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This chapter shall provide requirements for correct use of sprinkler system components and hardware.
Materials or devices not specifically designated by this standard shall be used in accordance with all conditions, requirements, and limitations of their special listing.
All special listing requirements shall be included and identified in the product submittal literature and installation instructions.
Components that do not affect system performance such as drain piping, drain valves, and signs shall not be required to be listed.
The new materials or devices listing instructions shall identify and specify the existing system components, including the fluids conveyed, with which the new listed materials, devices, or components are compatible.
The use of reconditioned valves and devices as replacement equipment in existing systems shall be permitted.
Reconditioned sprinklers shall not be permitted to be utilized on any new or existing system.
System components shall be rated for the maximum system working pressure to which they are exposed but shall not be rated at less than 175 psi (12.1 bar) for components installed above ground and 150 psi (10.4 bar) for components installed underground.
Only new sprinklers shall be installed.
When a sprinkler has been removed for any reason, it shall not be reinstalled.
All sprinklers shall be permanently marked with one or two English uppercase alphabetic characters to identify the manufacturer, immediately followed by three or four numbers, to uniquely identify a sprinkler as to K-factor (orifice size) or orifice shape, deflector characteristic, pressure rating, and thermal sensitivity.
Unless the requirements of 220.127.116.11, 18.104.22.168, or 22.214.171.124 are met, the K-factor, relative discharge, and marking identification for sprinklers having different K-factors shall be in accordance with Table 126.96.36.199.
Table 188.8.131.52 Sprinkler Discharge Characteristics Identification
|Nominal K-Factor |
|Nominal K-Factor |
|K-Factor Range |
|K-Factor Range [L/min/(bar)1/2]||Percent of Nominal K-5.6 Discharge||Thread Type|
|1.4||20||1.3—1.5||19—22||25||1/2 in. NPT|
|1.9||27||1.8—2.0||26—29||33.3||1/2 in. NPT|
|2.8||40||2.6—2.9||38—42||50||1/2 in. NPT|
|4.2||60||4.0—4.4||57—63||75||1/2 in. NPT|
|5.6||80||5.3—5.8||76—84||100||1/2 in. NPT|
|8.0||115||7.4—8.2||107—118||140||3/4 in. NPT or 1/2 in. NPT|
|11.2||160||10.7—11.7||159—166||200||1/2 in. NPT or 3/4 in. NPT|
|14.0||200||13.5—14.5||195—209||250||3/4 in. NPT|
|16.8||240||16.0—17.6||231—254||300||3/4 in. NPT|
|19.6||280||18.6—20.6||272—301||350||1 in. NPT|
|22.4||320||21.3—23.5||311—343||400||1 in. NPT|
|25.2||360||23.9—26.5||349—387||450||1 in. NPT|
|28.0||400||26.6—29.4||389—430||500||1 in. NPT|
|Note: The nominal K-factor for dry-type sprinklers are used for sprinkler selection. See 184.108.40.206.3 for use of adjusted dry-type sprinkler K-factors for hydraulic calculation purposes.|
Listed sprinklers having pipe threads different from those shown in Table 220.127.116.11 shall be permitted.
Sprinklers listed with nominal K-factors greater than K-28 (400) shall increase the flow by 100 percent increments when compared with a nominal K-5.6 (80) sprinkler.
Automatic sprinklers shall have their frame arms, deflector, coating material, or liquid bulb colored in accordance with the requirements of Table 18.104.22.168 or the requirements of 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52, or 184.108.40.206.
Table 220.127.116.11 Temperature Ratings, Classifications, and Color Codings
|Maximum Ceiling Temperature||Temperature Rating||Temperature Classification||Color Code||Glass Bulb Colors|
|100||38||135—170||57—77||Ordinary||Uncolored or black||Orange or red|
|150||66||175—225||79—107||Intermediate||White||Yellow or green|
|375||191||400—475||204—246||Very extra high||Green||Black|
A dot on the top of the deflector, the color of the coating material, or colored frame arms shall be permitted for color identification of corrosion-resistant sprinklers.
Color identification shall not be required for ornamental sprinklers such as factory-plated or factory-painted sprinklers or for recessed, flush, or concealed sprinklers.
The frame arms of bulb-type sprinklers shall not be required to be color coded.
Listed corrosion-resistant sprinklers shall be installed in locations where chemicals, moisture, or other corrosive vapors sufficient to cause corrosion of such devices exist.
