maximum Area (ft2) — Opening Width ≤0.75 in./ft of Ceiling Height||Maximum Area (ft2) — Opening Width ≤1 in./ft of Ceiling Height|
- The draft stops shall be located immediately adjacent to the opening.
- The draft stops shall be at least 18 in. (450 mm) deep.
- The draft stops shall be of noncombustible or limited-combustible material that will stay in place before and during sprinkler operation.
- The elevator machine room, machinery space, control room, control space, or hoistway of traction elevator is dedicated to elevator equipment only.
- The elevator machine room, machine room, machinery space, control room, control space, or hoistway of traction elevators are protected by smoke detectors, or other automatic fire detection, installed in accordance with NFPA 72.
- The elevator machinery space, control room, control space, or hoistway of traction elevators is separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire resistance rating of not less than that specified by the applicable building code.
- No materials unrelated to elevator equipment are permitted to be stored in elevator machine rooms, machinery spaces, control rooms, control spaces, or hoistways of traction elevators.
- The elevator machinery is not of the hydraulic type.
- Sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed without regard to aisles where clearance between sprinkler deflectors and tops of stacks is 18 in. (450 mm) or more.
- Where the 18 in. (450 mm) clearance between sprinkler deflectors and tops of stacks cannot be maintained, sprinklers shall be installed in every aisle and at every tier of stacks with distance between sprinklers along aisles not to exceed 12 ft (3.7 m) in accordance with Figure 9.3.7(a).
- Where the 18 in. (450 mm) clearance between sprinkler deflectors and tops of stacks cannot be maintained and where vertical shelf dividers are incomplete and allow water distribution to adjacent aisles, sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted in alternate aisles on each tier, and where ventilation openings are also provided in tier floors, sprinklers shall be staggered vertically in accordance with Figure 9.3.7(b).
- Open-grid ceilings in which the openings are 1/4 in. (6 mm) or larger in the least dimension, where the thickness or depth of the material does not exceed the least dimension of the opening, and where such openings constitute 70 percent of the area of the ceiling material. The spacing of the sprinklers over the open-grid ceiling shall then comply with the following:
- In light hazard occupancies where sprinkler spacing (either spray or old-style sprinklers) is less than 10 ft × 10 ft (3 m × 3 m), a minimum clearance of at least 18 in. (450 mm) shall be provided between the sprinkler deflectors and the upper surface of the open-grid ceiling. Where spacing is greater than 10 ft × 10 ft (3 m × 3 m) but less than 10 ft × 12 ft (3 m × 3.7 m), a clearance of at least 24 in. (600 mm) shall be provided from spray sprinklers and at least 36 in. (900 mm) from old-style sprinklers. Where spacing is greater than 10 ft × 12 ft (3 m × 3.7 m), a clearance of at least 48 in. (1.2 m) shall be provided.
- In ordinary hazard occupancies, open-grid ceilings shall be permitted to be installed beneath spray sprinklers only. Where sprinkler spacing is less than 10 ft × 10 ft (3 m × 3 m), a minimum clearance of at least 24 in. (600 mm) shall be provided between the sprinkler deflectors and the upper surface of the open-grid ceiling. Where spacing is greater than 10 ft × 10 ft (3 m × 3 m), a clearance of at least 36 in. (900 m) shall be provided.
- Other types of open-grid ceilings shall be permitted to be installed beneath sprinklers where they are listed for such service and are installed in accordance with instructions contained in each package of ceiling material.
- Sprinklers shall be listed as specific application window sprinklers unless the standard spray sprinklers are specifically permitted by the building code.
- Sprinklers shall be supplied by a wet pipe system.
- Glazing shall be heat-strengthened, tempered, or glass ceramic and shall be fixed.
- Where the assembly is required to be protected from both sides, sprinklers shall be installed on both sides of the glazing.
- The use of sprinkler-protected glazing shall be limited to non-load-bearing walls.
- The glazed assembly shall not have any horizontal members that would interfere with uniform distribution of water over the surface of the glazing, and there shall be no obstructions between sprinklers and glazing that would obstruct water distribution.
- The water supply duration for the design area that includes the window sprinklers shall not be less than the required rating of the assembly
- If the exposed combustibles are in the vertical partitions or walls around all or a portion of the enclosure, a single row of sprinklers spaced not over 12 ft (3.7 m) apart nor more than 6 ft (1.8 m) from the inside of the partition shall be permitted to protect the surface. The first and last sprinklers in such a row shall not be over 5 ft (1.5 m) from the ends of the partitions.
- If the exposed combustibles are in the horizontal plane, the area of the combustibles shall be permitted to be protected with sprinklers on a light hazard spacing. Additional sprinklers shall be installed no more than 6 ft (1.8 m) outside the outline of the area and not more than 12 ft (3.7 m) on center along the outline. When the outline returns to a wall or other obstruction, the last sprinkler shall not be more than 6 ft (1.8 m) from the wall or obstruction.
- * Sprinklers in the high-temperature zone shall be of the high-temperature classification, and sprinklers in the intermediate-temperature zone shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
- Sprinklers located within 12 in. (300 mm) to one side or 30 in. (750 mm) above an uncovered steam main, heating coil, or radiator shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
- Sprinklers within 7 ft (2.1 m) of a low-pressure blowoff valve that discharges free in a large room shall be of the high-temperature classification.