Any damage to the protective coating occurring at the time of installation shall be repaired at once using only the coating of the manufacturer of the sprinkler in the approved manner so that no part of the sprinkler will be exposed after installation has been completed.
Sprinklers shall only be painted by the sprinkler manufacturer.
Where sprinklers have had paint applied by other than the sprinkler manufacturer, they shall be replaced with new listed sprinklers of the same characteristics, including K-factor, thermal response, and water distribution.
Where cover plates on concealed sprinklers have been painted by other than the sprinkler manufacturer, the cover plate shall be replaced.
Ornamental finishes shall only be applied to sprinklers and, if applicable, their concealed cover plates, by the sprinkler manufacturer.
Sprinklers with ornamental finishes where utilized shall be specifically listed.
Sprinklers protecting spray areas and mixing rooms in resin application areas shall be protected against overspray residue so that they will operate in the event of fire.
Sprinklers that have been painted or coated shall be replaced in accordance with the requirements of 18.104.22.168.2.
Plates, escutcheons, or other devices used to cover the annular space around a sprinkler shall be metallic or shall be listed for use around a sprinkler.
Escutcheons used with recessed, flush-type, or concealed sprinklers shall be part of a listed sprinkler assembly.
The use of caulking or glue to seal the penetration or to affix the components of a recessed escutcheon or concealed cover plate shall not be permitted.
Sprinklers subject to mechanical injury shall be protected with listed guards.
A supply of at least six spare sprinklers shall be maintained on the premises so that any sprinklers that have operated or been damaged in any way can be promptly replaced.
The sprinklers shall correspond to the types and temperature ratings of the sprinklers in the property.
The sprinklers shall be kept in a cabinet located where the temperature to which they are subjected will at no time exceed 100°F (38°C).
The stock of spare sprinklers shall include all types and ratings installed and shall be as follows:
- For protected facilities having under 300 sprinklers — no fewer than six sprinklers
- For protected facilities having 300 to 1000 sprinklers — no fewer than 12 sprinklers
- For protected facilities having over 1000 sprinklers — no fewer than 24 sprinklers
One sprinkler wrench as specified by the sprinkler manufacturer shall be provided in the cabinet for each type of sprinkler installed to be used for the removal and installation of sprinklers in the system.
A list of the sprinklers installed in the property shall be posted in the sprinkler cabinet.
Pipe or tube shall meet or exceed one of the standards in Table 22.214.171.124 or be in accordance with 126.96.36.199.
Table 188.8.131.52 Pipe or Tube Materials and Dimensions
|Materials and Dimensions||Standard|
|Ferrous Piping (Welded and Seamless)|
|Specification for Black and Hot-Dipped Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe for Fire Protection Use||ASTM A 795|
|Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless||ANSI/ASTM A 53|
|Wrought Steel Pipe||ANSI/ASME B36.10M|
|Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe||ASTM A 135|
|Copper Tube (Drawn, Seamless)|
|Specification for Seamless Copper Tube||ASTM B 75|
|Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube||ASTM B 88|
|Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube||ASTM B 251|
|Fluxes for Soldering Applications of Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube||ASTM B 813|
|Brazing Filler Metal (Classification BCuP-3 or BCuP-4)||AWS A5.8|
|Solder Metal, Section 1: Solder Alloys Containing Less Than 0.2% Lead and Having Solidus Temperatures Greater than 400°F||ASTM B 32|
|Alloy Materials||ASTM B 446|
|Nonmetallic Piping Specification for Special Listed Chlorinated Polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) Pipe||ASTM F 442|
|Specification for Seamless Red Brass Pipe||ASTM B 43|
Underground pipe shall be permitted to extend into the building through the slab or wall not more than 24 inches.
When steel pipe referenced in Table 184.108.40.206 is used and joined by welding as referenced in 6.5.2 or by roll-grooved pipe and fittings as referenced in 6.5.3, the minimum nominal wall thickness for pressures up to 300 psi (20.7 bar) shall be in accordance with Schedule 10 for pipe sizes up to 5 in. (125 mm), 0.134 in. (3.40 mm) for 6 in. (150 mm) pipe, 0.188 in. (4.78 mm) for 8 in. and 10 in. (200 mm and 250 mm) pipe, and 0.330 in. (8.38 mm) for 12 in. (300 mm) pipe.
When steel pipe referenced in Table 220.127.116.11 is joined by threaded fittings referenced in 6.5.1 or by fittings used with pipe having cut grooves, the minimum wall thickness shall be in accordance with Schedule 30 pipe [in sizes 8 in. (200 mm) and larger] or Schedule 40 pipe [in sizes less than 8 in. (200 mm)] for pressures up to 300 psi (20.7 bar).
Listed nonmetallic pipe shall be installed in accordance with its listing limitations, including installation instructions.
Manufacturer's installation instructions shall include its listing limitations.
When nonmetallic pipe is used in combination systems utilizing steel piping internally coated with corrosion inhibitors and nonmetallic piping, the steel pipe coating shall be investigated for compatibility with the nonmetallic piping by a testing laboratory.
When nonmetallic pipe is used in combination systems utilizing steel pipe that is not internally coated with chemical corrosion inhibitors, no additional evaluations are required.
When nonmetallic pipe is used in combination systems utilizing steel pipe, cutting oils and lubricants used for fabrication of the steel piping shall be compatible with the nonmetallic pipe materials.
Fire-stopping materials intended for use on nonmetallic piping penetrations shall be investigated for compatibility with the nonmetallic pipe materials.
Nonmetallic pipe listed for light hazard occupancies shall be permitted to be installed in ordinary hazard rooms of otherwise light hazard occupancies where the room does not exceed 400 ft2 (37 m2).
Nonmetallic pipe shall not be listed for portions of an occupancy classification.
Other types of pipe or tube investigated for suitability in automatic sprinkler installations and listed for this service, including but not limited to CPVC and steel, and differing from that provided in Table 18.104.22.168 shall be permitted where installed in accordance with their listing limitations, including installation instructions.
Pipe or tube listed for light hazard occupancies shall be permitted to be installed in ordinary hazard rooms of otherwise light hazard occupancies where the room does not exceed 400 ft2 (37 m2).
Pipe or tube shall not be listed for portions of an occupancy classification.
Bending of listed pipe and tubing shall be permitted as allowed by the listing.
Bending of Schedule 10 steel pipe, or any steel pipe of wall thickness equal to or greater than Schedule 10 and Types K and L copper tube, shall be permitted when bends are made with no kinks, ripples, distortions, or reductions in diameter or any noticeable deviations from round.
For Schedule 40 and copper tubing, the minimum radius of a bend shall be six pipe diameters for pipe sizes 2 in. (50 mm) and smaller and five pipe diameters for pipe sizes 21/2 in. (65 mm) and larger.
For all other steel pipe, the minimum radius of a bend shall be 12 pipe diameters for all sizes.
Bending of listed pipe and tubing shall be permitted as allowed by the listing.
All pipe, including specially listed pipe allowed by 22.214.171.124, shall be marked along its length by the manufacturer in such a way as to properly identify the type of pipe.
The marking shall be visible on every piece of pipe over 2 ft (610 mm) long.
Pipe identification shall include the manufacturer's name, model designation, or schedule.
Fittings used in sprinkler systems shall meet or exceed the standards in Table 6.4.1 or be in accordance with 6.4.2 or 6.4.4.
Table 6.4.1 Fittings Materials and Dimensions
|Materials and Dimensions||Standard|
|Cast Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 125 and 250||ASME B16.4|
|Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings||ASME B16.1|
|Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 150 and 300||ASME B16.3|
|Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttweld Fittings||ASME B16.9|
|Buttwelding Ends for Pipe, Valves, Flanges, and Fittings||ASME B16.25|
|Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and Elevated Temperatures||ASME A 234|
|Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings||ASME B16.5|
|Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welded and Threaded||ASME B16.11|
|Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings||ASME B16.22|
|Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings||ASME B16.18|
|Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) specification for Schedule 80 CPVC threaded fittings||ASTM F 437|
|Specification for Schedule 40 CPVC Socket Type Fittings||ASTM F 438|
|Specification for Schedule 80 CPVC Socket Type Fittings||ASTM F 439|
|Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings||ASTM B16.15|
When nonmetallic fittings are used in combination systems utilizing internally coated steel piping and nonmetallic fittings, the steel pipe shall be investigated for compatibility with the nonmetallic fittings by a testing laboratory. Cutting oils and lubricants used for fabrication of the steel piping shall be compatible with the nonmetallic fitting materials.