- Sprinklers under glass or plastic skylights exposed to the direct rays of the sun shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
- Sprinklers in an unventilated, concealed space, under an uninsulated roof, or in an unventilated attic shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
- Sprinklers in unventilated show windows having high-powered electric lights near the ceiling shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
- Sprinklers protecting commercial-type cooking equipment and ventilation systems shall be of the high- or extra high-temperature classification as determined by use of a temperature-measuring device. (See 8.9.6.)
- Sprinklers protecting residential areas installed near specific heat sources identified in Table 220.127.116.11(c) shall be installed in accordance with Table 18.104.22.168(c).
- Ordinary-temperature sprinklers located adjacent to a heating duct that discharges air that is less than 100°F (38°C) are not required to be separated in accordance with Table 22.214.171.124(a) or Table 126.96.36.199(c).
- Sprinklers in walk-in type coolers and freezers with automatic defrosting shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification or higher.
- Sprinklers in closets containing ventless clothes dryers shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification or higher.
|Type of Heat Condition||Ordinary-Temperature Rating||Intermediate-Temperature Rating||High-Temperature Rating|
|(1) Heating ducts|
|(a) Above||More than 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm)||2 ft 6 in. or less (750 mm)|
|(b) Side and below||More than 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm)||1 ft 0 in. or less (300 mm)|
|(c) Diffuser||Any distance except as shown under Intermediate-Temperature Rating column||Downward discharge: Cylinder with 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm) radius from edge extending 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm) below and 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) above|
|Horizontal discharge: Semicylinder or cylinder with 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) radius in direction of flow extending 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm) below and 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) above|
|(2) Unit heater and radiant heater|
|(a) Horizontal discharge||Discharge side: 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) to 20 ft 0 in. (6.1 m) radius pie-shaped cylinder (see Figure 188.8.131.52) extending 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above and 2 ft 0 in. (600 mm) below heater; also 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder more than 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above unit heater||7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder extending 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above and 2 ft 0 in. (600 mm) below unit heater|
|(b) Vertical downward discharge (for sprinklers below unit heater, see Figure 184.108.40.206)||7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder extending upward from an elevation 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above unit heater||7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder extending from the top of the unit heater to an elevation 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above unit heater|
|(3) Steam mains (uncovered)|
|(a) Above||More than 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm)||2 ft 6 in. or less (750 mm)|
|(b) Side and below||More than 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm)||1 ft 0 in. or less (300 mm)|
|(c) Blowoff valve||More than 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m)||7 ft 0 in. or less (2.1 m)|
|Location||Ordinary-Temperature Rating||Intermediate-Temperature Rating||High-Temperature Rating|
|Skylights||Glass or plastic|
|Attics||Do not use||Ventilated or unventilated|
|Peaked roof: metal or thin boards, concealed or not concealed, insulated or uninsulated||Ventilated||Unventilated|
|Flat roof: metal, not concealed||Ventilated or unventilated||Note: For uninsulated roof, climate and insulated or uninsulated occupancy can necessitate intermediate sprinklers. Check on job.|
|Flat roof: metal, concealed, insulated or uninsulated||Ventilated||Unventilated|
|Heat Source||Minimum Distance from Edge of Source to Ordinary-Temperature Sprinkler||Minimum Distance from Edge of Source to Intermediate-Temperature Sprinkler|
|Side of open or recessed fireplace||36||900||12||300|
|Front of recessed fireplace||60||1500||36||900|
|Coal- or wood-burning stove||42||1050||12||300|
|Hot air flues||18||450||9||225|
|Uninsulated heat ducts||18||450||9||225|
|Uninsulated hot water pipes||12||300||6||150|
|Side of ceiling- or wall-mounted hot air diffusers||24||600||12||300|
|Front of wall-mounted hot air diffusers||36||900||18||450|
|Hot water heater or furnace||6||150||3||75|
|0 W—250 W||6||150||3||75|
|250 W—499 W||12||300||6||150|
- Quick-response type as defined in 220.127.116.11.16
- Residential sprinklers in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 12
- Quick response CMSA sprinklers
- ESFR sprinklers
- Standard-response sprinklers used for modifications or additions to existing light hazard systems equipped with standard-response sprinklers
- Standard-response sprinklers used where individual standard-response sprinklers are replaced in existing light hazard systems
- The system shall be hydraulically calculated.
- Sprinklers with nominal K-factors of less than K-5.6 (80) shall be installed only in wet pipe sprinkler systems or in accordance with the limitations of 18.104.22.168 or 22.214.171.124.
- A listed strainer shall be provided on the supply side of sprinklers with nominal K-factors of less than K-2.8 (40).
- Along branch lines as follows:
- Determine distance between sprinklers (or to wall or obstruction in the case of the end sprinkler on the branch line) upstream and downstream
- Choose the larger of either twice the distance to the wall or the distance to the next sprinkler
- Define dimension as S
- Between branch lines as follows:
- Determine perpendicular distance to the sprinkler on the adjacent branch line (or to a wall or obstruction in the case of the last branch line) on each side of the branch line on which the subject sprinkler is positioned
- Choose the larger of either twice the distance to the wall or obstruction or the distance to the next sprinkler
- Define dimension as L