When nonmetallic fittings are used in combination systems utilizing non-internally coated steel piping and nonmetallic fittings, no additional evaluations are required. Cutting oils and lubricants used for fabrication of the steel piping shall be compatible with the nonmetallic fitting materials.
Fire-stopping materials intended for use on nonmetallic fitting penetrations shall be investigated for compatibility with the nonmetallic fitting materials.
Other types of fittings investigated for suitability in automatic sprinkler installations and listed for this service, including, but not limited to, CPVC, and steel, and differing from that provided in Table 6.4.1, shall be permitted when installed in accordance with their listing limitations, including installation instructions.
Cast bronze threaded fittings in accordance with ASTM B15.15 shall be permitted where pressures do not exceed 200 psi for Class 125 fittings and 400 psi for Class 250 fittings.
Listed fittings shall be permitted for system pressures up to the limits specified in their listings.
Screwed unions shall not be used on pipe larger than 2 in. (50 mm).
Couplings and unions of other than screwed-type shall be of types listed specifically for use in sprinkler systems.
Hexagonal or face bushings shall be permitted in reducing the size of openings of fittings when standard fittings of the required size are not available.
All threaded pipe and fittings shall have threads cut to ASME B1.20.1, Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch).
Steel pipe with wall thicknesses less than Schedule 30 [in sizes 8 in. (200 mm) and larger] or Schedule 40 [in sizes less than 8 in. (200 mm)] shall only be permitted to be joined by threaded fittings where the threaded assembly is investigated for suitability in automatic sprinkler installations and listed for this service.
Joint compound or tape shall be applied only to male threads.
Where the design specifications require any part of the piping system to be welded in place, welding of sprinkler piping shall be permitted where the welding process is performed in accordance with NFPA 51B and the mechanical fittings required by 8.15.22 and 8.16.3 are provided.
Tabs for longitudinal earthquake bracing shall be permitted to be welded to in-place piping where the welding process is performed in accordance with NFPA 51B.
Welding shall not be performed where there is impingement of rain, snow, sleet, or high wind on the weld area of the pipe product.
Torch cutting and welding shall not be permitted as a means of modifying or repairing sprinkler systems.
Welded fittings used to join pipe shall be listed fabricated fittings or manufactured in accordance with Table 6.4.1.
Fittings shall not be required where pipe ends are buttwelded in accordance with the requirements of 126.96.36.199.3.
When the pipe size in a run of piping is reduced, a reducing fitting designed for that purpose shall be used in accordance with the requirements of 188.8.131.52.1.
Welds between pipe and welding outlet fittings shall be permitted to be attached by full penetration welds, partial penetration groove welds, or fillet welds.
The minimum throat thickness shall be not less than the thickness of the pipe, the thickness of the welding fitting, or 3/16 in. (4.8 mm), whichever is least.
Circumferential butt joints shall be cut, beveled, and fit so that full penetration is achievable.
Full penetration welding shall not be required.
Where slip-on flanges are welded to pipe with a single fillet weld, the weld shall be on the hub side of the flange and the minimum throat weld thickness shall not be less than 1.25 times the pipe wall thickness or the hub thickness, whichever is less.
Face welds on the internal face of the flange shall be permitted as a water seal in addition to the hub weld required in 184.108.40.206.5.
Tabs for longitudinal earthquake bracing shall have minimum throat weld thickness not less than 1.25 times the pipe wall thickness and welded on both sides of the longest dimension.
When welding is performed, the following shall apply:
- Holes in piping for outlets shall be cut to the full inside diameter of fittings prior to welding in place of the fittings.
- Discs shall be retrieved.
- Openings cut into piping shall be smooth bore, and all internal slag and welding residue shall be removed.
- Fittings shall not penetrate the internal diameter of the piping.
- Steel plates shall not be welded to the ends of piping or fittings.
- Fittings shall not be modified.
- Nuts, clips, eye rods, angle brackets, or other fasteners shall not be welded to pipe or fittings, except as permitted in 220.127.116.11.3 and 18.104.22.168.7.
- Completed welds shall be free from cracks, incomplete fusion, surface porosity greater than 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) diameter, and undercut deeper than 25 percent of the wall thickness or 1/32 in. (0.8 mm), whichever is less.
- Completed circumferential butt weld reinforcement shall not exceed 3/32 in. (2.4 mm).
A welding procedure shall be prepared and qualified by the contractor or fabricator before any welding is done.
Qualification of the welding procedure to be used and the performance of all welders and welding operators shall be required and shall meet or exceed the requirements of AWS B2.1, Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification; ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX, "Welding and Brazing Qualifications"; or other applicable qualification standard as required by the authority having jurisdiction, except as permitted by 22.214.171.124.3.
Successful procedure qualification of complete joint penetration groove welds shall qualify partial joint penetration (groove/fillet) welds and fillet welds in accordance with the provisions of this standard.
Contractors or fabricators shall be responsible for all welding they produce.
Welders or welding machine operators shall, upon completion of each welded pipe, place their identifiable mark or label onto each piece adjacent to a weld.
Contractors or fabricators shall maintain certified records, which shall be available to the authority having jurisdiction, of the procedures used and the welders or welding machine operators employed by them, along with their welding identification.
Records shall show the date and the results of procedure and performance qualifications.
Pipe, fittings, valves, and devices to be joined with grooved couplings shall contain cut, rolled, or cast grooves that are dimensionally compatible with the couplings.
Pipe, fittings, valves, devices, and couplings that conform with or are listed in compliance with standardized groove specifications shall be considered compatible.
Other groove dimensions and grooving methods shall be acceptable in accordance with 126.96.36.199.
Grooved couplings, including gaskets used on dry pipe, preaction, and deluge systems, shall be listed for dry service.
Solder joints, where permitted, shall be fabricated in accordance with the methods and procedures listed in ASTM B 828, Standard Practice for Making Capillary Joints by Soldering of Copper and Copper Alloy Tube and Fittings.
Solder joints shall be permitted for exposed wet pipe systems in light hazard occupancies where the temperature classification of the installed sprinklers is of the ordinary- or intermediate-temperature classification.
Solder joints shall be permitted for wet pipe systems in light hazard and ordinary hazard (Group 1) occupancies where the piping is concealed, irrespective of sprinkler temperature ratings.
Brazing fluxes, if used, shall not be of a highly corrosive type.
Other joining methods investigated for suitability in automatic sprinkler installations and listed for this service shall be permitted where installed in accordance with their listing limitations, including installation instructions.
Rubber-gasketed outlet fittings that are used on sprinkler systems shall meet the following requirements:
- Be installed in accordance with the listing and manufacturer's installation instructions
- Have all disks retrieved
- Have smooth bores cut into the pipe, with all cutting residue removed
- Not be modified
After cutting, pipe ends shall have burrs and fins removed.
Pipe used with listed fittings and its end treatment shall be in accordance with the fitting manufacturer's installation instructions and the fitting's listing.
Listed indicating valves shall not close in less than 5 seconds when operated at maximum possible speed from the fully open position.
A listed water control valve assembly with a reliable position indication connected to a remote supervisory station shall be permitted.
The identification sign shall be secured with corrosion-resistant wire, chain, or other approved means.
The use of threadless couplings shall be permitted where required by the authority having jurisdiction and where listed for such use.
Waterflow alarm devices shall be listed for the service and so constructed and installed that any flow of water from a sprinkler system equal to or greater than that from a single automatic sprinkler of the smallest K-factor installed on the system will result in an audible alarm on the premises within 5 minutes after such flow begins and until such flow stops.
The alarm apparatus for a wet pipe system shall consist of a listed alarm check valve or other listed waterflow detection alarm device with the necessary attachments required to give an alarm.
The alarm apparatus for a dry pipe system shall consist of listed alarm attachments to the dry pipe valve.
The alarm apparatus for deluge and preaction systems shall consist of alarms actuated independently by the detection system and the flow of water.
Deluge and preaction systems activated by pilot sprinklers shall not require an independent detection system alarm.
Paddle-type waterflow alarm indicators shall be installed in wet systems only.
An alarm unit shall include a listed mechanical alarm, horn, or siren or a listed electric gong, bell, speaker, horn, or siren.
Outdoor water motor-operated or electrically operated bells shall be weatherproofed and guarded.
All piping to water motor-operated devices shall be galvanized steel, brass, copper, or other approved metallic corrosion-resistant material of not less than 3/4 in. (20 mm) nominal pipe size.
Electrically operated alarm attachments forming part of an auxiliary, central station, local protective, proprietary, or remote station signaling system shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72.
Outdoor electric alarm devices shall be listed for outdoor use.